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In the Name of God بسم الله
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Characteristics of the اسم (Noun) Ibn Hisham says: فاما الاسم فيعرف: بال كالرجل, والتنوين كرجلٍ , وبالحديث عنه كتاء ضربتُ The Ism is known by one of three characteristics: By being proceeded by ال, by التنون (nunnation), and by being talked about. The first of these is a characteristic at the beginning of the Ism, the second is at the end, and the third is one of meaning. It suffices for a word to have one of these for it to be a noun. Ibn Hisham then goes on to categorise nouns as either معرب (declinable) or مبني (indeclinable). The Mu'rab is that which has an ending that changes because of various different operators acting upon it. The Mabni is that which does not change but is fixed. Most nouns in Arabic are Mu'rab. Ibn Hisham therefore proceeds to discuss those that are Mabni. The Mabni nouns can be put into four categories as follows: المبني على الكسر He further subdivides this section into those words regarding which there is agreement, and those that are contentious. There is no disagreement amongst Grammarians that هؤلاءِ is Mabni 'AlalKasr. But there is disagreement regarding others, including أمسِ and حذامِ المبني على الفتح احدَ عشرَ and its sisters fall into this category, excluding اثنا عشر المبني على الضم The examples he gives here are the six directions: وراء امام فوق تحت يمين شمال and also قبل , بعد, اول , دون. He discusses قبل and بعد specifically in detail, and here is gets more complicated. These words are mu'rab in 3 cases, and mabni in 1. They are mabni if the مضاف اليه is deleted, but the meaning is intended, for example in Surah Aroom v4. As far as I can tell, what applies to قبل and بعد above also applies to the six directions. المبني على السكون He gives the examples of كمْ (How many?) and مَنْ (Who?).
So recently I have decided to delve into Arabic Grammar, primarily using Ibn Hisham's (d1360 AD) famous text, شرح قطر الندى وبل الصدى Sharh Qatr AlNada Wabl AlSada. This text is used throughout the Arabic and Islamic world, including in Hawzas in the Muqadamat stage of studies, and in Sunni Madrasas. The text focuses on Nahw (Arabic Syntax) which is concerned with the different cases of words, and how the ending of the word changes depending on the case. This contrasts with Sarf (Arabic morphology) which is concerned with the different forms of words in the Arabic language. As the title of the blog suggests, this will be my notepad, and so there will generally be little explanation, and probably little translation of the Arabic text. This means that in order to follow you will have to know Arabic to a decent level. Why bother? I generally don't like taking notes - it's tedious and time-consuming. But in the certain subjects it is a must, and Nahw is one of them. The point of this blog is to keep me motivated to continue. We will see how long that lasts! I welcome any corrections or suggestions. *** Ibn Hisham begins his book by defining the كلمة Kalima, which is the building block of the Arabic language: الكلمة قول مفرد The Kalima is a singular utterance. This is its technical meaning in Nahw, although in language it can refer to complete sentences (eg Mu'minoon v100) Examples he gives are رجل (man), فرس (horse). The Kalima is divided into 3: اسم Noun فعل Verb حرف Particle
Asalamu alaykum'wa rahmat'Allah'u wa- Barakatu! I have an question regarding arabic lessons, because i really need to learn arabic, and i dont know where i can find it. It' could be great if someone have some online stuff.. May Allah reward you with his Mercy! Wa'salam
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