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  1. According to neoclassical economics, efficiency is directly related or proportional to the degree of competition, so a free market in exchange is deemed preferable to a monopoly. Based on this, neoclassical economics employs rational-choice theory. According to rational-choice theory, individuals and communities evaluate costs and benefits on the basis of available information. Neoclassical economics applies rational-choice theory to the laws of exchange in the context of a market-based economy. Applied broadly, rational-choice theory posits the existence of man as a rational and fundamentally economic actor. Some sociologists have since applied neoclassical economic theory to religion. For example, Rodney Stark argues that free competition among religions and religious sects leads to a more “virtuous” society than would be the case under a monopolistic, state-backed faith that prohibits proselytisation by or conversion to rival faiths. Based on this, a free market in religion and religious choice is said to encourage critical thinking and promote meritocracy, a corollary of which would be the success of the faith that best delivers on its promises, in terms of creating a functional, productive, and virtuous society. Historically, however, institutional religions have sought to create state-backed monopolies within their territorial jurisdictions. On the level of the state, Islamic law, for instance, enshrines this principle by prohibiting the propagation of non-Islamic faiths, as well as by imposing capital punishment or hudud on (public) apostasy. However, promoters of neoclassical economics in the sphere of religion use rational-choice theory to argue that religious pluralism in the context of a free market would promote virtue better than a religious monopoly. Institutional religion is thus more “aristocratic” than “mercantile.” Rational-choice theory would thus deprive the state of a coercive religious monopoly and instead delegate religious authority, as well as freedom to choose among religion(s) and sect(s), to individuals as well as their respective local communities. Proponents of this approach highlight the inefficiencies of a monopoly in the sphere of economics, besides the abuses that monopolistic central authorities have often resorted to, as justification for their view that the central state, as opposed to individuals and local communities, should not exercise authority in matters of dictating and/or imposing religion. Furthermore, proponents argue that a religious monopoly tends to lower the overall volume of worshippers, both in quantity and quality, while an open market that allows one to freely choose among faiths and sects yields a more observant population, as in the early Dutch Republic, the United States, and other states that a) lacked a central religious monopoly and/or b) tolerated or encouraged a free market in religion, that is, religious pluralism. Even today the United States is at least somewhat more religious than many European countries, most of which historically or presently have featured a state-linked church. In light of all this, why do religious authorities, including those of Islam, generally trust men to make their own decisions in the realm of economics, but not in terms of choosing religion? Why do they apply rational-choice theory to economics but not to religion? After all, if men cannot be trusted to freely choose among religions, but must be subject to a statist monopoly, then why would they be permitted to exercise greater latitude in their economic decisions? Is a statist monopoly in the sphere of religion, as in Iran, Saudi Arabia, or once-Christian Europe, more or less conducive to the cultivation of a virtuous society?
  2. http://www.hoseini.org/Esteftaat-English.htm I am curious about his proof/evidence for this claim, but alas I cannot read Farsi, and the English version of this particular book 'Modern Islam' is not available for download/viewing on his website. Only the Farsi version is available for download [see download link***]. Could somebody please translate the section on Apostasy from Farsi to English for all of us to read? Additionally, could the more learned individuals of this forum give their opinions/comments on his fatwa? Many Thanks. JazakAllah Khair. http://islamabc.org/ http://islamabc.org/modern.htm http://www.hoseini.org/booka.htm ***Modern Islam in Farsi: http://islamabc.org/q-55.pdf http://www.hoseini.org/q-55.pdf [same link] ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Websites: http://www.hoseini.org/ [Select Language] http://islamabc.org/ http://darulaytam.org/ http://Imams.ca/ Links: http://www.hoseini.org/link1.htm English: http://www.hoseini.org/index.htm http://www.hoseini.org/resalah-english.htm http://www.hoseini.org/Esteftaat-English.htm Farsi: http://www.hoseini.org/index.asp http://www.hoseini.org/fat.htm http://www.hoseini.org/esteftaat-Farsi.htm Arabic: http://www.hoseini.org/arabip.htm http://www.hoseini.org/al-fat.htm http://www.hoseini.org/Esteftaat-arabi.htm Contact: info@hoseini.org h.nassab@gmail.com EDIT: This is what the English version should look like (if you happen to find it)...
  3. What are the views of Shia scholars on apostasy. Is someone to be punished for leaving islam generally, or is it only when one leaves islam publicly? Please give sources with scholars such as syed sistani, syed khamanei, and others
  4. New article on apostasy worth sharing. https://yaqeeninstitute.org/en/jonathan-brown/apostasy/
  5. Alsalamu Alaykum How shall Allah guide a people who have disbelieved after their faith and [after] bearing witness that the Apostle is true, and [after] manifest proofs had come to them? Allah does not guide the wrongdoing lot. Their requital is that there shall be upon them the curse of Allah, the angels, and all mankind. They will remain in it [forever], and their punishment will not be lightened, nor will they be granted any respite, except such as repent after that and make amends, for Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful. Indeed those who turn faithless after their faith, and then advance in faithlessness, their repentance will never be accepted, and it is they who are the astray. Indeed those who turn faithless and die while they are faithless, a world of gold will not be accepted from any of them should he offer it for ransom. For such there will be a painful punishment, and they will have no helpers. [The Qur'ān 3:86-91] The issue of apostasy (irtidād) and the punishment that Islam has prescribed for an apostate is one of the least known and understood part of the shari`ah (Islamic laws). The most important reason to forbid “apostasy” in Islam refers to its concept. Actually, “apostasy” is equal to treason. This concept of “apostasy” and “treason” in many cultures, societies and countries are limited whereas they possess extensive meanings in Islam. For example, in England, treason is limited to include political and military aspects whereas in Islam, the concept of treason is not limited to them; it also has spiritual and cultural dimension to it. In the Islamic order of sacredness, Allah, then the Prophet, and then the Qur'ān occupy the highest positions. Tawhid, nubuwwa, and qiyāma form the constitution of Islam. Just as upholding and protecting the constitution of a country is sign of patriotism, and undermining it is a form of treason - in the same way open rejection of the fundamental beliefs of Islam by a Muslim is an act of treason. Apostasy, i.e., the public declaration of rejecting the fundamentals of Islam, has also negative influence on the Muslim society; it is indeed a major fitna. And that is why Islam has prescribed harsh punishment for irtidād. It must be emphasized that the irtidād involves open rejection, without any force and with full realization of what one's statements or actions imply. If a Muslim has a genuine doubt on an Islamic matter, that process of doubting does not automatically classify him as a murtad. As long as he is still in state of doubt, the punishment of irtidād is suspended. A murtad must fully realize the implications of his open rejection and what it means casting doubt on the truth and honesty of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as the Messenger of God. The punishment prescribed by the shari`ah for apostasy is death. Even the terms used by the shari`ah for apostates give the idea of treason to this whole phenomenon. "Murtad" means apostate. Murtad can be of two types: fitri and milli. (1) "Murtad Fitri" means a person who is born of a Muslim parent and then he rejects Islam. "Fitrah" means creation. The term "murtad fitri" implies that the person has apostate from the faith in which he was born. (2) "Murtad Milli" means a person who converted to Islam and then later on he rejects Islam. Milli is from millat which means religion. The term "murtad milli" implies that the person has apostatized from his religion and the Muslim community. In the first case, the apostasy is like the treason against God; whereas in the second case, the apostasy is like the treason against the Muslim community. Probably, that is why the Sh`iah jurisprudence deals with these two kinds of murtads differently: • A former kāfir who became a Muslim and then apostates (murtad milli), he is given a second chance: if he repents, then he is not to be killed; but if he does not repent, then he is to be killed. • But one who is born as a Muslim and then apostates (murtad fitri), he is to be killed even if he repents. It is important to understand that in case a murtad fitri repents, Allāh may accept his repentance and he may be forgiven in the hereafter, but he still has to go through the punishment prescribed for his treason in this world. This punishment is only applicable in case of apostasy by men; in case of women, the punishment is not death but life imprisonment. And if such a woman repents, then her repentance is accepted and the punishment is lifted. Read more about “apostasy in Islam” in; https://www.al-islam.org/articles/apostacy-islam-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa4761
  6. Over the weekend, I converted to Judaism due to lack of imaan......but reverted today.....I feel very ashamed, and my imaan is still weak....how do I restore my imaan, and never do this again?
  7. السلام علیکم جمعیا I am muslim but one questoin engross me ! why muslim's kill the apostat , you believe it really ? for example if a jew covert to islam and jews kill is it acceptable ? this is against freedom of expression ! this hokm is base of killing many peaple in iraq , syria and parachinar ! the takfiris by this hokm kill many peaple ! can you express me with thank (sorry for my weak English :D )
  8. Hi, hope all is well. I am a first time poster in this forum would like to thank everyone for this opportunity. Although this may seem a random topic to discuss on my first post, the recent news regarding the 'likely' hanging of the Sudanese ex Muslim convert has inevitably and unavoidably given rise to this jurisprudential issue. My question is in relation to apostasy (conversion from Islam to a different belief system) in Islam and the associated punishment. I would like to gain a more comprehensive and in depth understanding about this particular ruling and the reasoning behind it. I believe in religious freedom and feel that this ruling defies the essence of human rights and does great damage to those whom endeavor to seek the truth. I do however acknowledge that there is wide a variation of viewpoints within and between the Islamic sects. Nonetheless, even with the most moderate ruling (imprisonment) I have been struggling to fit this ruling within the realms of a logical and rationale framework. Kindest regards,
  9. Salams. I am acquainted with a person who is struggling with religion (he comes from a shia background). He tries to intellectualise everything, and he seems to be becoming more and more sceptical angry and abrasive in his comments on religion, which resulted in a feud between us, which he later confided that he has tried to submit to Allah swt and wants to believe, but he finds it hard to reconcile his scientific sceptical head with his inner need for spirituality, there is no use debating him, he's well versed in islam, quran and history/ has a know it all attitude which makes it hard to converse with him, he also has a counter argument for everything, however he still admits he cannot be sure that his views are correct and in his heart hed rather be a believer. what would you suggest for someone who says they want to believe, but need a sign or help in sparking faith, any particular acts of worship ? Prayers? Dhikr ? I know its his choice and his life but I feel I should offer some last advice, would appreciate some suggestions.
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