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  1. Dear Reader, this article may contain some msiatkes, please help me to correct them..many thanks Almokhtar Revolution Who is Almokhtar? Almokhtar was brought up in a noble family. His father, Abu ‘Obaidah b. Mas’od b. ‘Amro, b. ‘Omair ,b. ‘Awf, b. Ghirah, b. ‘Awf, b. Qesi(Thaqeif) b. Munbeh, b. Baker, b. Hawazen. His mother: Domah, the daughter of ‘Amro b. Wahab, b. Mu’teb. She was a woman of eloquence, rhetoric, and logic. (1) Almokhtar was born in the year of -Hijrah- when the prophet SAWA migrated from Mecca to Medina (2). His social status Almokhtar had a high class social status. Ibn abdul Ber described him saying,” Almokhtar was counted among the people of virtues and good doings”. He also said,”Almokhtar was among the people of virtues and faith” (3) He was one of the heads of Shiite in Kufa, and was arrested along with another 14 other men from among the dignitaries of Kufa, because of their loyalty to Ahlulbayt AS. The arrest happened during the period of Ziyad Ibn Abeh- the son of unknown father- governing to Kufa. One of the evidence of his prestigious high position is that Muslim b. ‘Aqeel AS stayed in his house when he came to Kufa as an ambassador of Imam Hussain AS. The relation of Almokhtar with Ahlulbayt AS Almokhtar had a relationship for a long time with The Householders of Messenger of Allah SAWA , since he was a little child. He arose and grow between them because he moved to Medina with his father during the time of Omar-the caliphate-. His father went to Iraq and was martyred in the battle of Aljisr (the bridge), and Almokhtar stayed in Medina closer to Bani Hashim (the prophet SAWA clan).(4) Imam Ali AS sensed the smartness and acumen of Almokhtar since he was a child. He AS used to sit him on his lap and smooth his head, and tell him “ O’ Smart boy, O’ Smart boy” (5) He continued his frequent visits to Bani Hashim to learn from them literature and sciences. After a period of time of Imam Hassans’ AS reconciliation, he returned from Kufa to Medina. He was sitting with Mohamed b. Alhanafeia AS and learning from him traditions(6). the book Maqtal Al-Imam AlHussain AS, by Abdul Razaq Almoqaram stated the following,” Almokhtar b. Abu Obaida Althaqafi… he was in company with the family of the Holiest Messenger SAWA. He benefited and learned from them lots of sciences, virtuous ethics, and gave them advices privately and publicly.(7)” The meeting of Almokhtar with Maitham Altamar After the supporters of Muslim bin ‘Aqeel turned against him, and after he was hidden in some of the houses of Kufa, the conditions were suited to the goof ‘Obaidullah b. Ziyad. At the same times when Muslim b. ‘Aqeel AS was hidden, Almokhtar entered Kufah holding a green flag (8) and surrendered by his companions (9), until he reached Bab Altho’ban- the door of the snake- of the Mosque of Kufa where he was shocked because the news of the inversion of people of Kufa did not reach him yet. He was confused, do not know the place of Muslim to support him nor was able to return back to home, because the army of ibn Ziyad closed all the entrances and exits gates of Kufa. Also ibn Ziyad announced curfew in the streets and alleys of Kufa. While thinking of all this hard choices, Hani b. Abu Haia Alwade’i passed by him and told him to stay with ‘Amro b. Horaith, and he accepted compelled until morning (10). In the second day ibn Ziyad ordered to see all people, and Almokhtar entered with them. ibn Ziyad said to him directly,” Were you the one who came with a group to support ibn ‘Aqeel?” He said to him,” I did not, but I came and became under command of ‘Amro b. Horaith , I stayed my night with him, and the morning” ‘Amro said,: He is right may Allah guide you to the right path” ‘Obadullah b. Ziyad raised a rod and hit the face of Almokhtar, cut his eye, and said,” By Allah, but for the witness of ‘Amro I would have beheaded you! Take him to jail!(11)” After days of arresting Almokhtar, Maitham Altamar was arristed, and jailed with Almokhtar in the same prison. After a conversation between them, Almokhtar have had a hope to survive from the hands of those evils, but also will have the have the great honor of avenging the Master of Martyrs and his righteous companions. Maitham has told him a tradition, narrating the commander of the faithful Ali b. Abu Taleb AS,” You will flee, and raise up to avenge the bloods of Hussain AS, and will kill the one who kill us” Almokhtar soul was reassured when hearing this tradition, because he trust the source, and believe in it. He started to count house and moments, and was preparing himself to do the greatest mission. The impact of killing Imam Hussain AS on Almokhtar Days were going fast in the prison of Ibn Ziyad May Allah curse him, and the news were ot brining anything but bad. Suddenly, the prisoners heard about the major tragedy, and the greatest massacre where the bloods of Imam Hussain AS, the family of Hussain AS, and his companions were shed on the land of Karbala, after three days of deadly thirst. Also, they separated the heads from the bodies, and left their bodies naked and dusted, and their faces covered with blood and dust… the sun was burning them, and the winds was blowing on them. after that, they carried the women and children of Imam Ali AS family on skinny camels, as captives to the sons of Altolaqa- the freed once-. Whenever the news of Karbala and captives reach Almokhtar and his companions, they were being in great pain, and their anger becomes greater on those criminals. They were feeling with dereliction towards the Messenger of Allah SAWA Family, and in remorse for failing the righteous once, and for being silent front of falsehood. The raising of Altwabeen (Repentant) and Almokhtar The movement of Altwabeen was led by five Shiite leaders, they were: Solaiman b. Sard Alkhoza’ee, Almosaiab b. Najbah Alfazazi, Adbullah b. Sa’d b. Nofail Alazdi, Abdullah b. Wali Altamemi, and Refa’ah b. Shadad Albajli. All of them were among the righteous companions of Imam Ali AS. Taking one look at these names will give you an idea about the clans which supported this repentantly movement. Soliaman b. Sard has written to Shiite of Madaen and Basra cities to invite them to avenge Imam Hussain AS, and they all answered his call and responded to him. When the army of Altwabeen met with army of ibn Ziyad, he-ibn Ziyad- asked them to surrender and pledge their allegiances to Abdul Malek b. Marwan, but the leaders of Altwabeen refused his demands. Then Altwabeen asked the army of Syria to displace Abdul Malek , join Altwabeen to fight Umayyad and Alzobair group, and to give the position of Caliphate to the family of Messenger of Allah SAWA, but the Syrian army refused. Later, the battle took place between the two armies, and Altawabeen resisted front of the army of Syria and fought them bravely. The battle almost ended in their favor, but for the arrows which were falling on them from every corner, until their leader Solaiman was hit with an arrow which killed him. After him, Almosaiab b. Najbah took the leadership of the army. He was one of the heroes of Kufa. He fought with the remaining of the army against the Syrians. When he was killed, his companions fought to death and attacked the Syrian army while shouting,” Heaven! Heaven to the remaining of the companions of Abu Turab –Imam Ali-“ The battle ended for the favor of Syrians, the alive once which remained of the army of Altwabeen have returned back each one to his country. They could not achieve their goals which they fought for. The news of martyrdom of Solaiman and his companions by Obaidullah b. Ziyad, and the returning of the rest of Altwabeen to Kufa reached Almokhtar while he was in jail. Therefore he have written to them to thank them for their Jihad, and asked them to join him again on the revolution. The letter stated,” etc; Allah has made your reward greater. He has just decreased your sins for fighting the unjust. You haven’t take a step or did not cross by some difficulties, spent money, unless Allah get you a higher grade, and written to you a reward. If you give money or walk, Allah will reward you. Good tidings! If I raise up I will vanish all your enemies in the east and west by Allah.. Allah welcomes he who get closer to us, and follow the right path, and Allah would not keep away anyone except those who refuse and disobey us” They answered him,” We have written your letter, and we are as you wishes. If you order us, we will come to the prison to take you out” (12) Announcing the revolution of Al-Mokhtar The extraordinary character of Almokhtar was able to bring the majority of opponents of Umayyad and the Alzobair governments. Also the political atmosphere was charged with tension against the governor of ibn Alzobair, who hired killers of Imam Hussain AS to control Kufa. Almokhtar used these atmosphere to start his revolution, and he chosed the 14th of Rabi’ Althani as the date to announce the birthday of his revolution. Almokhtar was able to take control of the government castle of Kufa, and putted his hands on the Kufa after four days of attack and escape strategy. He sit in the castle, and people were gathered around him to pledge their allegiances, until huge number of Arab masters and slaves gave their pledges to him. (13) After he controlled Kufa completely, he sent officials and governors around Kufa and its provinces. He sent his workers to the mountains and all around his country. (14) Imams AS said about him -When Al-Mokhtar sent the heads of 'Obayd Allah b. Ziya`d and 'Umar b. Sa'd to Imam Zayn al-'Abidin, AS, and he prostrated himself in prayer for Allah, and said: "Praise belongs to Allah who has taken my revenged on my enemies! May Allah repay al-Mokhtar good! - Imam Abu Ja'far (al-Baqir), peace be on him, said: "Curse not al-Mokhtar, for he killed those who killed us, demanded vengeance for us, made our widows join in marriage, and divided properties among us in the strained circumstances." (15) - Abu Ja'far Al-Baqir, peace be on him, said: “Glory belongs to Allah! By Allah, my father told me that al-Mokhtar had sent the dower of my mother. Did he not build our houses, kill those who killed us, and avenge our blood? May Allah have mercy on him!.”(16) Imam Al-Sadiq AS: "No Ha`shimite woman combed (her hair) nor did she dye (it) wit henna until al-Mukhta`r sent us the heads of those who killed Hussain, peace be on him.(17)” References: 1. A’lam alnesa: V1, Page 421 2. Bihar Al Anwar: V45, Page 350 3. Aleste’ab (section four): Page 1465 4. Ala’lam: V18, Page 70 5. Mo’jam Rejal Alhadeeth: V18, Page 95 6. Bihar Al Anwar: V45, Page 352 7. Bihar Al Anwar: V45, Page 352 8. Trekh Altabari: V5, Page 381 9. Tarekh Altabari: V5, page 569 10. Tarekh Altabari: V5, Page 570 11. Tarekh Altabari: V5, Page 570 12. Tarekh Altabari: V4, Page 94 13. Bihar Al Anwar: V45, Page 361 14. Bihar Al Anwar: V45, Page 366 15. Bihar Al Anwar: V45, Page 343 16. Bihar Al Anwar: V45, Page 351 17. Safenatul Bihar: V1, Page 435
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