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In the Name of God بسم الله
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(salam) Let us first see what Quran says about a cruel leader. It is understood from the Holy Quran that Imamate and caliphate is not the right of evil-doer and cruel man and he should not be followed, for example:"æ ÇÐ ÇÈÊáí ÇÈÑÇåíã ÑÈå È˜áãÇÊ ÝÇÊãåä ÞÇá Çäí ÌÇÚá˜ ááäÇÓ ÇãÇãÇ ÞÇá æ ãä ÐÑíÊí ÞÇá áÇ íäÇá ÚåÏí ÇáÙÇáãíä"A “And when his Lord tried Ibrahim with certain words, he fulfilled them. He said: Surely I will make you an Imam of men. Ibrahim said: And of my offspring? My covenant does not include the unjust, said He.” "ÇÝãä íåÏí Çáí ÇáÍÞ Çä íÊÈÚ Çãä áÇ íåÏí ÇáÇ Çä íåÏí ÝãÇ á˜ã ˜íÝ ÊÍ˜ãæä"-B “Is there any of your associates who guides to the truth? or he who himself does not go aright unless he is guided? What then is the matter with you; how do you judge?” It is understood from this verse that one who does not guide to the truth, is not competent to be followed. C- Some of the verses have set fire of hell as the punishment of tendency for and trusting cruel men and says that: "æ áÇ ÊÑ˜äæÇ Çáí ÇáÐíä ÙáãæÇ ÝÊãÓ˜ã ÇáäÇÑ" “And do not incline to those who are unjust, lest the fire touch you” D- The Holy Quran has considered a ruler who does not judge by what Allah has revealed to be heathen and states that:  æ ãä áã íÍ˜ã ÈãÇ ÇäÒá Çááå ÝÇæáÆ˜ åã Çá˜ÇÝÑæä" “and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unbelievers” And we know that following heathen is not allowable, and also many verses in the Holy Quran absolutely –in a way that it prevents from allocation and limitation– prohibit people from following sinners, though they are caliph, sultan and Imam, such as: The Almighty Allah states that: "ÝáÇ ÊØÚ Çáã˜ÐÈíä" -1 “So do not yield to the rejecters” "æ áÇ ÊØÚ ˜á ÍáÇÝ ãåíä" -2 “And yield not to any mean swearer” "æ áÇ ÊØÚ Çá˜ÇÝÑíä æ ÇáãäÇÝÞíä" -3 “And be not compliant to the unbelievers and the hypocrites” "æ áÇ ÊØíÚæÇ ÇãÑ ÇáãÓÑÝíä ÇáÐíä íÝÓÏæä Ýí ÇáÇÑÖ æ áÇ íÕáÍæä" -4 “And do not obey the bidding of the extravagant” "ÝÇÕÑ áÍ˜ã ÑÈ˜ æ áÇ ÊØÚ ãäåã ÂËãÇ Çæ ˜ÝæÑÇ" -5 “Therefore wait patiently for the command of your Lord, and obey not from among them a sinner or an ungrateful one” "æ áÇ ÊØÚ ãä ÇÛÝáäÇ ÞáÈå Úä Ð˜ÑäÇ æ ÇÊÈÚ åæÇå æ ˜Çä ÇãÑå ÝÑØÇ" -6 “and do not follow him whose heart We have made unmindful to Our remembrance, and he follows his low desires and his case is one in which due bounds are exceeded” "íæã ÊÞáÈ æÌæååã Ýí ÇáäÇÑ íÚÞæáæä íÇ áíÊäÇ ÇØÚäÇ Çááå æ ÇØÚäÇ ÇáÑÓæá* æ ÞÇáæÇ ÑÈäÇ ÇäÇ ÇØÚäÇ ÓÇÏÊäÇ æ ˜ÈÑÇÁäÇ ÝÇÖáæäÇ ÇáÓÈíá* ÑÈäÇ ÂÊåã ÖÚÝíä ãä ÇáÚÐÇÈ æ ÇáÚäåã áÚäÇ ˜ÈíÑÇ" -7 “On the day when their faces shall be turned back into the fire, they shall say: O would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger!* And they shall say: O our Lord! surely we obeyed our leaders and our great men, so they led us astray from the path* O our Lord! give them a double punishment and curse them with a great curse”  - Quran, Al- Baqara, verse. 124.  - Quran, Yunus, verse. 35.  - Quran, Hud, verse. 113.  - Quran, Al- Maida, verse. 44.  - Quran, Al- Qalam, verse. 8.  - Quran, Al- Qalam, verse. 10.  - Quran, Al- Ahzab, verse. 48.  - Quran, Al- Shu`ara, verse. 151.  - Quran, Al- Insan, verse. 24.  - Quran, Al- Kahf, verse. 28.  - Quran, Al- Ahzab, verse, 66 – 68.  - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 196. Sunnis and necessity of obeying cruel leader Obeying impious and cruel Imam or governor is one of the matters of dispute between Sunni and Shia; Sunnis unanimously believe that sultan will not be removed from caliphate by committing sin. Some of their opinions are as follows: 1- “Imam Nuwi” says that: “Sunnis have generally agreed that sultan and caliph will not be removed from caliphate by committing sin …”. 2- “Qazi Ayaz” says that: “all Sunnis including jurists, traditionalists and orators believe that sultan will not be removed from caliphate by committing sin, oppressing people and denying their right”. 3- “Qazi Abu Bakr Baqlani” also writes that: “all the traditionalists believe that Imam will not be removed from Imamate by committing sin, oppressing, taking away people’s properties, slapping in the faces, disturbing the life of upright people, wasting rights and denying legal punishments, and it is not allowable to rise against him, but the only duty of people is to preach him and warn him about results of his actions. And they should not commit those sins to which he has invited them”. These people have relied on many narrations from the Prophet (s.a.w.) and the Companions for proving the necessity of obeying Imam and caliph, even if he is cruel and takes away the property of people by force; they say that: “the Prophet (s.a.w.) said that: “you should listen to the governor and obey him, even if he is a cut-nose slave or a Abyssinian one. And you should follow any righteous and impious person in prayer”. And they laso said that: “you should obey your governor, even if they take away your property and ruin your life”.  - Sharh Sahih Muslim, Nuwi, vol. 12, p. 229. - Sharh Sahih Muslim, Nuwi, vol. 12, p. 229. - Al- Tamhid, Baqlani. - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 193. Sunnis and rising against the cruel leader Sunni scholars unanimously agree that rising against cruel and unjust Imam and caliph is not allowable, Abdullah ibn Umar and Ahmad ibn Hanbal are from the aged serious opponents of rising against Muslims’ caliph, though he was cruel and unjust. Abu Bakr Marwazi quotes from Ahmad ibn Hanbal that he commanded to avoid from bloodshed and prohibited rising against the Muslims’ caliph. Doctor Atiyyah Zahrani says following the narration of Marwazi that: “the document of this narration is correct and it is the ancestors’ manner”. Imam Nuwi has claimed a general agreement in Sharh of Sahih of Muslim and says that: “… and rising and fighting against Imams of Muslims is prohibited by Muslims’ general agreement, though they are evil-doer and cruel”. Doctor Muhammad Faruq Nihban attributes the prohibition of rising against unjust and evil-doer Imam to most of Sunnis and says that: “scholars have two opinions about the revolution and rising against cruel and evil-doer Imam; the first opinion is that rising against Imam and removing him from the power is allowable. This is the opinion of Mu’tazila, Kharijites, Zaydites and Murji’a (deferrers), they also consider it to be obligatory and use these verses: "æ ÊÚÇæäæÇ Úáí ÇáÈÑ æ ÇáÊÞæí" “incite you to exceed the limits, and help one another in goodness and piety” "ÝÞÇÊáæÇ ÇáÊí ÊÈÛí ÍÊí ÊÝíÁ Çáí ÇãÑÇááå" “fight that which acts wrongfully until it returns to Allah's command” "áÇ íäÇá ÚåÏí ÇáÙÇáãíä" “My covenant does not include the unjust” Another opinion is that drawing sword against Imam is not allowable; because it will result in revolution and bloodshed and this is the opinion of the majority of Sunnis, traditionalists and many Companions, such as: Ibn Umar, Sa’ad ibn Abi Waqas and Usamah ibn Zayd”.   - Al- Sunnah, vol. 1, p. 131.  - Al- Sunnah, vol. 1, p. 131.  - Sharh Sahih Muslim, Nuwi, vol. 2, p. 229.  - Nizam al- Hukm fi al- Islam, p. 527 – 529.  - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 194.
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