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Short latmya video in memory of al sayeda Ruqya bnt alhussain death that describe zeryat alarbaeen this has been recorded and done in Bahrain - Sanad if any one would like to listen to this live recorded latmya in high quality just post in the comments. follow us on Instagram where we post new latmyat and short videos in memory of ahl albait Maajooreen
(bismillah) This is a section from Āyatullāh al-Shaykh Muhammad al-Sanad حفظه الله’s second volume in his rijāl series (pages 105 - 111) where he criticizes and refutes the methods of the Sunni Rijāl Scholars - exploiting their Nasb and utterly unacademic method of filtration. I pray the people find this discussion beneficial, inshā’Allah. I translated this myself, I put the arabic in on places I was little more unsure. Some parts of more word for word, others are less. It is extremely important to look into and investigate the Jarh and Ta`dīl of the different schools of the Sunnis where they continued in weakening narrators who would narrate the fadā’il of the Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام and their status or those who would narrate the defects of the opponents of the Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام or those would narrate prophetic narrations in agreement with the ahkām practiced by the school of Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام especially after the formed the principles [of their Mazhzhhab] in their hands today which they have made very clear that the Sunna with them is in opposing the Ahl al-Bayt [as] and exiling them and those obstinately with them. But every that narrator increases in this [opposing them and their followers] then it is said that he is firm in the Sunna, while everything coming from those narrating in their favor is passion (hawā), affection, love (muwadda) for the Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام and inclining towards them, they criticized attributing to them weakness, innovation, and attacks. According to them there is no obstruction or over-stepping [the bounds] in the sayings of their masters of Jarh and Ta`dīl being nothing other than the their rijālī fatāwā concluded from their conjectural ijtihād and they are not bound to anything like their sayings being necessarily based on observation testimony. We have mentioned many examples of this that the criticisms they have applied and ruled for a narrator are based on their principles of theology and the Rijālī scholar used them in giving opinions on a narrator by investigating their narrations or the teachers of the narrator that they would seek out to study and narrate from. We will provide a few example in their Jarh and Ta`dīl showing their partisanship or nasb opposing the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام. 1 - `Umar b. Sa`d b. Abī Waqās : The murderer of al-Imam The Grandson The Martyr. al-`Ijlī said: thiqa (trustworthy, reliable). Ibn Hajr said in Tahzhīb al-Tahzheeb : He is a tābi`ī (first generation follower after the Companions), thiqa and he is the one who murdered al-Husayn. عليه السلام 2 - Ziyād b. Abīh : A man of severe calamities, excessive crimes, and mortal sins. Khalīfa b. Khayyāt : He was included amongst the very ascetic ones. Ahmad b. Sālih said: He was not accused of lying. 3 - `Imrān b. Hattān : leader of the Khawārij. He wrote well-known poetry regarding Ibn Muljam al-Murādī praising him. al-`Ijlī authenticated him. al-Bukhārī included him amongst the narrators of his Sahīh and selected his narrations. 4 - Harīz b. `Uthmān : The one would who would pray in the masjid and would not leave until he had cursed (yal`an) `Alī seventy times every single day. al-Bukhārī, Abū Dawūd, al-Tirmizhī, and others presented his narrations as proof [as a matter of dalīl]. In al-Riyād al-Nadra : Thiqa, except he hates `Alī, Allah hates him. 5 - al-`Abbās b. Bakkār al-Dabbī : al-Zhahabī said in Mīzān al-I`tidāl : He is accused by his hadith from Khālid b. `Abd Allah from Bayān from al-Sha`bī from Abī Juhayfa from `Alī عليه السلام marfū`an (meaning it originates from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله): On the Day of Resurrection a Caller will call: O People of the Gathering! Lower your gazes from Fātima until she passes the path (al-Sirāt) to Paradise. He [al-Zhahabī] also said: And from among his many false sayings: from Khālid b. `Amr al-Azdī from al-Kalbī from Abī Sālih from Abī Hurayra. He said: It is written upon the throne (al-`Arsh): There is no god except Allah Myself Only, Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله is My slave and My messenger, I supported him with `Alī. 6 - `Ubayd Allah b. Mūsā al-`Abasī : from al-Khatīb that Ahmad b. Hanbal abandoned narrations from him when he heard him presenting [defamation] of Mu`āwiya b. Abī Sufyān, so he went his messenger to Yahyā b. Ma`iīn so he said to him : Your brother Abū `Abd Allah Ahmad b. Hanbal sends you salām and he says : Behold you increase in narrating the narrations from `Ubayd Allah and you and I both heard him presenting [defamation] of Mu`āwiya b. Abī Sufyān and I surely have abandoned narrations from him. So Yahyā b. Ma`īn said to the messenger : I return the salām to Abī `Abd Allah. Say to him : Yahyā b. Ma`īn sends you salām, he said to you : You and I both heard `Abd al-Razzāq presenting [defamation] in `Uthmān b. `Affān so then abandon narrations from him! For verily `Uthmān is more virtuous than Mu`āwiya. 7 - Zakariyyā b. Yahyā al-Kasā’ī : al-Zhahabī said in Mīzān : `Abd Allah b. Ahmad [b. Hanbal] said: I asked Ibn Ma`īn about him so he said : a vile man that narrates vile narrations. He also said : He deserves that a well be built for him and then he is thrown in it. Abū Yu`lā al-Mūsalī narrated: Zakariyyā al-Kasā’ī narrated to me: Zakariyyā b. al-Qāsim narrated to me from Mu`allā b. `Irfān from Shaqīq from `Abd Allah. He said: I saw the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله take the hand of `Alī عليه السلام while he saying: Allah is my walī and I am your walī and the enemy whoever makes you their enemy and peacemaker with whoever makes with with you. 8 - Talīd b. Sulaymān al-Kūfī al-A`raj al-Muhārabī : In al-Tahzhīb : Abū Dawūd said : a rāfidī that villifies Abā Bakr and `Uthmān, a vile man malignant, rāfidī. Ibn Mu`ayd said: A liar, he vilifies `Uthmān and any person who villifies `Uthmān or Talha or anyone from the companions of Rasulullah صلى الله عليه وآله is a dajjāl (anti-christ, super-evil-liar) his narrations are not written down! So anyone who vilifies anyone from the Sahaba is proven to be a dajjāl according to Ibn Ma`īn and it is not permissible to write his hadith. al-Muzaffar after he narrates this principle from Ibn Hajr, he said : So why is it that Mu`āwiya and his ilk and the renegade Khawārij are not liars and dajjāls according to Ibn Ma`īn? Yes, their honesty is proven according to him [along with] their status as enemies with the Imam of the Pious (al-muttaqīn) and their abusing of the one whom abusing is abusing the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله. I digress(? ليت شعري), is abusing a Companion greater or going to war with the Imam of the time and killing thousands of Muslims? How is it that the likes of Talha not a dajjāl while he went to war with him, the one with whom going to war with is going to war with Allah and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله? And while the one who abuses Talha is a dajjāl? This is nothing but `ajīb (amazing - in this context meaning hypocrisy)! 10 - Lamāza b. Zabbār al-Azdī al-Jahdamī : [al-Zhahabi] said in Mīzā al-I`tidāl : He was present at the incident of Jamal and he was a Nāsibī. He would defame `Alī عليه السلام and praise Yazīd لعنه الله. And in al-Tahzhīb : Ibn Ma`īn said: He would vilify `Alī. Abū Lubayd said : I said to him [Limāza] : Why do you abuse `Alī? He said : That I abuse a man that kills 2500 from us while the Sun is as here!? The man is authenticated, Ibn Sa`d gives him authentication (tawthīq). Harb said from his father : He was righteous in narrations and he praised him good praises. Then after this Ibn Hajr said: I had disputed their majority tawthīq for the Nāsibī and their absolute weakening for the Shī`ah. Especially that the narration “No one shall love him except a believer and none shall hate him except a hypocrite” has come down in `Alī’s right. Then the response regarding that was clarified to me that the enmity here-there is clarified by a reason and that is because he was the supporter of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله because it is human nature to hate the one who brings harm for the hater and love for its opposite and that what generally returns to the affairs of this world. The report regarding the love of `Alī and hating him is not general...for the majority of those described as Nāsibī are also described as being honest and people who hold on to the affairs of the religion; while in opposition to that, the majority of those described as rawāfid are liars and are not upright in reporting. The origin regarding it is that the Nāsiba believed that `Alī killed `Uthmān or aided in it so their hate for him was religiously inspired (!) according to their claim. Then, in addition to that, is that there are those from them and their family that were killed in the wars of `Alī عليه السلام (لا حول ولا قوّة إلا بالله العلي العظيم) I [Āyatullāh Muhammad al-Sanad حفظه الله تعالى] say: There are several points here that need to be turned to: The First: Ibn Hajr makes it very clear in this discussion that the practice of the master of Jarh and Ta`dīl of the Sunnis was that they would mostly give tawthīq to the Nāsibī and weaken the Shī`ah absolutely and this reporting from him about methodology of the people in Jarh and Ta`dīl and that it is explicitly being in opposition to the Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام not regarding honesty of tongue or the lack of it. Second: From that which indicates the nasb of Ibn Hajr is that he weakened some thuqāt because they would abuse some of the Companions like Talha and `Uthmān without it being clarified for a reason - like what has passed in the entry of Talīd - meanwhile he has given tawthīq to those who vilify Amīr al-Mūminīn عليه السلام; rather he says that most of the Nāsiba were described with honesty of the speech and upholders of religion so what is concluded from his words is the following: Everyone who abuses a single one from the Companions is a dajjāl, it is not permissible to take narrations from him except the insulters/abusers of Amīr al-Mūminīn `Alī عليه أفضل الصلاة والسلام for verily they are generally the masters of religious affairs and described as honest in speech! So welcome to this type of religiosity! Congratulations to these religious ones the most daring [in challenging] Allah and His Messenger صلى الله عليه وآله! How joyous for these pens that seek reward in supporting Banī Umayya in assaulting the law of Islam and the sanctity of the Master of Risālah al-Mudriyya (?) with wickedness and fasād and hating the purified progeny and aiding the Tulaqā’* and the sons of Tulaqā’! The opposers of the Imam of Truth! The drinkers of wine! The creators of calamities and pages of darkness, the likes of Talha, `Uthmān, and Mu`āwiya لعنه الله. “A grievous word comes from the mouths! The speak nothing but lies!” [al-Kahf 18:5] *Tulaqā’ refers to those people who remain kuffār until the Fath of Makka, like Abī Sufyān The Third: As for his words that enmity for him is many times clarified for a reason and that is because he is the supporter of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله. So to that: Surely that necessitates from the language of the words of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله in revealing the virtue of `Alī عليه السلام as anyone one who despises the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه وآله supporter is a hypocrite without specificity to `Alī عليه السلام. In addition to that is that Amīr al-Mūminīn عليه السلام is the scale of truth! The entirety of his demeanor, actions, and sayings are the fountain of truth and honesty. He is the dīn and none is the dīn but him. For verily `Alī is with the truth and the truth is with `Alī, it turns wherever he turns - and whenever. So anyone who hates `Alī then surely he has hated him because he was the one who held up the dīn and the truth and helped the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله as he does not have separate administration/control outside of that limit (إذ ليس له تصرّف خارج عن ذلك النطاق). As you know that anyone who hates the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله is a kāfir without being clarified for a reason because he “does not speak out of passion/desire. It is only a revelation revealed” [al-Najm 53: 3-4]. So if Ibn Hajr has mentioned that for the Nawāsib as an excuse then surely the polytheists are more excused than them! They only had hated the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله due to their disagreement in their worldly affairs (فلو كان ما ذكره ابن حجر عذراً للناصبة لكان المشركين أعذر لأنهم إنما كانوا يبغضون النبيّ صلى الله عليه وآله لمعارضتهم في دنياهم). The Conclusion: The matter of Jarh and Ta`dīl is subjected to the ijtihād of the rijāli according it was grounded in from inquiries of belief so his conclusions that he put out were nothing but his fatāwā, meaning his ijtihād and the majority of the matter is not grounded in assessing the moral behavior of the narrator. In light of that, then it is possible to judge these criticisms and refute them by raising the point of action on ijtihād in those instances that are built [supposedly] on observational reports that are existent in the books with them that is determined by the methodologies we have indicated towards. This opens the grounds of ijtihād in rijāl amongst them and remedies the way regarding the tampering (tahrīf) in weakening narrations and authenticating them that they have and the toying with the inherited sunna and parallel to this invitation is another invitation stating: Not to accept their criticism unless it is reasoned with what is correct and necessitates criticism. This opens the doors in front of the authoring researchers amongst them who want to pursue the truth and reality. ---------- If you have corrections to the translation and stuff, please post them here or PM them to me. في أمان الله
Studying Shaykh Muhammad Sanad's views on Ilm al-Rijal in his Vol. 1 of the series - Mabani Fi Ilm al-Rijal - is interesting, the Shaykh leads a new and novel camp in Rijal studies that is opposed to the traditionalist camp of Sayyid al-Khoei by raising the flag of so-called 'Qarainism'. The main difference is that Shaykh Sanad allows for Ijtihad in Rijal in modern times, although there are many other differences that stem from this cardinal divergence. This thread is there to translate some of his views due to the importance that they have been attracting in the current times from different quarters, and also to garner discussion. I have started translating from the second Fasl which is titled: How is Wathaqa or Husn proved? (The methods of making Tawthiq). Note that the translation is not word to word, rather I have used liberty in reconstruction, but all the ideas are faithfuly reproduced. Also, Qarain for the purpose of this thread will mean indicators, Ex. having a big-name narrator who is definitely Thiqah narrate from X, can be used as a Qarina for the Tawthiq of X, due to the constructed under-lying argument that this big-name narrator would not have narrated from someone who is weak. Pgs. 123-124 Introduction 1: My ingenious method in giving Tawthiqat and Tadhifat to the Rijal is to use the ‘Qarain stack-up’ method. This method allows for the transformation of a mere possibility (Ihtimal) that a Rajul is Thiqah or Dhaif to a level where we can have trust (Wathaqa) or satisfactory conventional knowledge (Ilm al-A’diy al-Itmi’naniy) that he is Thiqah or Dhaif, and the latter two are all we need to form the basis for a valid ruling, since they have Hujiyyah (probative force) according to all modern scholars. The Qarain that I speak of and that are to be used in the aforementioned stack-up are not limited to those Qarain that are standalone in their Dalalah (i.e. self-sufficient in their implications of a Rajul being Thiqah or Dhaif), rather, I consider as a Qarina anything that may provide the slightest of a hint (point in a direction) or a clue (revealing new info.) regarding a Rajul, and I collect and admit both types of Qarain into the body of the stack-up. The procces applied on the ‘Qarain stack-up’ is one of analysis through a weighted scoring model based on the respective importance of each Qarina, we have realized that many a times these Qarain do strengthen and support one another (though they can also contradict in other cases), as a result, and when viewed collectively, what one non-standalone Qarina could not accomplish on its own (since it only provided mere possibility or Ihtimal), the stack of Qarain does i.e. the stack considered together provides Wathaqa or Ilm al-A’diy al-Itmi’naniy - both of which have Hujiyyah and form a valid basis for ruling one way or the other. Having read this, you have probably understood what is in my view one of the greatest flaws that is being perpetuated in modern Rijalism (i.e. there are others), I mean by this the practice of criticizing an individual Qarina of Tawthiq for not being self-sufficient in its implications of a Rajul being Thiqah or Dhaif and then consequently going on to reject it, all of this is fair enough, but the part that I am firmly against is when they then go on to ignore that Qarina thereon and do not make an attempt to use it in any way whatsoever after their brief and conclusive rejection of it. This is what I call a ‘discrete look at the Qarain’, in other words, they do not acknowledge any utility for the non-standalone Qarina even when used in the framework of a stack-up. This is not a call for Tasamuh (loosening standards) in Tawthiq, nor is it applying the principle of charity for our Rijal, rather, it is a call to use the incremental principle of evidence building relative to each case on the basis of its contextual merits, individually non self-sufficient Qarain (when looked at singularly) provide mere possibility (Ihtimal) but when they help each other in terms of corraboration they provide so much more. Obviously, the quality and the quantity of the Qarain have to be studied. This is similar to the conceptions of Tawatur in Hadith, every single Khabar in the Tawatur bundle does not lead to Ilm and consequently Hujiyyah, but when we look at it as a uniform, self-consistent and integral bundle, we mark its report as definitely historical. My views are unique because they do not see Rijal as a mathematical point-to-point function theory, nor as a dictionary based science, It is not enough that when you have an Isnad, you pop out your Mu’jam, and look up all the Rijal in the Isnad and have your ruling in a matter of seconds, with a self confidence of a master, such a shallow view does not require effort, Rijal is not black and white, it is a study that owes much to sociology and other social sciences, it has a grey area. I dare say that this is similar to the practice of the Uqala (intelligent ones) who deal with historical investigation, these researchers collect all possible evidence related to a historical incident, and sift through them all with an aim of building a unified picture, the analysis process goes on until they can claim that they are confident about the details of an occurrence in the past. In conclusion, any and every Qarina that provides the slightest level of mere possibility about the condition of a narrator even though its implications are classified as Dhann (supposition) at this microcosmic stage (when viewed in solitary fashion) is an important source that can be used in the process (or creative exercise) of the method of ‘Qarain stack-up’, they can, when viewed collectively, transform Ihtimal to provide Wuthuq or Ilm al-A’diy al-Itmi’naniy.
(salam) I am just a minor student of Islamic knowledge and It is my humble observation in this regard. I think that in Shia fiqh the rijal is not that important as it is in Sunni fiqh. We have twelve holy Imams (Golden Chain) of narrations. The narrators who reported from these twelve holy Imams (a.s) in their respective times hold less importance. Our faith is based on direct sayings of Imams (a.s) in their respective times who were being heard by many people/followers and there were less chances of deception and lie. On the other hand the Sunni reporters are common people. Their were reliable as well as non reliable reporters and they are separated in times from Prophet's times to the next generations. It is also important to note here that there is so much diversion of opinion regarding a reporter in Sunni side. Most of the time personal bias is also involved in weakening a reporter in Sunni side. Most of time we see in Shia side the hadiths are narrated in the following manner... SHIA REPORTS: Narrated A from Imam Jafar Sadiq (a.s) who reported from his father Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s) who reported from his father Imam Zainul Abideen (a.s) who reported from his father Imam Hussain (a.s) who said that Prophet (pbuh) said ....... SUNNI REPORTS: Narrated Abu Huraira that prophet (pbuh) said or Narrated A from B who narrated from C who narrated that Hazrat Aysha (r.a) said that prophet (pbuh) said... It appears in Sunni side the reliability of narrators is more random and diverse while in Shia side the weak narrators are easily picked up. Even otherwise, the authenticity of reports in Shia side depends more on "matan" and whether the report is in accordance with Quran and settled Sunnah.
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