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  1. In the name of Allah Unique universal government basis principals Totally according islam and Quarnsculture ,two factors can be from unique universal government basis. This two ,they are jewel of one truth and have same sources . Unification and guardian ship are the most important and basis factor in universal governments nature. unification with all of its grades and branches and guardian ship with all of its levels ,are the most powerful principal in universal government , as that without them, there is no need to universal government and no condition for proving to be true and no stuff for preventing from crisis and impediment 1.unification A)indivinity:To do not ask some thing from any God except Allah B)in lordship: to know him the union swivel in universe C)in creative power:to do not know any one for universe creator D)in devotion :to do not worship any except him Unity in word is one of absolute principals in structural and contents in universal government .mean while , any principal except unification can not make unity in word and mind and work unity. And no factor as guardianship can not organize and human talent according to unification. in this manner,unification and guardianship with covering each other , in guidance and organizing human society to prepare and finding universal government have very important rule . 2.guardianship A)Allah guardianship B)prophetic guardianship C)imamate guardianship 1.innocents guardianship 2.decent replacement of innocents(jurisconsults guardianship ) Unity in word escort by unity in policy, in from structural and content absolute factors of universal government that in securing its factors, any shaft as unification shaft and any principal as guardianship is not effective. Prospering from unification and guardianships ago- in simple meaning , they are two sides if one coin – are unity makers of mind and idea system and humans and society securer of unity of works and behavior, greatness of human is decorated with Gods greatness , it causes that human do not submit any except God and do not accept guardianship of him or who he presents. Accepting unification and guardianship means having very strong mind and act connection of human with Gods and his guardians. Godsguardians that do not think other than Gods satisfaction and do not have goal other than his orders. They are the ladder between human and God . God manages his slaves affair well and secure their universal and futurity goods by his worthy guardian in world Gods caliph on earth do not have any target other than God satisfaction and human goods and always spend his life because of this . We must say other principals in society and guardian system of Islam world fork from two principals ;unification and guardianship . Imam Mahdis(AJ)principal It is said , AlvinToffler,one of pensive of universal government in U.S. ,prospering from the best is known one of facilities and stuffs that needed in universal government in his idea. He wanted to introduce American system for his wish and hopes and try to suggest that America will make future of universe and universe will for America! like his mates. Toffler pretend that he is finder of “the bests” idea ,meanwhile , ”the bests” idea is explained by Islamic narratives , innocent pointed to this directly.with this detail .it seems Islamic narratives know that enjoying from the best is one of facilities ofHazrat e-Vali e-Asrs government. This government should be top in securing spiritual and material needs of all of human societyand this matter is not possible without enjoying from the best. Here we want to point to the bests that appear with appearing of Imam Zamans government and they are facilities of universal government. 1.reach to the best level of wisdom and sense Mind perfection in the narratives its pointed that when Imam Mahdi(AJ)appears, Gods mercy will be show by his hand and caress Gods salves. And with specific attention ,their wisdom and sense will get at the top level(6)nearness of wisdom perfection with Hazrats appear ,shows that appearance age, is superior and humans wisdom perfection .this truth ,is fit with humans wisdom improvement in investing and knowing spiritual truths and social and alone connections and being parallel with knowledge and behavior growing will happen in Hazrats appearance time and in itself part is explainer of wisdom and knowledge perfection in appearance age . 2.reach to the best level of knowledge growing One of imamZamans appearance blessing ,according to narratives, is growing and blossoming the knowledge inhuman world. Narratives point to this truth that ;with rising of the Qaeem(Aj) all of 27 knowledge majors and branches will blossom .here being parallel the Qaeem(AJ)rising and blossoming knowledge is clear reason for appearance ages superior in knowledge with other ages and centuries . If this work enumerate from imams mercy ,itdose not mean that absolutely it happen with out real and knowledge facilities . todays with electronic facilities help we can open gates of information and knowledge detail in a short time to who use this device .why imam Zaman(AJ)with that power and Gods mercy can not prove the best level of connections and information in short time based on basis and professional scientific and technical tools? What is happen in connection and information industry ,make easy accepting this . 3.the top form of special justice proceeding justice as removing cruelty and discrimination , is one of human natural needs and human rights that from ages human peace makers have trying to prove it on earth ,but till know no one succeeded ,to prove this justice in world . this manner is in charge of imam Zamans(AJ)hand andis one of his government specifications .filling earth with justice and after that’s meaning ,shows that truth that justice and justice making in this age will get in top grade. Usually when humans wisdom and intelligence and sense and knowing get to its perfection,basis for justice spreading in all parts of human society will be made available in all parts Imam Zamans(AJ) justice spreading is as clear and top that in narrative the great prophet says :if just one day left from earth God will make that day as long that my sons appearance happens and full up world with justice like before it was filled by cruelty.(7) 4.to the best and the most pious level and economic and welfare power Economic factors and mercy supports always were one of top managing human society tools .quality and quantity of managing human society depend this supports ,that this factors and tools will be in control and in hands of what kind of people and signs and governments. If real human peace makers get this factors ,with their help will try to improve and securing humans spiritual and material goods; in other hand if this tools be in control of rotten and selfish political men .will use them foe themselves and band and parties benefits .in this form ,big amount of people will remove from their rights and result is ,justice slaughter for personal and devil wishes of small band. With HazratMahdies(AJ) appearance where will be remain on world ruined and development and welfare will conquer every where, narrative specify this. From narratives that point to this truth imams government will conquer east and west.in this time , earth treasures that was hidden yet, will appear for imam and right will come back to their owners and people will have a life full of welfare and riches and, wealth in perfect and right form will divide between them. Imams(AJ) government by enjoying lots of wealth and ring will be work for earth development . Charity will remove in imams time because people welfare and economic situation will grow as they do not need to charity. 5.enjoying from the best power and political power Power and political ability will be available with scientific ,mind and economic powers support.so according to narratives ,all stubborn and world powerful people will lose against Mahdi(AJ) and they can nor resistance ,shows this truth that the imam Mahdis (AJ)generous governments political power is higher and better than humans power and the facilities that are in imams hand for governing world , are very more than all facilities that was in powerfulpeople hand and politic men till now .if holy Quran talks about greatness and extent of Solomons government ,imam Mahdies (AJ)government will be higher and vaster and more powerful than Solomons government .government and politics of Hazratmahdies(AJ)will be as enormous that there will be no people other than they witness to Gods unification and supreme prophets Prophecy (9).in other side imams politic power will be as powerful that will not make any a promise withtyrants. 6.enjoying from the best arts and military armament facilities enjoying from them .militaryability and armaments ,also getting familiar with professional military arts and defensive,is very big support for keeping independence and power of government. Military forces and army equipped to tools,apical facilities and arts defensive and military is ornament and proud and safety for every government and country and cause that country and removing that government . It's usual that enjoying of every government from arts and military and defensive tools should be fit with that government army needs and with area of governing for that government.usually if a government claim to be universal,should its military and armaments power cover all over the world till it can follow itself hops and targets in world level. Imams Zaman(AJ) removing tyrant and cruelty from earth,also spreading out justice all over world is its top targets and tasks. This government for proving this matter should enjoy from fit tools , as armaments ,artsand good army facilities for removing earth from cruel , imam has a sword should be an armor that should over come enemies powerful castle of facilities and armament. If in narratives it's said that imam and his aids punish tyrant and cruel with their sword(11)and if it's said that enemies do not receive any thing except sword (12)it shows that truth that surely imams armor is as powerful that any power can not resistance.thispoint shows that imam has the best and the most powerful military facilities . This betterment can result like spiritual and internal by hidden aids,can result as industry and outward too scientific and industrial and art perfection need this improvement. Totally that explained from the best , is point to enjoying imams government from all of situation and basis and tools for be coming universal. Being generous governments content,as it's said in narratives,being invulnerability against attacks and hard disasters .this invulnerability,with enjoying the best special the best scientific,politic,economic,military and people will result. In generous government honor tools will be available for Islam and Muslims and blasphemy and discord will defeat and pagan and hypocritical will be get little ,and this government will give greatness in world and future to humans(13)this truth is humans lost and humans nature needs that will be available by God aid and every one will enjoying from its sweet result. Sources: 1.Anbia soora,22 Aha 2.yosof ,39 3.Anam,102 4.esra,23 5.News,59 6.SafiGolpaigani ,Lotfollah,Montakhabalathar fi imam athnaashar 7.SheikhSadoogh,kamal oddin,1book,pages 318-317 8.Montakhab alathar,page482:bahar al anvar,52 book,page338 9.Asr e Zohoor,page369 10.Bahar al anvar,52book,page91 11.Gheibat nomani,pages127-121 12.Ibndabelhaddid,Nahj al balaqe explaination,2book,page178 “MY GOD EXPEDITE MAHDI`S REAPPEARANCE” THE END
  2. In the name of Allah Hello everybody Imams Sadegh(AS) in narrative talks about sing and corruptions detail that occur in the verge of Mahdis(AJ) revolution these predicts seem to be for our age: 1.when you saw that Truth is died and truth men are died 2.and saw that cruelty envelope every where 3.and saw that Quran gets old and some innovation added to it from temptation 4.and saw that religion have no meaning,like inversed plate 5.and saw that untruth men wan to get higher than truth men 6.and saw that devil is clear and no one ban it and make excuse for who do bad work 7.and saw that corruption gets Clear and men and women not suffice to them selves 8.and saw that Muslim get silent and people do not accept his word 9.and saw that lewd lies and no one answer to his lies and untruths 10.and saw that little child insults big adult 11.and saw that family relation ships cut down 12.and saw that when people proud to some bodys bad work ,gets happy and do not answer speakers word 13.and saw that boy do what women do 14.and saw that women get coupled with women 15.and saw that eulogy gets a lot 16.and saw that man spend his wealth in non-God way and no one do not prevent him 17.and saw that when people see muslim,resort to God from his tring 18.and saw that neighbour,molests his neighbor and there is no problem for him 19.and saw that unbeliever is happy from what he see in Muslim and is happy too from corruption he see in universe 20.and saw that people drink clearly and get together for drinking 21.and saw that a person who order to good is abject 22.and saw that lewd is powerful and firm in what God do not like 23.and saw that Quran men and lovers are abject 24.and saw that way of God is closed and Evils way is got important. 25.and saw that Kaba is closed and people order to leave it 26.and saw that people say what they do not do 27.and saw that men and women try to be ready for their same sex couple 28.and saw that mans life manages from his back and woman life from her vagina 29.and saw that women like men get meeting 30.and saw that between Abbas children appear femininity and Saw that rich is more popular than Muslim and appear usury and do not rerimind 31.and saw that women collaborate with his husband for marrying with men 32.and saw that most of people and best home are that help women for lewdness 33.and saw that Muslim is upset because of his believe and he is abject 34.and saw that innovation and adultery appear 35.and saw that people believe to untruth witness 36.and saw that legitimate is blocked and illegal is allowabled 37.and saw that religion orders comment according what people want 38.and saw that people get as cheeky that they do not wait for sin till night 39.and saw that Muslim can just scold bad work in his heart 40.and saw that big amount of money spend in way of Gods anger 41.and saw that goverment get close to unbeliever and avoid from Muslim 42.and saw that judge take bribe in judging 43.and saw that governmental position is gave to who pay more for it. 44.and saw that people incest 45.and saw that kill people for slander and suspicion 46.and saw that gayness promote 47.and saw that man earn money from his lewd women and know that and accept it 48.and saw that women rule men and does what her husband does not like and give money to her husband 49.and saw that man,hire out his wife and his servant, and get clothing and food instead 50.and saw that people promise to God a lot 51.and saw that gambling appears 52.and saw that wine is sold officially 53.and saw that Muslims give their wives to unbeliever 54.and saw that debauchery reveal and who see it do not ban it 55.and saw that people make little upright, who they afraid from his ruling 56.and saw that the closet person to governors are who insult us 57.and saw that a person who loves us people call him liar and do not accept his witness 58.and saw that people compete on cruelty 59.and saw that people find hearing Quran hard but they are open to absurd thing 60.and saw that neighbor,respect neighbor because of his tongue afraid 61.and saw that Gods red line is brake and people do what do they want 62.and saw that mosques,decorate with gold 63.and saw that the most honest person is liarslanderers 64.and saw that devil and gossiping reveale 65.and saw that cruelty get prevalent 66.and saw that backbiting get ideal and people tell each other with happiness 67.and saw that people go Haj because of non-God 68.and saw that governor insult Muslim because of unbeliever 69.and saw that ruining is more than reclaim 70.andsaw that people manage their life with selling under weight 71.and saw that murdering get easy 72.and saw that people for material life want ruling,and afraid others by their tongue,until they catch that job 73.and saw that people leave saying prayers(Salat) 74.and saw that man have lots of wealth but did not pay Zakat at all 75.and saw that people open died people temple and molest them and sell their shroud 76.and saw that there are lots of riot 77.and saw that man pass his day with wine though and pass night in drunk form and not care about other people condition 78.and saw that people do bad things with animals 79.and saw that animals tear each other 80.and saw that man go mosque and come back shirtless 81.and saw that their heart froze and become jealous and praying God is gotten hard 82.and saw that unlawful jobs spread out and there is competition for them 83.and saw that prayer prays for showing off 84.and saw that cleric learn religions orders for some thing other and try to earn money and governmental positions 85.and saw that people love who is so almighty 86.and saw that a person who work for lawful money is banned and who try for unlawful money is prodded 87.and saw that in Mekka and Medina do what God don't like and no one stop it and ban then from these bad works 88.and saw that corruption instrument appear in Mekka and Madina 89.and saw that if some one invite to good and ban them from bads people say him:it's not up to you 90.and saw that people do same, and obey lewd people 91.and saw that Gods way is vacant and no one go through it 92.and saw that people mock each other and no one get upset tor others die 93.and saw that every year innovations and cruelty get more 94.and saw that people and associations just obey powerful people 95.and saw that people give something to poor people and make laugh at him and have mercy for non-God 96.and saw that heavenly signs appear but no one scare 97.and saw that people like animals have sex in public and no one deny it because of scare of it 98.and saw that people for non-God are generous and for God are something less than stingy 99.and saw that offending to parents appear and do not respect them and they are the worst for children 100.and saw that women catch important position and works do not go on with out their willing 101.and saw that son libel his father and damn his parent and become happy when they die 102.and saw that if a day pass for a man and in that day does not do big sin like lewdness or selling under weight or sin or drunk he think that this day was burned and is wasted his day 103.and saw that governor hoard nutritions 104 and saw that prophets familysright(Khoms) divide wrong and gamble with that or drink with that money 105.and saw that people doctor illness with wine and waiting for betterment 106.and saw that people don't care about inviting to goods and ban from bads 107.and saw that disorders speak but truth men are off 108.and saw that people take money for saying Azan 109.and saw that mosque are full of people that don't scare God and come to mosque for backbiting behind truth men and speak about introxical wine 110.and saw that drunk is out of minds and is people leader in saying prayer and don't care about his drinking and if he is drunk they proud him 111.and saw that people proud to who catch orphan property 112.and saw that judge, judge out of Gods order 113.and saw that governor choose traitor instead of their honest because of greedness 114.and saw that governor give truth inheritance to people who are lewd and are fearless about God , take them bribe and give away them till do what do they want 115.and saw that on pulpit order to goodness but speaker does not do it himself 116.and saw that people do not care about saying prayers time 117.and saw that people give charity to poor people because of others ask and not for Gods satisfaction,although because of people implore 118.and saw that all of people mind is their food and their sex and do not care about what do they eat and what associate 119.and saw that universe love them 120.and saw that Gods sign is gotten old In this position take care of your self and ask your rescue from God Sources: Roze-e-Rezvan,decedent Koleini,7th Hadith Behar alanwar, Allame Majlesi,52end book,254-260 pages Translation adapted from"Adl-e-Montazar"book,17th speech Writer:"DavoodElhami " page 170 From:Akharazamn institute weblog www.qm313.com
  3. In the name of AllahHello everybody Name: Muhammad. Title: al-Mahdi, al-Qa'im, al-Hujjah, al-Gha'ib, Sahibu'z-Zaman, Sahibu 'l-Amr. Agnomen: Abu'l-Qasim. Father's name: al-Hasan al-'Askari. Mother's name: Nargis. Birth: In Samarra', on Friday, 15th Sha'ban 255 AH. He is still living and will appear before the end of the world. Minor Occultation: 8th Rabi 'u 'I-awwal 260 AH. Major Occultation: 10th Shawwal 329 AH. There Existed a good deal of harmony and uniformity between the aspects pertaining to the births of Prophet Muhammad, the last Apostle of Allah and Imam al-Mahdi, the last Apostolic Imam. Just as the coming of the Holy Prophet was prophesied well in advance by the preceding prophets, similarly the impending news of the gracious birth of Imam al-Mahdi was foretold by the Holy Prophet. Innumerable traditions in this context, quoted right from the Holy Prophet, from the glowing contents of many books of Masanid, Sihah and Akhbar, and of Shi'ite scholars ('ulama') existed Many Sunni scholars have accumulated these traditions in complete volumes also, e.g.: al-Bayan fi akhbar Sihibi'z-Zaman by al-Hafiz Muhammad ibn Yusuf ash-Shafi'i and Dhikriyyatu'l- Mahdi by al-Hafiz Abu Nu'aym al-Isfahani as well as as-Sahih of Abu Dawud and as-Sunan of Ibn Majah. All of the above books record the traditions bearing evidence of the coming of this Holy Imam. The promised Mahdi, who is usually mentioned by his title of Imamu'l-'Asr (the Imam of the Period) and Sahibu 'z-Zaman (the Lord of the Age), is the son of the Eleventh Imam. His name is the same as that of the Holy Prophet. He was born in Samarra' in 255/869 and until 260/874 when his father was martyred, lived under his father's care and tutelage. He was hidden from public view and only a few of the elite among the Shi'ah were able to meet him. After the martyrdom of his father he became Imam and by Divine Command went into occultation (ghaybah). Thereafter, he appeared only to his deputies (na'ib) and even then only in exceptional circumstances. The Imam chose as a special deputy for a time 'Uthman ibn Sa'id al-'Amri, one of the companions of his father and grandfather who was his confident and trusted friend. Through his deputy the Imam would answer the demands and questions of the Shi'ah. After 'Uthman ibn Sa'id, his son Mutammad ibn 'Uthman al-'Amri was appointed the deputy of the Imam. After the death of Muhammad ibn 'Uthman, Abu'l-Qasim al-Husayn ibn Ruh an-Nawbakhti was the special deputy, and after his death 'Ali ibn Muhammad as-Samuri was chosen for this task. A few days before the death of 'Al; ibn Muhammad as-Samuri in 329/939 an order was issued by the Imam stating that in six days 'Ali ibn Muhammad as-Samuri would die. Henceforth the special deputation of the Imam would come to an end and the major occultation (ghaybatu 'l-kubrd ) would begin and would continue until the day God grants permission to the Imam to manifest himself. The occultation of the Twelfth Imam is, therefore, divided into two parts: the first, the minor occultation (ghaybatu's-sughra) which began in 260/872 and ended in 329/939, lasting about seventy years; the second, the major occultation which commenced in 329/939 and will continue as long as God wills it. In a hadith upon whose authenticity everyone agrees, the Holy Prophet has said, "If there were to remain in the life of the world but one day, God would prolong that day until He sends in it a man from my community and my household. His name will be the same as my name. He will fill the earth with equity and justice as it was filled with oppression and tyranny." On the Appearance of the Mahdi: In the discussion on prophecy and the Imamate it was indicated that as a result of the law of general guidance which governs all of creation, man is of necessity endowed with the power of receiving revelation through prophecy, which directs him toward the perfection of the human norm and the well-being of the human species. Obviously, if this perfection and happiness were not possible for man, whose life possesses a social aspect, the very fact that he is endowed with this power would be meaningless and futile. But there is no futility in creation. In other words, ever since he has inhabited the earth, man has had the wish to lead a social life filled with happiness in its true sense and has striven toward this end. If such a wish were not to have an objective existence it would never have been imprinted upon man's inner nature, in the same way that if there were no food there would have been no hunger. Or, if there were to be no water there would be no thirst and if there were to be no reproduction there would have been no sexual attraction between the sexes. Therefore, by reason of inner necessity and determination, the future will see a day when human society will be replete with justice and when all will live in peace and tranquillity, when human beings will be fully possessed of virtue and perfection. The establishment of such a condition will occur through human hands but with Divine succour. And the leader of such a society, who will be the saviour of man, is called in the language of the hadith, the Mahdi . In the different religions that govern the world such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Zoroastrian-ism and Islam there are references to a person who will come as the saviour of mankind. These religions have usually given happy tidings of his coming, although there are naturally certain differences in detail that can be discerned when these teachings are compared carefully. The hadith of the Holy Prophet upon which all Muslims agree, "The Mahdi is of my progeny," refers to this same truth. There are numerous hadiths cited in Sunni and Shi'ite sources from the Holy Prophet and the Imams concerning the appearance of the Mahdi, such as that he is of the progeny of the Prophet and that his appearance will enable human society to reach true perfection and the full realization of spiritual life. In addition, there are numerous other traditions concerning the fact that the Mahdi is the son of the Eleventh Imam, Hasan al-'Askari. They agree that after being born and undergoing a long occultation the Mahdi will appear again, filling with justice the world that has been corrupted by injustice and iniquity. As an example, 'Ali ibn Musa ar-Rida (the Eighth Imam) said, in the course of a hadith, "The Imam after me is my son, Muhammad, and after him his son 'Ali, and after 'Ali his son, Hasan, and after Hasan his son Hujjatu'l- Qa'im, who is awaited during his occultation and obeyed during his manifestation. If there remain from the life of the world but a single day, Allah will extend that day until he becomes manifest, and fill the world with justice in the same way that it had been filled with iniquity. But when? As for news of the 'hour,' verily my father told me, having heard it from his father who heard it from his father who heard it from his ancestors who heard it from 'Ali, that it was asked of the Holy Prophet, 'Oh Prophet of God, when will the "support" (al-Qa'im) who is from thy family appear? ' He said, 'His case is like that of the Hour (of the Resurrection). He alone will manifest it at its proper time. It is heavy in the heavens and the earth. It cometh not to you save unawares (7:187) Saqr ibn Abi Dulaf said, "I heard from Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali ar-Rida (the Ninth Imam) who said, 'The Imam after me is my son, 'Ali; his command is my command; his word is my word; to obey him is to obey me. The Imam after him is his son, Hasan. His command is the command of his father; his word is the word of his father; to obey him is to obey his father.' After these words the Imam remained silent.' I said to him, 'Oh son of the Prophet, who will be the Imam after Hasan?' The Imam cried hard, then said, 'Verily after Hasan his son is the awaited Imam who is "al-Qa'im bi'l-haqq" (He who is supported by the Truth)." Musa ibn Ja'far Baghdadi said, "I heard from Imam Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn 'Ali (the Eleventh Imam) who said, I see that after me differences will appear among you concerning the Imam after me. Whose accepts the Imams after the Prophet of God but denies my son is like the person who accepts all the prophets but denies the prophethood of Muhammad, the Prophet of God, upon whom be peace and blessing. And whose denies (Muhammad) the Prophet of God is like one who has denied all the prophets of God, for to obey the last of us is like obeying the first and to deny the last of us is like denying the first. But beware! Verily, for my son there is an occultation during which all people will fall into doubt except those whom Allah protects." The opponents of Shi'ism protest that according to the beliefs of this school the Hidden Imam should by now be nearly twelve centuries old, whereas, this is impossible for any human being. In answer it must be said that the protest is based only on the unlikelihood of such an occurrences not its impossibility. Of course, such a long lifetime or a life of a longer period is unlikely. But those who study the hadiths of the Holy Prophet and the Imams will see that they refer to this life as one possessing miraculous qualities. Miracles are certainly not impossible nor can they be negated through scientific arguments. It can never be proved that the causes and agents that are functioning in the world are solely those that we see and know and that other causes which we do not know or whose effects and actions we have not seen nor understood do not exist. It is in this way possible that in one or several members of makind there can be operating certain causes and agents which bestow upon them a very long life of a thousand or several thousand years. Medicine has not even lost hope of discovering a way to achieve very long life spans. In any case, such protests from "Peoples of the Book" such as Jews, Christians and Muslims are most strange for they accept the miracles of the prophets of God according to their own sacred scriptures. The opponents of Shi'ism also protest that, although Shi'ism considers the Imam necessary in order to expound the injunctions and verities of religion and to guide the people, the occultation of the Imam is the negation of this very purpose, for an Imam in occultation who cannot be reached by mankind cannot be in any way beneficial or effective. The opponents say that if God wills to bring forth an Imam to reform mankind, He is able to create him at the necessary moment and does not need to create him thousands of years earlier. In answer it must be said that such people have not really understood the meaning of the Imam, for in the discussion on the Imamate it became clear that the duty of the Imam is not only the formal explanation of the religious sciences and exoteric guidance of the people. In the same way that he has the duty of guiding men outwardly, the Imam also bears the function of walayah and the esoteric guidance of men. It is he who directs man's spiritual life and orients the inner aspect of human action toward God. Clearly, his physical presence or absence has no effect in this matter. The Imam watches over men inwardly and is in communion with the soul and spirit of men even if he be hidden from their physical eyes. I{is existence is always necessary even if the time has not as yet arrived for his outward appearance and the universal reconstruction that he is to bring about. al-Imam al-Hujjah, peace be Upon him, said: Rest assured that no one has a special relation- ship with Allah. Whoever denies me is not my (follower). The appearance of the Relief (al-faraj) depends solely upon Allah; therefore, those who propose a certain time for it are liars. As to the benefit of my existence in Occultation, it is like the benefit of the sun behind clouds where the eyes do not see. Indeed, my existence is an amnesty for the people of the earth.-Pray much to Allah to hasten the Relief, for therein also lies the release from your sufferings. The Twelfth Imam Hazrat Mahdi (A.S.) The Imam, the just Guide, Hazrat Mahdi (A.S.) was born half-way through the month of Sha'ban in the year 255 A.H. in the town of Samarra, and in 260 A.H., when his great father died, he reached the exalted position of the Imamate. His name (Muhammad) and his agnomen (Abu'l-Qasim) are the same as the Prophet's. His father, the 11th Shi'a Imam, was Hazrat Imam Hasan al-'Askari (A.S.), and his mother, the great lady Nargis. For various reasons, the twelfth Imam, from the first day of his life, did not appear publicly, and for about seventy years people were in communication with him through the intermediary of his special representatives, in order of succession: 'Uthman ibn Sa'id, Muhammad ibn 'Uthman, Husayn ibn Ruh, and 'Ali ibn Muhammad as-Samarri. This period of seventy years is known as the minor occultation (al-ghaybat as-sughra), and at the end of that period the major occultation (al-ghaybat al-kubra) began. During the major occultation till the time of his reappearance, no one has been his special representative, and there will be no one in the future, and the people have the duty to refer to the fuqaha, those excelling in knowledge of the shari'ah, and the narration of hadith who are specialised in the matters of the religion. Belief in Hazrat Mahdi, and Universal Reform. The belief in the reappearance of the expected Mahdi (A.S.)the universal reformer is not confined to the Shi'ite Muslims. Other Islamic groups and even non-Islamic groups like the Jews and the Christians and some of the great world intellectual figures believe in the appearance of a great spiritual reformer. In Psalm 37 is written: "...Trust in the Lord and do good; so you will dwell in the land, and enjoy security. ...For the wicked shall be cut off: but those who wait for the Lord shall possess the land. ...But the weak shall possess the land, and delight themselves in abundant prosperity. ...The Lord knows the days of the flawless, and their heritage will abide forever. ...For those blessed by the Lord, shall possess the land, but those cursed by Him shall be cut off. ...The righteous shall possess the land, and dwell upon it at peace for ever..." The Qur'an and belief in al-Mahdi In the Qur'an a time is promised when the worshippers of Truth, the world's people of righteousness, will take over the power and government of the world, and the glorious din of Islam will reign all over the earth. Other ayahs have been revealed which exegetically point to Hazrat Mahdi (A.S.). "For We have written in the Psalms, after the Remembrance, 'The earth shall be the inheritance of My righteous servants." (XXI; 105) "Allah has promised those of you who believe and do righteous deeds that He will surely make you successors in the land, even as He made those who were before them successors, and that He will surely establish their religion for them, and will give them in exchange, after their fear, security: They shall serve Me, not associating with Me anything. " (XXIV:55) "It is He Who has sent His Messenger with the religion of truth, that he may lift it above every religion, though the unbelievers be averse. (LXI:9) "Yet We desired to be gracious to those that were abased in the land, and to make them leaders, and to make them the inheritors. " (XXII:5) The above ayahs clearly show that in the end the world will fall to the hands of Allah's worthy and righteous servants and that they will become the leaders of the people of the world. Then Islam will be victorious over all religions. Belief in al-Mahdi and the Sunni authorities In this subject, the scholars in the Sunni school have related many hadiths from the Prophet of Islam, through narrators whom they themselves trust. From among them are such hadiths as tell that the Imams are twelve persons and that are all from the Quraysh. Al-Mahdi(A.S.), the promised one, is from the family of the Prophet and is a descendent of Hazrat 'Ali and Hazrat Fatimah Zahra (A.S.), and in many of these hadiths it is mentioned that he is from the line of Imam Husayn (A.S.). They have mentioned and recorded hundreds of hadiths about the Mahdi in more than seventy books by their valued and dependable authorities of which we shall mention a few examples. al-Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241 A.H.) Sahih of al-Bukhari (d. 256 A.H.) Sahih of Muslim ibn Hajjaj Nishabouri (d. 261 A.H.) Sunan of Abu Dawud Sajistani (d. 275 A.H.) Sahih of Muhammad ibn 'Isa at-Tirmidhi (d. 279 A.H.) The authors of the above books - each one of them among the most authoritative books of the Sunnis - died either before the birth of the Imam of the Age (225 A.H.) or shortly after his birth. Let us also mention: - Masabih as-Sunnah of al-Baghawi (d. 516 A.H.) Jami' al-Usul of ibn al-Athir (d. 606 A H.) Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyyah of Muhyi'd-din ibn 'Arabi (d.638 A.H.) Tadhkirat al-Khawass of Sibt ibn al-Jawzi (d. 654 A.H.) Fara'd as-Simtayn of al-Hamawi (d. 716 A.H.) as-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah of Ibn Hajar al-Haytami (d. 973 A.H.) Yanabi'al-Mawaddah of Shaykh Sulayman al-Qunduzi (d.1293 A.H.) Some of the Sunni scholars have written books especially about the Imam of the Age: 1. Al-Bayan fi Akhbar Sahib az-Zaman of Al-Ganji ash-Shafi'i 2. 'Iqd ad-Durar fi Akhbar al-Imam al-Muntazar of Shaykh Jamalu'd-din Yusuf al-Dimashqi 3. Mahdi Al ar-Rasul of 'Ali ibn Sultan Muhammad al-Harawi al-Hanafi 4. Kitab al-Mahdi of Abu Dawud 5. 'Alamat al-Mahdi of Jalalu'd-din as-Suyuti 6. Manaqib al-Mahdi of Hafiz Abu Nu'aim al-lsfahani 7. Al -Qawl al -Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al -Mahdi 8. al-Muntazar of Ibn Hajar 9. Al-Burhan fi 'Alamat Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman of Mulla 'Ali al-Muttaqi 10. Arba'un Hadith fi al-Mahdi of Abu'l-A' la'al-Hamadani The Hidden Reformer We have at hand more than three thousand hadiths from the Prophet (S.A.) and from the pure Imams about the Imam of the Age. From them it is clear that the Imam of the Age is the ninth son of Husayn ibn 'Ali (A.S.), his father is Hazrat Imam Hasan 'Askari (A.S.), his mother Nargis Khatun. His name is the same as that of the Prophet of the end of time, his title is al-Mahdi. It was to happen that he would be born during his father's lifetime in Samarra, that his father would die when he was young, that he would live even to this day, and as long as God wished it. Then he will reappear and the world will be filled with justice at a time when there is injustice everywhere and that is why he is now hidden from the sight of men. And when he comes with his back towards the Ka'bah's edifice, he will lean against the wall and cry out and call for his followers, who will number 313 persons. Hazrat 'Isa (A.S.) will come from the heaven down to the earth, and will pray in a prayer led by al-Mahdi. The Imam of the Age will cause the commands of Islam to reach all over the world, and the earth will be like paradise. There are very many hadiths related by the Shi'a and Sunni scholars on many aspects connected with this great Imam, and these are mentioned in books like Bihar al-Anwar and Muntakhab al-Athar. First we shall indicate here some of these hadiths which the author of Muntakhab al-Athar wrote down in his book and then we shall give the text of some of them. The total amount of hadiths 1. A hadith in which it is related that the Imams are twelve, the first being 'Ali, the last being al-Mahdi (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 58) 2. A hadith which give news of the appearance of al-Mahdi(A.S.). (No. of hadith: 657) 3. A hadith which identify him as descendent of the Prophet (S.A.). (No. of hadith: 389) 4. A hadith which say that his name and agnomen are the same as the Prophet's. (No. of hadith: 48) 5. A hadith which say al-Mahdi is a descendent of Amir al-Muminin(A.S.). (No. of hadith: 214) 6. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Hazrat Fatimah (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 192) 7. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Hazrat Husayn (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 185) 8. A hadith which say he is the ninth descendent of Imam Husayn (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 148) 9. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Imam Zayn al-'Abidin (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 185) 10. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Imam Baqir (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 103) 11. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (AS.) (No. of hadith: 103) 12. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Imam Musa Kazim (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 101) 13. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Imam Rida (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 95) 14. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Imam Jawad (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 90) 15. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Imam Hadi (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 90) 16. A hadith which say he is a descendent of Imam Hasan al-'Askari (A.S.) (No. of hadith: 146) 17. A hadith which say that the name of his father is Hasan(A.S.) (No. of hadith: 147) 18. A hadith which say that he will fill the world with justice (No. of hadith: 123) 19. A hadith which say his occultation will be prolonged (No. of hadith: 91) 20. A hadith which relate the extent of al-Mahdi's life (No. of hadith: 318) 21. A hadith which say that Islam will rule over the world through him (No. of hadith: 47) 22. A hadith which say he will be the twelfth and the last Imam. (No. of hadith: 136) When looking at the above mentioned and other hadiths, it should be kept in mind that the hadiths mentioning al-Mahdi (A.S.) have been narrated most frequently, and that there are few subjects in Islam which have been mentioned in hadiths so often. Thus, in this light, anyone who believes in Islam and its Prophet (S.A.) must necessarily declare his belief in the existence of the promised al-Mahdi who is now in occultation. Now we shall relate some of these hadiths. 1. The author of Yanabi' al-Mawaddah relates that the Prophet (S.A.) said: "A1-Mahdi is a descendent of mine. He will be in concealment, and when he manifests himself, the earth will become filled with justice, just as it was previously filled with injustice." 2. In this book it is also related that Salman al-Farsi said: "I went to the Prophet, when Husayn ibn 'Ali was sitting in his lap and the Prophet was kissing his eyes and mouth, and he said: 'You are a noble one, the son of a noble one, and the brother of a noble one; you are the Imam, the son of the Imam, and the brother of the Imam. Your are the Proof, son of the Proof and the brother of the Proof; you will be the father of nine Proofs of whom the ninth will be the Qa'im." 3. Ibn Abi Dalaf says: "I heard from Hazrat 'Ali ibn Muhammad (the 10th Imam) that he said: 'The Imam after me will be Hasan, my son, and after him his descendent the Qa'im, who will fill the earth with justice, when it was previously filled with injustice. 4. Hudhayfah said that the Prophet (S.A.) said: "If no more than one day is left of the world, Allah will make that day so long that a man, descendent of mine, whose name is my name, will appear." Salman asked: "O Prophet of Allah, which descendent will he be?" The Prophet put his hand on Husayn and said that he would be one of his descendents. 5. Mas'adah relates from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (A.S.) that he said: "The Qa'im will be born of Hasan (the 11th Imam, Hazrat Imam Hasan al-'Askari), and Hasan will be son of 'Ali (the tenth Imam, Hazrat Imam 'Ali al-Naqi), and 'Ali will be son of Muhammad (the ninth Imam, Hazrat Imam Muhammad at-Taqi), and Muhammad will be born of 'Ali (the eighth Imam, Hazrat 'Ali ibn Musa ar-Rida) and 'Ali will be son of this child (he pointed to Hazrat Musa ibn Ja'far, the seventh Imam). We are twelve Imams, all pure and of a noble birth. I swear by Allah, if there remains of the world no more than one day, Allah will make that day so long that the Qa'im of us, the Husehold of the Prophet (S.A.), will appear." The Opinion of Sociologists The world's foremost intellectuals are of the opinion that the wars, massacres, murders, prostitution, and all the evils of this age which are daily in the increase are because there is no equilibrium between man's material and spiritual requirements. The man of today has turned his back on moral virtues and spiritual riches, although he has conquered the sea, the desert and space, and has taken himself to the moon. It is obvious that by relying in force and power he cannot establish order and justice in the world, and that only with technology and the material sciences the happiness of humanity will not be secured. Man has no other resort than to strengthen his social relations on the basis of faith and virtue, and to save himself from the vortex of dangers with the guidance of a great world reformer, to establish a rule based on justice together with peace, security and sincerity. In this state of affairs, human society is moving quickly towards preparation for the rising up of the Imam of the Age (A.S.) The Length of al-Mahdi's Life We believe that the lengthening of a man's life is not an impossibility, because it is explicitly said in the Qur'an that: "We sent Nuh to his people, as he tarried among them a thousand years, all but fifty. " (XXIX; 14) What is more, research undertaken in the biological sciences has corroborated the possibility of lengthening the human life-span. Even great scientists are of the opinion that food and drugs may be prepared which can prolong man's life. The late Ayatullah Sadr (A learned scholar of Qom (1882-1953), father of the well-known Imam Musa-Sadr of the Lebanon.) in his book "al-Mahdi", quoted from a scientific article written in 1959 which stands as a witness to what we have said above. Here we shall give a summary of it. "Authoritative scientists say that all the basic tissues of the animal body can live forever, and it is possible for man to live for a thousand years, provided that it doesn't happen that the thread of his life is severed. These scientists do not speak on the basis of guesswork or surmise, for they have arrived at their conclusion through scientific experiment. "A professor at Johns Hopkins University has said that it has been proved that the basic members of the human body have the potentiality for eternal life. Apparently the first person to carry out these experiments on parts of an animal's body was Dr. Jack Lubb, and after him Dr. Warren Lewis, who, together with his wife, proved that parts of bird foetuses could be kept alive in buffer solutions. These experiments were systematically continued until Dr. Alexis Karel, as a result of further experimental work, established that parts of animals subjected to experiments did not degenerate, and even that they lived longer than the animal from which they had been taken. In January 1912 he started his experiments and by dint of self-sacrifice and removing the numerous difficulties, he discovered the following facts: " 1. Unless complications such as lack of nutrition or attack by microbes intervened, living cells would continue living forever. 2. These cells which continued to live, also grew and multiplied. 3. The growth and division of these could be controlled by the nutrition given to them. 4. The passing of time did not affect them and did not make them age or lose strength. Not even the smallest effect of ageing was seen. Each year they grew and multiplied exactly as in previous years. So why does man die? Why is his span of life rarely more than a hundred years? The parts of the human or animal body are numerous and various, and there is also a perfect relationship and unity between them; so that the life of some of them depends on the life of others, and the failure or death of parts of human or animal bodies is the consequence of the death of the other parts. Sudden deaths which are the result of infection are for this reason, and it also provides the reason for the average limit of man's life being around seventy to eighty years. Of course, what experiments have shown is that the cause of death is not the arrival at seventy or eighty years of age, but that the fundamental causes are diseases and accidents which may attack one of the body's organs and put it out of work; then the death of this part causes a break in its relation to other parts and the death of all the organs ensues. "Thus if science could eliminate these accidents or obstruct their harmful effects, there would be no impediment to the prolongation of life." So if we know that a greatly extended life is not an impossibility, there is no hindrance to prevent God, the All-powerful, from keeping a man safe and sound for thousands of years, because the regulations of a man's life is in the hands of God. He can bring a new harmony into existence which has precedence over the usual order of things, just as He did in the case of all the miracles. The miracles of the prophets, the cooling of the fire for Ibrahim al-Khalil, the turning into a serpent of Hazrat Musa's staff, the bringing to life of the dead through Hazrat 'Isa, and so forth, are all against the usual flow of things, but God brought another order into existence by His own power and a miracle occurred; all Muslims, Jews and Christians, believe in miracles. Similarly for the length of the life of the Imam of the Age there remains no place for any kind of objection, because if someone says that such a length of life is impossible, his claim cannot be at all accepted after the stipulation of the Qur'an concerning the length of Hazrat Nuh's life, and also after the latest revelations of biology. If it is said that it is possible, but against the normal natural order of things, it can be retorted that the length of life of the Imam of the Age is against the natural order just as the miracles of the prophets, and is carried out according to the will of God. Someone who believes in the power of God and the occurrance of the miracles of the prophets cannot have the slightest objection to the length of the Imam's life. The Occultation of the Imam of the Age The Prophet of Islam (S.A.) sometimes hinted to people concerning the occultation of the twelfth Imam, and the pure Imams (A.S.) also reminded people of this matter. The news of the occultation of the Imam of the Age was so well known even before his birth, that everyone who believed in the birth of the Imam also believed in his prolonged occultation. Let us look at some of the indications that have come down to us from many hadiths on this subject. 1. The Prophet said: "The Qa'im of my descendents will become hidden, as the result of a covenant between me and him, and then people will say that Allah has no need of the family of Muhammad, and some will doubt his birth. So everyone who is aware of his time must act according to his religion, and must not let Shaytan enter him by faltering lest he be thrown out from my people and my religion." 2. Amir al-Mu'minin said: "Our Qa'im has an occultation which will be of great devotion... Beware! Everyone who is firm in his religion, and does not become hard-hearted from the lengthening of the occultation of this man (and turn away from his religion) will find himself in the same rank as me on the Day of Resurrection." Then he said: "Our Qa'im, when he rises, has no responsibility for anyone's allegiance to him, and for this reason his birth will be secret and he will be hidden." 3. Muhammad ibn Muslim said that he heard from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (A.S.) that he said: "If you hear of the occultation of your Imam, do not deny it." 4. At-Tabarsi wrote: "The hadiths of the occultation were recorded by the Shi'ite narrators in books which were composed in the time of Imam Baqir and Imam Sadiq (A.S.). Of all these reliable narrators one was Hasan ibn Mahbub. About a hundred years before the time of the occultation, he wrote a book called "al-Mashyakhah," and mentioned the hadiths about the occultation in it. The following is one of them. "Abu Basir said: "I said in the presence of Imam Sadiq (A.S.) that Hazrat Abu Ja'far had said: 'The Qa'im of the family of Muhammad will have two occultation; one prolonged, one short.' He said: 'Yes, O Abu Basir, one of those occultation will be longer than the other." Therefore, the Prophet of Islam (S.A.) and the pure Imams (A.S.) reminded people that the occultation of the Imam of the Age (A.S.) went together with the announcement of the existence of the Prophet himself, and that belief in the Imam's occultation went together with belief in the Prophet's existence. Shaykh Saduq narrated from Al-Sayyid al-Himyari: "I had some exaggerated idea about Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, and believed that he was hidden, till Allah enlightened me through Imam Sadiq and saved me from the Fire. I was guided to the true way, whereby after the Imamate of Ja'far ibn Muhammad had been proved to me by evidence and demonstration, I said one day to him: 'O son of the Prophet of Allah, tell me some hadiths from your forefathers about occultation and the truth of it. If you please, I would that you tell me for whom the occultation is.' He replied: 'The occultation will occur for my descendent in the sixth generation, and he will be the twelfth Imam after the Prophet of Allah, the first one being 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, and the last the Qa'im of the Truth, the one who remains with Allah on earth, and the Lord of the Age..."' Why is the Imam of the Age in Concealment? In previous lessons we have said that the existence of the Imam (A.S.) and the successor of the Prophet (S.A.) was necessary for a number of reasons, such as settling differences, explaining the laws of Allah, and giving spiritual, inward guidance, and that Allah, the Merciful, appointed Amir al-Mu'minin (A.S.) and after him eleven descendents, one after the other, as Imams after the Prophet of Islam. It is obvious that the duties of the Imam of the Age, in all the aspects of the Imamate, are the same as that of his predecessors. If there were no hindrance, it would be necessary that he be clearly manifested, so that people might prosper from all the benefits of his existence. So why was he hidden from the very first? Basically, there is no need to look for the philosophy or reasons behind his occultation so as to believe in the rule of Allah, for there is no obligation on us to know the basic reason for it, just as we remain ignorant of the metaphysics behind many other things. It is sufficient that we know on the basis of the many hadiths and true Proofs that God, the All-Mighty, sent his own Proof, but that, for various reasons, He kept him hidden behind the curtain of occultation. It can also be found from some hadiths that the basic and fundamental reason for the occultation will become known after the appearance of al-Mahdi. 'Abdullah al-Fadl al-Hashimi says: "I heard from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (A.S.) that he said: 'The occultation will be indispensible for the Lord of Power, so that the people of vanity will fall into doubt about him.' I asked: 'Why?' He said: 'For a reason which I am not at liberty to declare.' I asked: 'What will his rule be?' He replied: 'The same rule as existed in the occultations of previous Proofs. It will not be disclosed until-after his appearance, just as the rule of the works of Khidr was not known (meaning the drilling of a hole in the boat, the killing of the youth, the repairing of the wall in the story of Khidr in the Qur'an) until Musa and Khidr decided to part company. O Fadl, the subject of the occultation is a command of Allah and a secret of His secrets, and since we acknowledge Allah to be Wise, we must accept that all his acts are done with Knowledge and Wisdom, even if the reason for them is not known to us."' Of course the benefits of al-Mahdi's occultation can be discovered, and these have been indicated in some of the hadiths. For example: 1. A test for people is one of the benefits of the occultation of the Imam of the Age: on one side, a group without faith, whose inner feelings become evident; on the other side, those in the depths of whose hearts faith have taken root, their hope of deliverance, their patience in adversity, their faith in the unseen becoming more perfect, their worthiness becoming known, and degrees of spiritual reward falling to them. Musa ibn Ja'far (AS.) said: "When my fifth descendent becomes hidden, persevere in your religion, so that no one may turn you away from it. There will be an occultation for the Lord of that Age, when a group of believers in him will relinquish their belief. This occultation is a test by which Allah will test his slaves." 2. A Protection for the Imam against being killed: From a study of the leaders of Islam, and their situation vis-a-vis the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs, we can clearly see that if the twelfth Imam manifested himself they would surely kill him or poison him like his forefathers. Because when they heard and knew that there would arise from the family of the Prophet, from the descendents of 'Ali and Fatimah (A.S.) someone who would destroy the government of the oppressors, and that that person would be child of Hazrat Imam Hasan al-'Askari (A.S.), the Abassids planned to kill him. But Allah protected him and his enemies lost hope. Zurarah relates from Imam Sadiq (AS.) that he said: "There will be an occultation prior to the appearance of the Qa'im." Zurarah asked: "Why?" He said: "So that he may escape being killed, and that occultation will continue till the ground for his appearance and triumph over the rule of the oppressors is ready." 3. The third benefit that can be gleaned from the hadiths is that by this means al-Mahdi will be saved from having allegiance made to him by the oppressors, Caliphs, and usurping rulers. When he appears no one will swear allegiance to him, so that he can freely expose the truth and establish a just and righteous rule. The Purpose of the Hidden Imam. We have said above that God appointed the Imam of the Age to be a guide amongst people; however it is the people who are the obstacle to his appearance, and whenever they are ready for a single, divine world rule, formed on true justice observing rights, truths and realities, putting into practice all the laws of Islam without any dissimulation or fear, al-Mahdi will openly declare himself. So, with regard to Allah, the Merciful, there is not the slightest lack of favour or mercy, for the fault lies with the people that the Imam is hidden and the appearance of his rule is delayed. Still, it must be remembered that the benefits of the existence of the Imam are not limited to outward guidance among people, for the pure existence of the Imam has other benefits which are not necessarily evident among people. The most important benefit of the Imam's existence is that he is the intermediary for Divine Favor. For, one the basis of the evidence scholars have produced and also according to numerous hadiths which speak about the Imamate, if there were no Imam (a.s), the relation between the world and its creator would no longer exist, because all of the fovours of Allah come through the Imam to the rest of humanity. In many hadiths it is said very clearly that the earth will not remain without an Imam. The Imam is the heart of the world of existence, the leader, the preceptor of mankind, and for this reason his presence or his absence makes no difference. what is more, the spiritual guidance of the Imam towards worthy individuals will always be there, although they may not see him, especially as it is mentioned in hadiths that the Mahdi comes and goes in among the people in the meetings of the believers without anyone understanding. Thus the guarding of Islam and the protection of the worthy is well undertaken by the Imam, even during the time of his occultation. In reality the hidden Imam is like the sun behind a cloud from whose light and heat existent things may profit, although the ignorant and the blind may not see it. Imam Sadiq (a.s) also said in answer to the question: " How can people benefit from a hidden Imam?": " Just as they do from the sun when it is behind a cloud." We would now like you to look at this excerpt from the that the shi'a sect is the only religion which maintains eternally the link of Divine guidance between God and his creation , and continually keeps alive the union of walayat, The Jewish religion, finished prophethood, which is the relationship between god and the world of man, with Moses, and do not acknowledge the prophethood of Jesus or Muhammad. Thus they have served this link , The Christians, also , stopped with Jesus, and the Sunni Muslims stood still with Muhammad. With the seal of prophethood among the latter, they admit of no further link being maintained between the Creator and creation. "Only the Shi'a faith believes that the prophethood ended with Muhammad, but that wilayat, which is this link of guidance and progression, continues to live after him and forever. "Indeed, only among the Shi'a does this reality between the world of man and the Divinity remain forever." A Necessary Reminder Belief in the Imam of the Age means that the link between people and the unseen world is inseparable, and someone who believes this must always remember al-Mahdi and await the appearance of this hidden reformer. Of course, waiting for the Imam of the Age does not mean that all Muslims and Shi'as should fold their arms and take no measures in the way of furthering the aims of Islam, only waiting for him to appear. For as the great Shi'ite scholars have been saying from the earliest times, all Muslims and Shi'as have the duty to make every effort in the path of establishing and strengthening Islamic knowledge and laws in the face of injustice and evil, to struggle against this with all their possibilities; or, in other words, to strive till the preparation for a just rule has been made, till society has been so harmonised that all those with complaints have seen justice; and if there is any oppression or cruelty reigning among people, to protest against it, and continue in this way. Every Muslim has the duty to sacrifice himself in the way of Imam and Islam, and to always be prepared to welcome the promised al-Mahdi (A.S.), that is, to so order his life that it may not be a contradiction of the project of the Imam, so that he can take his place in the ranks behind him and fight against his enemies.
  4. In the name of Allah Hello everyone Introduction The report card of all the schools of thought through out the history reveals many weak points. The majority of them concentrated on one aspect, but ignored other important aspects of humanity. All these ideologies were "self-centered", meaning that they considered themselves as the central ideology and others (rest of mankind) as the surrounds, and most important of all, they had great claims; however, they made a poor performance. In other words, they propagated goodness in theory, but were extremely weak in practice. After the middle ages, there has not been almost any improvement in humanity; Humans seem tired and bored of any materialistic ideology. The western conclusion about any materialistic ideology is that none of the schools of thoughts have fulfilled humanity needs; therefore it is not necessary to depend on any of ideology; there is no need for a new one. They believe that have been deceived enough, and a worldwide revolution could never happen. At this blind point, where people feel a gap, a great revolution will occur that will take over the whole world. Mahdi(as)will come, and will "change the humane condition". The east and the west of the world are Mahdi's(as); although his message implies denial of east and west, it considers both hemispheres in terms of audience and covers the whole world. Mahdi's(as)mother was a Christian from Rome Empire, who was taken as a captive of war and chose Islam on her own. He is from two different races; so, Imam Mahdi's(as)arise is a global change for all humans, not specific to certain nationality or tribe. His mother, as well as mothers of some other Imams (PBUT), was not apparently from a high prestige family from social, economic, or political aspects. Therefore, the greatness of this movement is obvious since the wrong system of social leveling does not intervene this worldwide rising. The humane characteristics of the community Mahdi(as) will establish This article aims to cite, though briefly, some characteristics of the society which is going to be set up by Imam Mahdi(as). The government of Imam Mahdi(as)is a religion-worldwide government; however, it is not the government of stereotypes. In other words, it doesn't mean that it would be a world full of identical people who think and act in a similar fashion just like machines do; they will not have identical appearances or tastes. In fact, the relationships will be based on divine criteria, and all the people will recognize the rights and limitations while they are different. People will all be educated and learned persons who know their rights and responsibilities; they will be balanced, yet different. There will be no disputes since all the people will recognize the truth. The definition of obedience in the society of Imam Mahdi(as)does not intend to disregard human intellect and replace human understanding and feelings with machines. This obedience within the leadership of Imam Mahdi(as)in the worldwide revolution guarantees the right of people and advances each individual's intellect. The effort in his revolution is to fight for the "right of people", and the flag of this revolution is the flag of "justice". As stated in the Ahadith, the main act of Imam Mahdi(as)will be to give the people their physical and spiritual rights. Therefore, the main pledge in the society of Imam Mahdi(as)is "justice"; once the former society has been filled with injustice and crimes, it will be replaced with justice and the rights of the people will be given to them. His main goals and philosophies of his revolution consist of saving the people, executing human rights, removing racism... His power will flourish upon the east and west of the world, and no land will be left outside of this empire. The question that can arise to this is:" Is this victory going to be the same as those victories that the Roman and Egyptian kings were seeking?" Imam Ali(as)has answered this question as follows:" Mahdi will reappear to free all the slaves on earth". The idea that slavery has ended its course in today's world is a false analogy. Though at this time we do not see the old fashioned slavery in most part of the world, however, slavery is being practiced in a more modern state. Most of the people are slaves in the hands of masters who practice slavery in a modern fashion of buying and selling generations of people. Thus, it becomes clear as to why Imam Ali (as) said, "Mahdi will not leave any slave on earth without having freed him". By slavery, it is referred to all sorts of slavery such as economic slavery, political slavery, and other kinds of slavery. Imam Mahdi(as)will not leave any debtor on earth without having paid his debt. He will not allow any oppression free without having paid back the oppressed. The future and rights of each single person is important to him. The revolution and reform by Imam Mahdi(as)is so humane that he will not kill any innocent person, even if that person is in the opponent army. His revolution is a determined revolution in that it will not negotiate with any oppressor; however, it is a completely humane revolution; it is not a blind revolution that takes advantage of the individuals to achieve victory and power. "Human", even a single individual, is important to him. The smallest right is significant for him. He explains that there is nothing more obligatory than executing justice, even if it is the smallest right for the most common person. The revolution of Imam Mahdi(as)is in fact the revolution of people, and it will be established by a pious and accomplished leader. As he has to deal with two kinds of persons, he will present two different characteristics. His first characteristic is toward the most of the people of the world and especially to the poor. He will act so kindly and modestly towards them that it is as if he was feeding them with honey (exact words of a Hadith). Nonetheless, his second characteristic is toward the cruel of the world. He will just fight with them and does not forgive them anyway. They have been asked to repent from what they had done for thousands of years. Now, the age of recommendation and forgiveness is ended and it is the time to bring into action what all the prophets (PBUT) had promised. According to the Ahadith, everything in Mahdi's(as)society will end to peace, friendliness, brotherliness, mercy, and unity. Mahdi(as)will fight, but for peace; that is because he knows that these wars won't end unless a war brings them to end. He will fight for peace accompanied by justice. The slogan of Mahdi's(as)society is kindness. In his society, people help each other without playing any trick on each other. Wherever somebody commits a crime, no matter who he is, he will be punished instantly without any exceptions. In his governorship, he will be very strict towards the operators of the worldwide Islamic government; however, he will be very patient with people, especially the poor. He will treat people in a very kindly and modestly manner. He will give every one his due and finally, he will bring all the goals of the prophets (PBUT) into action. His revolution is not a single revolution; rather it consists of several revolutions in one. This revolution is an exception from all points of view throughout the history. It is not just a political revolution, but a vast cataclysm in all the material and spiritual aspects of the human's life. In this article, we will take a look at several aspects of this revolution: Revolution in women rights, intellectual improvement, and scientific rights He will choose 313 persons who will be the main operators of his government. According to the Ahadith, there are 50 women amongst them, who will perform in the highest level of global management. This clearly illustrates the role of women in this revolution. In his society, women will be honored without loosing their chastity. Thus, we understand three great revolutions in the society of Mahdi(as), namely intellectual revolution, rights revolution (women rights) and scientific revolution. Economic revolution At that time (the reappearance era), an economic and technological revolution will take place; he will take over the whole world; all the superficial and underground resources will be available for the deprived people; the soils will become fertile; there would remain no ruined place on earth except that it would become habitable in Mahdi's(as)government. It will not be so that a small minority is full while the majority is hungry. The entire world will become habitable and every where is prosperous; the springs will be overflowed by water. At this time, there will be abundant favors for mankind, and they share them without any injustice and prodigality. Revolution in the human relations Another revolution will happen in the inter-relation of human beings. The sincere and friendly relations will improve to the extent that if a person needs something, he can use the other one's property without any struggle or dissatisfaction. At that time, everything will be for everyone. There is no conspiracy among the people and they consider each other as brothers since they all respect each other. Besides being great and bloody, his revolution brings brotherhood rather than revengefulness. Revolution against discrimination At that time, all the people live like each other; they will be all either full or hungry, whenever there is not enough supply, unanimously. According to the Ahadith, when Mahdi (as) comes, he will divide the properties among the people properly, or identically as the Hadith states. It will be so that no one would remain hungry on the entire earth. Even in our time, in the wealthiest countries (in spite of the fact that such wealth is brought about as a result of oppression and social leveling across the world) there are thousands of people who are deprived of primary facilities. In today's world, the exact meaning of social leveling and class distinction is demonstrated. Nevertheless, at that time convenience and wealth will be spread without any discrimination everywhere. Social revolution Whilst the human being will experience convenience, egoism and profiteering will no longer exist. In that society, all the people will help each other. Although the social aspects of the revolution are magnificent, they are realistic. Of course it is obvious that in today's world, providing such situation is impossible; nevertheless, this is the extreme of Islam's doctrine and it will definitely be practiced. Security revolution The other aspect of Mahdi's(as)revolution is for security. According to the Ahadith, in the government of Mahdi(as), a young girl (who likely is sensitive to harshness and aggression) can have a trip from on corner to another corner of the world lonely, while no danger threatens her. At that time, people will gradually forget the word "fear"! Civil revolution The entire world will be civilized by him; the whole societies will experience pleasure and joy. This joy will be humane, not gained by oppressing others or usurping others' rights. Revolution against ignorance A huge revolution will take place in understanding the religion, and knowing the religion will improve and ameliorate. According to the Ahadith, when he arises, some Muslims will oppose him and apply verses of the Holy Quran against him. Those are people who have neither understood the true religion nor helped it. They have not experienced any hardship for the religion, but made benefit of it. There is a Hadith implying that he will arise against both ignorance and innovations. He will fight against ignorance, teach people the pure religion as it was descended, and eliminate incorrect interpretations of the religion. Cultural revolution A great cultural revolution will occur by Imam Mahdi(as)too. As mentioned in some Ahadith, the ratio of all the sciences know by human to the sciences which Imam Mahdi(as) will discover is 2 to 27. This means that human, though having made such progresses, is not highly knowledgeable. The characteristics of the companions of Mahdi(as) At the end of this section, we will name some of the characteristics of Imam Mahdi's(as)companions extracted from the Ahadith: In comparison with the 16th and 17th century, people tend to reach unity in today's world due to human and Islamic knowledge and communications. They have the readiness to say the same, recognize the same and react in the same manner. Perhaps these communications have led us to Globalization (established by Imam Mahdi(as)not by western countries). His companions are 313 people from different races at first. They are the main staff of the global rising of Imam Mahdi(as). Then, according to the Ahadith, their number will increase to the extent that besides those 313 people who are the main executives, the operative staff will include His companions are 313 people from different races at first. They are 10'000 people, and finally the rising will become worldwide. As the Ahadith state, most of Imam Mahdi's(as)companions are from the youth. His revolution is done by the youth, as changing the world could be done by them. In another Hadith, they are described as follows: Their hearts are firm as iron; they fear nothing and will control the world rapidly and powerfully. They will pass a difficult examine, and the superiors of them are 313 people. Their reward is more than Prophet Muhammad's(as)companions; because they have never seen the Prophet(as), their situation is more complicated, and resistance is more difficult at that time; nonetheless, they remain in the right path. One important thing that needs to be considered is that organizing the world won't be simple; it requires patience and hard working. His companions will wear military uniform for a long time and eat little till they spread justice in the world. This era will be a beginning of difficulties for them, as it will be a beginning of comfort for others. It is basically a beginning of difficulties for Imam Mahdi's(as)companions in order to achieve global justice. They have to dress simply, be respectful, and live in the lowest level among people. The comfort and welfare gained in Imam Mahdi's(as)governorship does not belong only to the rulers, but to all the people. Imam Mahdi(as) will live simply during his governorship. There will be no compliment between Mahdi(as) and other nations and he will do full justice to everyone. When he rises, he is not under oath of any corrupt ruler. It means that he is not responsible towards any previous government. The content of the treaty between Mahdi's(as) and his companions The last part of this article explains the content of a treaty between Mahdi(as) and his followers. This treaty will glorify the magnificence and divinity of Mahdi's(as)rising, while it also merges great decisiveness and humanity. It should be noted that these purports are extracted from authentic Ahadith of Shia: Mahdi(as)will ask his followers to promise that they would not insult anyone, assault on anyone, or attack anyone's house without getting permission during the great revolution. Usually in revolutions and croups, assaulting and attacks are often done and no pity is accepted; however, Mahdi'(as)revolution is different from other manmade systems. Moreover, he will have his followers promise not to gather gold and silver for themselves; he wants the governors of the religious revolution not to proliferate their properties. He obliges them not to use the orphan's or the defenseless people's wealth. He notifies them not to abuse their power to use the defenseless wealth. He demands them not to wear expensive clothes or the one that is different from the others. He orders them not to rule people the way kings do, and to fight for the sake of Allah (SWT) with their most power and in a manner that the Almighty Allah (SWT) is pleased. He wants them to live in difficulty so that the rest live in convenience. Consequently, the revolutionists will not corrupt after the revolution, and the revolution outcome will not be lost. This revolution will not be forgetful about the people. It will begin for people and continue for them as well. Mahdi(as)also considers himself responsible for behaving as like as his followers promise. He promises to use the same road, move the same way, and have the same clothing as they do. The morality principles for rulers are not different from those of other people. Overall, Mahdi(as)will be the same as his followers, and will promise what they promise. After the revolution, he will live in the worst conditions, and will content to the little. He will also promise that there would be no courts, barriers, or distance between him and the people; this means the lowest conditions for a worldwide leader. Also, this is a part of his promise that no distance will be made between people and rulers. His reappearance is the right of the human, thus man should be waiting for him, and try to pray for his appearance.
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