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A. The Awaited Mahdi The Messenger of Allah, (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) predicted that a time would come when oppression, injustice and aggression would become extremely rampant all over the globe. At that period, a man from the offspring of Muhammad would rise to power over the entire earth, and he would successfully make oppression, injustice and aggression very rare on its surface. 1. Imam Ahmad (d. 241 H) records the hadith in his Musnad: حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي قال الحسن بن موسى قال ثنا حماد بن سلمة عن أبي هارون العبدي ومطر الوراق عن أبي الصديق الناجي عن أبي سعيد الخدري قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم تملأ الأرض جورا وظلما فيخرج رجل من عترتي يملك سبعا أو تسعا فيملأ الأرض قسطا وعدلا ‘Abd Allah (b. Ahmad) – my father (Ahmad b. Hanbal) – al-Hasan b. Musa – Hammad b. Salamah – Abu Harun al-‘Abdi and Maṭar al-Warraq – Abu al-Siddiq al-Naji – Abu Sa’id al-Khudri: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “The earth will be filled with oppression and injustice. Then, a man from my offspring will come out. He will rule by kingdom for seven or nine years. He will fill the earth with equity and justice.”1 Shaykh al-Arnauṭ states: حديث صحيح دون قوله " يملك سبعا أوتسعا " It is a sahih hadith, with the exception of his statement: “he will rule by kingdom for seven or nine years.” 2. Imam Ibn Hibban (d. 354 H) also documents a mutaba’ah for it: أخبرنا أحمد بن علي بن المثنى قال حدثنا أبو خيثمة قال حدثنا يحيى بن سعيد قال حدثنا عوف قال حدثنا أبو الصديق عن أبي سعيد الخدري عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لا تقوم الساعة حتى تمتلئ الأرض ظلما وعدوانا ثم يخرج رجل من أهل بيتي أو عترتي فيملؤها قسطا وعدلا كما ملئت ظلما وعدوانا Ahmad b. ‘Ali b. al-Muthanna – Abu Khaythamah – Yahya b. Sa’id – ‘Awf – Abu al-Siddiq – Abu Sa’id al-Khudri – the Prophet, peace be upon him: The Hour will not occur until the earth is filled with injustice and hostility. Then, a man from my Ahl al-Bayt, or my offspring, will come out. So, he will fill it with equity and justice just as it had been filled with injustice and hostility.”3 Al-Albani (d. 1420 H) says: صحيح Sahih And al-Arnauṭ concurs: إسناده صحيح على شرط الشيخين Its chain is sahih upon the standard of the two Shaykhs. This man will be “sent” by Allah Himself, in the same way that He sent His prophets and messengers, to purify His earth. 3. Imam Abu Dawud (d. 275 H) in his Sunan – under the heading: “The Book of al-Mahdi” (Kitab al-Mahdi) records: حدثنا عثمان بن أبي شيبة ثنا الفضل بن دكين ثنا فطر عن القاسم بن أبي بزة عن أبي الطفيل عن علي رضي الله تعالى عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال "لو لم يبق من الدهر إلا يوم لبعث الله رجلا من أهل بيتي يملؤها عدلا كما ملئت جورا" ‘Uthman b. Abi Shaybah – al-Fadhl b. Dukayn – Fiṭr – al-Qasim b. Abi Barzah – Abu al-Tufayl – ‘Ali, may Allah the Most High be pleased with him – the Prophet, peace be upon him: “Even if there remains only one more day left before the end of Time, Allah will surely SEND a man from my Ahl al-Bayt. He will fill it with justice just as it had been filled with injustice.” ‘Allamah al-Albani says: صحيح Sahih Dr. al-Bastawi, commenting upon the same hadith, states: إسناده صحيح. Its chain is sahih. The same word has been employed to describe the appointment and mission of the prophets and messengers, ‘alaihim al-salam, as well in the Qur’an: كان الناس أمة واحدة فبعث الله النبيين مبشرين ومنذرين Mankind were one community and Allah SENT prophets as givers of glad tidings and warners. And: ولقد بعثنا في كل أمة رسولا Verily, We have SENT within every Ummah a messenger. Of course, this man will not be a prophet or messenger. However, he obviously will occupy a separate divine rank which will certainly be very similar in nature to both. One of the top Imams of the Ahl al-Sunnah from the senior Tabi’in, Ibn Sirrin (d. 110 H), indicated the status of this man in one of his brave pronouncements. 4. Imam al-Maruzi (d. 288 H) records: حدثنا ضمرة عن ابن شوذب عن محمد بن سيرين أنه ذكر فتنة تكون فقال إذا كان ذلك فاجلسوا في بيوتكم حتى تسمعوا على الناس بخير من أبي بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما قيل يا أبا بكر خير من أبي بكر وعمر؟ قال قد كان يفضل على بعض الأنبياء. Dhamrah – Ibn Shawdhab: Muhammad b. Sirrin mentioned a sedition that would occur. Then he said, “When that occurs, sit in your houses until you hear from the people about the one who is superior to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both.” So, it was said, “O Abu Bakr, someone superior to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?!” He replied, “He is even superior to some prophets.” Al-Hafiz (d. 852 H) says about the first narrator: ضمرة بن ربيعة الفلسطيني أبو عبد الله أصله دمشقي صدوق يهم قليلا Dhamrah b. Rubay’ah al-Filisṭini, Abu ‘Abd Allah, his origin was Damascus: Saduq (very truthful), hallucinates a little. Concerning the second narrator, he equally states: عبد الله بن شوذب الخراساني أبو عبد الرحمن سكن البصرة ثم الشام صدوق عابد ‘Abd Allah b. Shawdhab al-Khurasani, Abu ‘Abd al-Rahman, he lived in Basra, then Syria: Saduq (very truthful), a devout worshipper of Allah. So, the sanad is hasan. 5. Al-Maruzi has included the report under the heading “Way of Life of the Mahdi and His Justice and Length of His Time.” Meanwhile, here is another riwayah about this Mahdi, ‘(عليه السلام) from the same Abu Dawud: حدثنا سهل بن تمام بن بزيع ثنا عمران القطان عن قتادة عن أبي نضرة عن أبي سعيد الخدري قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم " المهدي مني أجلى الجبهة أقنى الأنف يملأ الأرض قسطا وعدلا كما ملئت جورا وظلما ويملك سبع سنين " Sahl b. Tammam b. Buzay’ – ‘Imran al-Qaṭṭan – Qatadah – Abu Nadhrah – Abu Sa’id al-Khudri: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “The Mahdi is from me, with a broad forehead, a curved nose. He will fill the earth with equity and justice just as it had been filled with oppression and injustice, and he will rule by kingdom for seven years.”15 Al-Albani says: حسن Hasan. Shaykh Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 H) also declares: الأحاديث التي يحتج بها على خروج المهدي أحاديث صحيحة The ahadith that are relied upon as hujjah (proof) for the coming out of the Mahdi are sahih ahadith. So, he will be “the Mahdi”, from the blood and flesh of the Messenger, and “will rule by kingdom”. He will be “sent” by Allah to reduce oppression and injustice on the earth to the barest minimum. He will rule the whole planet as a just, righteous and rightly guided royal khalifah, assisted by his Lord. 6. Interestingly, his personal name will be Muhammad, like that of our Prophet. Imam al-Tirmidhi (d. 279 H) documents: حدثنا عبيد بن أسباط بن محمد القرشي الكوفي قال حدثني أبي حدثنا سفيان الثوري عن عاصم بن بهدلة عن زر عن عبد الله قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لا تذهب الدنيا حتى يملك العرب رجل من أهل بيتي يواطئ اسمه اسمي ‘Ubayd b. Asbaṭ b. Muhammad al-Qurashi al-Kufi – my father – Sufyan al-Thawri – ‘Asim b. Bahdalah18 – Zirr – ‘Abd Allah (b. Mas’ud): The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said: “This world will not end until a man from my Ahl al-Bayt rules the Arabs by kingdom. His name will correspond with my name.” Al-Tirmidhi says: هذا حديث حسن صحيح This hadith is hasan sahih. And al-Albani agrees: حسن صحيح Hasan sahih. His government, obviously, will be that of the House of Muhammad, and he will bring the supreme glory to Islam all over the universe. He will achieve the impossible, with divine help, and will fulfill the dreams of all the prophets and messengers. 7. Meanwhile, there are certain quick points about the Mahdi that must not be overlooked. First, belief in his coming in an ‘aqidah of Islam, and has been so named by ‘ulama of the Ahl al-Sunnah too. For instance, al-Albani states: وما مثل هؤلاء إلا كمثل من ينكر عقيدة نزول عيسى عليه السلام في آخرالزمان التي تواتر ذكرها في الأحاديث الصحيحة، لأن بعض الدجاجلة ادعاها، مثل ميرزا غلام أحمد القادياني، وقد أنكرها بعضهم فعلا صراحة، كالشيخ شلتوت، وأكاد أقطع أن كل من أنكر عقيدة المهدي ينكرها أيضا These people are only like those who deny the ‘aqidah of the descent of ‘Isa, ‘(عليه السلام), at the end of Time - whose mention has reached the level of tawattur in sahih ahadith – simply because some impostors claim it, such as Mirza Ghulam Ahmad al-Qadiyani. Some of them, like Shaykh al-Shaltut, have explicitly denied it. Also, I am fairly certain that everyone who denies the ‘AQIDAH of the Mahdi also denies it too. This means that whoever does not believe in the descent of Prophet ‘Isa, ‘(عليه السلام), during the End Time or in the coming of the Mahdi and his mission and activities, has a defective iman (faith). Shaykh Ibn Baz (d. 1420 H) puts the matter forward in an even stronger manner: وقدصحت وتواترت هذه الأخبار عن رسول الله عليه الصلاة والسلام في نزول الممسيح ابن مريم من السمماء في آخر الزمان، ومن خروج يأجوج ومأجوج وخروج الدجال في آخر الزمان، ومن مجيء المهدي، كل هذا االأربعة ثابتة: المهدي في آخر الزمان يملأ الأرض قسطاً بعد أن ملئت جوراً، ونزول المسيح ابن مريم، وخروج الدجال في آخر الزمان، وخروج يأجوج ومأجوج، كل هذا ثابت بالأحاديث الصحيحة المتواترة عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فإنكارها كفر وضلال Sahih and mutawatir reports have been reported from the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, concerning the descent of the Masih Ibn Maryam from the sky during the End Time, and concerning the coming out of Yajuj and Majuj and the coming out of the Dajjal during the End Time, and concerning the arrival of the Mahdi. All these four are well-proved - the Mahdi during the End Time who will fill the earth with equity after it had been filled with oppression; the descent of the Masih Ibn Maryam; the coming out of the Dajjal during the End Time, and the coming out of Yajuj and Majuj – each of these is well proved through sahih, mutawatir ahadith from the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him. THEREFORE, denial of them is kufr (disbelief and apostasy) and dhalal (heresy).23 8. We also read this Q&A by the same Shaykh: يوجد لدينا رجل ينكر المسيح الدجال والمهدي ونزول عيسى عليه السلام ويأجوج ومأجوج ولا يعتقد في شيء منها، ويدعي عدم صحة ما ورد في ذلك من أحاديث… وهو يصلي ويصوم ويأتي الفرائض. فما حكمه؟…. مثل هذا الرجل يكون كافراً (Question) There is a man with us who denies the Masih al-Dajjal, THE MAHDI, the descent of ‘Isa, ‘(عليه السلام), and Yajuj and Majuj, and does not believe any of it, and rejects the authenticity of the ahadith narrated about (all) that …. And he performs salat and fasts, and fulfils the obligatory duties (of Islam). So, what is his status?.... (Answer) Anyone like this man is a kafir. It is thus absolutely obligatory upon all Muslims to believe in the coming of Muhammad the Mahdi from the offspring and Ahl al-Bayt of the noble Rasul to overturn oppression and injustice in our world. Failure to uphold this belief may kick a Muslim out of Islam. Another point is that the supplication ‘(عليه السلام) (peace be upon him) is added after the name of the Mahdi too, like in the case of prophets and angels. Al-Albani again says about ‘Isa b. Maryam: فيأتم هو بالمهدي عليهما السلام He (‘Isa) himself will be led in salat by the Mahdi, ‘(عليه السلام) (peace be upon them both). And: كما فعل بعض الفرق قديما حين بادروا إلى إنكار القدر الإلهي إبطالا للجبر، وبعض العلماء في العصر الحاضر إلى إنكار عقيدة نزول عيسى وخروج المهدي عليهما السلام It is like how some sects did in the past when they denied the existence of divine destiny in order to invalidate the doctrine of fatalism, and how some contemporary ‘ulama deny the ‘aqidah of the descent of ‘Isa and the rise of al-Mahdi, ‘(عليه السلام). 9. Imam al-Mubarakfuri (d. 1282 H) submits too: قال الخطابي ويكون ذلك في زمن المهدي أو عيسى عليهما الصلاة والسلام أو كليهما Al-Khaṭṭabi (d. 388 H) said: “That will occur during the time of the Mahdi or ‘Isa, ‘alaihima al-salat wa al-salam (peace and blessings be upon them both), or during the time of both of them.”27 However, we have seen Sunni scholars who prefer to say radhiyallahu ‘anhu and other supplications instead. Lastly, one of the titles of the Mahdi is al-Muntazar (the Awaited). Imam al-Kattani (d. 1345 H) gives this heading in his book: خروج المهدي الموعود المنتظر الفاطمي. The coming out of the Promised Mahdi, the Awaited (al-Muntazar) al-Faṭimi (i.e. from the offspring of Faṭimah). 10. Al-Mubarakfuri also writes: وقال القاضي الشوكاني في الفتح الرباني الذي أمكن الوقوف عليه من الأحاديث الواردة في المهدي المنتظر خمسون حديثا Al-Qadhi al-Shawkani (d. 1250 H) said in al-Fath al-Rabbani: “What I have been able to study from the ahadith documented about the Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar) are fifty ahadith.”29 The title of one of Dr. al-Bastawi’s books bears the appellation as well: المهدي المنتظر في ضوء الأحاديث والآثار الصحيحة وأقوال العلماء وآراء الفرق المختلفة The Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar) in the Light of Sahih Ahadith and Athar and the Statements of the Scholars and the Views of Different Sects. In that same book, he mentions this book by Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haythami (d. 974 H): القول المختصر في علامات المهدي المنتظر A Concise Statement on the Signs of the Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar). 11. He further cites a book by Shaykh Mur’i b. Yusuf al-Hanbali (d. 1033 H): فوائد الفكر في ظهور المهدي المنتظر The Benefits of Thinking about the Appearance of the Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar). He gives also the title of a treatise by Shaykh ‘Abd al-Muhsin al-‘Abbad, whom he identifies as a former Vice Chancellor of the Islamic University of al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, published in the journal of the university of Dhu al-Qa’dah 1389 H, pp. 126-164: عقيدة أهل السنة والأثر في المهدي المنتظر The ‘Aqidah of the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Athar Concerning the Awaited Mahdi (al-Mahdi al-Muntazar). This again reminds that the issue of the Mahdi is a matter of ‘aqidah. https://www.al-islam.org/imam-al-mahdi-twelfth-khalifah-sahih-sunni-ahadith-toyib-olawuyi/1-awaited-mahdi (......Continued)
I have seen on other forums online Shi'as discussing the situation in Yemen and Afghanistan, and how the Yamani and Khorasani may soon rise given the current situations. Alternatively, some of them also contend that instead of Afghanistan, the region is Eastern Iran, as today that is known as Khorasan primarily. That also made me think, if we choose to ignore modern names, then couldn't it be argued that instead of modern day Syria, the Sufyani could emerge from old ash-Shaam? Meaning Greater Syria/Syria-Palestine/Levant? With that logic, one could easily argue that the likely origin is Israel for the Sufyani, or at least somewhere nearby. What are your thoughts on all of this? JazakAllah
My eyes tear up at this kalaam... O Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى)... Please reveal Imam Mahdi (عليه السلام) soon and make us amongst his supporters...
as salaam alakim!!! I know in hadiths it says when Imam Mahdi comes he will establish islam, but in certain hadiths it says he'll rule people by their books, but will he rule by islamic laws? i know in sunni hadiths it says him and Isa(عليه السلام) will establish islam, but in shia it syas he'll rule by the books of the people of the book and islam. So how will ImamMahdi(عليه السلام) rule according to Shia islam(i mean will hell rue also by the Sharia(shia)?
I really enjoyed and benefited from reading the document below so thought to share it here with you all. I highly encourage everyone to read it: The Sun Behind the Clouds AUTHORS(S): Allamah Muhammad Baqir Majlisi TRANSLATOR(S): Afzal Sumar Al-’Allama al-Majl isi ’s Thoughts on the Ahadith Identifying the Twelfth Imam as “The Sun Behind the Clouds”. Translated by Afzal Sumar One of the common narrations relayed to convey the role of Imam Mahdi (عليه السلام) during his occultation is the analogy of the ‘Sun behind the Clouds’. In this text, Allamah Majlisi sheds the light on this tradition and provides key points to explain the meaning and significance of the meaning behind this similitude. °°°°°° In what follows, is a sample of traditions, which compare the Twelfth Imam (a) to the sun behind the clouds during the period of his occultation. Thereafter, follows the commentary on these traditions by al-’Allama al-Majlisi. • Imam al-Sadiq (عليه السلام) is attributed to have said the following, as reported in the Amali of Shaykh al-Saduq, who records the tradition by means of a chain that terminates at al-A’mash: ‘the Earth has not been devoid of a representative of God, since God created Adam (as); a representative that was either visible and well-known or invisible and concealed. The Earth will (likewise) not remain devoid of such a representative of God till the occurrence of the Hour for if it were to remain devoid of a representative from God, then God would not be worshipped!’ (A man by the name of) Sulayman said: ‘I asked al-Sadiq (عليه السلام), ‚So how does mankind benefit from an invisible and hidden representative?‛ He replied ‚just as they benefit from the sun when the clouds hide it!‛1 • The following tradition is reported in the book al-Ihtijaj from Shaykh al- Kulayni who in turn reports from Ishaq bin Ya’qub, that a message arrived for him from the Sacred Precinct through the intermediary of Muhammad bin ‘Uthman, which said: ‘As for the reason for the occurrence of the concealment, God, the Exalted, the Majestic says: You who believe, do not ask about matters which, if made known to you, might make things difficult for you...‛ (5:101) All my forefathers had to bear the burden of the pledge of allegiance to the tyrants of their time, however when I will rise, whenever that will be, there will not be the pledge of allegiance of any of the tyrants on myself. As for the question of benefiting from me, during my concealment, then that will be similar to the benefit obtained from the sun when the clouds hide it from sight. Indeed, I am the security for the inhabitants of the Earth just as the stars are a security for the inhabitants of the heavens. So refrain from questioning regarding that which does not concern you. Do not burden yourself with that which has been made sufficient for you; (instead) increase the supplication for the hastening of the relief for in that lies your relief. Peace be on you Ishaq bin Ya’qub and on those who follow the guidance’.2 • The following tradition is recorded in the book Ikmal al-Din wa Itmam al- Ni’ma of Shaykh al-Saduq with a chain that ends at the companion of the Prophet, Jabir bin ‘Abdillah al-Ansari who asked the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) as follows: ‘will the Shi’a benefit from the Qa’im (عليه السلام) during his concealment?’ He replied: ‘Indeed! By the One who charged me with the office of Prophethood, they will benefit from him and be enlightened by his light and guardianship during his concealment just as mankind benefits from the sun even when the clouds have enveloped it’.3 Al-’Allama Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi comments on these traditions as follows: The similitude of the Imam to the sun when it is enveloped by the clouds, as he is described in these traditions, indicates several things. 1) The light of existence, knowledge and guidance reaches the creation through him (I.e., the Imam) as it is established in detailed traditions that they (I.e., the Ahlul Bayt) are the ultimate reason for the existence of creation. Therefore had it not been for them, the light of existence would not have reached others. It is by their blessings, mediation and intercession that information and knowledge becomes manifest to the creation and afflictions and tribulations are averted from them. Had it not been for them, the creation would have deserved various punishments due to their evil deeds, but as God says: ‘But God would not send them punishment while you are in their midst...‛ (8:33) We have experienced innumerable times when matters become difficult and complex, when avenues get blocked, when we find ourselves distant from God, the Most High and when the gates of abundant flow of blessings become obstructed, that then when we seek their intercession and solicit and beseech by means of their light, those difficult matters get solved in proportion to the spiritual connection achieved with them at that time. This is observed by the person whose inner eyes have been coloured by God with the light of faith. 2) When the sun is hidden behind the clouds, it continues to bring benefit to mankind. Nevertheless mankind continues to wait expectantly for it to reappear from behind the clouds so that they may benefit more from it. Similar is the state during the Imam's concealment. The sincere ones from his partisans await his re-appearance all the time and in every epoch and do not give up hope in him. 3) The denier of his existence despite the abundant proofs of his existence is like the denier of the existence of the sun when the clouds hide it from sight. 4) Sometimes the disappearance of the sun behind the clouds is better for the servants (of God) than its manifestation. Similar is the case with regards to the Imam’s concealment, which is better for them (I.e., the servants of God) in those periods and therefore he is hidden from them. 5) A person attempting to look at the sun is unable to do so when it is completely devoid of cloud cover and such a person may even go blind. The same is the case with the Imam’s august personality. His manifestation may prove detrimental to their (I.e., the servants of God) sight and may prove to be the cause of their blindness from the Truth. Therefore, their faithful consideration of the Imam during his concealment may be compared to the viewing of the sun by a person when it is shrouded by the clouds and hence the person is safeguarded from harm. 6) The sun may come out from behind the clouds and some may be able to view it while others not. Similarly, it is possible for the Imam to manifest himself to some during his concealment and not to others. 7) They (I.e., the Ahlul Bayt) are like the sun with respect to its general benefit and only such as are blind do not benefit from them as is mentioned in the Qur’an: ‚…those who were blind in this life will be blind in the Hereafter, and even further off the path!‛ (17:72) 8) Just as the rays of the sun enter houses depending on the number of windows and apertures available in it and in proportion to the existence or lack of obstacles thereof, so similar is the case with regards to the benefit obtained by creation from the light of their guidance. It is in proportion to the obstacles and impediments removed from their senses and consciences, which are the windows to the desires of the self, and in proportion to the removal from their hearts of thick and dense rings of prohibitive material till they reach the stage when they are beneath the sky, completely enveloped by the rays of the sun from all sides and without any clouds in between. I have here, clarified and explicated for you eight reasons regarding these traditions which compare the Imam to the sun hidden behind the clouds. God had clarified to me eight more reasons due to His grace but words fail me to be able to convey them. May it be that God elucidates for us and you a thousand doors of knowledge from His knowledge, opening up a thousand more doors from every door.4 1. Cited in Bihar al-Anwar, volume 52, chapter 20, page number 92. 2. Cited in Bihar al-Anwar, volume 52, chapter 20, page number 92. 3. Cited in Bihar al-Anwar, volume 52, chapter 20, page number 92. 4. Cited in Bihar al-Anwar, volume 52, chapter 20, page number 93. https://www.al-Islam.org/articles/sun-behind-clouds-allamah-Muhammad-Baqir-al-majlisi
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