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  1. SALAAMUN ALAIKUM Alqamah bin Mohammed ibn Hazrami (r.a.) narrates ‘I requested Imam Baqir (a.s.) to teach me a dua that I should recite on the day of Aashoora after the reciting the Ziyaarat of Imam Husain (a.s.) – from near his (a.s.) grave or from a distance.’ Imam (a.s.) replied ‘O Alqamah, whenever you wish to recite the Ziyaarat of Imam Husain (a.s.), you first perform two units of prayers. Then turn towards the grave of Imam Husain (a.s.) and while pointing towards it, you first say ‘Salam’ and then ‘Takbir’. Thereafter, you recite this Ziyaarat (Ziyaarate Aashoora). If you do so, then as if you have recited the supplication read by the angels while visiting the grave of Imam Husain (a.s.). Moreover, when you recite this Ziyaarat, then, Allah will increase your grade ten lakh times You will be included among those people who were martyred along with Imam Husain (a.s.) On the day of Judgment, you will be included among the martyrs You will get the reward of all the Prophets (a.s.) who have visited the grave of Imam Husain (a.s.) from the day that he (a.s.) was martyred till date. And the way of reciting the Ziyaarat is like this…’ (Then Imam (a.s.) recited the entire Ziyaarate Aashoora for Alqamah (r.a.) (Ref: Kaamil al-Ziyaarat, Ibn Qoolwayh, Ch. 71, p.194) At the end of this tradition, Imam Baqir (a.s.) says ‘O Alqamah, if you can, then recite this Ziyaarat every day send salutations to Imam Husain (a.s.). You will get all the rewards (of the one who recites it on the day of Aashoora).’ CLICK HERE TO VISIT THE BLOG "THE ZIYARAT OF ASHURAH " FOR THE IMPORTANCE , MERITS , AUTHENCITY AND VARIOUS AUDIO AND VIDEO RECITATIONS OF ZIYARAT E ASHURA IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES
  2. Lamentations, breast-beating and mourning in memory of Husainâs martyrdom are not sanctioned by Islam. Though such martyrdoms are tragic, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has forbidden holding mourning ceremonies on the death of any person. People of Jaahiliyyah (ignorance) used to mourn over their deceased then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) stopped the Muslims. Reply: Azaadaari (mourning) is a means to express sorrow for the hardships suffered by the Ahle Bait (a.s.) at the hands of the caliphs of their time. The words of Imam of Ahle Sunnah Allamah Fakhrudeen Raazi are notable: âIt is our firm belief that one who dies with love for the descendants of Muhammad (s) dies a martyr.â (Tafseer-e-Kabir, vol 7, pg 390) We read in Al-Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah of Ibne Kasir in vol. 4, pg. 45, Beirut ed. It is narrated by Abu Hurariah that the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) used to visit the graves of martyrs every year. When he (s.a.w.a.) would reach the entrance of the mountain, he (s.a.w.a.) would say (to the martyrs): âAssalamoalaikum bi maa sabartumâ. This means âPeace be on you due to your patience and you have reached a pleasant place due to this.â Then after the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Abu Bakr also used to come (every year), and after him Umar used to do the same and then Usman also did the same. We read in Al-Bidaayahwa al-Nihaayah vol. 6 pg. 360: Umar said âWhenever I venture out at sunrise, I remember the death of my brother Zaid b. Khattab.â Obviously the remembrance of his brotherâs death did not make him laugh; he was sorrowful (azaadaar). We find in Taarikh-e-Yaqoobi, vol. 1, pg. 3: The father and mother of humanity (Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and his wife Hazrat Hawwa (a.s.)) wept for their son Haabeel for so long that their tears turned into a stream. In Rauzah al-Shuhadaa, pg 30 the same incident has been quoted by Mulla Husain Waaiz Kashifi who adds: Tears from Adamâs (a.s.) right eye were flowing like the River Dajla and like the River Euphrates from his left eye. Perhaps the following tradition may prove more convincing: After the burial of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), the companions in a state of sorrow were virtually throwing dust over themselves, and were crying due to the separation from their beloved. Especially Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) was inconsolable; she was looking at the faces of her sons Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) and was crying at their plight and her own plight. Even Aaesha was continuously crying and wailing. For several days and nights the voices of crying and mourning rose from this house which became house of grief (Baytul Huzn) and separation. (Madaarij al-Nubuwwah, vol 2, pg. 753-754) Mulla Ali Qaari in his book Al-Mirqaat fi Sharh al-Mishkaat from a narration by Imam Ahmed b. Hanbal quotes Imam Husain (a.s.): âWhoever weeps and cries upon me remembering my pain and miseries, Allah shall grant him Paradise.â (Al-Mirqaat fi Sharh al-Mishkaatwith reference to Taarikh-e-Ahmedi, pg 277, printed in Kanpur) One can refer to the Holy Quran via this hadis in Ahle Sunnahâs authoritative work Tafseer-e-Durr al-Manthoor, vol. 4 pg 31: The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was asked: What was the extent of Hazrat Yaqoobâs (a.s.) mourning for his son? He (s.a.w.a.) replied, âIt was on par with mourning of 70 men and women.â And what was the reward for this? He (s.a.w.a.) retorted, âIt is on par with one hundred martyrs.â And we read in Tafseer Khazaan vol.3 pg 253: Yusuf (a.s.) said to Hazrat Jibrail (a.s.): Is my father adhering to mourning? Hazrat Jibrail (a.s.) said: The mourning of Yaqoob (a.s.) is on par with 70 men and women mourning. He then asked, âWhat is the reward for this mourning?â He said: The reward for this mourning is on par with mourning of 100 martyrs. Doubt: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) stopped the Muslims from doing all this and directed them to observe patience by saying âInnaalillaahi wa innaa ilayhiraajiâoonâ. A number of authentic traditions are available on the subject. To quote one of them: He is not from our group who slaps his cheeks, tears his clothes and cries in the manner of the people of Jaahiliyyah. (Saheeh Bukhari). Reply: Please refer to the Holy Quran, which permits crying: âAnd he turned away from them, and said: O my sorrow for Yusuf! And his eyes became white on account of the grief, and he was a repressor (of anger).â (Surah Yusuf (12): 84) If you refer to the exegesis of this verse, it will be clear how much Prophet Yaqoob (a.s.) cried for his son ultimately forfeiting his eyesight in the process. In Surah Nahl (16): 53, Allah declares: âAnd whatever favor is (bestowed) on you it is from Allah; then when evil afflicts you, to Him do you cry for aid.â When Umar heard of Numan b. Muqrinâs death he beat his head and screamed, âO what a pity that Nuâman died.â (Kanz al-Ummal, vol.8, pg. 117, Kitaab al-Maut) As narrated by Tabari in his Taarikh vol. 9 pg. 183 (English translation by Ismail Poonawala): Abbas narrates: I heard Aaesha say: The Messenger of Allah died on my bosom during my turn, I did not wrong anyone in regard to him. It was because of my ignorance and youthfulness that the Messenger of Allah died while he was in my lap. Then I laid his head on a pillow and got up beating my chest and slapping my face along with the women. (Ibn Katheer in al Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah vol 5, pg 420) Also refer to Ibn Katheer in al Bidayah wan Nihayah: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) died while he was in my lap. Then I laid his head on a pillow and got up beating my face along with other women. According to Saheeh-e-Bukhaari: Anas b. Malik narrated: We went with Allahâs Apostle (s.a.w.a.) to the blacksmith Abu Saif, and he was the husband of the wet-nurse of Ibrahim (the son of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)). Allahâs Apostle took Ibrahim, kissed him and smelled him. Later, we entered Abu Saifâs house at that time, Ibrahim was breathing his last and the eyes of Allahâs Apostle (s.a.w.a.) started shedding tears. Abdul Rahman b. Auf said, âO Allahâs Apostle! Even you are weeping!â He said, âO Ibn Auf, this is mercy.â Then, he wept more and said, âThe eyes are shedding tears and the heart is grieved, and we will not say except what pleases our Lord, O Ibrahim! Indeed we are grieved by your separation.â Saheeh-e-Bukhaari, vol 2, book 23, tradition 390 We read in the traditions about the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.): âThe Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.a.) was in a state where he was beating his chest.â References: 1.  Saheeh-e-Bukhari vol. 2 pg 50 2.  Sunan-e-Nesaai vol. 3 pg 305 3.  Adhaan al Mufreed pg 426 4.  Saheeh-e-Muslim vol 1 pg 291 5.  Musnad-e-Abi Awaana vol. 2 pg 292 âThere is nothing against Islam in expressing grief, sorrow or in crying and weeping at the loss of a loved one.â Fayz al Bari fi Sharh-e-Saheeh Bukhari, vol 12, pg 462, Egypt ed. We read in Ahle Sunnahâs authority work Maarij al-Nubuwwah chap 1 pg 248: Hazrat Adam (a.s.) was so distressed that he smashed his hands onto his knees and the skin from his hands caused gashes from which bone could be seen. We read in Al-Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah vol. 5, pg 243: âWhen Prophet (s.a.w.a.) died on the bed, the women who were around him (s.a.w.) had made their faces red by beating their faces.â Doubt: Even Husain (a.s.), shortly before his demise, had advised his beloved sister Zainab (a.s.), not to mourn over his death in this manner. He said, âMy dear sister! I swear upon you that in case I die you shall not tear your clothes, nor scratch your faceâ¦â Reply: It is obvious from the numerous incidents of Zainabâs (s.a.) weeping in the presence of Imam Husain (a.s.) before his martyrdom that these statements are false and misleading. When the forces of Yazid planned to attack the camp of Imam Husain (a.s.), Hazrat Zainab (s.a.) came to Imam Husain (a.s.) and asked why was there so much noise outside their tents, Imam replied that I just saw Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in a dream and he (s.a.w.a.) said that I will be meeting him (s.a.w.a.) tomorrow, hearing this Hazrat Zainab (s.a.) started crying and beating herself on the face. Al-Bidaayahwa al-Nihaayah, vol 8, pg 176, Beirut ed. In the same book it is mentioned: Hazrat Zainab (s.a.) heard the elegies from Imam (a.s.). Reflecting on the tragedy of Karbala and the martyrdom of Imam Husain (a.s.) she cried, lamented and beat herself on the head until she fainted. Al-Bidaayahwa al-Nihaayah, vol 8, pg 177, Beirut ed. Similarly, we read in Sunan-e- Ibn Maajah, vol. 2, pg 285, published 1313 AH in Egypt. Saad b. Abi Waqqaas reported from Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) that he said ââ¦shed tears and cry and if you canât cry then make a crying face.â The death of Imam Husain (a.s.) is an event on which not only humans, but even the jinn, angels, animals, birds, the sky and trees, have lamented. Thus, it is written that the sky wept for forty days on (the martyrdom of) Imam Husain (a.s.). Yanabi al-Mawwaddah by Allamah Shaikh Sulaiman Hanafi Qundoozi, Constantinople ed. pg 392 Hafiz Abu Noaim writes in Hilyah al-Awliyaa on the authority on Imam Shaâbee, Zuhri, and Abu Qataadah: When Imam Husain (a.s.) was martyred, the sun was eclipsed (so long) so that the stars appeared. Waqiyaat-e-Karbala pg 75 Shah Abdul Aziz Dehalvi has narrated the lamenting and wailing of the jinn on pg. 96 of his book titled Sirr al-Shahaadatain. He has also quoted the verses of the elegy recited by the jinn while weeping over Imam Husain (a.s.). Umme Salmah (r.a.) has also narrated: I heard the jinn mourning for Husain. 1.     Tarikh al-Kabir by al-Bukhari (the author of Saheeh), vol 4, part 1, pg 26 2.     Fazaaâil al-Sahaabah, by Ahmed b. Hanbal, vol 2, pg 776, tradition 1,373 3.     Tabarani, vol 3, pg 130-131 4.     Tahzib vol. 7 Suyuti states: When Imam Husain was martyred, the corners of the sky remained red for a four month period. (Tafseer-e-Durr al-Manthoor vol. 6, pg. 31) We find in the traditions that even the first and the second caliphs didnât find lamenting loudly un-Islamic or against the Sunnah. Refer to Kashf al-Ghummah pg. 175: Abu Bakr and Umar would cry in such a way that the neighbors could hear them. Again in the same book we read: When Saad Ibn Maaz died, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Abu Bakr and Umar cried. Ayesha narrates âI recognized the cries of Abu Bakr and Umar although I was in my houseâ. (Kashf al-Ghummah, pg. 174) Aaesha called people to read elegies on her fatherâs death and she herself lamented. (Tarikh Kaamil, vol 2, pg 288; Iqd al-Fareed, vol 3, pg 65) On the day that Abu Bakr died, the situation seemed as if Madinah would be flooded with tears. (Tarikh al-Khamees, vol 2, pg 330) There are numerous other traditions which prove the permissibility of Azaadaari in the light of the Holy Quran and the teachings of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) and his revered companions. However, some Muslims choose to ignore them and raise the bogey of azaadaari being a form of innovation and deviation. Conclusion Itâs an undeniable fact that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has given all Muslims the bounty of Islam for which we collectively cannot repay him. However, the only way we could try to do that is to follow the Holy Quran which states: Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives.. Surah Shura (42): 23 The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has also stated, âHusain (a.s.) is from me and I am from Husain (a.s). The Quranic verse and prophetic tradition are more than enough for any Muslim worth his salt to acknowledge the excellence of Ahle Bait (a.s.). The least one can do is remember and love the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his family (a.s.) rather than remaining partial to those who were responsible ever since the advent of Islam for hurting the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a) like Abu Sufyan, his son Muawiyah and his grandson Yazid. Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddis-e-Dehlavi while explaining the philosophy of martyrdom writes in the preface of his book âSirr al-Shahaadatainâ: âThe martyrdom of Imam Husain (a.s.) is in reality the martyrdom of his grandfather Muhammad Mustafa (s.a.w.a).â Last few traditions from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) It has been mentioned in reliable traditions that often Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) mourned for Imam Husain (a.s.), which was obviously before his martyrdom. The well-known scholar of 10th century A. H. Allauddin Muttaqi Hindi in his book âKanz al-Ummaalâ has quoted Ibn Abi Shaibah, who has related from Umme Salmah, the wife of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), that â” Once Imam Husain (a.s.) came to Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) when I was sitting near the door. I saw that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had something in his palm, which affected him, making him weep profusely. By now Imam Husain (a.s.) had fallen asleep in his lap. I asked about the matter. He replied: âJibrail has brought the earth of the place where Husain (a.s.) will be martyred and informed me that people of my Ummah will slay him.â Kanz-ul-Ummaal vol. 2 One day, Umm Fazl, wife of Abbas â” the Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) uncle â” approached the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and informed him (s.a.w.a.), âO Prophet of Allah! I had a nightmare. I dreamt as if a piece of your flesh was flung in my arms.â The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed, âThe dream is true. Faatemah will give birth to a son and he will be brought to you.â As predicted on Husainâs (a.s.) birth, he was brought in my lap. One day, I brought the infant to the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). For some time, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) took his eyes away from the infant. When he (s.a.w.a.) glanced at the infant again, his eyes welled up with tears. I said, âMay my father and mother be sacrificed on you O Prophet of Allah, why are you crying?â He (s.a.w.a.) informed, âI have just been informed by Jibrael that my nation will kill him.â I asked, âWill it be this son?â He replied in the affirmative. Jibraeel also brought reddish sand for me.â Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Saheehain by Haakim Neishapouri, vol 3, pg 176
  3. Arbaeen is a commemoration held on the 40th day of martyrdom of Imam Husain (AS) in Karbala. Imam Jafar As Sadiq (as) has advised to recite the following Ziarat on the day of Arbaeen. زيارت اربعين اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ وَلِيِّ ٱللَّهِ وَحَبِيبِهِ Peace be upon the intimate servant of Allah and His most-beloved. اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ خَلِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَنَجِيبِهِ Peace be upon the friend of Allah and His elite. اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ صَفِيِّ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبْنِ صَفِيِّهِ Peace be upon the choice of Allah and son of His choice. اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَىٰ ٱلْحُسَيْنِ ٱلْمَظْلُومِ ٱلشَّهِيدِ Peace be upon al-Husayn the wronged and martyred. اَلسَّلاَمُ علىٰ ﺍسِيرِ ٱلْكُرُبَاتِ Peace be upon the captive of agonies وَقَتِيلِ ٱلْعَبَرَاتِ and victim of the shed tears. اَللَّهُمَّ إِِنِّي اَشـهَدُ O Allah, I do bear witness اَللَّهُمَّ إِِنِّي اشْهَدُ انَّهُ وَلِيُّكَ وَٱبْنُ وَلِيِّكَ that he is verily Your deputy and son of Your deputy, وَصَفِيُّكَ وَٱبْنُ صَفِيِّكَ Your choice and son of Your choice ٱلْفَائِزُ بِكَرَامَتِكَ and the winner of Your honoring ﺍ­كْرَمْتَهُ بِٱلشَّهَادَةِ You have honored him with martyrdom, وَحَبَوْتَهُ بِٱلسَّعَادَةِ endued him with happiness وَٱجْتَبَيْتَهُ بِطِيبِ ٱلْوِلاَدَةِ privileged him with legitimate birth وَجَعَلْتَهُ سَيِّداً مِنَ ٱلسَّادَةِ made him one of the chiefs وَقَائِداً مِنَ ٱلْقَادَةِ one of the leaders وَذَائِداً مِنْ ٱلذَّادَةِ and one of the defenders (of Your religion) وَاعْطَيْتَهُ مَوَارِيثَ ٱلانْبِيَاءِ gave him the inheritances of the Prophets وَجَعَلْتَهُ حُجَّةً عَلَىٰ خَلْقِكَ مِنَ ٱلاوْصِيَاءِ and chose him as argument against Your created beings and one of the Prophets’ successors. فَاعْذَرَ فِي ٱلدُّعَاءِ So, he called to you flawlessly, وَمَنَحَ ٱلنُّصْحَ gave advices وَبَذَلَ مُهْجَتَهُ فِيكَ and sacrificed his soul for You لِيَسْتَنْقِذَ عِبَادَكَ مِنَ ٱلْجَهَالَةِ to save Your servants from ignorance وَحَيْرَةِ ٱلضَّلاَلَةِ and the confusion of straying off وَقَدْ تَوَازَرَ عَلَيْهِ مَنْ غَرَّتْهُ ٱلدُّنْيَا Yet, those who were seduced by this worldly life, وَبَاعَ حَظَّهُ بِٱلارْذَلِ ٱلادْنَىٰ who sold their share (of reward) with the lowliest and meanest, وَشَرَىٰ آخِرَتَهُ بِٱلثَّمَنِ ٱلاوْكَسِ retailed their Hereafter with the cheapest price, وَتَغَطْرَسَ وَتَرَدَّىٰ فِي هَوَاهُ acted haughtily, perished because of following their desires, وَاسْخَطَكَ وَاسْخَطَ نَبِيَّكَ brought to themselves Your wrath and the wrath of Your Prophet, وَاطَاعَ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ اهْلَ ٱلشِّقَاقِ وَٱلنِّفَاقِ and obeyed the dissident and hypocritical servants of You وَحَمَلَةَ ٱلاوْزَارِ ٱلْمُسْتَوْجِبِينَ ٱلنَّارَ and the bearers of the burdens (of sins) who deserve Hellfire—all those supported each other against him. فَجَاهَدَهُمْ فِيكَ صَابِراً مُحْتَسِباً However, he fought against them painstakingly with steadfastness expecting Your reward حَتَّىٰ سُفِكَ فِي طَاعَتِكَ دَمُهُ until his blood was shed on account of his obedience to You وَٱسْتُبِيحَ حَرِيـمُهُ and his women were violated. اَللَّهُمَّ فَٱلْعَنْهُمْ لَعْناً وَبيلاًَ So, O Allah, pour heavy curses on them وَعَذِّبْهُمْ عَذَاباً الِيماً and chastise them with painful chastisement. اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بْنَ رَسُولِ ٱللهِ Peace be upon you, O son of Allah’s Messenger. اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَيْكَ يَا بْنَ سَيِّدِ ٱلاوْصِيَاءِ Peace be upon you, O son of the chief of the Prophets’ successors. اشْهَدُ انَّكَ امِينُ ٱللَّهِ وَٱبْنُ امِينِهِ I bear witness that you are verily the trustee of Allah and the son of His trustee. عِشْتَ سَعيداً You lived with happiness, وَمَضَيْتَ حَمِيداً passed away with praiseworthiness, وَمُتَّ فَقِيداً مَظْلُوماً شَهِيداً and died missed, wronged, and martyred. وَاشْهَدُ انَّ ٱللَّهَ مُنْجِزٌ مَا وَعَدَكَ I also bear witness that Allah shall inevitably fulfill His promise to You, وَمُهْلِكٌ مَنْ خَذَلَكَ exterminate those who disappointed you, وَاشْهَدُ انَّكَ وَفَيْتَ بِعَهْدِ ٱللَّهِ I also bear witness that you fulfilled your pledge to Allah وَجَاهَدْتَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ حَتَّىٰ ﺍ­تَاكَ ٱلْيَقِينُ and strove hard in His way until death فَلَعَنَ ٱللَّهُ مَنْ قَتَلَكَ So, may Allah curse those who slew you. وَلَعَنَ ٱللَّهُ مَنْ ظَلَمَكَ May Allah curse those who wronged you وَلَعَنَ اللهُ اُمَةً سَمِعت بـِذلك فَرَضِيَت بـه May Allah curse the people who, when informed about that, were okay with it. اَللَّهُمَّ إِِنِّي ﺍشْهِدُكَ O Allah, I do ask You to witness for me that ﺍ­نِّي وَلِيٌّ لِمَنْ وَالاَهُ I am loyal to those who are loyal to him وَعَدُوٌّ لِمَنْ عَادَاهُ and enemy of his enemies. بـاَبـي أَنـت وَ اُمي يَا بْن رَسـُولِ اللهِ May my father and mother be your ransoms, O son of Allah's Messenger اَشهَدُ اَنّك كُنتَ نوُرا في الأصلابِ الشّامِخَةِ I bear witness that you were light in the sublime loins وَالأرحـامِ المُطَهَرَةِ and purified wombs لم تـُنَجـِسـكَ الجـاهِليَّةُ بـاَنِجـاسـِها the impurities of the Ignorance Era could not subject you to filth وَلَم تـُلبـِسكَ مِن مُدلَهِمّاتِ ثـِيابـِها nor could its murky clothes dress you وَاَشـهَدُ ﺍ­نَّكَ مِنْ دَعَائِمِ ٱلدِّينِ I also bear witness that you are one of the mainstays of the religion, وَاَركانِ المُؤمِنينَ the supports of Muslims, وَمَعْقِلِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ and the haven of the believers وَاشْهَدُ انَّكَ ٱلإِمَامُ ٱلْبَرُّ ٱلتَّقِيُّ I also bear witness that you are the Godfearing, pious, ٱلرَّضِيُّ ٱلزَّكِيُّ pleased, immaculate الهادِي المَهدِيُ a guide, and a well-guided Imam وَاشْهَدُ انَّ ٱلائِمَّةَ مِنْ وُلْدِكَ And I bear witness that the Imams from your progeny كَلِمةُ التَّقـوى are the words of piety, وَاَعـلامُ الهُدى the signs of guidance, وَالعـُروةُ الوُثـقى the firmest handle (to Allah) وَالحـُجَّةُ عـَلى اَهل الدُنيـا and the decisive Argument against the inhabitants of the world. وَاَشـهَدُ اَنّي بـِكـمُ مُؤمِنٌ وَبـِايِابـِكم مُوقنٌ I also bear witness that I believe in you all and in your Return, مُوقِنٌ بِشَرَايِعِ دِينِي وَخَوَاتِيمِ عَمَلِي I have full confidence in the laws of my religion and in the seals of my deeds, وَقَلْبِي لِقَلْبِكُمْ سِلْمٌ my heart is at peace with you all, وَاَمري لِامْرِكـمُ مُتَّبـع all my affairs are based on your commands, وَنُصْرَتِي لَكُمْ مُعَدَّةٌ and my support for you all is already all set حَتَّىٰ يَاذَنَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ until Allah permits you. فَمَعَكُمْ مَعَكُمْ So, I am with you. I am with you, لاََ مَعَ عَدُوِّكُمْ not with your enemies صـَلَوات الله عَلَيكم Allah’s blessings be upon you وَعَلى اَرواحـِكم وَعَلى اَجـسـادِكُم upon your souls, upon your bodies, وَشَاهِدِكُمْ وَغَائِبِكُمْ upon the present and the absent from you, وَظَاهِرِكُمْ وَبَاطِنِكُمْ and upon the apparent and the invisible from you. آمِينَ رَبَّ ٱلْعَالَمِينَ Respond to us, O Lord of the Worlds
  4. By all standards, the day Imam Hussain, the grandson of the beloved Prophet Muhammad, was killed was a great tragedy. Indeed, it was the greatest tragedy. He was martyred, along with his family members, simply because he stood against injustice. The family of Yazeed (the Banu Umayyah) and the family of Ziyad rejoiced the day he was killed. Not only did they celebrate the day of Ashura, but they turned it into a tradition for subsequent years. They would gather their family and friends and rejoice at the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. While fasting is a great form of worship, we the Shia have valid reservations regarding the fast of Ashura. It is always recommended to fast, anytime throughout the year (except Eid), but the problem is that there is a history of politics behind the fast of Ashura. Killing the very grandson of the Prophet was a major crime, so Banu Umayya attempted to shift the focus of the people for the day of Ashura. Possessing power and money, they spread to the Muslims that Ashura is a blessed day. They did so by indoctrinating their people that on Ashura God saved Prophet Musa and his people from the pharaoh. He saved Prophet Ibrahim from the fire of Namrud, and so on. To thank God for that blessed day, they encouraged the people to fast on Ashura. Here are several points that demonstrate how the hadeeths which speak of the fast of Ashura are fabricated. The Prophet probably never said them, but they were forged after him. First: There are several hadeeths in Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, and Tirmidhi which tell us when the Prophet arrived Medina, he saw the Jews fasting, Upon knowing the reason why they were fasting, he said we the Muslims are closer to Musa, so we should also fast. If you analyze these hadeeths, you will realize that they all go back to these four narrators who supposedly narrated them directly from the Prophet: 1- Ibn Abbas 2- Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari 3- Abu Huraira 4- Mu’awiya VISIT SERATONLINE.COM FOR MORE ARTICLES The Prophet came to Medina the first year of the Hijra. As for Ibn Abbas, he was born three years before Hijra, which makes him four years old when the Prophet supposedly said this Hadith. In the Science of Hadith, the narration of a four-year-old boy is generally not accepted. As for Abu Musa, he came from the tribe of Banu Ash’ar in Yemen. He became Muslim before the Hijra, but he was not seen in Medina till the battle of Khaybar in the seventh year after Hijra. The Prophet had sent him to Yemen to preach to his tribe. Hence, Abu Musa was not in Medina in the first year of Hijra, so how could he possibly narrate this hadith? As for Abu Huraira, he also was not seen in Medina until after the battle of Khaybar in the seventh year of Hijra. He also came from Yemen. As for Muawiya, the son of Abu Sufyan, he became Muslim in the eighth year of Hijra, so how could he narrate a hadith from the Prophet seven or eight years before he became Muslim? Some of the hadeeth go back to Ibn Zubayr, who was also a young boy when the Prophet entered Medina. Therefore, it is quite clear that all the narrators of this hadith were either not in Medina at the time, or they were young boys, so how can we possibly accept such a hadith? It is pretty convincing that the hadith was forged later on by Bani Umayya. Second: Let’s look at the word “Ashura” which is mentioned in the hadith. According to Ibn Al-Atheer, there are two meanings to Ashura: an old meaning and a new meaning. The old meaning, which was during the Arab’s time and the Prophet’s time, meant the tenth day of any month. The new meaning surfaced after Imam Hussain was killed on the tenth of Muharram. After that, Ashura came to be known as the tenth of Muharram, but before that it was simply the tenth day of any month. So when the Prophet supposedly said this hadith, he just said Ashura, and he didn’t say the tenth day of which month. This demonstrates that the hadith was forged after the day of Ashura, and it slipped from the mind of the ones who forged it that before Ashura, the word had a different, more general meaning. Third: Today, go to any Jew, even their scholars, and ask them: Do you have a fast on the day which God saved Moses, or a day which corresponds to the tenth of Muharram? They don’t, and they will tell you that even in the past they didn’t have such a fast. They fast on Yum Kippur, the day when Moses returned from Mt. Sinai and realized that his people were worshipping the calf. To expiate for their sin, they fasted, but they have no fast they day God saved them from the pharaoh. But the hadith in the books of Saheeh tells us that it was a tradition of the Jews, and they would all fast that day. If you even look at the day the Jews fast, it never corresponded with the tenth of Muharram when the Prophet came to Medina. It corresponded with Muharram on the 28th year after Hijra. Fourth: It seems the one who forged the hadith was not aware of how the Islamic Calendar originated. During the time of Umar, since Muslims wanted a set date to refer to, he created the Hijri calendar by seeking the advice of Imam Ali. So they decided to make the starting point the migration of the Prophet, and they made the first month Muharram. However, the Prophet entered Medina in Rabi-ul-Awwal, not in Muharram, and so the one who probably forged the hadith assumed that the Prophet entered Medina in Muharram because that is when the calendar starts. So the hadith tells us the Prophet when he first entered Medina he saw the Jews fasting on Ashura, but the Prophet didn’t enter Medina in Muharram, he did so in Rabu-ul-Awwal, ten months before Muharram! There’s a clear discrepancy here. Fifth: The prophet knows more about the Shariah of previous Prophets such as Prophet Musa, and he doesn’t need the Jews to teach him that. The Prophet is also higher than copying what the Jews would do. Sixth: How come there is so much emphasis on the fast of Ashura around the world? Thousands of speeches are dedicated to it, millions of pamphlets are distributed encouraging people to fast on Ashura, and so on. There are many other days throughout the year which are highly recommended to fast, such as the 27th of Rajab, but how come you don’t see a single pamphlet or speech encouraging it? This shows that this is a political thing, originally designed to focus the attention away from the Martyrdom of Imam Hussain, and to consider it a blessed day. I don’t know how anyone can stand on the Day of Judgment before Prophet Muhammad and consider the very day his grandson was slaughtered a blessed day. Thus, based on these reasons we Shia have our reservations on the fast of Ashura. Banu Umayya were behind it, and considering it a blessed day is not an offence to us the Shia, but an offence to Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him and his family. -Syed Baqir Al Qazwini
  5. Ayatullah Najafi Kochani (r.a.), an extremely devout scholar of his time, was one of Mulla Akhund Khorasani’s most distinguished students. The former has mentioned a dream in he saw during his days in the Hauze Ilmiyya in Isfahan. He saw death in the guise of a calf. It was enveloped by three to four children. These children were gliding over my house, until one of them sat on the wall of my house. This dream was most fascinating. Ayatullah Najafi wrote a letter to his father explaining the entire dream to seek its interpretation. In the end he requested his father to reply as soon as possible, regarding his health, so that he could rest assured. Ayatullah Najafi’s letter was still in transit, when he received a letter from his father. His father had written: Your mother has departed from this transient world for her eternal abode. For the Ziarat of Imam Hussain (a.s.), she had a incurred a debt of twelve tomaan, which now with interest has compounded to eighty tomaan.’ Ayatullah Najafi writes that his father was so poor, that even if he had gathered all means at his disposal he would never be absolved from that debt. At that moment I pledged that I would recite Ziarate Ashoora in the mosque of Isfahan for forty days to secure respite for my father. I used to begin my recitation two hours before zavaal and complete it just before zavaal. I performed this routine for forty days. I beseeched Allah for the exemption of my father’s debts and also sought two other requests. Regarding my first request, I implored Allah for the position of a Mujtahid. And as for my second, I entreated Allah not to deprive me of intercession the Day of Judgement. I had not even completed the recitation of Ziarat for a month, when I received another letter from my father. He informed me about having been relieved from his debt with the sadaqah of Imam Moosa Kazim (a.s.). I wrote to my father, ‘You have not got succour from Imam Moosa Kazim (a.s.), but from Sayyadush Shohada, Imam Hussain (a.s.), although all (Aimmah) have been created from the same light’. After a period of comfort, I was again confronted with a disturbing situation. But the extraordinary results of the above mentioned incident had only strengthened my conviction regarding this Ziarat. Again I pledged to recite this Ziarat for a duration of forty days. I commenced recitation of the Ziarat in Muharram with the same fervour and sincerity as before. On the completion of the duration of forty days, I saw a dream, wherein I witnessed the realization of my demands for which I had undertaken the pledge of reciting Ziarat. When I woke the next day my satisfaction and delight was without any limit.
  6. The great and pious jurist, Marhoom Shaikh Jawad b. Shaikh Mashkoor, was a leading jurist of Najaf who died at the age of 90 years in 1337 A.H. He is buried next to his father in a room in the blessed courtyard of the grave of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.). This great scholar dreamt in the night of 26 Safar 1332 A.H in which he saw Hazrat Izraeel – the angel of death (a.s.). He did salaam to the angel of death and asked him from where he was coming. The angel of death replied ‘I am coming from Shiraz after having seized the soul (Ruh) of Mirza Ibrahim Mehlaaki.’ Shaikh asked him ‘In what condition is his soul in Barzakh?’ The angel of death replied ‘He is residing in the most beautiful garden and is in the best of the conditions. Allah has appointed 1,000 angels at his beck and call.’ The Shaikh asked him ‘For which action has he received such a great reward – for his high level of knowledge? Or for the large number of students he had trained?’ The angel of death replied, ‘For none of these reasons’. Shaikh asked, ‘Then for leading the congregational prayers and explaining the religious laws to the people?’ The angel of death replied in the negative. VISIT http://theziyaratofashurah.wordpress.com/category/miracles-of-ziyarat-ashurah/ FOR MORE MIRACLES So the Shaikh asked, ‘Then on what basis did he receive such a great position?’ The angel of death said ‘For reciting Ziyarate Ashurah.’ Mirza Mehlaaki recited Ziyarate Ashurah regularly in the last 30 years of his life. And if due to an illness or any other reason, he was unable to recite the Ziyarat, then he would appoint a representative to recite the Ziyaarat on his behalf.’ The next morning, Shaikh Jawad went to Ayatullah Mirza Mohammed Taqi Shirazi and narrated his dream. On hearing this, Ayatullah Mirza Mohammed Taqi began weeping. When people asked him the reason of his grief, he replied ‘Mirza Ibrahim Mehlaaki was a pillar of jurisprudence and he has departed from the world.’ People said ‘But this news was only a dream, while we don’t know the fact as yet.’ Ayatullah Mirza Taqi replied, ‘This was not the dream of an ordinary individual, it was the dream of Shaikh Jawad.’ The very next day there was letter informing the residents of Najaf about Mirza Ibrahim Mehlaaki’s demise. In this way, the veracity of Shaikh Jawad’s dream proved to be true. Subsequently many scholars learnt of this incident from the late Ayatullah Syed Abdul Hadi Shirazi who in turn had personally heard about it from Shaikh Jawad. (Ref: Ziyaarate Aashoora by Nasir Rasti Lahejaani, p. 27)
  7. Doubt A section of the Muslims who find themselves in a spot while defending Yazid’s role in killing Imam Husain (a.s.) make lame excuses and indulge in Shia-bashing as if maligning Shias is the answer to all their woes. Among their most ludicrous claims is that the Shias themselves killed Imam Husain (a.s.) and are now repenting for the same. Reply1. Who killed Hamzah? 2. Role of companions 3. Yazid’s role 4. Who are the Shias? 5. Yazid’s forces were not Shias Back to TopWho killed Hamzah (a.s.)?Who killed Ammar? This lame excuse reminds one of the argument advanced by Yazid’s father nearly 1,400 years ago when he found himself similarly cornered in Siffeen on the count of being responsible for Ammar’s (r.a.) death, a fact prophesied by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). To deflect blame for killing Ammar b. Yasir (r.a.), one of the greatest companions for whom Paradise was assured, Muawiyah conveniently shifted the blame for the crime of murdering Ammar to Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) by suggesting that since Ali (a.s.) had got Ammar to the Battle of Siffeen, he was the one responsible for killing Ammaar and not Muawiyah. Going by Muawiyah’s rationale the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is likewise responsible for killing his own uncle Hamzah who came to the Battlefield of Ohad on his (s.a.w.a.) instruction! Apparently, shifting the blame from the perpetrator of the crime to those who are the farthest in committing it is the most favored response of these Muslims. Let us see how we can identify the perpetrators of other crimes using the rationale of these Muslims. Who killed Hamzah (a.s.)? 1. Of course, conventional wisdom suggests as backed by history that the responsibility for killing Hamzah (a.s.) lies with the infidels of Mecca who waged war against the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and Muslims. 2. And we have also seen that according to Muawiyah’s rationale, the responsibility for killing Hamzah (a.s.) was with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). 3. According to the rationale of these Muslims, the responsibility for Hamzah’s death lies with another group altogether. Let’s refer to the 153rd verse of Surah Aale Imran (3) to find the answer: ‘When you ran off precipitately and did not wait for anyone, the Apostle was calling you from your rear…’ Since according to these Muslims, the treachery of the Shias killed Imam Husain (a.s.), it follows that the treachery of the companions in the Battle of Ohad killed Hamzah (a.s.). However, for obvious reasons these Muslims won’t admit this fact and will apply their rationale selectively against the Shias. Who killed Usman? 1. Conventional wisdom suggests that Usman was killed by the Muslims who laid siege to his house and ultimately killed him for his misguided policies. 2. But according to the rationale of these Muslims who put the blame squarely on those who act treacherously, the blame for killing Usman lies with his cousin – Muawiyah b. Abu Sufyan. It is not a secret that the siege on Usman’s house lasted for over a month during which time he sent SOS to, among others, his cousin Muawiyah. However, for the period Usman was under siege which was considerable, Muawiyah did not send in his army to bail out Usman. This despite the fact that Muawiyah had a huge army at his disposal which only two years later took on the might of the entire Muslim army in Siffeen. If Muawiyah had shown the same alacrity and enthusiasm in sending help to Medina to rescue Usman, that his son Yazid showed after ascending the throne to demand allegiance from Imam Husain (a.s.) in Medina, Usman’s life could well have been saved. Regardless, does this mean that Usman was a victim of Muawiyah’s treachery rather than the Muslims who actually killed him? Going by the argument of these Muslims, the answer is yes – Muawiyah killed Usman. VISIT SERATONLINE.COM FOR MORE ARTICLES Back to TopRole of companionsWho killed Imam Husain (a.s.)? According to this group of Muslims, Imam Husain (a.s.) was a victim of treachery by the Shias. First and foremost if blame must be placed based on treachery, the companions and taabe’een displayed it in ample measure by not supporting Imam Husain (a.s.) against Yazid. Treachery of the companions and taabe’een In order to show Yazid in a positive light, these Muslims themselves claim that: ‘Several hundreds of companions despite being alive at the time kept aloof from the battle at Karbala to save the nation from entanglement and bloodshed. Had it been an encounter between good and evil, the companions who throughout their lives had not shirked jihad would have definitely thrown all their weight behind Imam Husain (a.s.).’ So the companions stayed away from Karbala citing confusion between truth and falsehood and not wanting to create bloodshed. If the companions and taabe’een were indeed confused, then it is despite the fact that the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had often declared that Imam Husain (a.s.) is the Lamp of Guidance and the Ark of Salvation. And that Imam Husain (a.s.) and his brother Imam Hasan (a.s.) were the Chiefs of the Youths of Paradise. And that both of them were his sons according to the Verse of Mubahelah in Surah Aale Imran (3): 61 when they along with the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and their parents Ali (a.s.) and Fatima (s.a.) confronted the Christians of Najraan for malediction and drove them into submission. Moreover, the Quran, which was a sufficient recourse for the Muslims after the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) demise, has prescribed a solution for confusion: ‘…so ask the People of the Reminder if you do not know.’ (Surah Nahl (16): Verse 43) It is a common fact recorded by Sunni commentators of the Noble Quran that Imam Husain (a.s.) was among the People of the Reminder (Ahle Zikr). Scores of Sunni scholars over the years have recorded these and other virtues of Imam Husain (a.s.) in their books. Why did the companions and taabe’een, who were present in the time of Imam Husain (a.s.) and were witness to many of these narrations and incidents, lack the judgment to distinguish between Imam Husain (a.s.) and Yazid? More so when we find clear instructions from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) urging the Muslims to support Imam Husain (a.s.) as evident from the following narration: The Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) companion Anas b. Haaris relates – I heard Allah’s Prophet (s.a.w.a.) say: ‘Verily my son, (Husain), will be killed in a land called Karbala; whoever amongst you is alive at that time must go and help him.’ Tarikh-o-Damishq vol 14 p 223 Are these Muslims suggesting that Umar b. Saad b. Abi Waqqas, who led Yazid’s army in Karbala and was among the leading taabe’een, and the son of a leading companion, had never heard of Imam Husain’s (a.s.) virtues? This despite the fact that Imam Husain (a.s.) was also his cousin? Then why did he fight Imam Husain (a.s.)? If this is not an example of treachery by the companions and taabe’een then what is? It follows that the confusion between truth and falsehood was not the reason for the companions abandoning support to Imam Husain (a.s.) in Karbala. It was plain treachery which we saw in ample measure in Ohod and Hunain despite the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) presence in their midst. Obviously when the companions did not support the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in his life time, it is too much to expect them to support his grandson (a.s.) 50 years after his (s.a.w.a.) demise. Therefore we hold the companions responsible for abandoning their duty in supporting Imam Husain (a.s.) in Karbala and in this way being responsible for killing him. Back to TopYazid’s roleYazid’s role in killing Imam Husain (a.s.) Of course, notwithstanding everyone else who contributed to the turn of events in Karbala, Yazid’s role is unmistakable. He is the one who sought to subjugate Imam Husain (a.s.) into giving him allegiance as various historical records testify. We read in Maqtal al-Husain of Khaarazmi: Yazid wrote: ‘Force Husain, Abdullah b. Umar and Abdullah b. Zubair to give allegiance and don’t spare them.’ We also find in the same source: When he (Waleed) read Yazid’s letter for him (Marwan) and consulted him in the matter and said: ‘What do you think we shall do?’ He (Marwan) replied: ‘Send for them now and ask them to give allegiance and obey us. If they accept, we will let them go but if they reject you should arrest them and strike off their heads. This is clearly Yazid demanding allegiance and triggering the chain of events culminating in Imam Husain’s (a.s.) martyrdom. All other excuses like Shias killing Imam Husain (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) revolting against Yazid etc. have no merit and are only advanced to hide the real culprit – Yazid b. Muawiyah. Yazid’s letter to Ubaidullah b. Ziyad (l.a.) We read in Mataalib al-So’l: Ibn Ziyad wrote to Husain – I have received information that you have arrived in Karbala, and Yazid has told me not to kill you, provided you accept his authority and mine. Jalaluddin Suyuti records in Taarikh al-Khulafaa: Yazid wrote to his governor in Iraq, Ubaidullah b. Ziyad, ordering him to fight him (Husain). Therefore, he (Ibn Ziyad) sent an army consisting of four thousand people led by Umar b. Saad b. Abi Waqaas. Zahabi records in Siyar Aalam al-Nobala, vol.3 p. 305: Muhammad Ibn al-Dahak narrated from his father: When Husain marched, Yazid wrote to his governor Ibn Ziyad: Husain is marching to Kufa and he is a problem of your time not of other times, your state not of other states and you not for the other governors. At that time you might be free or be slaved.’ Therefore Ibn Ziyad killed him (on Yazid’s beckoning) and sent his head to him (Yazid). Ibn Ziyad’s own admission that he killed Imam Husain (a.s.) on Yazid’s orders In Taarikh al-Kaamil, vol.4 p. 112, we find: He (Yazid) wrote to Ubaidullah b. Ziyad ordering him to march towards Medina and surround (Abdullah) Ibn Zubair in Mecca. He (Ibn Ziyad) replied: I can’t give both these things to this transgressor (Yazid), after killing the grandson of Allah’s Prophet (s.a.w.a.), I am not now going to assault the Ka’bah. Testimony of Ibn Abbas that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.) We read in Tareekh al-Kaamil: Ibn Abbas replied to Yazid’s letter stating: ‘… you killed Husain as well as the youths from Bani Abdul Muttalib who were beacons of guidance and famed stars; your troops marched towards them on your orders.’ Testimony of Abdullah b. Umar that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.) We read in Maqtal al-Husain: Ibn Umar wrote to Yazid: Hasn’t your heart gone black yet? You murdered thefamily of the Prophet? Muawiyah b. Yazid’s testimony that his father Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.) We read in Hayaat al-Hayawaan: When Yazid’s son Muawiyah ascended the throne, in his very first sermon he confessed: We are certain about Yazid’s wrongdoing; he killed the family of the Prophet, deemed alcohol permissible, and tormented the Ka’bah. Yazid’s own admission that he killed the family of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) We read in Sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar: Following the murder of Imam Husain (a.s.), Yazid declared: I avenged the killing of my relatives in Badr through killing of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) family. The testimony of Shah Abdul Aziz that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.) When the cruel people of Syria and Iraq upon Yazid’s orders and with the efforts of the chief of hatred and corruption, Ibn Ziyad, martyred Imam Husain… (Tohfah Ithnaa Ashari (Urdu), p. 8 published in Karachi) The testimony of Shah Abdul Haqq al-Dehlavi that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.): We read in Al Shiaath al Lamaat vol 4 p 623 Bab Manaqib Quraysh: It is unusual that some say Yazid did not kill Husain when he instructed Ibn Ziyad to carry out the killing. The testimony of Imam Zahabi that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.) Imam Zahabi in his authoritative work Taarikh al-Islam vol 5 p 30 states: I say: When Yazid did to the people of Medina what he did and killed Husain and his brothers and progeny, and Yazid drank alcohol, and performed abominable things, the people hated him and rose up against him more than once. Allah didn’t bless his life and Abu Bilal Mirdas b. Adya al-Hanzali rose against him. The testimony of Ibn Khaldun that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.): It is impermissible to support Yazid in the matter of killing Husain; nay (Husain’s) murder is Yazid’s deed that proves him to be a transgressor (faasiq) and Husain a martyr. (Al-Muqaddimah by Ibn Khaldun, p. 254) The testimony of Ibn Kathir that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.) While discussing the events of 63 AH, Ibn Kathir, a student of Ibn Taymiyyah, states: It is already mentioned that he (Yazid) killed Husain and his companions through Ubaidullah b. Ziyad. Al Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah, vol.8 p. 243 Testimony of Qaazi Thanaaullah Panipati that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.) Qaazi Thaanaullah Panipati (exp. 1225 AH) was a Sunni scholar of the thirteenth century, who studied under Shah Waliullah Muhaddith-e-Dehlavi (exp. 1176 AH) while his son Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith-e-Dehlavi (exp. 1239 AH) would call Qaazi Thaanaullah the ‘Baihaqi of his time’. He was also the caliph of Mirza Mazhar Jaan-e-Jaanaan (exp. 1195 AH) who would refer to Qaazi Thanaaullah as ‘Alam al-Huda’ (the standard of guidance). His commentary of the Holy Quran, Tafseer-e-Mazhari, is very popular among these Muslims. Hence, his views about Yazid are extremely pertinent. Under the commentary of Surah Noor (24): Verse 55, (“…and whoever is ungrateful after this, these it is who are the transgressors…”) he records: It is possible that this verse refers to Yazid b. Muawiyah who martyred the grandson of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his companions; companions who were actually the members of the Prophet’s (s.a.w.a.) family. Tafsee-e-Mazhari (Urdu), vol.8 p. 268 He also writes: Yazid and his associates did Kufr with the bounties of Allah. They deemed it as their aim to have a grudge against the progeny of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), murdered Husain (a.s.) unjustly. Yazid did Kufr with the religion of Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to the extent that Yazid recited the following couplets over the killing of Husain (r.a.): ‘Where are my ancestors, they should come and see that I have taken revenge from the progeny of the Prophet and Bani Hashim’. And the last verse was: ‘I would not be from the progeny of Jandab had I not taken revenge from the progeny of Ahmad for whatever they had done.’ Tafseer-e-Mazhari (Urdu), vol.5 p. 271, commentary of Surah Ibrahim (14):29 Yazid’s pride at killing Imam Husain (a.s.) Ibn Asaakir writes: ….when Husain’s head was brought before Yazid, he recited the couplets of Ibn Zubairi: I wish my ancestors of Badr were here to see the fright of al-Khazraj (tribe) as the spears hit. (Al-Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah, vol.8 p. 204) Moreover, we read: Al-Qasim b. Bakt said: When the head of Husain was placed in front of Yazid b. Muawiyah, he struck his (Husain’s) teeth with his stick and remarked: His (Husain’s) and my example is same as the saying of Husain b al-Hamaam al-Mari: These swords split the heads of those men who pose harm to us and they were very disobedient and oppressors. Al-Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah, vol.8 p. 209 Consensus states that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.) Although the Muslims favoring Yazid would have us believe us otherwise, there can be no doubt in the minds of the unbiased student of history that the responsibility for Imam Husain’s (a.s.) killing lies with Yazid alone. No amount of false propaganda and Shia-bashing is going to change this fact. The following renowned Sunni books firmly establish that Yazid killed Imam Husain (a.s.): 1. Maqtal al-Husain al Khaarazmi, vol.2 p. 80 chap 9 2. Tareekh Yaqoobi, vol.2 p. 299 Dhikr Yazid 3. Mataalib al-So’l, vol.2 p. 26 4. Nur al Absaar p. 139 5. Al Bidayah wa al Nihaayah, p. 219 Zikr 63 Hijri 6. Tareekh al-Kaamil vol.4 p. 69 7. Tareekh al-Tabari p. 408 Zikr Ibn Ziyad 8. Akhbaar al Tiwaal p. 384 9. Tazkirah al-Khawaas p. 159 10. Hayaat al Haywaan vol.1 p. 88 11. Tareekh al-Khamees, vol.2 p. 301 12. Al-Sawaaiq al Muhriqah p. 134 13. Sharh al-Fiqh al-Akbar p. 73 14. Tohfah aI-Ithna al-Ashariyyah, p. 6 vol.1 15. Al Shiaath al Lamaat vol.4 p. 623 Bab Manaqib Quraysh 16. Shazarath al Dhahab, vol.1 p. 69 Zikr 61 Hijri 17. Tafseer-e-Mazhari vol.5 p. 21 Part 13 Surah Ibrahim 18. Aqaid al-Islam, p. 232 by Maulana Abdul Haqq Haqqaani 19. Imam-e-Paak aur Yazid-e-Paleed, p. 88 20. Aqaid-e-Nafsee, p. 113 21. Sharh al-Maqaasid, vol.2, p. 309 22. Nuzul al Abraar p. 97 23. Irfan al-Shariah, vol.2 p. 21 24. Al-Fataawaa by Maulana Abdul Hai p. 79 25. Shaheed-e-Karbala pp. 11-12 by Mufti Muhammad Shaafi In Irfan-e-Shariat, Yazid’s role is exposed: Yazid tore away a piece of the Prophet’s heart, starving him for three days and then killing him, together with his companions. Thereafter, he ordered for horses to trample his body after his martyrdom, as a result of which his body was ripped to shreds. His head was then mounted on a spear; this was a head that the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) would kiss. The head was (shamelessly) exhibited at various places; people of the household were arrested and brought before the evil Yazid. Cursed is he who does not deem such acts as atrocious! Cursing Yazid is permissible for his role in killing Imam Husain (a.s.) If Yazid was not responsible for killing Imam Husain (a.s.), so many Muslim scholars including the noted Sunni Imams like Imam Ahmed b. Hanbal, Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik b. Anas and Imam Shaafe’ee would not have permitted cursing him. Yazid’s role before and after Karbala The killing of Imam Husain (a.s.) was not a one week affair that began and ended in Karbala. Demand for allegiance in Medina, Marwan’s threat, Yazid’s replacing Noman b. Basheer with Ibn Ziyad along with clear instructions to subdue and kill Imam Husain (a.s.) if necessary, etc. suggest that killing Imam Husain (a.s.) was pre-determined and well-planned. Even if we accept the argument that Imam Husain (a.s.) was a victim of Shiite treachery rather than the oppression and tyranny of the progenies of Abu Sufyan, Marwan and Ziyad, this only explains the events of Karbala and Kufa. The events in the first and last legs of the journey in Medina and Syria respectively belie the claim that Shias killed Imam Husain (a.s.). The following events that transpired in Syria clearly underscore the role of Yazid in killing Imam Husain (a.s.) as there is no sign of any Shiite element over here: 1. Insulting Imam Husain’s (a.s.) head Ibn Jauzi records in his book Al-Radd alaa al-Mutassib al-Aneed al-Maane’ le zamme Yazid, p. 58: Ibn Abi Dunya recorded from Salamah b. Shabib from Al-Humaidi from Sufyan from Salim b. Abi Hafsah from Hasan (al-Basri): Yazid Ibn Muawiyah was prodding with a stick the place that Allah’s Messenger (s.a.w.a.) himself used to kiss. How shameful! 2. Disrespect to the Prophet’s (a.s.) household Ibn Imaad Hanbali records in his famed work Shazarat al-Dahab vol. 1 p. 61: When he (Imam Husain (a.s.)) was killed, his head, his women-folk and (his son) Imam Zain al-Aabedeen were taken to Damascus as slaves. May Allah destroy and disgrace whoever did this, whoever issued the orders and whoever was pleased with it! 3. Eid-like celebrations History is replete with narrations of Eid-like celebrations in Syria on the killing of Imam Husain (a.s.) and cheering on the parading of the children and women of Imam’s (a.s.) household. All the events of Syria, particularly those that transpired in Yazid’s court viz. insulting Imam Husain’s (a.s.) head and mistreatment of Imam’s (a.s.) household members are Yazid’s doing and there is not even a remote sign of a Shiite element over here, just as there is no sign of Shias in the events of Medina and Karbala. Back to TopWho are the Shias?Since these Muslims will not desist from accusing and blaming Shias for the blunders of their leaders, it is important to answer this question in a manner that will put to rest all accusations. A Shia is the one who believes in Allah’s Oneness (Tauheed), the Prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) and the leadership of the divinely appointed Imams (a.s.). So long as he is steadfast on these cornerstones of belief he is a Shia. If he denies any one tenet he is outside the realm of belief and cannot be called a Shia. Those who betrayed Imam Husain (a.s.) in Karbala cannot be called as Shias any more than those who turned against Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) in the battle of Siffeen and were later branded as Khaarijis can be called Shias. So, it is erroneous to claim that Imam Husain (a.s.) was killed by his Shias. These were his Shias until the time they were steadfast on their allegiance to him. When they severed their allegiance and fought against him they lost their identity as Shias and were just like the other Muslims in Yazid’s forces. Perhaps one of the more defining traditions about a Shia is from the Master himself – Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.): Even if I strike the nose of a believer (momin/Shia) with this sword for hating me, he will not hate me, and even if I pile all the wealth of the world before a hypocrite (munafiq) for loving me he will not love. This is because it is pronounced by the tongue of the beloved Prophet. O Ali, a believer will never hate you and a hypocrite (Muslim) will never love you. (Nahjul Balaghah Saying no. 45) According to this and other traditions of this nature, a Shia with even an iota of doubt about his Imam is outside the realm of faith (imaan) and in the realm of hypocrisy (nifaaq). Leave alone fighting the Imam, according to this tradition of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.), the Shia will not even bear the slightest of hatred and indifference towards the Imam, even under the most trying of circumstances and attacks. Since the so-called Shias of Kufa carried a full-fledged frontal assault on Imam Husain (a.s.) and his companions, they do not qualify as Shias. Rather they are hypocrites and to call them anything else is nothing but an attempt to spread mischief and confusion. The lovers of Ahle Bait (a.s.) know better who is a Shia and do not need others to identify Shias for them. Muslims of Kufa Being the center of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) Ali b. Abi Talib’s (a.s.) government after the Battle of Jamal, Kufa was identified as a Shia hub and epicenter of resistance to Bani Ummayah. However, there were many Muslims who did not owe allegiance to any particular disposition – Alawi or Usmani. They were go-with-the-flow Muslims with a strong herd mentality guiding their disposition. They were the ones who paid allegiance to Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman and followed up by giving allegiance to Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) as a matter of routine, with no particular love or admiration for Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) that would mark them as Shias. Even those who could be described as Shias did not invoke the confidence of the Imams (a.s.) as they were very fickle in their faith just like other Muslims. Their faith was up for grabs to the highest bidder and since Muawiyah bid the highest these so-called Shias remained in Kufa but acted according to Muawiyah’s bidding and later according to the bidding of Yazid/Ubaidullah b. Ziyad. This was the biggest challenge faced by Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) and his son – Imam Hasan b. Ali (a.s.) as all their attempts to rally these so-called Shias against Muawiyah came to naught. So to accuse these Shias of treachery and blame them for the calamity that befell on Imam Husain (a.s.) is missing the point. These Shias were never part of the equation as they did not invoke any confidence and Imam Husain (a.s.) was well-aware of the events unfolding in Kufa even as he was approaching it. Shias of Karbala These Muslims who talk of Shiite treachery conveniently ignore that Imam Husain (a.s.) had a small band of true Shia supporters who fought valiantly against Yazid’s forces in Karbala. These were the ones worthy of being Shias and were even called as such by Imam Husain (a.s.) and other Imams (a.s.) of the Ahle Bait (a.s.). If we go by the treachery argument advanced by these Muslims and consider that Shias were present in Yazid’s forces and Shias were also present in Karbala in Imam Husain’s (a.s.) army, then it was nothing but a battle between two Shia groups! However, no historian has concluded as such and to suggest it shows extreme bias against Shias and very poor understanding of Islamic history. Faith is based on the present not the past A person is labeled based on his current inclination and not his previous belief. Having disobeyed Allah, Iblis is no longer referred to as Allah’s worshipper in the Holy Quran and the blessed Sunnah, although he was once ranked alongside the angels. Nor do common Muslims refer to companions like Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman as infidels although they were the leading idol-worshippers of the time before the advent of Islam. As we find in the incident of Talut and Jalut in Surah Baqarah (2): Verse 249 “So when Talut departed with the forces, he said: Surely Allah will try you with a river; whoever then drinks from it, he is not of me, and whoever does not taste of it, he is surely of me, except he who takes with his hand as much of it as fills the hand; but with the exception of a few of them they drank from it…” All those who drank from the river and they were in the majority, were no longer among Talut’s companions and cannot be referred to as such. Likewise those who abandoned Imam Husain (a.s.) in Kufa and joined Yazid’s ranks cannot be called as Shias. They were ranked alongside Yazid’s forces and all attributes used for Yazid’s forces applies to these so-called Shias as well. We do not see Muslims accusing Talha and Zubair of treachery after they severed their allegiance and waged a ferocious battle against their Master and Imam – Ali b. Abi Talib (a.s.) resulting in the death of thousands of Muslims. Therefore singling out the Shias for their role in the events of Kufa and Karbala is nothing but a lame attempt to misguide the Muslims with regards Yazid’s role in Imam Husain’s (a.s.) murder. Back to TopYazid’s forces were not ShiasTo conclude the matter, it’s best to refer to the faith of the killers of Imam Husain (a.s.) both those directly and indirectly involved. If they were followers of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) then they were the Shias, else they were Muslims claiming to follow the Sunnah. 1. Yazid ibn Muawiyah Without doubt, the biggest contributor to the shedding of Imam Husain’s (a.s.) blood and its main proponent was Yazid b. Muawiyah. And there can be no two ways of his animosity and the animosity of his clansmen – the Bani Umayyah for the Bani Hashim. Under the circumstances, he was not a Shia of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) nor would he have liked to be referred to as such. 2. Ubaydillah b. Ziyaad Not having the courage to take on Imam Husain (a.s.) himself, Yazid got Ubaydillah to do the task for him just like his father Muawiyah got Ubaydillah’s father – Ziyaad to take on Imam Hasan (a.s.). The progeny of Ziyaad harboured extreme animosity against the Ahle Bait (a.s.), so there is no question of them being the Shias of Ahle Bait (a.s.). 3. Umar b. Saad Since Ubaydillah also lacked the courage to confront Imam Husain (a.s.) he appointed Umar b. Saad for the task. Umar b. Saad also cannot be called a Shia given his father Saad b. Abi Waqqaas’s ambivalence towards Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) Ali b. Abi Talib and his refraining from giving him allegiance at a time when the entire Muslim nation with a few exceptions had given Ali (a.s.) their allegiance. Umar b. Saad was a cousin of Imam Husain (a.s.) but then so was Yazid. It is widely reported that Umar b. Saad undertook the crime of killing Imam Husain (a.s.) for the governorship of Ray (Suburb of Teheran, Iran). So there is no question of Umar b. Saad being a Shia of the Ahle Bait (a.s.). After naming the three biggest names responsible for killing Imam Husain (a.s.) and establishing their religious credentials as so-called Muslims who practiced the Sunnah, we now turn to their henchmen who were involved in the battle of Karbala. For brevity we have highlighted only a few and interested readers can refer Tarikh-e-Tabair for more examples. 4. Ka’b b. Jaabir Ka’b b. Jaabir was a warrior in Umar b. Saad’s army in Karbala. He was the killer of Burair b. Khozair, one of Imam Husain’s (a.s.) respected companions. He recited several couplets after Karbala to the effect that he had submitted his faith to the children of Abu Sufyan and wished to claim his reward from Ibne Ziyaad. 4) Muzaahim b. Haaris While battling Naafe b. Hilaal Jamali, a companion of Imam Husain (a.s.), in Karbala he declared: I am on Usman’s religion. (Taarikh-e-Tabari vol 6, p 229) 5) Amr b. Hajjaaj Amr b. Hajjaaj from Umar b. Saad’s army urged his soldiers to remain firm against those who abandoned religion i.e. Imam Husain’s (a.s.) army. Imam Husain (a.s.) rebuked him for his audacity. (Taarikh-e-Tabari vol. 6, p. 249) 6) Shimr b. Ziljawshan It is widely documented that it was Shimr who eventually killed Imam Husain (a.s.) when none dared to commit the heinous crime. Long before that, he was commanded explicitly by Ibne Ziyaad to take over the reins of the army if Umar b. Saad showed weakness in executing the plan to kill Imam Husain (a.s.). Shimr was always a part of Ibne Ziyaad’s coterie in Kufa and there is no question of his being a Shia given his animosity for the Ahle Bait (a.s.), although he did fight on the side of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) against Muawiyah in Siffeen. He was among the majority of the Muslims who took Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) as the fourth caliph and did not have any particular inclination towards Ali’s (a.s.) Mastership – the hallmark of a Shia. Who killed Imam Husain (a.s.) We revisit this question to end the matter conclusively. It is clear from the evidences advanced that the responsibility of killing Imam Husain (a.s.) lies entirely on Yazid’s shoulders. For those who go by consensus (ijmaa), this is indeed the verdict of the ijmaa. Blaming Shias for the crimes of Yazid and Ubaydillah b. Ziyaad is not the verdict of the ijmaa, it is the verdict of a niche group of Muslims, who find themselves in a corner and have no place to look out of the sheer embarrassment of Imam Husain’s (a.s.) killing. The motley group of so-called Shias they hold responsible for the crime can hardly be described as such as we have proved.
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  9. Ziyaarat–e-Aashoora and the supplication recited after it, which is famous as Dua-e-Alqamah, are reliable narrations which cannot be rejected. Their presence in ancient and authentic Shia books shows that scholars, traditionalists and theologians have been particular in narrating the same and jurists have carefully considered its chain of transmission before authenticating it. Ziyaarat-e-Aashoora, which is widely reported in Shia books, has two primary sources: 1. Kaamil al-Ziyaaraat of Ibne Qulwayh (r.a.) (exp. 367 A.H.) 2. Misbaah of Shaikh Toosi (r.a.) (exp. 460 A.H.) Although its reference has been narrated through several chains, we will focus on the chain narrated by Shaikh Toosi (a.r.) in Misbaah. We have taken the reference of the tradition of Ziyaarat-e-Aashoora from the author of the book ‘Shifaa al-Sudoor fi Sharhe Ziyaarate Aashoor’, Al Haajj Mirza Abul Fazl Tehrani, regarding whom, the great traditionalist Shaikh Abbas-e-Qummi (r.a.), the compiler of ‘Mafaateeh al-Jinaan’, has recorded in his book ‘Al Kuniyyah wa al-Alqaab’: “Mirza Abul Fazl, the scholar, the worthy one, the jurist, the theologian, the wise, the mathematician, knower of biographies and history, the litterateur and poet, who expired in 1314 AH in Tehran and is buried in the yard of Imam Zaadeh Hamzah (r.a.) in Shah Abdul Azeem (r.a.) in the grave of his father.” Mirza Abul Fazl Tehrani says, ‘I limit myself to the best and most reliable chain of Ziyaarat-e-Aashoora in my view.’ Then he records – I heard from: 1. Shaikh Muhammad Husain b. Muhammad Haashim Kaazimi[1], who heard from 2. Aayatullah al Uzma Murtuza b. Muhamma Amir Jaabiri al Ansaari[2], who heard from 3. Mulla Ahmad Naraaqi[3], who heard from 4. Sayyid Muhammad Mahdi Tabaatabaai (famous as Allamah Bahrul Uloom)[4], who heard from 5. Muhammad Baaqir Bahbahaani (famous as Waheed-e-Bahbahaani)[5], who heard from 6. his father Muhammad Afzal Isfahaani, who heard from 7. his uncle Allaamah Muhammad Baaqir Majlisi[6] (author of Behaar al-Anwaar), who heard from 8. his father Muhammad Taqi Majlisi[7], who heard from 9. Shaikh Muhammad b. Hasan Aamili (famous as Shaikh Bahaai)[8], who heard from 10. his father Husain b. Abdul Samad Aamili[9], who heard from 11. Shaheed Zainuddeen b. Ali Aamili (famous as Shaheed-e-Saani)[10], who heard from 12. Shaikh Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khaatoon Aamili[11], who heard from 13. Ali b. Abdul Aali Al Karki (famous as Muhaqqiq-e-Saani)[12] who heard from 14. Ali b. Hilaal Jazaairi[13], who heard from 15. Ahmad b. Fahd Hilli[14] (author of Uddat al-Daaee), who heard from 16. Faazil Zainuddeen Ali b. Khaazin[15], who heard from 17. Muhammad b. Makki (famous as Shaheed-e-Awwal)[16], who heard from 18. Muhammad b. Hasan b. Yusuf Hilli[17], who heard from 19. Fakhruddeen Abu Taalib Muhammad b. Hasan heard from his father, the scholar of the east and the west, the great Ayatullah, the sword against the enemies, who is famous among all sects, Abu Mansoor Jamaaluddeen Hasan b. Yusuf Hilli.[18] 19. Jafar b. Saeed Hilli (famous as Muhaqqiq-e-Awwal)[19], who heard from 20. Fakhaar b. Ma’d Haairi[20], who heard from 21. Shaazaan b. Jibrail Qummi[21], who heard from 22. Muhammad b. Abul Qaasim Tabari[22], who heard from 23. Abu Ali Hasan b. Shaikh (famous as Mufeed-e-Saani)[23], who heard from 24. the son of Shaikh Toosi, who heard from, 25. his father Abu Jaafar Muhammad b. Hasan Toosi[24] who has written in his book ‘Misbaah al-Mutahajjid’ that, ‘Muhammad b. Ismael b. Baazee[25] heard from Saalih b. Uqbah who heard from his father Uqbah b. Qais b. Samaan who heard from Imam Muhammad Baqir (a.s.) who said: ‘One who visits Imam Husain (a.s.) on the 10th of Muharram and laments on his grave, will be presented in front of Allah on the Day of Judgment such that he will get the reward of two thousand Hajj, two thousand Umrah and two thousand Jihaad and the reward of each Hajj, Umrah and Jihaad will be such that he had performed it with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and the infallible Imams (a.s.).’ ‘Uqbah says, I said – may I be sacrificed upon you, what about the person who cannot reach the blessed grave and lives away from the city (Karbala)?’ ‘Imam (a.s.) replied: If this is the case, then he should go out in solitude or over the rooftop and face the grave of Imam Husain, send salutations on him (a.s.), excessively curse his killers, pray two units of prayers and perform these acts in the earlier part of the day, that is before noon. Thereafter, he should remember the calamities of Imam Husain (a.s.), lament over them and also order his family members to lament over Imam Husain (a.s.) (if he is not in Taqaiyya), recite elegies and do maatam to a great extent and express grief and sorrow and condole one another in the name of Imam Husain (a.s.).’ ‘Then he (a.s.) continued: if someone does this, then I guarantee that all those rewards will be for him and Allah will bestow him with all those rewards.’ ‘The narrator asked – may I be sacrificed on you, will you be the guarantor and caretaker for such a person? ‘Imam (a.s.) replied indeed, if the person does so, I will be his guarantor and caretaker.’ ‘The narrator says – I said – how should people condole one another? Imam (a.s.) replied – They should say, اَعْظَمَ اللہُ اُجُوْرَنَا بِمُصَابِنَا بِالْحُسَیْنِ  وَ جَعَلَنَا وَ اِيَّاكُمْ مِنَ الطَّالِبِيْنَ بِثَارِهٖ مَعَ وَلِيِّهِ الْاِمَامِ الْمَهْدِيِّ مِنْ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلَامُ. ‘May Allah increase our reward in the sorrow for Imam Husain (a.s.) and include us and you among those who will avenge his unjust killing with Imam Mahdi (a.s.)’ ‘And if it is possible, then he should not go out for any worldly matter because this is a very heartrending day and no wish will be fulfilled on this day and even if it is fulfilled, there will not be any blessings in it and there will not be any goodness seen from it. And none of you should purchase anything for your house on this day because if any one purchases anything for his house on this day, he will not see any blessing in it. He should neither purchase for himself nor for his family. And if he does so (not purchase) then Allah will give him the reward for thousand Hajj, thousand Umrah and thousand Jihaad performed with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and he will be rewarded with the reward of all the prophets, messengers, truthful ones and martyrs who sacrificed themselves in the way of Allah from the day the universe was created till the Day of Judgment.’ Saalih b. Uqbah and Saif b. Umairah say that Alqamah b. Muhammad Hazarami says that I said to Imam Baqir (a.s.) that you teach me a supplication that I can recite when I cannot visit Imam Husain (a.s.) and (can) send salutations on him from far. VISIT SERATONLINE.COM Imam (a.s.) informed, ‘O Alqamah! Send salutation facing the grave of Imam Husain (a.s.), recite two units of prayers and recite Takbeer while facing the grave, then recite the salutation which is in the form of a ziyaarat. If you do this, it will be as if you have recited that supplication which the angels visiting the grave recite. Allah will write for you a million grades and you will be enumerated among those who were martyred with Imam Husain (a.s.) and will be accounted along with the martyrs and be recognized with them and the reward of every Prophet, every Messenger and every visitor to the grave of Imam Husain (a.s.) from the day of his martyrdom till date will be written for you and that salutation is as follows: اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ ابْنَ سَيِّدِ الْوَصِيِّيْنَ اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ابْنَ فَاطِمَةَ سَيِّدَةِ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِيْنَ اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا ثَارَ اللَّهِ وَ ابْنَ ثَارِهٖ وَ الْوِتْرَ الْمَوْتُوْرَ اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ وَ عَلَى الْأَرْوَاحِ الَّتِيْ حَلَّتْ بِفِنَائِكَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنِّيْ جَمِيْعًا سَلَامُ اللَّهِ أَبَدًا مَّا بَقِيْتُ وَ بَقِيَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ لَقَدْ عَظُمَتِ الرَّزِيَّةُ وَ جَلَّتْ وَ عَظُمَتِ الْمُصِيْبَةُ بِكَ عَلَيْنَا وَ عَلٰى جَمِيْعِ أَهْلِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَ جَلَّتْ وَ عَظُمَتْ مُصِيْبَتُكَ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ عَلٰى جَمِيْعِ أَهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ فَلَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً أَسَّسَتْ أَسَاسَ الظُّلْمِ وَ الْجَوْرِ عَلَيْكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً دَفَعَتْكُمْ عَنْ مَقَامِكُمْ وَ أَزَالَتْكُمْ عَنْ مَرَاتِبِكُمُ الَّتِيْ رَتَّبَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِيْهَا وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً قَتَلَتْكُمْ وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْمُمَهِّدِيْنَ لَهُمْ بِالتَّمْكِيْنِ مِنْ قِتَالِكُمْ بَرِئْتُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْهُمْ وَ مِنْ أَشْيَاعِهِمْ وَ أَتْبَاعِهِمْ وَ أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ إِنِّيْ سِلْمٌ لِمَنْ سَالَمَكُمْ وَ حَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَكُمْ إِلٰى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ آلَ زِيَادٍ وَ آلَ مَرْوَانَ وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ بَنِيْ أُمَيَّةَ قَاطِبَةً وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ ابْنَ مَرْجَانَةَ وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ عُمَرَ بْنَ سَعْدٍ وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ شِمْرًا وَ لَعَنَ اللَّهُ أُمَّةً أَسْرَجَتْ وَ أَلْجَمَتْ وَ تَنَقَّبَتْ وَ تَهَيَّأَتْ لِقِتَالِكَ بِأَبِيْ أَنْتَ وَ أُمِّيْ لَقَدْ عَظُمَ مُصَابِيْ بِكَ فَأَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ الَّذِيْ أَكْرَمَ مَقَامَكَ وَ أَكْرَمَنِي بِكَ أَنْ يَرْزُقَنِيْ طَلَبَ ثَارِكَ مَعَ إِمَامٍ مَنْصُوْرٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِ مُحَمَّدٍ ﷺ اَللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِيْ عِنْدَكَ وَجِيهًا بِالْحُسَيْنِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَ الْآخِرَةِ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ إِنِّي أَتَقَرَّبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ إِلٰى رَسُولِهٖ وَ إِلٰى أَمِيْرِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ وَ إِلٰى فَاطِمَةَ وَ إِلَى الْحَسَنِ وَ إِلَيْكَ بِمُوَالَاتِكَ وَ بِالْبَرَائَةِ مِمَّنْ قَاتَلَكَ وَ نَصَبَ لَكَ الْحَرْبَ وَ بِالْبَرَائَةِ مِمَّنْ أَسَّسَ أَسَاسَ الظُّلْمِ وَ الْجَوْرِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ أَبْرَأُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ إِلٰى رَسُولِهٖ مِمَّنْ أَسَّسَ ذٰلِكَ وَ بَنٰى عَلَيْهِ بُنْيَانَهٗ وَ جَرٰى فِيْ ظُلَمِهٖ وَ جَوْرِهٖ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ عَلٰى أَشْيَاعِكُمْ‏ بَرِئْتُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنْهُمْ وَ أَتَقَرَّبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ثُمَّ إِلَيْكُمْ بِمُوَالَاتِكُمْ وَ مُوَالَاةِ وَلِيِّكُمْ وَ بِالْبَرَائَةِ مِنْ أَعْدَائِكُمْ وَ النَّاصِبِيْنَ لَكُمُ الْحَرْبَ وَ بِالْبَرَائَةِ مِنْ أَشْيَاعِهِمْ وَ أَتْبَاعِهِمْ إِنِّي سِلْمٌ لِمَنْ سَالَمَكُمْ وَ حَرْبٌ لِمَنْ حَارَبَكُمْ وَ وَلِيٌّ لِمَنْ وَالَاكُمْ وَ عَدُوٌّ لِمَنْ عَادَاكُمْ فَأَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ الَّذِيْ أَكْرَمَنِيْ بِمَعْرِفَتِكُمْ وَ مَعْرِفَةِ أَوْلِيَائِكُمْ وَ رَزَقَنِي الْبَرَائَةَ مِنْ أَعْدَائِكُمْ أَنْ يَجْعَلَنِيْ مَعَكُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَ الْآخِرَةِ وَ أَنْ يُّثَبِّتَ لِيْ عِنْدَكُمْ قَدَمَ صِدْقٍ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَ الْآخِرَةِ وَ أَسْأَلُهٗ أَنْ يُّبَلِّغَنِيَ الْمَقَامَ الْمَحْمُودَ لَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ وَ أَنْ يَّرْزُقَنِيْ طَلَبَ ثَارِيْ مَعَ إِمَامٍ ہُدًی ظَاهِرٍ نَاطِقٍ بِالْحَقِّ مِنْكُمْ وَ أَسْأَلُ اللَّهَ بِحَقِّكُمْ وَ بِالشَّأْنِ الَّذِي لَكُمْ عِنْدَهٗ أَنْ يُّعْطِيَنِيْ بِمُصَابِيْ بِكُمْ أَفْضَلَ مَا يُعْطِيْ مُصَابًا بِمُصِيْبَتِهٖ مُصِيْبَةً مَا أَعْظَمَهَا وَ أَعْظَمَ رَزِيَّتَهَا فِي الْإِسْلَامِ وَ فِيْ جَمِيْعِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ اَللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِيْ فِي مَقَامِيْ هٰذَا مِمَّنْ تَنَالُهٗ مِنْكَ صَلَوَاتٌ وَّ رَحْمَةٌ وَّ مَغْفِرَةٌ اَللّٰهُمَّ اجْعَلْ مَحْيَايَ مَحْيَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ مَمَاتِي مَمَاتَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَّ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنَّ هٰذَا يَوْمٌ تَبَرَّكَتْ بِهٖ بَنُوْ أُمَيَّةَ وَ ابْنُ آكِلَةِ الْأَكْبَادِ اللَّعِيْنُ بْنُ اللَّعِيْنِ عَلٰى لِسَانِ نَبِيِّكَ ﷺ فِي كُلِّ مَوْطِنٍ وَ مَوْقِفٍ وَقَفَ فِيْهِ نَبِيُّكَ صَلَوَاتُكَ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهٖ اَللّٰهُمَّ الْعَنْ أَبَا سُفْيَانَ وَ مُعَاوِيَةَ وَ يَزِيدَ بْنَ مُعَاوِيَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْكَ اللَّعْنَةُ أَبَدَ الْآبِدِيْنَ وَ هٰذَا يَوْمٌ فَرِحَتْ بِهٖ آلُ زِيَادٍ وَ آلُ مَرْوَانَ بِقَتْلِهِمُ الْحُسَيْنَ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ اَللّٰهُمَّ فَضَاعِفْ عَلَيْهِمُ اللَّعْنَ مِنْكَ وَ الْعَذَابَ اَللّٰهُمَّ إِنِّي أَتَقَرَّبُ إِلَيْكَ فِي هٰذَا الْيَوْمِ وَ فِي مَوْقِفِيْ هٰذَا وَ أَيَّامِ حَيَاتِيْ بِالْبَرَائَةِ مِنْهُمْ وَ اللَّعْنَةِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ بِالْمُوَالَاةِ لِنَبِيِّكَ وَ آلِ نَبِيِّكَ عَلَیْہِمُ السَّلَامُ Then say (100 times): اَللّٰهُمَّ الْعَنْ أَوَّلَ ظَالِمٍ ظَلَمَ حَقَّ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آخِرَ تَابِعٍ لَهٗ عَلٰى ذٰلِكَ اَللّٰهُمَّ الْعَنِ الْعِصَابَةَ الَّتِيْ جَاهَدَتِ الْحُسَيْنَ وَ شَايَعَتْ وَ بَايَعَتْ وَ تَابَعَتْ عَلٰى قَتْلِهٖ اَللّٰهُمَّ الْعَنْهُمْ جَمِيْعًا Then say (100 times): اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وَ عَلَى الْأَرْوَاحِ الَّتِيْ حَلَّتْ بِفِنَائِكَ عَلَيْكَ مِنِّيْ سَلَامُ اللَّهِ اَبَدًا مَّا بَقِيْتُ وَ بَقِيَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ وَ لَا جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ آخِرَ الْعَهْدِ مِنِّيْ لِزِيَارَتِكَ اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَى الْحُسَيْنِ وَ عَلٰى عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ عَلٰی اَوْلَادِ الْحُسَیْنِ وَ عَلٰى أَصْحَابِ الْحُسَيْنِ Then say: اَللّٰهُمَّ خُصَّ أَنْتَ أَوَّلَ ظَالِمٍ بِاللَّعْنِ مِنِّي وَ ابْدَأْ بِهٖ أَوَّلًا ثُمَّ الثَّانِيَ ثُمَّ الثَّالِثَ ثُمَّ الرَّابِعَ اَللّٰهُمَّ الْعَنْ يَزِيدَ خَامِسًا وَ الْعَنْ عُبَيْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ زِيَادٍ وَ ابْنَ مَرْجَانَةَ وَ عُمَرَ بْنَ سَعْدٍ وَ شِمْرًا وَ آلَ أَبِيْ سُفْيَانَ وَ آلَ زِيَادٍ وَ آلَ مَرْوَانَ إِلٰى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ Recite in prostration: اَللّٰهُمَّ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ حَمْدَ الشَّاكِرِيْنَ لَكَ عَلٰى مُصَابِهِمْ اَلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ عَلٰى عَظِيْمِ رَزِيَّتِيْ اَللّٰهُمَّ ارْزُقْنِيْ شَفَاعَةَ الْحُسَيْنِ ؑ يَوْمَ الْوُرُوْدِ وَ ثَبِّتْ لِيْ قَدَمَ صِدْقٍ عِنْدَكَ مَعَ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ أَصْحَابِ الْحُسَيْنِ الَّذِيْنَ بَذَلُوْا مُهَجَهُمْ دُوْنَ الْحُسَيْنِ ؑ Alqamah says – Imam (a.s.) instructed, ‘If possible, recite this ziyaarat daily so that all this reward may be written for you.’ Then Shaikh Toosi (r.a.) says, “Muhammad b. Khalid Tailani narrates from Saif b. Umairah who says that I started to travel towards Najaf along with Safwan b. Sahraan Jammaal and a few companions, after Imam Sadiq’s (a.s.) departure from Heera to Medina. After completing the Ziyaarat of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) Safwaan b. Sahraan turned his face towards the grave of Sayyid al-Shohada – Imam Husain (a.s.) and said that we should sent salutations on Imam Husain (a.s.) from the side of the holy head of Ali (a.s.) as Imam Sadiq (a.s.) has also done the same thing while I was there in his presence. Saif b. Umairah says, ‘Then Safwaan recited the same Ziyaarat (of Ashoora) which Alqamah had narrated from Imam Baqir (a.s.) regarding the day of Aashoora. He recited two units of prayers near the holy head of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) and after the prayer bid farewell to Ameerul Momineen (a.s.), then faced the grave of Imam Husain (a.s.) and bid farewell after salutations and Ziyaarat and from the supplications which he recited, one was as follows: يَا اللَّهُ يَا اللَّهُ يَا اللَّهُ يَا مُجِيبَ دَعْوَةِ الْمُضْطَرِّينَ يَا كَاشِفَ كُرَبِ الْمَكْرُوبِينَ يَا غِيَاثَ الْمُسْتَغِيثِينَ وَ يَا صَرِيخَ الْمُسْتَصْرِخِينَ يَا مَنْ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ إِلَيَّ مِنْ حَبْلِ الْوَرِيدِ وَ يَا مَنْ يَحُولُ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَ قَلْبِهٖ يَا مَنْ هُوَ بِالْمَنْظَرِ الْأَعْلَى وَ بِالْأُفُقِ الْمُبِينِ وَ يَا مَنْ هُوَ الرَّحْمٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوى وَ يَا مَنْ يَعْلَمُ خائِنَةَ الْأَعْيُنِ وَ ما تُخْفِي الصُّدُورُ وَ يَا مَنْ لَا تَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ خَافِيَةٌ وَ يَا مَنْ لَا تَشْتَبِهُ عَلَيْهِ الْأَصْوَاتُ وَ يَا مَنْ لَا تُغَلِّطُهُ الْحَاجَاتُ وَ يَا مَنْ لَا يُبْرِمُهٗ إِلْحَاحُ الْمُلِحِّينَ يَا مُدْرِكَ كُلِّ فَوْتٍ وَ يَا جَامِعَ كُلِّ شَمْلٍ وَ يَا بَارِئَ النُّفُوسِ بَعْدَ الْمَوْتِ يَا مَنْ هُوَ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ فِي شَأْنٍ يَا قَاضِيَ الْحَاجَاتِ يَا مُنَفِّسَ الْكُرُبَاتِ يَا مُعْطِيَ السُّؤَالَاتِ يَا وَلِيَّ الرَّغَبَاتِ يَا كَافِيَ الْمُهِمَّاتِ يَا مَنْ يَكْفِي مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَ لَا يَكْفِي مِنْهُ شَيْءٌ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ أَسْأَلُكَ بِحَقِّ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلِيٍّ وَ بِحَقِّ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ نَبِيِّكَ وَ بِحَقِّ الْحَسَنِ وَ الْحُسَيْنِ فَإِنِّي بِهِمْ أَتَوَجَّهُ إِلَيْكَ فِي مَقَامِي هٰذَا وَ بِهِمْ أَتَوَسَّلُ وَ بِهِمْ أَتَشَفَّعُ إِلَيْكَ وَ بِحَقِّهِمْ أَسْأَلُكَ وَ أُقْسِمُ وَ أَعْزِمُ عَلَيْكَ وَ بِالشَّأْنِ الَّذِي لَهُمْ عِنْدَكَ وَ بِالْقَدْرِ الَّذِيْ لَهُمْ عِنْدَكَ وَ بِالَّذِي فَضَّلْتَهُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ وَ بِاسْمِكَ الَّذِيْ جَعَلْتَهٗ عِنْدَهُمْ وَ بِهٖ خَصَصْتَهُمْ دُونَ الْعَالَمِينَ وَ بِهٖ أَبَنْتَهُمْ وَ أَبَنْتَ فَضْلَهُمْ مِنْ فَضْلِ الْعَالَمِينَ حَتّٰى فَاقَ فَضْلُهُمْ فَضْلَ الْعَالَمِينَ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْ تَكْشِفَ عَنِّي غَمِّي وَ هَمِّيْ وَ كَرْبِي وَ تَكْفِيَنِي الْمُهِمَّ مِنْ أُمُورِيْ وَ تَقْضِيَ عَنِّيْ دَيْنِيْ وَ تُجِيْرَنِيْ مِنَ الْفَقْرِ وَ تُجِيرَنِيْ مِنَ الْفَاقَةِ وَ تُغْنِيَنِيْ عَنِ الْمَسْأَلَةِ إِلَى الْمَخْلُوقِينَ وَ تَكْفِيَنِيْ هَمَّ مَنْ أَخَافُ هَمَّهٗ وَ عُسْرَ مَنْ أَخَافُ عُسْرَهٗ وَ حُزُونَةَ مَنْ أَخَافُ حُزُونَتَهٗ وَ شَرَّ مَنْ أَخَافُ شَرَّهٗ وَ مَكْرَ مَنْ أَخَافُ مَكْرَهٗ وَ بَغْيَ مَنْ أَخَافُ بَغْيَهٗ وَ جَوْرَ مَنْ أَخَافُ جَوْرَهٗ وَ سُلْطَانَ مَنْ أَخَافُ سُلْطَانَهٗ وَ كَيْدَ مَنْ أَخَافُ كَيْدَهٗ وَ مَقْدُرَةَ مَنْ أَخَافُ مَقْدُرَتَهٗ عَلَيَّ وَ تَرُدَّ عَنِّيْ كَيْدَ الْكَيَدَةِ وَ مَكْرَ الْمَكَرَةِ اَللّٰهُمَّ مَنْ أَرَادَنِي فَأَرِدْهُ وَ مَنْ كَادَنِي فَكِدْهُ وَ اصْرِفْ عَنِّي كَيْدَهٗ وَ مَكْرَهٗ وَ بَأْسَهٗ وَ أَمَانِيَّهٗ وَ امْنَعْهُ عَنِّيْ كَيْفَ شِئْتَ وَ أَنَّى شِئْتَ اَللّٰهُمَّ اشْغَلْهُ عَنِّي بِفَقْرٍ لَا تَجْبُرُهٗ وَ بِبَلَاءٍ لَا تَسْتُرُهٗ وَ بِفَاقَةٍ لَا تَسُدُّهَا وَ بِسُقْمٍ لَا تُعَافِيْهِ وَ ذُلٍّ لَا تُعِزُّهٗ وَ بِمَسْكَنَةٍ لَا تَجْبُرُهَا اَللّٰهُمَّ اضْرِبْ بِالذُّلِّ نَصْبَ عَيْنَيْهِ وَ أَدْخِلْ عَلَيْهِ الْفَقْرَ فِي مَنْزِلِهٖ وَ الْعِلَّةَ وَ السُّقْمَ فِي بَدَنِهٖ حَتّٰى تَشْغَلَهٗ عَنِّيْ بِشُغْلٍ شَاغِلٍ لَا فَرَاغَ لَهٗ وَ أَنْسِهٖ ذِكْرِي كَمَا أَنْسَيْتَهٗ ذِكْرَكَ وَ خُذْ عَنِّيْ بِسَمْعِهٖ وَ بَصَرِهٖ وَ لِسَانِهٖ وَ يَدِهٖ وَ رِجْلِهٖ وَ قَلْبِهٖ وَ جَمِيْعِ جَوَارِحِهٖ وَ أَدْخِلْ عَلَيْهِ فِيْ جَمِيْعِ ذٰلِكَ السُّقْمَ وَ لَا تَشْفِهٖ حَتّٰى تَجْعَلَ ذٰلِكَ شُغْلًا شَاغِلًا بِهٖ عَنِّي وَ عَنْ ذِكْرِيْ وَ اكْفِنِي يَا كَافِيَ مَا لَا يَكْفِي سِوَاكَ فَإِنَّكَ الْكَافِي لَا كَافِيَ سِوَاكَ وَ مُفَرِّجٌ لَا مُفَرِّجَ سِوَاكَ وَ مُغِيثٌ لَا مُغِيثَ سِوَاكَ وَ جَارٌ لَا جَارَ سِوَاكَ خَابَ مَنْ كَانَ جَارُهٗ سِوَاكَ وَ مُغِيثُهٗ سِوَاكَ وَ مَفْزَعُهٗ إِلٰى سِوَاكَ وَ مَهْرَبُهٗ وَ مَلْجَاهُ إِلٰى غَيْرِكَ وَ مَنْجَاهُ مِنْ مَخْلُوقٍ غَيْرِكَ فَأَنْتَ ثِقَتِيْ وَ رَجَائِيْ وَ مَفْزَعِيْ وَ مَهْرَبِيْ وَ مَلْجَائِيْ وَ مَنْجَايَ فَبِكَ أَسْتَفْتِحُ وَ بِكَ أَسْتَنْجِحُ وَ بِمُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَتَوَجَّهُ إِلَيْكَ وَ أَتَوَسَّلُ وَ أَتَشَفَّعُ فَأَسْأَلُكَ يَا اللَّهُ يَا اللَّهُ يَا اللَّهُ بِحَقِّ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَنْ تُصَلِّيَ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ أَنْ تَكْشِفَ عَنِّي غَمِّي وَ هَمِّي وَ كَرْبِي فِي مَقَامِي هٰذَا كَمَا كَشَفْتَ عَنْ نَبِيِّكَ هَمَّهٗ وَ غَمَّهٗ وَ كَرْبَهٗ وَ كَفَيْتَهٗ هَوْلَ عَدُوِّهٖ فَاكْشِفْ عَنِّي كَمَا كَشَفْتَ عَنْهُ وَ فَرِّجْ عَنِّي كَمَا فَرَّجْتَ عَنْهُ وَ اكْفِنِي كَمَا كَفَيْتَهٗ وَ اصْرِفْ عَنِّي هَوْلَ مَا أَخَافُ هَوْلَهٗ وَ مَئُونَةَ مَا أَخَافُ مَئُونَتَهٗ وَ هَمَّ مَا أَخَافُ هَمَّهٗ بِلَا مَئُونَةٍ عَلَى نَفْسِي مِنْ ذٰلِكَ وَ اصْرِفْنِي بِقَضَاءِ حَوَائِجِي وَ كِفَايَةِ مَا أَهَمَّنِي هَمُّهٗ مِنْ أَمْرِ آخِرَتِي وَ دُنْيَايَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ یَا اَبَا عَبْدِ اللہِ عَلَيْكُمَا مِنِّي سَلَامُ اللَّهِ أَبَدًا بَقِيْتُ وَ بَقِيَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ وَ لَا جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ آخِرَ الْعَهْدِ مِنْ زِيَارَتِكُمَا وَ لَا فَرَّقَ اللَّهُ بَيْنِي وَ بَيْنَكُمَا اَللّٰهُمَّ أَحْيِنِي حَيَاةَ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ ذُرِّيَّتِهٖ وَ أَمِتْنِي مَمَاتَهُمْ وَ تَوَفَّنِي عَلَى مِلَّتِهِمْ وَ احْشُرْنِي فِي زُمْرَتِهِمْ وَ لَا تُفَرِّقْ بَيْنِي وَ بَيْنَهُمْ طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ أَبَدًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَ الْآخِرَةِ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ أَتَيْتُكُمَا زَائِرًا وَ مُتَوَسِّلًا إِلَى اللَّهِ رَبِّي وَ رَبِّكُمَا مُتَوَجِّهًا إِلَيْهِ (بِكُمَا وَ مُسْتَشْفِعًا بِكُمَا) إِلَى اللَّهِ فِي حَاجَتِي هَذِهٖ فَاشْفَعَا لِي فَإِنَّ لَكُمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الْمَقَامَ الْمَحْمُودَ وَ الْجَاهَ الْوَجِيهَ وَ الْمَنْزِلَ الرَّفِيعَ وَ الْوَسِيلَةَ إِنِّي أَنْقَلِبُ عَنْكُمَا مُنْتَظِرًا لِتَنَجُّزِ الْحَاجَةِ وَ قَضَائِهَا وَ نَجَاحِهَا مِنَ اللَّهِ بِشَفَاعَتِكُمَا لِي إِلَى اللَّهِ فِي ذٰلِكَ فَلَا أَخِيبُ وَ لَا يَكُونُ مُنْقَلَبِي مُنْقَلَبًا خَائِبًا خَاسِرًا بَلْ يَكُونُ مُنْقَلَبِي مُنْقَلَبًا رَاجِحًا مُفْلِحًا مُنْجِحًا مُسْتَجَابًا لِيْ بِقَضَاءِ جَمِيعِ حَوَائِجِي وَ تَشْفَعَا لِيْ إِلَى اللَّهِ اِنْقَلَبْتُ عَلَى مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ وَ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ مُفَوِّضًا أَمْرِي إِلَى اللَّهِ مُلْجِئًا ظَهْرِي إِلَى اللَّهِ وَ مُتَوَكِّلًا عَلَى اللَّهِ وَ أَقُولُ حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ وَ كَفَى سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ دَعَا لَيْسَ لِي وَرَاءَ اللَّهِ وَ وَرَاءَكُمْ يَا سَادَتِي مُنْتَهًى مَا شَاءَ رَبِّي كَانَ وَ مَا لَمْ يَشَأْ لَمْ يَكُنْ وَ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ أَسْتَوْدِعُكُمَا اللَّهَ وَ لَا جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ آخِرَ الْعَهْدِ مِنِّي إِلَيْكُمَا انْصَرَفْتُ يَا سَيِّدِي يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَ مَوْلَايَ وَ أَنْتَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَا سَيِّدِي وَ سَلَامِي عَلَيْكُمَا مُتَّصِلٌ مَا اتَّصَلَ اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهَارُ وَاصِلٌ ذٰلِكَ إِلَيْكُمَا غَيْرُ مَحْجُوبٍ عَنْكُمَا سَلَامِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ وَ أَسْأَلُهٗ بِحَقِّكُمَا أَنْ يَشَاءَ ذٰلِكَ وَ يَفْعَلَ فَإِنَّهٗ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ انْقَلَبْتُ يَا سَيِّدِيْ عَنْكُمَا تَائِبًا حَامِدًا لِلَّهِ شَاكِرًا رَاجِيًا لِلْإِجَابَةِ غَيْرَ آيِسٍ وَ لَا قَانِطٍ آئِبًا عَائِدًا رَاجِعًا إِلٰى زِيَارَتِكُمَا غَيْرَ رَاغِبٍ عَنْكُمَا وَ لَا مِنْ زِيَارَتِكُمَا بَلْ رَاجِعٌ عَائِدٌ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ وَ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ يَا سَادَتِي رَغِبْتُ إِلَيْكُمَا وَ إِلٰى زِيَارَتِكُمَا بَعْدَ أَنْ زَهِدَ فِيكُمَا وَ فِي زِيَارَتِكُمَا أَهْلُ الدُّنْيَا فَلَا خَيَّبَنِيَ اللَّهُ مِمَّا رَجَوْتُ وَ مَا أَمَّلْتُ فِي زِيَارَتِكُمَا إِنَّهٗ قَرِيبٌ مُجِيبٌ. Saif b. Umairah says that I asked Safwaan – Alqamah b. Muhammad has not narrated this supplication from Imam Baqir (a.s.), rather he has only narrated the Ziyaarat.’ Safwaan replied, ‘I had visited this place along with Imam Sadiq (a.s.) then he (a.s.) had performed the same actions which I have repeated and recited the same Ziyaarat and supplication which I have recited now. Thereafter, he (a.s.) recited two units of prayers as we recited and bid farewell in the same manner as we did. Safwaan informed me – Imam Sadiq (a.s.) instructed me to be regular with this Ziyaarat and to keep reciting this supplication as – I am the guarantor for the one who recite this Ziyaarat and supplication either from near or far such that: 1. his prayers will be answered 2. his effort will be rewarded 3. his salutations will be accepted 4. his wishes will be fulfilled 5. his position will be elevated and he will not become hopeless O Safwaan, I have heard this Ziyaarat from my father Imam Baqir (a.s.) who heard from his father Imam Zainul Aabideen (a.s.) who heard from his father Imam Husain (a.s.) who narrated from his brother Imam Hasan (a.s.) who heard from his father Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) who heard from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) who heard from Jibrail (a.s.) who received it from Allah and Allah has sworn by His Holy Being that whoever recites the Ziyaarat and supplication either from near or far, then I will accept his Ziyaarat and fulfill all his wishes and he will not return from My Presence hopeless but will go back as the one freed of hell, wishes fulfilled and deserving of heaven and if he intercedes on behalf of someone then I will accept it too and also said that except the enemies of Ahle Bait (a.s.) (since none’s intercession will be accepted in their favor) as Allah has said swearing by His Holy Being and made us a witness over it and even the angels of the heaven are a witness over this. Jibrail (a.s.) says, ‘O Messenger of Allah, Allah has sent me to give this glad tiding to you, Ali, Faatemah, Hasan and Husain (a.s.) and their progeny which will be a cause of happiness for you, them and your Shias.’ Safwan says that after this Imam Sadiq (a.s.) advised me, ‘O Safwan, whenever you need anything, then recite this Ziyaarat from wherever you wish and recite the supplication and then seek your wishes from Allah, it will definitely be fulfilled and Allah will not violate His Promise to the messenger.’ Ziyaarat is a Golden ChainThe chain of narration of the tradition, ‘Kalimato laa Ilaaha Illallahi Hisni’ is called as Silsilah al-Zahab – the Golden Chain (whose chain of narrators are valuable, evident and illuminated) on account of its pure and holy chain of narrators, which Imam Reza (a.s.) has narrated from his forefathers – which is also said to be Hadees-e-Qudsi. Then is calling the tradition of Ziyaarat-e-Aashoora, which is connected to Allah through infallibles (a.s.) and from infallibles through eminent personalities, which include jurists, traditionalists, and is also Hadees-e-Qudsi, as the Golden Chain, inappropriate? Absolutely not! This Ziyaarat is among the Hadees-e-Qudsi which has reached the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) from Allah through Jibrail (a.s.) in sequential order of Ziyaarat, curse, salutations and supplication and based on experience if recited regularly for 40 days or less, is unmatched in having wishes fulfilled, calamities solved and enemies repelled. Therefore, believers should make it a part of their lives and recite it daily so that they themselves witness its blessings. May Allah grant us success in praying for the earliest reappearance of Imam Mahdi (a.t.f.s.), the avenger of Imam Husain’s (a.s.) blood, and include us among his companions. [1] The late Aga-e-Buzurg-e-Tehraani in his book Noqabaa al-Bashar says about him: He was among the great Imamite jurist and was among the students of Shaikh Murtuza Ansaari, the author of Jawaahir and Shaikh Muhammad Husain Kaashif al-Ghita. Bidaayat al-Anaam fee Sharhe Sharaae Islam is one of his best books and also served as the source of his notes. [2] Famous as Shaikh Ansaari to whom the author has devoted more than a page praising him and enumerating his various titles, which are beyond the topic of discussion. He is enumerated among the greatest Shia jurist. After the author of Jawaahir, i.e. from 1266 AH he held the status of the general jurist (Marja-e-Mutlaq) and expired in 1282 AH. One of his most important books ‘Faraaidul Usool’ which is famous as ‘Rasaail’ continues to be a reference book for the Islamic seminaries of Qum, Najaf, Syria and India. [3] He was the son of Mulla Mahdi and has written numerous books on jurisprudence and beliefs. One of the definitive books on morals and ethics, ‘Meraaj al-Saadaat’ is his work. [4] His father was Murtuza b. Muhammad b. Abdul Kareem Hasani Tabatabaai. Allamah Bahrul Uloom was a great jurist of his time and was born in 1155 AH in Karbala and expired in 1212 AH in Najaf. Many miraculous incidents are narrated involving him. [5] His father was Shailkh Muhammad Akmal Isfahaani and in the Book of Permissions, he is termed as the Complete Teacher. He was born in 1117 AH in Isfaahan and expired in 1205 AH in Karbala. He revived jurisprudence and completely uprooted the Akhbaaris. He is famous among jurists as ‘Aqa’, therefore his progeny is called as ‘Aale Aaqa’. [6] He is the son of Mulla Muhammad Taqi Majlisi (the first). He was born in 1038 AH in Isfahaan and expired in 1110 or 1111 AH in Isfahaan. He needs no introduction. He has written more than a hundred books, the most famous of which is ‘Behaar al-Anwaar’. [7] His father was Maqsood Ali. He was born in 1003 AH and expired in 1080 AH. Muhammad Taqi Majlisi was among the great Shia jurists and as per the narration of Aga Waheed Bahbahaani, Muhammad Taqi Majlisi himself says that he had gained knowledge of jurisprudence, traditions and Quran at the age of four years under the care of his father. [8] He was born in 953 AH in Baalabak and expired in 1030 AH in Isfahan. His corpse was transported to Mashhad. As per narration, he has written 88 books. [9] His full name was Aza al-Deen Husain b. Abdul al-Samad JabaI Aamili Haarisi Hamadani. He was among the students of Shaheed-e-Saani. He was born in 922 AH and expired in 984 AH in Bahrain. He has also written numerous books. [10] He was born in 911 AH in a place in Jabal Aamil called Jamaj and attained martyrdom in 966 AH. He has written many books among which ‘Rauzah al-Bahimiyya’ (taught in Qum, Najaf, Syria seminaries, among others) and ‘Masaalik al-Afhaam are famous. [11] Jamaaluddin Ahmad b. Shamsuddin Muhammad b. Khaatoon Aamili Inaayi has narrated from his father and Shaheed-e-Saani has narrated from him. [12] He was born in 940 AH in Najaf and was the Chief Justice of Iran. He has written important books like ‘Jaame al-Maqaasid’, ‘Sharh al-Feeh’, ‘Haashiyya-e-Sharaae al-Islam’ among others. [13] Sheikh Zainuddin Ali b. Hilaal Jazaairi was a jurist. Muhaqqiq-e-Karki (the second) in his Document of Permission has mentioned him as Shaikhul Islam and Faqeeh-e-Ahle Bait. [14] Abul Abbas Jamaal b. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Fahd Hilli was among the noted Shia jurists. He was born in 757 AH in Hilla and expired in 841 AH in Karbala. Among his books are ‘Al Mazhab’, ‘Al Maujaz’, ‘Al Tahreer’, ‘Uddah al-Daaee’. [15] Shaikh Hurr-e-Aamili in his book Tazkirah al-Mumtajireen has mentioned him as a scholar, worshipper, virtuous and among the students of Shaheed-e-Awwal. Ahmad b. Fahd Hilli has narrated this tradition from him. [16] Abu Abdullah Shamsuddin Muhammad b. Makki b. Haamid b. Ahmad Damishqi Nabati Aamili is famous among scholars as Shaheed-e-Awwal. He was born in 734 AH and attained martyrdom in 784 AH. He was accused of being a Shia exaggerator and imprisoned for a year and then killed. His corpse was then stoned and later burnt. His wife Umme Ali and daughter were also experts in jurisprudence especially in matters pertaining to women. His son is also enumerated among great jurists. ‘Al Feeh’, ‘Ghaayah Muraad’, ‘Qawaaid al-Kulliya’, ‘Al Lumaah al-Damishqiyyah, ‘Duroos’, ‘Bayaan’, ‘Zikraa’ are some of his famous books. [17] He was the son of Allama Hilli, famous as ‘Fakhrul Muhaqiqeen’. He was among the famous jurists and is the author of invaluable books. Shahhed-e-Awwal in his Document of Permission has praised him. [18] Hasan b. Yusuf b. Mutahhar Hilli, famous as Allamah Hilli was born on 29th Ramazan 648 AH and expired on 11th or 21st Muharram 726 AH. He was a great jurist, theologian and doctor. He was the student of Khwaja Naseeruddin Tusi, Muhaqqiq-e-Hilli and Sayyad Ibne Taaoos among others. The Persian king Muhammad Al Jaitu accepted Shiaism through him. He expired in Hilla and is buried in the courtyard of Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) shrine at Najaf. He has written several important books and his service in the way of Allan and religion associated is legendary. [19] Muhaqqiq-e-Awwal, born in 602 AH and expired in 672 AH, was the teacher of Allamah Hilli. He was among the famous Shia jurists of his time, whose famous book ‘Sharaae al-Islam’ is taught in the seminaries even today. ‘Mukhtasar al-Naafe’, ‘Motabar’ and ‘Meraaj’ are his more important books. [20] Shaikh Hurr-e-Aamili has mentioned him as a scholar, litterateur and traditionalist. He has written a great book on the faith of Hazrat Abu Taalib (a.s.). [21] Abul Fazl Shaazaan b. Jibraeel b. Ismail Qummi has also written various books on jurisprudence. [22] Imaad al-Deen Muhammad b. Abul Qasim b. Muhammad b. Ali Tabari Aamili was a renowned Shia jurist, a reliable narrator and author of notable books. [23] He is the son of Shaikh Tusi. Shaikh Hurr-e-Aamili writes regarding him: He was knowledgeable, a scholar, a jurist, a traditionalist, reliable and author of various books among which ‘Sharh al-Nihaaya Aamaali’, ‘Murshid Ilaa Sabeele Ta’abbud’ are worth mentioning. [24] Shaikh Tusi is famous in all sects. He was born in 385 AH in Tus and expired in 460 AH in Najaf. He was a student of Shaikh Mufeed followed by Sayyid Murtaza. He was tortured in Baghdad and his house and library were set ablaze. He then migrated to Najaf and laid the foundation of the seminary over there. He is popular among the Shia jurists as ‘Shaikh al-Taaifah’. Regarding his books, it is enough to mention that among the four reliable Shia books, two books ‘Al-Istibsaar’ and ‘Tahzeeb al-Ahkaam’ are his works. Apart from these, his other works are also notable like Al-Fihrist, Al-Aamaali, Mabsoot, Uddah al-Usool, Nihaayah, Hidaayah al-Mustarshida, Al-Ghaibah, Al-Rijaal, Al-Khilaaf, Tafseer-e-Tibyaan, Misbaah al-Mutahajjid, through which Ziyaarat-e-Aashoora is narrated. [25] Shaikh Tusi has obtained the above tradition from the book of Muhammad b. Ismail b. Baazee and the Shaikh has mentioned his chain of authorities leading to Muhammad b. Ismail b. Baazee’s book in his Fihrist as follows: Ibn Abi Jid from Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. al-Waleed, from Ali b. Ibrahim, from Muhammad b. Ismail bin Baazee.
  10. Animated video of the Incedent of Advice from Imam Mahdi to recite Ziyarate’ Ashurah In his masterpiece, Mafaateeh al-Jenan, the pillar of traditionalists, Shaikh Abbas Qummi (r.a) has mentioned an incident from his teacher, Janab Mirza Husain Tabarsi (r.a) – famous as Mohaddis Noori (r.a) in which Imam-e-Zamana (a.t.f.s.) has emphasized the regular recitation of Ziyaarate Aashoora . This incident pertains to Janab Syed Ahmed bin Syed Hashim bin Syed Hasan Musawi Rashty. He was a trader from the city of Rasht. Watch the video below with urdu dubbing : http://theziyaratofashurah.wordpress.com/2011/06/14/animated-video-of-the-incedent-of-advice-from-imam-mahdi-to-recite-ziyarate%E2%80%99-ashurah/ ALSO FOR MORE VIDEOS ON ZIYARAT E ASHURA , MERITS , MIRACLES VISIT THE LINK BELOW http://theziyaratofashurah.wordpress.com/
  11. CLICK BELOW TO VIEW THE ZIYARAT OF ASHURAH WITH ENGLISH AND URDU TRANSLATIONS (SUBTITLES) http://theziyaratofashurah.wordpress.com/2014/10/26/ziyarat-e-ashura-with-english-urdu-translation-subs/ ALSO FIND IN THE SAME LINK MANY MORE RECITATIONS OF ZIYARAT E ASHURAH , ALONG WITH ITS MERITS , AUTHENTICITY AND TRADITIONS ABOUT IT http://theziyaratofashurah.wordpress.com/
  12. Birth Imam Husain b. Ali (a.s.) was born in Madinah on 3rdShabaan 4 A.H. which was a Tuesday. As soon as Imam (a.s.) was born, he was taken to his grandfather â” the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was delighted at seeing the infant and himself recited the Azaan and Iqaamah in Imam Husainâs (a.s.) right and left ears respectively. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) advised his daughter Hazrat Fatima Zahra (a.s.), âShave his head and give silver equal to his hairâs weight.â Imam (a.s.) was in his grandfatherâs company for a period of over 6 years, with his father â” AmeerulMomineen (a.s.) for 29 years and 11 months, with his brother Imam Hasan (a.s.) for 10 years. He survived his brother for 10 years, which was the period of his Imamate. Name and Title Imam Husainâs (a.s.) agnomen (kuniyyat) was Abu Abdillah. He had several titles, the most famous one being the one he acquired from his martyrdom Sayyid Al-Shohada (Chief of the Martyrs). This was the title of Hazrat Hamzah, the Holy Prophetâs uncle (s.a.w.a.), with which the Muslims addressed Imam Husain (a.s.), the Holy Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) grandson, after his martyrdom. Like his brother Imam Hasan (a.s.), Imam Husain (a.s.) was named by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) on divine command. Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) recounts, âWhen Hasan stepped into this world, I named him Hamzah after my (s.a.w.a.) uncle. Likewise, when Husain was born, I called him Jafar, after another uncle. One day the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) called me and informed, âI have been commanded to change their name to Hasan and Husain.â According to another narration, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) related, âThe names of Hasan and Husain correspond to the sons of Prophet Haroon. His sons were named Shabbar and Shabbir and I have named them with the corresponding Arabic names viz. Hasan and Husain.â Prophecy of Martyrdom The news of Imam Husainâs (a.s.) martyrdom was given by the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to Asma bint Umays on the occasion of his birth. Asma narrates, âWhen Imam Husain (a.s.) was born, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) visited the house and said, âBring my son to me.â I brought the infant wrapped in a white cloth and handed him over to the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). He (s.a.w.a.) recited Azaan in the infantâs right ear and Iqama in his left ear. Then while still holding the infant, he began weeping.â Surprised, I asked, âMay my father and mother be sacrificed on you, what makes you weep?â He (s.a.w.a.) replied, âFor this son.â I asked, âHe is just born and is the cause of your weeping? He (s.a.w.a.) informed, âYes, O Asma. A rebellious group will kill him. May Allah deprive them of my intercession! Do not inform Faatemahh about this news as the birth is fresh in her memory (and the news will upset her).â One day, Umm Fazl, wife of Abbas â” the Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) uncle â” approached the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and informed him (s.a.w.a.), âO Prophet of Allah! I saw an ominous dream tonight. I dreamt as if a piece of your flesh was flung in my arms.â The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed, âThe dream is true. Faatemah will give birth to a son and he will be brought to you.â As predicted on Husainâs birth, he was brought in my lap. One day, I brought the infant to the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). For some time, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) took his eyes away from the infant. When he (s.a.w.a.) glanced at the infant again, his eyes welled up with tears. I said, âMay my father and mother be sacrificed on you O Prophet of Allah, why are you crying?â He (s.a.w.a.) informed, âI have just been informed by Jibrael that my nation will kill him.â When AmeerulMomineen (a.s.) passed through Karbala on the way to Siffeen (to fight against the Muawiyah), he halted there. He wept so bitterly that the earth beneath him became moist. He narrated, âOne day I went in the presence of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and saw him weeping. I asked, âMay my father and mother be sacrificed on you, O Prophet of Allah! What makes you weep?â He (s.a.w.a.) informed, âJust now Jibrail was here and informed me that my son Husain will be killed on the banks of Furaat in a land called Karbala. He brought me the earth from that land and made me smell it and I could not help but weep over it.â That was the place over which AmeerulMomineen (a.s.) stood and informed, âIt is here that their blood will be shed. A group from Muhammadâs progeny will be killed over here so much so that the earth and the skies will weep over them.â VISIT SERATONLINE.COM FOR MORE ARTICLES Resemblance to the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) There are numerous reports indicating that Imam Husain (a.s.) bore a striking resemblance to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.); in fact he was most similar to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Many companions noted Imam Husainâs (a.s.) resemblance to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in physical and spiritual traits; to the extent that whenever the companions saw Imam Husain (a.s.), it reminded them of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Aasim b. Kulaib narrates from his father, âI saw a dream in which I witnessed a person similar to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). I narrated my dream to Ibn Abbas to confirm whether my dream was true or not. Ibn Abbas asked, âWhen you saw the dream were you reminded about Husain?â He replied â” By Allah, the way the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) walked and his gait was exactly like Husain b. Ali (a.s.)?â Ibn Abbas, âThat is because Husain resembles the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.).â Anas b. Maalik recounts, âI was in the court of Ubaidullah b. Ziyaad (l.a.) when Husain b. Aliâs (a.s.) head was presented on a platter in the assembly. Ibn Ziyaad (l.a.) was constantly poking at the face and eyes of Husain b. Ali (a.s.) with a cane. He (l.a.) said insolently, âI do not see any virtue in this face.â Anas b. Maalik reprimanded him saying, âO Ibn Ziyaad! Donât you know that the face of Husain b. Ali (a.s.) bore the most striking resemblance to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)?â The Holy Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) Affection for Husain (a.s.) The Prophet of Allahâs (s.a.w.a.) affection for Imam Husain (a.s.) was notable. Books of history are replete with references to the love and affection the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had for Imam Husain (a.s.) and Imam Hasan (a.s.). While there are numerous incidents to this effect, one is mentioned as an example. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was invited for a feast. He (s.a.w.a.) proceeded towards the venue along with a group of companions. Along the way, he (s.a.w.a.) saw Imam Husain, who was still a child, playing in the streets. He (s.a.w.a.) rushed towards Imam Husain (a.s.) to pick him up. But the infant dodged him (s.a.w.a.). No matter how much the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) tried to catch him, the infant took off in the opposite direction managing to elude the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Finally, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) picked him up and kissed him. Then he (s.a.w.a.) declared, âHusain is from me and I am from Husain. Allah loves the one who loves Husain.â Zaid b. Haarisa relates, âI wanted to meet the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and went to his (s.a.w.a.) house one night. I knocked on the door. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) answered the door. When I was finished with my work, I asked the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), âO Prophet of Allah! What do you have with you?â He (s.a.w.a.) disclosed Hasan and Husain to me, who were hiding behind him and said, âThese are my children as also my daughterâs children.â Then he (s.a.w.a.) turned his face towards the sky and supplicated, âO Allah! You know that I love both of them. Then You too love them and love those who love them.â Salman-e-Muhammadi (r.a.) has also narrated from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) regarding Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.), âOne who loves both of them, I love him. Allah loves my beloved. Allah will make the one He loves enter Paradise. One who despises them or rebels against them, I too despise him. Allah despises the one despised by me. Allah will make the one He despises enter the Hellfire where he will be afflicted by eternal chastisement.â Such quotes and incidents about the Messenger of Allahâs (s.a.w.a.) love and affection for Imam Husain (a.s.) are not isolated events. They are the subject matter of several books and documents. The fact of the matter is that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) categorically established this among the Muslims of the time so that it would enable them and the Muslims of the subsequent eras to distinguish clearly between truth and falsehood. These sayings of the Noble Prophet (s.a.w.a.) serve to identify those who bear enmity and animosity towards his (s.a.w.a.) progeny and expose their wickedness to all. He (s.a.w.a.) singled them out by clearly stating that waging war against the Ahle Bait (a.s.) was in fact war against him (s.a.w.a.). Renowned Sunni scholars have narrated traditions from companions like Abu Hurairah and Zaid b. Arqam that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was on his deathbed, he turned towards Ali, Faatemahh, Hasan and Husain and said, âI am at war with the one who is at war with you and I am at peace with the one who is at peace with you.â This warning of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) with reference to the Ahle Bait (a.s.) has been recorded on several occasions. It is documented that the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) frequently stood facing the house of the Ahle Bait (a.s.) and declared, âI am at war with the one who is at war with you and I am at peace with the one who is at peace with you.â Ibn Aazib narrates that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) declared while referring to Imam Husain (a.s.), âHe (Husain) is from me and I am from him. Everything that is forbidden with regards to me is also forbidden with regards to him.â Incidents about Jibrailâs (a.s.) affection for Imam Husain (a.s.) have been documented in several books. Once Hasan and Husain, while still infants, were playfully wrestling with one another in front of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was continuously supporting Imam Hasan (a.s.). On seeing this, Hazrat Faatemahh Zahra (s.a.) said, âFather you are supporting Hasan, while he is the elder brother, instead of supporting the younger brother. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) explained â” That is because Jibrail who is witnessing the contest is supporting Husain.â There are many other incidents about the Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) fondness for Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.). One such incident is particularly notable which involved the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) while he was leading a prayer congregation. Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) still infants, walked up to their grandfather, who was in prostration and sat on his shoulders. A companion who was witnessing the incident tried to shoo the infants away so as to allow the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) to complete his (s.a.w.a.) prayers. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) indicated to let them remain in their position. He (s.a.w.a.) then gently guided them towards his feet and made them sit on his thighs. Once, while leading the congregational prayers, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) prolonged the prostration more than usual. After concluding the prayers, the companions asked him (s.a.w.a.), âWhy did you prolong the prostration? Was a revelation descending at the time or has a new command been revealed?â The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed, âI prolonged the prostration because Husain (a.s.) had climbed on my shoulders and I did not want to disturb him. I wanted to let him enjoy himself while he was perched on my shoulders.â Umar b. Khattab narrates, âOne I saw the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) while Hasan and Husain were perched on his (s.a.w.a.) shoulders. I turned towards the infants and exclaimed, âWhat a wonderful mount!â The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) countered, âWhat wonderful riders!â Ibn Buraida narrates, âOne day the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was in the mosque to deliver a sermon when his eyes fell on Hasan and Husain, dressed in red cloaks, who were trying to find their way in the congregation. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) descended from the pulpit, lifted them and made them sit alongside him (s.a.w.a.) on the pulpit. Then he (s.a.w.a.) said, âAllah and His Prophet have spoken the truth â” âO you who believe, surely from among your wives and your children there is an examination for youâ¦â (Surah Taghaabun (64): 14). When these children appear in front of me I am so moved that I cannot even continue speaking.â Once the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) happened to pass by his daughter Hazrat Faatemahhâs (s.a.) house when he heard Husain crying. He (s.a.w.a.) said, âPacify Husain so that he stops crying. Donât you know his crying torments me?â Imam Husainâs (a.s.) Lineage Huzaifa Yamaani (r.a.) narrates, âOnce the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) entered the mosque while he was holding Husain on his shoulder in such a manner that the childâs feet were against his chest and said, âO people, I know you will dispute about the best person after me (in lineage). Indeed the best person is Husain b. Ali. Who has a better grandfather than Muhammad (s.a.w.a.)? Who has a better grandmother than Khadijah bint Khuwailid (s.a.), the one who preceded the others in believing in Allah and His Prophet (s.a.w.a.)? Husain Ibn Ali has the best mother and father. His father is Ali Ibn Abi Taalib (a.s.), the brother, confidante and cousin of Allahâs Prophet (s.a.w.a.). His mother â” Faatemahh (s.a.) is the chief of women of all times. Husain Ibn Ali has the best paternal uncle and aunt. His uncle is Jafar b. AbiTalib (a.s.) who has been granted a pair of wings by Allah so that he flies in the heavens at will. And Husain Ibn Aliâs aunt is Umm Haani b. Abi Talib.â Then the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) lowered Imam Husain (a.s.) from his shoulder to the ground so that the child was facing the people and declared, âO people, this is Husain, whose grandfather and grandmother are in Paradise. His uncle and aunt are in Paradise. He himself and his brother will also be in Paradise.â Imam Husainâs (a.s.) Importance According to the Companions (Sahaabah) Once, Abu Huraira was seated by the side of the road while a funeral was passing. Imam Husain (a.s.) was participating in the funeral and the dust from Imamâs (a.s.) feet was accumulating on Abu Hurairaâs clothes. Abu Huraira did not appear to mind and instead was busy dusting the earth off his clothes. Imam Husain (a.s.) asked, âWhat are you doing sitting here?â Abu Huraira replied, âBy Allah, if the people knew your importance they would prefer to carry you on their necks.â Mudrik b. Ammarah relates – Once I saw Ibn Abbas while he was holding the reins of Hasanâs and Husainâs mount. I objected, âWhy are you doing this while you are senior to them?â He replied, âThey are the grandsons of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and dearest to him (s.a.w.a.). What can be more fortunate for me than to hold their reins in this manner?â Incidents highlighting Imam Husainâs (a.s.) excellence and merits can fill up several pages. We have only mentioned a few by way of illustration from hundreds of narrations. Ameerul Momineen (a.s.) relates from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), âHasan and Husain are the chiefs of the youths of Paradise.â Likewise, Ibn Abbas also recounts from the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.), âHasan and Husain are the chiefs of the youths of Paradise. One who loves them, certainly he loves me. One who despises them, certainly he despises me.â Similar narrations from the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) have been documented on the authority of Umar b. Khattab and his son Abdullah. Huzaifa Yamaani, the respected companion of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), relates, âOne night I happened to be with the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). I recited the Maghrib prayers with him (s.a.w.a.). Afterwards, I waited for him while he was reciting prayers until it was time for Esha prayers which I also recited with him. I waited for him to conclude his prayers and come out of the mosque. While he (s.a.w.a.) was still inside the mosque, I could see the back of his head, as if he was conversing with someone. I do not know what was being said. Suddenly, he (s.a.w.a.) turned back in my direction and said â” Who is there? I (s.a.w.a.) replied â” Huzaifa. He (s.a.w.a.) asked me â” Do you know who was with me now? I said â” I do not know. He (s.a.w.a.) informed â” Jibrail, the trustworthy, had come. He conveyed Allahâs salutations to me and gave me glad tidings that Faatemahh is the chief of all women of Paradise and Hasan and Husain are the chiefs of the youths of Paradise. I requested â” O Prophet of Allah, please seek forgiveness for me and my mother. He (s.a.w.a.) responded â” Allah has forgiven you and your mother. Jabir b. Abdullah Ansaari recounts â” One day I was with the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his senior companions. Husain entered the mosque. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) turned towards me and said â” One who wishes to see the leader of the youths of Paradise must look at Husain b. Ali. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) narrated â” Through me you have been warned. Through Ali you will find the path of guidance. Through Hasan you will acquire virtue. However, the good fortune (of entering Paradise) and the misfortune (of entering Hell) is derived from Husain. Beware; Husain is from the doors of Paradise. One who bears malice against him, Allah has forbidden even the fragrance of Paradise on him. Imam Husain (a.s.) and the Verse of Purification (Ayat-e-Tatheer) Umm Salmah (r.a.), the respected wife of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) narrates â” One day, while the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was in my house, Faatemah brought some food for her father. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) welcomed his daughter with utmost respect and said â” Go and invite the sons of my cousin Ali and my sons Hasan and Husain and let them also partake from the food with me. After some time, Ali and Faatemah along with their two sons Hasan and Husain entered the house. At the time, Jibrail descended with the blessed verse of Surah Ahzaab: ââ¦Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House and to purify you a (thorough) purification.â (Surah Ahzaab (33): Verse 33) The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) turned towards me (Umme Salmah) and said â” Fetch me the Khyberi cloak â” which was the Prophetâs biggest cloak. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) made Ali sit on his (s.a.w.a.) right, Faatemah on the left and Hasan and Husain near his (s.a.w.a.) blessed feet. He (s.a.w.a.) covered them all with the cloak. He held the cloak tightly with his left hand and raised his right hand towards the sky and declared thrice: âO Allah! These are my Ahle Bait and my closest family members. O Allah! Keep away from them uncleanness and purify them with a thorough purification. I am at war with the one who is at war with them and I am at peace with the one who is at peace with them. I am an enemy of the one who bears enmity with them.â Based on this narration, Sunni and Shia scholars are unanimous that Imam Husain (a.s.) is one of the members of the Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) progeny on whom the blessed Verse of Purification was revealed. The verse was exclusively for the five members mentioned in the narration and none else can claim to be a beneficiary of the Quranic verse. For this reason Imam Husain (a.s.) has been referred to as – The fifth member of the incident of the cloak. Two of the senior-most Sunni scholarsâ” Ahmed b. Hanbal and Tirmizi in their Musnad and Sunan respectively have documented the fact that for six months before the revelation of the Verse of Purification (Surah Ahzaab: Verse 33), the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), while on the way to the mosque, used to halt at the house of Ali and Faatemah and declare: âPeace (on you) O Muhammadâs Ahle Bait! Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the House and to purify you a (thorough) purification.â Imam Husain (a.s.) and the Verse of Malediction (Ayat-e-Mubaahelah) Regarding the incident of Mubaahela, both Shia and Sunni scholars have recorded that in the incident of malediction against the Christian scholars, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) took none other than Hasan, Husain, Ali and Faatemah corresponding to the Quranic command to bring âour sonsâ, âour womenâ and âour selvesâ. Noted Sunni scholar Haakim Nishapoori in his book Marefato Uloom al-Hadis has documented this incident as consecutive (mutawaatir) and reliable from the aspect of chain of narrators. The incident of malediction revolved around the bishops of Najraan, along with Christian scholars, who had come to Madinah to visit the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) presented Islam to them, however, they rejected it. Consequently, the divine command for Mubahela (malediction) was issued: âBut whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and ourselves and yourselves; then let us be earnest in prayer, and pray for the curse of Allah on the liarsâ. (Surah Ale Imran (3): 61) On the designated day, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) arrived at the venue with his closest family members (a.s.). When the Christians witnessed this, they were frightened from invoking curses on the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his family and agreed to pay the jizya tax. The Enemies Testify to Imam Husainâs (a.s.) Virtues Ekremah â” the slave of Ibn Abbas â”narrates that one day Ibn Abbas was relating a tradition for the Muslims inside the mosque. At the time, Naafe b. Arzaq requested, âO Ibn Abbas, please give a ruling for matters related to ants and mosquitoes? If you have the knowledge, please describe the God Who I worship.â Ibn Abbas glanced in the other direction and saw Husain sitting along with Ali in a corner of the mosque. Then Ibn Abbas turned towards Naafe and said, âCome to me Naafe, so that we can seek the answer to your questions.â Naafe protested, âI am seeking my replies from you (and not from anyone else).â Ibn Abbas defended his decision thus, âHe (Husain) is from the Ahle Bait of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and is the legatee of his (s.a.w.a.) knowledge.â Naafe headed towards Imam Husain (a.s.) to seek his replies. Imam (a.s.) replied to his queries. Naafe replied, âO Husain, your words are virtuous and righteous.â Imam (a.s.), âI have heard that you accuse my father, my brother and me of apostasy.â Naafe replied, âBy Allah, I have rejected what I had heard about you earlier. You are the brilliant minaret of Islam and the guiding star of divine decrees.â Imam (a.s.), âShould I ask you something?â Naafe â” Ask me, O son of Allahâs Prophet! Imam (a.s.) – Have you read the Quranic verse: âAnd as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and there was beneath it a treasure belonging to them, and their father was a righteous manâ¦â (Surah Kahf (18): 82) Imam (a.s.) continued, âO Naafe, who is the one who hid the expensive treasure for the two orphans under the wall so that they could inherit it at a later stage?â Naafe replied, âThe father of the orphans.â Imam (a.s.), âThat is correct. Is the father more benevolent towards his orphans than the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.)? Do you believe that the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) will not deposit his (s.a.w.a.) knowledge with his sons and in this way will deprive them of it?â Imam Husain (a.s.) is the Holy Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) Flower The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) along with his companions was proceeding towards a feast. Suddenly, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) rushed ahead of the rest when he (s.a.w.a.) saw Hasan and Husain, who were still infants, playing in the street. He (s.a.w.a.) tried to catch them but they playfully dodged him (s.a.w.a.). The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had a hearty laugh over the whole thing. Finally, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) caught up with Husain, picked him up and kissed him on the mouth and declared, âBoth these (Hasan and Husain) are from my flowers of this world. One who loves me should also love both of them.â Jabir b. Abdullah Ansari relates, âOne day I was seated alongside the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) when Ali b. AbiTalib (a.s.) entered. The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) turned towards him and addressed him thus, âPeace be on you, O father of the two flowers. I advise you to treat my two flowers well in this world. Soon you will be deprived of your two pillars and these two will be your caliphs.â When the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) passed away, Ali (a.s.) informed that he (s.a.w.a.) was the first pillar mentioned by the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). When Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) passed soon after, he (a.s.) informed that she was the second pillar referred to by the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). A similar narration is recorded on the authority of Abdullah b. Umar, which is related to Imam (a.s.) and the incident of Aashura. Abdullah b. Umar was once seated when a man approached him and asked him a question related to the blood of a mosquito. Abdullah b. Umar asked him, âWhere are you from?â He informed that he was from Iraq. Abdullah said, âLook at this man. He seeks clarification regarding the blood of the mosquito while he has killed the grandson of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and pleads ignorance about what he (s.a.w.a.) said about Husain. I heard the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) declare âHasan and Husain are my flowers in this worldâ. Imiam Husainâs (a.s.) Benevolence One day Imam Husain (a.s.) came across some children who were eating bread and meat. On seeing Imam (a.s.) they invited him to join them. Imam (a.s.) accepted their invitation and shared their food. When he finished, Imam (a.s.) took them to his own house and gifted them food and new clothes. Imam (a.s.) said, âI have been granted this by the Most Generous. I am merely gifting you a portion of it.â Imam Husainâs (a.s.) Valour and Generosity Zainab b. Abi Raafe relates, âAfter the demise of her father (s.a.w.a.), Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) was inconsolable and wept copiously. One day, she took Hasan and Husain to visit the grave of her father (s.a.w.a.). She wept bitterly and complained about the treatment of the Muslims. She then addressed her father (s.a.w.a.), âWhat have you left as inheritance for these two sons?â A voice from the grave responded, âAs for Hasan, he has inherited my awe and as for Husain he has inherited my valour and generosity.â Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.), âI am satisfied with this O Prophet of Allah!â Imam Husainâs (a.s.) Humility in front of Allah Imam Husain (a.s.) performed Hajj 25 times without a mount i.e. by foot. This was at a time when Imam Husain (a.s.) had the option and means to afford a mount for Hajj. It was only to show his humility and servitude towards Allah that he chose to perform Hajj by foot. He took a mount along with him for Hajj without mounting it. This is possibly due to two reasons â” One reason is that he could benefit from the mount on the way back from Hajj and secondly walking with the mount (without mounting it) was a greater manifestation of his humility and servitude. Whispered prayers (Munaajaat) of Imam Husain (a.s.) Imam Husain (a.s.) was seen in Masjidun Nabawi in Madinah while his face was covered with dust beseeching Allah, âO Allah, if you will call me to account for my sins, I will appeal to Your Nobility. And if You gather me with the sinners, I will tell them that I love You. O my Master, my obedience does not benefit You; my disobedience does not harm You. If my obedience has no benefit for You then forgive me if I have fallen short in obeying You. If my disobedience does not hurt You in any way, then overlook my transgressions, because you are the Most Merciful of the Merciful Ones.â References: 1)     Tarikh-o-Dimishq by Ibn Asaakir, Tarjemat-o-Imam al-Husain (a.s.); 2)     Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Tarjemat-o-Imam al-Husain (a.s.); 3)     Maqtal al-Husain by Khaarazmi; 4)     Faraaed al-Simtain, Tarjemat-o-Imam al-Husain (a.s.); 5)     Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 6)     Usud al-Ghaabah fi Marifah al-Saḥaabah, 7)     Al-Mustadrak Alaa Al-Sahihain by Haakem Neshapuri, 8)     Kanz al-Ummaal, 9)     Tafseer-e-Jaame al-Bayaan, 10)  Hilyat al-Awliyaa by Abu Noaim Isfahaani Note: All the aforementioned references are authentic Sunni sources.
  13. Doubt: Lamentations, breast-beating and mourning in memory of Husainâs martyrdom are not sanctioned by Islam. Though such martyrdoms are tragic, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has forbidden holding mourning ceremonies on the death of any person. People of Jaahiliyyah (ignorance) used to mourn over their deceased then the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) stopped the Muslims. Reply: Azaadaari (mourning) is a means to express sorrow for the hardships suffered by the Ahle Bait (a.s.) at the hands of the caliphs of their time. The words of Imam of Ahle Sunnah Allamah Fakhrudeen Raazi are notable: âIt is our firm belief that one who dies with love for the descendants of Muhammad (s) dies a martyr.â (Tafseer-e-Kabir, vol 7, pg 390) We read in Al-Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah of Ibne Kasir in vol. 4, pg. 45, Beirut ed. It is narrated by Abu Hurariah that the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) used to visit the graves of martyrs every year. When he (s.a.w.a.) would reach the entrance of the mountain, he (s.a.w.a.) would say (to the martyrs): âAssalamoalaikum bi maa sabartumâ. This means âPeace be on you due to your patience and you have reached a pleasant place due to this.â Then after the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Abu Bakr also used to come (every year), and after him Umar used to do the same and then Usman also did the same. We read in Al-Bidaayahwa al-Nihaayah vol. 6 pg. 360: Umar said âWhenever I venture out at sunrise, I remember the death of my brother Zaid b. Khattab.â Obviously the remembrance of his brotherâs death did not make him laugh; he was sorrowful (azaadaar). We find in Taarikh-e-Yaqoobi, vol. 1, pg. 3: The father and mother of humanity (Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and his wife Hazrat Hawwa (a.s.)) wept for their son Haabeel for so long that their tears turned into a stream. In Rauzah al-Shuhadaa, pg 30 the same incident has been quoted by Mulla Husain Waaiz Kashifi who adds: Tears from Adamâs (a.s.) right eye were flowing like the River Dajla and like the River Euphrates from his left eye. Perhaps the following tradition may prove more convincing: After the burial of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), the companions in a state of sorrow were virtually throwing dust over themselves, and were crying due to the separation from their beloved. Especially Hazrat Faatemah (s.a.) was inconsolable; she was looking at the faces of her sons Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.) and was crying at their plight and her own plight. Even Aaesha was continuously crying and wailing. For several days and nights the voices of crying and mourning rose from this house which became house of grief (Baytul Huzn) and separation. (Madaarij al-Nubuwwah, vol 2, pg. 753-754) Mulla Ali Qaari in his book Al-Mirqaat fi Sharh al-Mishkaat from a narration by Imam Ahmed b. Hanbal quotes Imam Husain (a.s.): âWhoever weeps and cries upon me remembering my pain and miseries, Allah shall grant him Paradise.â (Al-Mirqaat fi Sharh al-Mishkaatwith reference to Taarikh-e-Ahmedi, pg 277, printed in Kanpur) One can refer to the Holy Quran via this hadis in Ahle Sunnahâs authoritative work Tafseer-e-Durr al-Manthoor, vol. 4 pg 31: The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was asked: What was the extent of Hazrat Yaqoobâs (a.s.) mourning for his son? He (s.a.w.a.) replied, âIt was on par with mourning of 70 men and women.â And what was the reward for this? He (s.a.w.a.) retorted, âIt is on par with one hundred martyrs.â And we read in Tafseer Khazaan vol.3 pg 253: Yusuf (a.s.) said to Hazrat Jibrail (a.s.): Is my father adhering to mourning? Hazrat Jibrail (a.s.) said: The mourning of Yaqoob (a.s.) is on par with 70 men and women mourning. He then asked, âWhat is the reward for this mourning?â He said: The reward for this mourning is on par with mourning of 100 martyrs. Doubt: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) stopped the Muslims from doing all this and directed them to observe patience by saying âInnaalillaahi wa innaa ilayhiraajiâoonâ. A number of authentic traditions are available on the subject. To quote one of them: He is not from our group who slaps his cheeks, tears his clothes and cries in the manner of the people of Jaahiliyyah. (Saheeh Bukhari). Reply: Please refer to the Holy Quran, which permits crying: âAnd he turned away from them, and said: O my sorrow for Yusuf! And his eyes became white on account of the grief, and he was a repressor (of anger).â (Surah Yusuf (12): 84) If you refer to the exegesis of this verse, it will be clear how much Prophet Yaqoob (a.s.) cried for his son ultimately forfeiting his eyesight in the process. In Surah Nahl (16): 53, Allah declares: âAnd whatever favor is (bestowed) on you it is from Allah; then when evil afflicts you, to Him do you cry for aid.â When Umar heard of Numan b. Muqrinâs death he beat his head and screamed, âO what a pity that Nuâman died.â (Kanz al-Ummal, vol.8, pg. 117, Kitaab al-Maut) As narrated by Tabari in his Taarikh vol. 9 pg. 183 (English translation by Ismail Poonawala): Abbas narrates: I heard Aaesha say: The Messenger of Allah died on my bosom during my turn, I did not wrong anyone in regard to him. It was because of my ignorance and youthfulness that the Messenger of Allah died while he was in my lap. Then I laid his head on a pillow and got up beating my chest and slapping my face along with the women. (Ibn Katheer in al Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah vol 5, pg 420) Also refer to Ibn Katheer in al Bidayah wan Nihayah: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) died while he was in my lap. Then I laid his head on a pillow and got up beating my face along with other women. According to Saheeh-e-Bukhaari: Anas b. Malik narrated: We went with Allahâs Apostle (s.a.w.a.) to the blacksmith Abu Saif, and he was the husband of the wet-nurse of Ibrahim (the son of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)). Allahâs Apostle took Ibrahim, kissed him and smelled him. Later, we entered Abu Saifâs house at that time, Ibrahim was breathing his last and the eyes of Allahâs Apostle (s.a.w.a.) started shedding tears. Abdul Rahman b. Auf said, âO Allahâs Apostle! Even you are weeping!â He said, âO Ibn Auf, this is mercy.â Then, he wept more and said, âThe eyes are shedding tears and the heart is grieved, and we will not say except what pleases our Lord, O Ibrahim! Indeed we are grieved by your separation.â Saheeh-e-Bukhaari, vol 2, book 23, tradition 390 We read in the traditions about the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.): âThe Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.a.) was in a state where he was beating his chest.â References: 1.  Saheeh-e-Bukhari vol. 2 pg 50 2.  Sunan-e-Nesaai vol. 3 pg 305 3.  Adhaan al Mufreed pg 426 4.  Saheeh-e-Muslim vol 1 pg 291 5.  Musnad-e-Abi Awaana vol. 2 pg 292 âThere is nothing against Islam in expressing grief, sorrow or in crying and weeping at the loss of a loved one.â Fayz al Bari fi Sharh-e-Saheeh Bukhari, vol 12, pg 462, Egypt ed. We read in Ahle Sunnahâs authority work Maarij al-Nubuwwah chap 1 pg 248: Hazrat Adam (a.s.) was so distressed that he smashed his hands onto his knees and the skin from his hands caused gashes from which bone could be seen. We read in Al-Bidaayah wa al-Nihaayah vol. 5, pg 243: âWhen Prophet (s.a.w.a.) died on the bed, the women who were around him (s.a.w.) had made their faces red by beating their faces.â VISIT SERATONLINE.COM FOR MORE ARTICLES Doubt: Even Husain (a.s.), shortly before his demise, had advised his beloved sister Zainab (a.s.), not to mourn over his death in this manner. He said, âMy dear sister! I swear upon you that in case I die you shall not tear your clothes, nor scratch your faceâ¦â Reply: It is obvious from the numerous incidents of Zainabâs (s.a.) weeping in the presence of Imam Husain (a.s.) before his martyrdom that these statements are false and misleading. When the forces of Yazid planned to attack the camp of Imam Husain (a.s.), Hazrat Zainab (s.a.) came to Imam Husain (a.s.) and asked why was there so much noise outside their tents, Imam replied that I just saw Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) in a dream and he (s.a.w.a.) said that I will be meeting him (s.a.w.a.) tomorrow, hearing this Hazrat Zainab (s.a.) started crying and beating herself on the face. Al-Bidaayahwa al-Nihaayah, vol 8, pg 176, Beirut ed. In the same book it is mentioned: Hazrat Zainab (s.a.) heard the elegies from Imam (a.s.). Reflecting on the tragedy of Karbala and the martyrdom of Imam Husain (a.s.) she cried, lamented and beat herself on the head until she fainted. Al-Bidaayahwa al-Nihaayah, vol 8, pg 177, Beirut ed. Similarly, we read in Sunan-e- Ibn Maajah, vol. 2, pg 285, published 1313 AH in Egypt. Saad b. Abi Waqqaas reported from Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) that he said ââ¦shed tears and cry and if you canât cry then make a crying face.â The death of Imam Husain (a.s.) is an event on which not only humans, but even the jinn, angels, animals, birds, the sky and trees, have lamented. Thus, it is written that the sky wept for forty days on (the martyrdom of) Imam Husain (a.s.). Yanabi al-Mawwaddah by Allamah Shaikh Sulaiman Hanafi Qundoozi, Constantinople ed. pg 392 Hafiz Abu Noaim writes in Hilyah al-Awliyaa on the authority on Imam Shaâbee, Zuhri, and Abu Qataadah: When Imam Husain (a.s.) was martyred, the sun was eclipsed (so long) so that the stars appeared. Waqiyaat-e-Karbala pg 75 Shah Abdul Aziz Dehalvi has narrated the lamenting and wailing of the jinn on pg. 96 of his book titled Sirr al-Shahaadatain. He has also quoted the verses of the elegy recited by the jinn while weeping over Imam Husain (a.s.). Umme Salmah (r.a.) has also narrated: I heard the jinn mourning for Husain. 1.     Tarikh al-Kabir by al-Bukhari (the author of Saheeh), vol 4, part 1, pg 26 2.     Fazaaâil al-Sahaabah, by Ahmed b. Hanbal, vol 2, pg 776, tradition 1,373 3.     Tabarani, vol 3, pg 130-131 4.     Tahzib vol. 7 Suyuti states: When Imam Husain was martyred, the corners of the sky remained red for a four month period. (Tafseer-e-Durr al-Manthoor vol. 6, pg. 31) We find in the traditions that even the first and the second caliphs didnât find lamenting loudly un-Islamic or against the Sunnah. Refer to Kashf al-Ghummah pg. 175: Abu Bakr and Umar would cry in such a way that the neighbors could hear them. Again in the same book we read: When Saad Ibn Maaz died, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.), Abu Bakr and Umar cried. Ayesha narrates âI recognized the cries of Abu Bakr and Umar although I was in my houseâ. (Kashf al-Ghummah, pg. 174) Aaesha called people to read elegies on her fatherâs death and she herself lamented. (Tarikh Kaamil, vol 2, pg 288; Iqd al-Fareed, vol 3, pg 65) On the day that Abu Bakr died, the situation seemed as if Madinah would be flooded with tears. (Tarikh al-Khamees, vol 2, pg 330) There are numerous other traditions which prove the permissibility of Azaadaari in the light of the Holy Quran and the teachings of the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) and his revered companions. However, some Muslims choose to ignore them and raise the bogey of azaadaari being a form of innovation and deviation. Conclusion Itâs an undeniable fact that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has given all Muslims the bounty of Islam for which we collectively cannot repay him. However, the only way we could try to do that is to follow the Holy Quran which states: Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but love for my near relatives.. Surah Shura (42): 23 The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) has also stated, âHusain (a.s.) is from me and I am from Husain (a.s). The Quranic verse and prophetic tradition are more than enough for any Muslim worth his salt to acknowledge the excellence of Ahle Bait (a.s.). The least one can do is remember and love the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his family (a.s.) rather than remaining partial to those who were responsible ever since the advent of Islam for hurting the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a) like Abu Sufyan, his son Muawiyah and his grandson Yazid. Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddis-e-Dehlavi while explaining the philosophy of martyrdom writes in the preface of his book âSirr al-Shahaadatainâ: âThe martyrdom of Imam Husain (a.s.) is in reality the martyrdom of his grandfather Muhammad Mustafa (s.a.w.a).â Last few traditions from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) It has been mentioned in reliable traditions that often Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) mourned for Imam Husain (a.s.), which was obviously before his martyrdom. The well-known scholar of 10th century A. H. Allauddin Muttaqi Hindi in his book âKanz al-Ummaalâ has quoted Ibn Abi Shaibah, who has related from Umme Salmah, the wife of Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.), that â” Once Imam Husain (a.s.) came to Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) when I was sitting near the door. I saw that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had something in his palm, which affected him, making him weep profusely. By now Imam Husain (a.s.) had fallen asleep in his lap. I asked about the matter. He replied: âJibrail has brought the earth of the place where Husain (a.s.) will be martyred and informed me that people of my Ummah will slay him.â Kanz-ul-Ummaal vol. 2 One day, Umm Fazl, wife of Abbas â” the Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) uncle â” approached the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and informed him (s.a.w.a.), âO Prophet of Allah! I had a nightmare. I dreamt as if a piece of your flesh was flung in my arms.â The Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed, âThe dream is true. Faatemah will give birth to a son and he will be brought to you.â As predicted on Husainâs (a.s.) birth, he was brought in my lap. One day, I brought the infant to the Prophet (s.a.w.a.). For some time, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) took his eyes away from the infant. When he (s.a.w.a.) glanced at the infant again, his eyes welled up with tears. I said, âMay my father and mother be sacrificed on you O Prophet of Allah, why are you crying?â He (s.a.w.a.) informed, âI have just been informed by Jibrael that my nation will kill him.â I asked, âWill it be this son?â He replied in the affirmative. Jibraeel also brought reddish sand for me.â Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Saheehain by Haakim Neishapouri, vol 3, pg 176
  14. Without doubt, weeping over the Imam Husain (a.s.) the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) has exemplary effects and blessings. Let us evaluate the different types of mourning so that we can identify the nature of weeping upon Imam Husain (a.s.). Weeping is the representation and symbol of an extreme emotional human state. It can have various reasons and motives, each with its own particularities. In traditions, some conditions are admired and are praiseworthy characteristics of the pure hearted servants of Allah, while other categories of mourning are condemned. Weeping is a natural expression of grief and discomfort. For example, the enthusiasm at meeting a loved one after a prolonged period at times leads to one or both parties to breakdown. Furthermore, at times crying is indicative of oneâs religious beliefs. By this definition too, weeping is indicative of a natural act and is often spontaneous, so it does not become an act of prohibition nor is it considered good or bad according to religious decrees. What is good or bad are the motives and prerequisites which lead to crying. We will evaluate the nature of mourning over Imam Husain (a.s.) â” The Chief of Martyrs and related effects and blessings. To that end, it is judicious to list the different types of mourning so that we can identify the nature of weeping upon Imam (a.s.). 1. The weeping of an infant â” human life begins with weeping and it is a sign of safety and health. Weeping is indeed the language of the child. 2. The tears of longing â” like the fervent weeping of a mother on meeting her son after a prolonged interval. The tears flow out in an excited and agitated manner. 3. The weeping of affection â” love is among the most basic emotions which convey deep affection. For instance, true love of God is the best virtue a creature can possess and tears are a manifestation of this love. 4. The lament of recognition and awe â” the result of sincere worship and contemplation on the greatness of His creation as well as the importance of duties and responsibilities evoke a special kind of fear within man. This fear is rooted in the fear of God and the need for self-improvement and is also known as awe. VISIT SERATONLINE.COM FOR MORE ARTICLES 5. The tears of repentance â” from the factors of sorrow that lead to weeping is the accounting of oneâs self and this accounting causes man to reflect of his past. It guides him to atone for his short comings and mistakes and tears of regret and remorse flow as a consequence of this remembrance. These tears are the result of repentance and turning towards God. 6. The mourning due to connection with an aim â” sometimes, manâs tears is the bearers of the message of a goal. Crying over the martyr is from this genre of lamentation. The crying over the martyr enlivens the customs of the saga within man. Mourning over the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) enlivens the Husaini tradition within man. The Husaini custom is that neither is injustice perpetuated nor is it tolerated. Whoever hears about the event of Karbala cannot but help shed tears over it. 7. The crying of humiliation and defeat â” the tears of the weak and helpless, devoid of spirit and courage, when they do not see themselves reaching their goal. Our aim in mentioning the above is to investigate the nature of weeping upon Imam Husain (a.s.). Whoever pays a little attention will realize that the lamentation upon Imam Husain (a.s.) is the weeping of love â” the love registered in the hearts of those affectionate towards him. The weeping on him are the tears of longing. The battle of Karbala and even the events preceding and following it excite fervour and intensity in the hearts leading to tears welling up in the eyes. It is due to the courage, sacrifice and fiery speeches, righteous men and women captured by the wicked, the supreme conflict between good and evil that the audience is left inconsolable. Moreover, the crying is a sign of his recognition of truth and those who were on the side of truth and a link between him and the divine covenant. Crying over Husain (a.s.) is not the crying of humiliation and defeat, far from it. It is a link to the source of dignity. It is not the lament of the cowards but the mourning of the courageous, not the cry of helplessness but the tears of hope. Lastly, weeping is recognition â” the tears of recognition in the uprising of Husain (a.s.) prevents him from deviation and distortion. Therefore, the excellence of crying upon the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) has been mentioned in several traditions. Imam Sadiq (a.s.) declared: Crying and anxiety over all tragedies is detestable except the tears upon Husain b. Ali (a.s.) which entails a reward. Mourning and crying for the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) carry multiple effects and blessings. Some of them are as mentioned: 1. Protection of the Symbol of the Husaini Struggle against Injustice and Tyranny The most valuable effect and blessing of the assemblies of mourning and crying on Imam Husain (a.s.) is the safeguarding of the symbol of the Husaini struggles against injustice and tyranny. It is worth debating why the assemblies of mourning on the Ahle Bait (a.s.), especially the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) were prevented during the reigns of the wretched caliphs and kings. This can be answered with other questions â” Doesnât the mourning on Imam Husain (a.s.) and other Imams (a.s.) create awareness among the orators, the conscious-keepers of the nation regarding the oppression of the government of the time? Wasnât Imam Husainâs (a.s.) struggle with the express purpose of enjoining good and prohibiting evil? Indeed, these assemblies are schools and universities where the best morals and the most beautiful ethics are recited. The unaware wake up from the slumber of ignorance. Also, those attending such assemblies are taught various aspects of faith and actions based on Quran and the teachings of the Ahle Bait (a.s.). Mourning over the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) and the forming of such assemblies will not only serve to protect the foundation of the school, rather they will enable Shias to get the best possible training in matters of belief, actions and ethics and thereby develop as a Husaini is every sense. Which community in the world provides opportunity for self-improvement of this nature? Which incident like the heart-wrenching event of Karbala, has affected humanity to such an extent and permeates its influence with growing intensity year after year? It should be said that in reality the traditions of mourning are the protectors and guardians of the pure mission of Imam Husain (a.s.) and by extension the guardians of Islam and the trustees of its survival. Morris Dockbury writes: If our historians knew the reality of this day, and understood the significance of Aashura, they would not consider this lamentation as insane. Through the mourning of Husain (a.s.) , his followers understand they should not accept degradation, oppression and colonialism. As was the motto of their leaders, they do not bow before injustice and oppression. A little reflection and evaluation into the mourning ceremonies of Imam Husain (a.s.) underscores subtle life-giving aspects. In mourning ceremonies the audience is reminded that Imam Husain (a.s.) sacrificed his life, property and children to preserve mankindâs dignity and honour and elevate the position and rank of Islam. He did not bow before the imperialism of Yazid. The audience is urged to emulate his example and rid mankind of tyranny and oppression even at the cost of property and life.[ii] 2. Increase in the love for Imam (a.s.) and hatred for his enemies The fire in the hearts of the lovers of the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) from attending such assemblies of mourning give rise to attachment and closeness to the family of the Messenger (s.a.w.a.). In addition to this, constant reminders of Imam Husainâs (a.s.) sufferings at the hands of unworthy and degraded creatures is a cause of increased resentment towards the enemies of Islam and the Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) progeny. Not only is the mourning a declaration of immunity from the opponents of the Prophetâs (s.a.w.a.) progeny; rather it is dissociation from every form of oppression, transgression, injustice and persecution against truth and humanity. 3. Recognizing the reality of religion and its propagation Another effect and blessing of the mourning assemblies organized in the name of the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) is that people are made aware of Islam and its tenets. They are introduced to the teachings of the upright religion. They learn about the concepts of the Holy Quran and the teachings of its inseparable counterpart the blessed and immaculate progeny of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.a.). 4. Forgiveness of Sins Rayyan b. Shabeeb narrates from Imam Reza (a.s.): O son of Shabeeb! Should you weep for Husain to the extent that tears roll down your cheeks, Allah will forgive all your sins, whether they be the great sins or the small sins and whether they be meager or immense.[iii] Imam (a.s.) also informed: Those who weep should weep over the likes of Husain for surely, weeping over him does away with one’s great sins.[iv] 5. Life in Paradise Imam Baqir (a.s.) informed:Â One who sheds tears while mourning over Husain, Allah places him in Paradise.[v] Imam Sadiq (a.s.) declared: There is none who recites elegies about Husain (a.s.) and weeps and makes others weep, except that Allah destines Paradise for them both. In another tradition Imam (a.s.) informed: One in whose presence Husain is remembered and tears equal to a mosquitoâs wing flow (as a result), his reward is with Allah Who will not be satisfied with anything except heaven for that person.[vi] Imam (a.s.) further stated: Whosoever mourns Husain and makes others cry or brings himself to the state of weeping, Paradise becomes incumbent for him.[vii] 6. Healing Another miraculous effect of the mourning assemblies organized for the Chief of Martyrs (a.s.) is healing and cure for debilitating medical problems. It is narrated on the authority of Ayatullah Burujardi (r.a.), who had healthy eyesight at the grand old age of ninety and could read minute text without glasses. He informed â” I am indebted to Hazrat Abu Abdillah Husain (a.s.) for this blessing. He would then theorize: During the years I was at Burujard, I developed a painful eye ailment. The treatment recommended by doctors was of no help and there was no let up in the pain. Meanwhile it was Muharram. In the first ten days of the month, Ayatullah Faqeed arrived at the mausoleum and participated in various mourning assemblies. One of the groups which had entered the house of Ayatullah Burujardi (r.a.) on the day of Ashoora was the group of maatamis comprising of the Saadaat, scholars and the noblemen. Each had a white cloth tied to his waist, dust on the head and chest, moving in an agitated state, narrating the heart-rending incidents of Karbala. They carried on in this condition till noon that day. Ayatullah (r.a.) related: When they came to my house and assembled here, I was overcome by a strange sensation. I sat in a corner and cried slowly. Then I took some earth from below the feet of one of the group members and rubbed it to my eyes to lessen the discomfort. By the blessings of this action, my eyes healed and till date I have never suffered any eye ailment rather my eyesight is perfect and by the grace of Imam Husain (a.s.) I never required to wear glasses. This was the case till the last moment of life. 7. One who mourns over Imam Husain (a.s.) will not cry on the Day of Judgement The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) informed Hazrat Fatemah (s.a.): All eyes will shed tears on the Day of Judgment except the eyes which cried over the difficulties of Husain, they will be smiling and pleased with the blessings of Paradise.[viii] 8. Safety from the Throes of Death and the Fire of Hell Masma narrates that Imam Sadiq (a.s.) inquired – Do you all remember Husain (a.s.)? I replied – Yes. Imam (a.s.) said – Do you weep (over Husain)? I answered â” Yes, by God, I shed tears and my face reflects the grief. Imam (a.s.) remarked – May Allah have mercy upon your tears! Do know that you are regarded as being among those who are deeply concerned about us and of those who are happy at our happiness and aggrieved at our sorrow. Do you know that you shall witness the presence of my forefathers (a.s.) near you at the time of death? The Angel of Death will be gentler with you than a mother is with her child. Then Imam (a.s.) continued – Whosoever grieves over the difficulties of us Ahle Bait (a.s.) with affection, merits the mercy of Allah even before the tears leave the eyes. If a tear that rolls down the cheeks falls in hell, it would extinguish its heat. Every eye that cries over us will be pleased and quenched by friends when it sees the Pond of Kausar.[ix] It is necessary to point out in light of this tradition – The Fire of Hell cannot be compared to the fire of this world, which with the mourning over Husain (a.s.) becomes extinguished and safe. Then it should come as no surprise if the mourning over Husain (a.s.) is a shield against the weak flames of this world. 9. The Impact of Writing Poetry in the mourning of Husain (a.s.) Imam Sadiq (a.s.) â” There is none who recites elegies about Husain (a.s.) and weeps and makes others weep, except that Allah makes Paradise incumbent upon him and forgives his sins.[x] Wasaail al-Shia vol. 10 pg. 393 by Shaykh Hurr al-Aamili [ii] Behaar al-Anwaar vol. 44 pg.284 by Allamah Muhammad Baaqer al-Majlisi [iii]Muntakhab Kaamil Al-Ziyaaraat pg.165 by Ibne Qulwayh al-Qummi [iv]Jalaa Al-Uyoon pg. 462 by Allamah Muhammad Baaqer al-Majlisi [v] Behaar al-Anwaar vol. 44 pg. 293 by Allamah Muhammad Baaqer al-Majlisi [vi]Wasaail al-Shia vol. 10 pg. 397 by Shaykh Hurr al-Aamili [vii]Daastaanha-e-Shaguft pg. 9 by Ayatullah Dastaghaib [viii]Ikhtiyaar-e-Marefat Al-Rijaal pg. 89 by Shaikh al-Tusi [ix]Khulasa Az Maqaale Ashura by Jawaad Muhaddisi
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