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  1. (salam) EXPLOITATION OF PUBLIC TREASURY BY USMAN BIN AFFAN It has been written in the book of Tarikh Tabari –quoted by Abdullah ibn Amir– that: “I broke my fast in the holy month of Ramadan. He brought foods that were more soft and delicious than Umar’s foods. Grilled young goats were provided in Uthman’s table every night.[1] It has been quoted in the book of Ansab al- Ashraf –quoted by Salim Abu Amir– that: “Uthman put on a cloak that was worth one hundred Dinars”.[2] It has also been written in Tabaqat al- Kubra –quoted by Muhammad ibn Rabi’ah ibn Harith– that: “I saw Uthman wearing a flamboyant furry cloak which it was worth two hundred Dirhams, and he said: “this is my wife’s, Na’ilah , I dressed her in it and now I am wearing it to make her happy”.[3] It has been quoted in the book of Al- Sawa’iq al- Muhariqah that: “Abu Musa brought some jewels made of gold and silver to Uthman, and he shared all of them among his wives and daughters. He spent most of Muslim public treasury on his farms and houses”.[4] It also has been written in Akhbar al- Muwafaqiyat –quoted by Zuhri– that: “when people brought the jewelry of Kasra [belonged to the king of Iran] to Umar, he said: “because it is so expensive, we put it in Muslim public treasury, maybe Allah enriches Muslims in the future, and one of them can buy that. Umar was killed, and that jewelry was in that state, and when Uthman became caliph, he took it and made it jewel of his daughters”.[5] It has been stated in the book of Duwal al- Islam that: “Uthman has acquired many properties and had one thousand slaves”.[6] It is mentioned in Muruj al- Zahab that: “Uthman built his house in Medina, stabilized it with stone and lime, and put some doors made of Saj[7] and sylvan cedar, and he took properties, springs and gardens in Medina”. Abdullah ibn Utbah says that: “in the day that Uthman was killed, one hundred and fifty thousand Dinars and one million Dirhams were in his treasurer’s hand, and his lands in Wadi al- Qura, Hunayn and etc were worth one hundred Dinars, he left many horses and camels”.[8] It also has been quoted from Ubaydullah ibn Abdullah ibn Utbah in the book of Tabaqat al- Kubra that: “in the day that Uthman was killed, thirty million and five hundred thousand Dirhams and one hundred and fifty thousand Dinars were in his treasurer’s hand. He left one thousand camels in Rabazah[9], and lands that he left in Baradis and Khaybar[10] and Wadi al- Qura[11] were worth two hundred thousand Dinars”.[12] [13] References [1] - Tarikh Tabari, vol. 4, p. 401. [2] - Ansab al- Ashraf, vol. 6, p.102; Al- Tabaqat al- Kubra, vol. 3, p. 58 æ Ýíå "ÈÑÏÇ íãÇäíÇ Ëãä ãäÉ ÏÑåã" “and in that Yamani cloak is worth one Dirham”. [3] - Al- Tabaqat al- Kubra, vol. 3, p. 58; Ansab al- Ashraf, vol. 6, p. 102 æ Ýíå "ãäÉ ÏíäÇÑ" ÈÏá "ãäÊí ÏÑåã" “and in that Dinar is instead of Dirham”. [4] - Al- Sawa’iq al- Muhariqah, p. 113; Al- Sirah al- Halbiyah, vol. 2, p. 78 æ Ýíå "Șáíå" ÈÏá "ÈÍáíå" “and in that balance is instead of ornament. [5] - Al- Akhbar al- Muwafaqiyat, p. 612, tradition no. 396; Sharh Nahj al- Balaghah, vol. 9, p. 16. [6] - Duwal al- Islam, p. 16. [7] - Saj is kind of sylvan tree that is high, big and having a hard and resistant wood, and it is used mostly to make ship (Al- Durus, vol. 2, p. 1154). [8] - Muruj al- Zahab, vol. 2, p. 341. [9] - It is one of the villages of Medina near to Zat Irq in the way of Hijaz which the distance between it and Medina is three nights (Mu’jam al- Baldan, vol. 3, p. 24). [10] - The area at a distance of 200 kilometers from Medina to Damascus (Mu’jam al- Baldan, vol. 2, p. 409). [11] - It is a prairie between Medina and Damascus from dependencies of Medina, and many villages are placed in that (Mu’jam al- Baldan, vol. 5, p. 345). [12] - Al- Tabaqat al- Kubra, vol. 3, p. 76; Tarikh al- Islam lil- Zahabi, vol. 3, p. 461, äÍæå æ áíÓ Ýíå ãä "˜Çä ÊÕÏÞ" Çáí "ÇáÞÑí"; Al- Bidayah wa al- Nahayah, vol. 7, p. 192 æ Ýíå "ÈÆÑ ÇÑíÓ" ÈÏá "ÈÈÑÇÏíÓ". [13] - Muhammad Muhammadi Ray Shahri, The Encyclopedia of Amir al- Muminin, vol. 3, p. 99 – 103.
  2. (salam) Let us first see what Quran says about a cruel leader. It is understood from the Holy Quran that Imamate and caliphate is not the right of evil-doer and cruel man and he should not be followed, for example:"æ ÇÐ ÇÈÊáí ÇÈÑÇåíã ÑÈå ȘáãÇÊ ÝÇÊãåä ÞÇá Çäí ÌÇÚᘠááäÇÓ ÇãÇãÇ ÞÇá æ ãä ÐÑíÊí ÞÇá áÇ íäÇá ÚåÏí ÇáÙÇáãíä"A[1] “And when his Lord tried Ibrahim with certain words, he fulfilled them. He said: Surely I will make you an Imam of men. Ibrahim said: And of my offspring? My covenant does not include the unjust, said He.” "ÇÝãä íåÏí Çáí ÇáÍÞ Çä íÊÈÚ Çãä áÇ íåÏí ÇáÇ Çä íåÏí ÝãÇ á˜ã ˜íÝ Ê͘ãæä"-B[2] “Is there any of your associates who guides to the truth? or he who himself does not go aright unless he is guided? What then is the matter with you; how do you judge?” It is understood from this verse that one who does not guide to the truth, is not competent to be followed. C- Some of the verses have set fire of hell as the punishment of tendency for and trusting cruel men and says that: [3]"æ áÇ ÊјäæÇ Çáí ÇáÐíä ÙáãæÇ ÝÊãÓ˜ã ÇáäÇÑ" “And do not incline to those who are unjust, lest the fire touch you” D- The Holy Quran has considered a ruler who does not judge by what Allah has revealed to be heathen and states that: [4] æ ãä áã í͘ã ÈãÇ ÇäÒá Çááå ÝÇæáƘ åã Çá˜ÇÝÑæä" “and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unbelievers” And we know that following heathen is not allowable, and also many verses in the Holy Quran absolutely –in a way that it prevents from allocation and limitation– prohibit people from following sinners, though they are caliph, sultan and Imam, such as: The Almighty Allah states that: "ÝáÇ ÊØÚ Çáã˜ÐÈíä"[5] -1 “So do not yield to the rejecters” "æ áÇ ÊØÚ ˜á ÍáÇÝ ãåíä"[6] -2 “And yield not to any mean swearer” "æ áÇ ÊØÚ Çá˜ÇÝÑíä æ ÇáãäÇÝÞíä"[7] -3 “And be not compliant to the unbelievers and the hypocrites” "æ áÇ ÊØíÚæÇ ÇãÑ ÇáãÓÑÝíä ÇáÐíä íÝÓÏæä Ýí ÇáÇÑÖ æ áÇ íÕáÍæä"[8] -4 “And do not obey the bidding of the extravagant” "ÝÇÕÑ á͘ã ÑȘ æ áÇ ÊØÚ ãäåã ÂËãÇ Çæ ˜ÝæÑÇ"[9] -5 “Therefore wait patiently for the command of your Lord, and obey not from among them a sinner or an ungrateful one” "æ áÇ ÊØÚ ãä ÇÛÝáäÇ ÞáÈå Úä ИÑäÇ æ ÇÊÈÚ åæÇå æ ˜Çä ÇãÑå ÝÑØÇ"[10] -6 “and do not follow him whose heart We have made unmindful to Our remembrance, and he follows his low desires and his case is one in which due bounds are exceeded” "íæã ÊÞáÈ æÌæååã Ýí ÇáäÇÑ íÚÞæáæä íÇ áíÊäÇ ÇØÚäÇ Çááå æ ÇØÚäÇ ÇáÑÓæá* æ ÞÇáæÇ ÑÈäÇ ÇäÇ ÇØÚäÇ ÓÇÏÊäÇ æ ˜ÈÑÇÁäÇ ÝÇÖáæäÇ ÇáÓÈíá* ÑÈäÇ ÂÊåã ÖÚÝíä ãä ÇáÚÐÇÈ æ ÇáÚäåã áÚäÇ ˜ÈíÑÇ"[11] -7 “On the day when their faces shall be turned back into the fire, they shall say: O would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger!* And they shall say: O our Lord! surely we obeyed our leaders and our great men, so they led us astray from the path* O our Lord! give them a double punishment and curse them with a great curse”[12] [1] - Quran, Al- Baqara, verse. 124. [2] - Quran, Yunus, verse. 35. [3] - Quran, Hud, verse. 113. [4] - Quran, Al- Maida, verse. 44. [5] - Quran, Al- Qalam, verse. 8. [6] - Quran, Al- Qalam, verse. 10. [7] - Quran, Al- Ahzab, verse. 48. [8] - Quran, Al- Shu`ara, verse. 151. [9] - Quran, Al- Insan, verse. 24. [10] - Quran, Al- Kahf, verse. 28. [11] - Quran, Al- Ahzab, verse, 66 – 68. [12] - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 196. Sunnis and necessity of obeying cruel leader Obeying impious and cruel Imam or governor is one of the matters of dispute between Sunni and Shia; Sunnis unanimously believe that sultan will not be removed from caliphate by committing sin. Some of their opinions are as follows: 1- “Imam Nuwi” says that: “Sunnis have generally agreed that sultan and caliph will not be removed from caliphate by committing sin …”.[1] 2- “Qazi Ayaz” says that: “all Sunnis including jurists, traditionalists and orators believe that sultan will not be removed from caliphate by committing sin, oppressing people and denying their right”.[2] 3- “Qazi Abu Bakr Baqlani” also writes that: “all the traditionalists believe that Imam will not be removed from Imamate by committing sin, oppressing, taking away people’s properties, slapping in the faces, disturbing the life of upright people, wasting rights and denying legal punishments, and it is not allowable to rise against him, but the only duty of people is to preach him and warn him about results of his actions. And they should not commit those sins to which he has invited them”. These people have relied on many narrations from the Prophet (s.a.w.) and the Companions for proving the necessity of obeying Imam and caliph, even if he is cruel and takes away the property of people by force; they say that: “the Prophet (s.a.w.) said that: “you should listen to the governor and obey him, even if he is a cut-nose slave or a Abyssinian one. And you should follow any righteous and impious person in prayer”. And they laso said that: “you should obey your governor, even if they take away your property and ruin your life”.[3] [4] [1]- Sharh Sahih Muslim, Nuwi, vol. 12, p. 229. [2]- Sharh Sahih Muslim, Nuwi, vol. 12, p. 229. [3]- Al- Tamhid, Baqlani. [4]- Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 193. Sunnis and rising against the cruel leader Sunni scholars unanimously agree that rising against cruel and unjust Imam and caliph is not allowable, Abdullah ibn Umar and Ahmad ibn Hanbal are from the aged serious opponents of rising against Muslims’ caliph, though he was cruel and unjust. Abu Bakr Marwazi quotes from Ahmad ibn Hanbal that he commanded to avoid from bloodshed and prohibited rising against the Muslims’ caliph.[1] Doctor Atiyyah Zahrani says following the narration of Marwazi that: “the document of this narration is correct and it is the ancestors’ manner”.[2] Imam Nuwi has claimed a general agreement in Sharh of Sahih of Muslim and says that: “… and rising and fighting against Imams of Muslims is prohibited by Muslims’ general agreement, though they are evil-doer and cruel”.[3] Doctor Muhammad Faruq Nihban attributes the prohibition of rising against unjust and evil-doer Imam to most of Sunnis and says that: “scholars have two opinions about the revolution and rising against cruel and evil-doer Imam; the first opinion is that rising against Imam and removing him from the power is allowable. This is the opinion of Mu’tazila, Kharijites, Zaydites and Murji’a (deferrers), they also consider it to be obligatory and use these verses: "æ ÊÚÇæäæÇ Úáí ÇáÈÑ æ ÇáÊÞæí" “incite you to exceed the limits, and help one another in goodness and piety” "ÝÞÇÊáæÇ ÇáÊí ÊÈÛí ÍÊí ÊÝíÁ Çáí ÇãÑÇááå" “fight that which acts wrongfully until it returns to Allah's command” "áÇ íäÇá ÚåÏí ÇáÙÇáãíä" “My covenant does not include the unjust” Another opinion is that drawing sword against Imam is not allowable; because it will result in revolution and bloodshed and this is the opinion of the majority of Sunnis, traditionalists and many Companions, such as: Ibn Umar, Sa’ad ibn Abi Waqas and Usamah ibn Zayd”.[4] [5] [1] - Al- Sunnah, vol. 1, p. 131. [2] - Al- Sunnah, vol. 1, p. 131. [3] - Sharh Sahih Muslim, Nuwi, vol. 2, p. 229. [4] - Nizam al- Hukm fi al- Islam, p. 527 – 529. [5] - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 194.
  3. (salam) Ibn e Taymmiyah (l.a) was the first to lay the foundation of love of Yazeed in the hearts of Sunnis otherwise, before him Sunnis were more inclined to accept the reality and had more love for Ahl ul bayt a.s. Ibn e Taymmiyah (l.a) not only created doubts about the merits of Ahl ul bayt a.s rather he also tried to conceal the truth about the tragedies of Ahl ul bayt a.s like he advocated Yazeed and tried to clear him from the biggest crime of Islamic history. Like see the following attempt by Ibn e Taymmiyah (l.a) ibn Taymiyah says that: “sending the head of Husayn to Damascus has no foundation during the time of Yazid.”[1] In answer to this matter, we should say that: there are many traditions indicating that the head of Imam Husayn (a.s.) has been sent to Yazid; is it possible to deny all of them? We mention some of them here: Y’aqubi writes in his History that: “Yazid wrote a letter to his governor , Walid ibn Abi Sufyan, in Medina that: when you received my letter, call Husayn ibn Ali and Abdullah ibn Zubayr and ask them for swearing allegiance to me, and cut off their heads and send them to me in the case of refusing doing so…”[2] ibn Athir writes that: “as Yazid received the head of Husayn (a.s.), the rank and position of ibn Ziyad was risen by Yazid, he gave him rewards and made him happy for what he had done.”[3] Tabari also quotes that: “then Yazid allowed people to come to him. People entered Yazid’s royal residence; while the head of Husayn (a.s.) was in front of him, and he was beating with his bat on the throat of Husayn (a.s.) …, a person from the Companions of the Prophet (s.a.w.), namely Abu Barzah Aslami said to Yazid that: are you beating with your bat on the throat of Husayn (a.s.)? Be aware! You are beating with your bat on where I saw that the Prophet (s.a.w.) kissed it. O Yazid! You will come in the resurrection day, while ibn Ziyad is your intercessor. But Husayn (a.s.) will come in the resurrection day, while Muhammad (s.a.w.) is his intercessor, then he stood up, turned his back to him and left his meeting.”[4] Siyuti writes that: “when Husayn and children of his father were killed, ibn Ziyad sent their heads to Yazid. Yazid became happy about their killing first, but when he saw that Muslims considered him as an enemy and took vengeance from him, he expressed his repentant.”[5] Sabt ibn Juwzi has quoted that: “when the head of Husayn (a.s.) was put in front of Yazid, he invited people of Damascus and started to beat with bamboo on his holiness’ head. Then he recited ibn Zub’ari’s poems which its content is as this: we killed the great people of Hashimite instead of our great ones who were killed in the battle of Badr, therefore moderation and adjustment were set in this case.”[6] [7] References [1] - Ra’s al- Husayn (a.s.), p. 207; Al- Wasiyah al- Kubra, p. 206. [2] - History of Ya’qubi, vol. 2, p. 241; Al- Futuh, vol. 5, p. 10 and 11. [3] - Kamil of ibn Athir, vol. 3, p. 300; History of Tabari, vol. 4, p. 388; Tarikh al- Khulafa’, p. 208; Al- Bidayah wa al- Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 254; Kitab al- Futuh, vol. 5, p. 252. [4] - History of Tabari, vol. 4, p. 356; Kamil of ibn Athir, vol. 3, p. 298. [5] - Tarikh al- Khulafa’, p. 208. [6] - Tazkarah al- Khawas, p. 235. [7] - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Salafism and Answering to the Doubts, p. 158.
  4. (salam) there have been written various issues in Sunni historical books about Muawiyah’s actions for founding Yazid’s caliphate and he tried his best to reach this intention, for example: pay attention to these two events: 1- When Muawiyah’s kingdom was established, he had in mind to nominate his son as successor and make people to swear allegiance and establish a stable dominion of Umayyads in his family, therefore he got continuously agreement of people on swearing allegiance to Yazid during seven years, he gave gifts to his relatives and won the hearts of others[1], sometimes he did not talk about it, and sometimes he declared it, and he prepared the way for swearing allegiance to Yazid in this way. Abu Umar writes in “al- Istia’b”[2] that: “Muawiyah had given a sign of swearing allegiance to Yazid at the time of Hasan (a.s.), but he did not announce that until the departure of Hasan (a.s.) and he did not decided to put it in practice.” 2- When groups and people, among them Ahnaf ibn Qays were gathered from various cities in Damascus by Muawiyah’s order, Muawiyah called Zahak ibn Qays Fahri to come to him and told him that: "ÇÐÇ ÌáÓÊ Úáí ÇáãäÈÑ æ ÝÑÛÊ ãä ÈÚÖ ãæÚÙÊí æ ˜áÇãí ÝÇÓÊÇÐäí ááÞíÇã¡ ÝÇÐÇ ÇÐäÊ á˜ ÝÇÍãÏ Çááå ÊÚÇáí æ ÇÐ˜Ñ íÒíÏ¡ æ Þá Ýíå ÇáÐí íÍÞ áå Úáí˜ ãä ÍÓä ÇáËäÇÁ Úáíå¡ Ëã ÇÏÚäí Çáí ÊæáíÊå ãä ÈÚÏí¡ ÝÇäí ÞÏ ÑÇíÊ æ ÇÌãÚÊ Úáí ÊæáíÊå¡ ÝÇÓÇá Çááå Ýí ÐÇᘠæ Ýí ÛíÑå ÇáÎÈíÑÉ æ ÍÓä ÇáÞÖÇÁ." “When I went over pulpit and expressed a part of my sayings, you ask me to speak and when I allow you, you should praise Allah then mention Yazid and speak in praise of him which is his right on you, and you should ask me that I make him caliphate after myself; because I decided to nominate him as my successor, and I seek mercy and good destiny in this matter and otherwise. Then he called Abdul-Rahman ibn Uthman Thaqafi, Abdullah ibn Musa’dah Fazari, Thur ibn Mua’n Salami and Abdullah ibn Usam Asha’ri to come to him and ordered them that when Zahak finished his speech, you should raise and certify his speech, and you should invite him to swear allegiance to Yazid. … After that Muawiyah sermonized and they spoke to invite people swearing allegiance to Yazid according to Muawiyah’s order. Then Muawiyah appointed Zahak as governor general of Kufa and Abdul-Rahman as governor general of Algazirah. At this time Ahnaf ibn Qays stood and said that: “O commander of the believers, you are more aware than us about Yazid’s day and night, his inward and outward aspect, and his commuting. Therefore, if you think that Allah is satisfied with Yazid and he is good for people, do not consult with people anymore, and if you know other than that, do not make him owner of the world while you are going to the next world and in that world just good acts will stay with you, be aware that if you prefer Yazid to Hasan and Husayn (a.s.) while knowing that who they are and what belief they have, your excuses will not accepted by Allah and we should just say that: "ÓãÚäÇ æ ÇØÚäÇ¡ ÛÝÑÇä˜ ÑÈäÇ æÇáí˜ ÇáãÕíÑ" “We just heard it and obeyed it, O Allah, we seek forgiveness to You and to You is our return”.[3] [4] [1] - al- Iqd al- Farid, vol. 2, p. 302 and vol. 4, p. 161. [2] - al- Istia’b, vol. 1, p. 142, [al- Qism al-Awal, p. 391, no. 555]. [3] - al- Imamah wa al- Siasah, vol. 1, p. 138 – 142 and vol. 1, p. 143 – 148. [4] - Shafi'i Shahrudi, A comprehensive selection of Al- Ghadir, p. 999.
  5. MUAWVIA AND DRINKING WINE while quoting a surprising historical event, some of great Sunni historians have quoted drinking wine habit of Muawiyah in this way that: Abdul-Rahman ibn Suhayl Ansari was the commander of war at the time of Uthman’s caliphate and Muawiyah’s ruling over Damascus. That time a caravan caring wine for Muawiyah passed him. He took his lance and attacked camels, slaves who were protectors of caravan resisted and Muawiyah was informed of it. Muawiyah ordered that: “relinquish resistance to Abdul-Rahman, because he is unwise”. Abdul-Rahman answered that: “it is not true, I swear to Allah that I am not unwise, but the reason of my attack is that the Prophet (s.a.w) prohibited us from drinking wine. I swear to Allah that if I be alive and see that painful event that the Prophet (s.a.w) has predicted about Muawiyah, I will open his stomach or I will be martyred in this way”.[1] Ahmad ibn Hanbal quotes from Abdullah ibn Baridah in his “Musnad”[2] that he said: “my father and I went to Muawiyah, after eating food, servants brought wine, Muawiyah drank and offered my father. He said that: “I have not drink wine yet, since the Prophet (s.a.w.) prohibited it”.[3] [1] - Asd al- Ghabah, vol. 3, p. 299; Ibn Hajar, al- Isabah, vol. 2, p. 401; Tahzib al- Tahzib, vol. 6, p. 192. [2] - Musnad Ahmad, vol. 5, p. 347 and vol. 6, p. 476, tradition no. 22432. [3] - Shafi'i Shahrudi, A comprehensive selection of Al- Ghadir, p. 977.
  6. (salam) Followers of Muawvia are blind like Sonodar. it is written in “Muruj al- Zahab” that: “a Kufic person came to Damascus on his camel, while returning from Siffin (Battle of Siffin); one of men of Damascus claimed that this “Naqih” (female camel) was his and it has been taken from him in Siffin. They went to Muawiyah to solve the problem, the Damascene man called fifty men to witness that this “Naqih” is his, so, Muawiyah considered him to be rightful and ordered to Kufic man to give the camel to the Damascene man, Kufic man said to Muawiyah that: “sorry but, this camel is male, not a female one”. Muawiyah said that: “but it has been adjudicated”, and he played tricks on him. When Damascene men went, Muawiyah called Kufic man to come and asked the price of his camel and paid him double that amount, Muawiyah treated him kindly and told him that: “tell Ali (a.s.) that I has begun a war against you with one thousand hundred men who do not know the difference between male and female camel”. They were so obedient to Muawiyah that while leaving for Siffin, they said the Friday Prayer with him on Wednesday without raising any objection to his act. They sacrificed their heads for Muawiyah and held him in high esteem, and accepted saying of Amr A’s that: “Ali is the killer of Ammar ibn Yasir, because he has brought Ammar along to support him”, and were so obedient to Muawiyah that they cursed Ali as a tradition according to Muawiyah’s order, and follows it from childhood to the death”.[1] This story clearly shows the status of faith and understanding of Muawiyah’s followers.[2] [1] - Muruj al- Zahab, vol. 2, p. 72 and vol. 3, p. 42. [2] - Shafi'i Shahrudi, A comprehensive selection of Al- Ghadir, p. 983.
  7. (salam) Once Zeid Ebne Arqam came to Moavieh and saw Amro Aas sitting beside him. He sat between them. Amro Aas told him: Did you not find any other place as you intervened us? Zeid replied: In one of the battles in which both of you accompanied Prophet (s.a.), he worried when looking at you. On the second and third day, he looked at you for a longer period. On the third day, he said: «ÅÐÇ ÑÃíÊã ãÚÇæíÉ æÚãÑæ Èä ÇáÚÇÕ ãÌÊãÚóíäö ÝÝÑöøÞæÇ ÈíäåãÇ¡ ÝÅäøåãÇ áä íÌÊãÚÇ Úáì ÎíÑ» Whenever you saw Moavieh and Amro Ebne Aas besides each other, intervene between them, because these two do not gather each other for a good deed. Ebne Mazahem has narrated the story in the book, æÞÚå ÕÝíä, so. Please refer also to the book, ÇáÚÞÏ ÇáÝÑíÏ by Ebne Abde Rabbeh too. 2, 3 1- æÞÚå ÕÝíä: 112 (page 218) 2- ÇáÞÏ ÇáÝÑíÏ 2:290 (145/4) 3- Shafiei Mazandarani/a general extract from Alghadir, page 172
  8. (salam) referring to history signifies that several innovations have been recorded that we mention some of them as examples: 1- Innovation of Azan (call to prayer) in prayer of Eid Fitr (festival of fast-breaking) and Eid Qurban (sacrificial festival) Shafi’i has quoted from Zuhri in book “al- Um”[1] that he said: “Azan was not recited in prayer of Eid at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, until Muawiyah innovated it in Damascus, and after that Hajjaj inovated it in Medina at the time of rulling over there. Ibn Hazm writes in the book “al- Mahalli”[2] that: “the Umayyads innovated going late for prayer of Eid ,preferring oration to prayer and saying Azan and Iqama (declaration of standing for prayer) for prayer of Eid. 2- Innovation in Diya (blood-money) Zahak quotes from Muhammad ibn Ishaq in the book “al- Diyat”[3] that he said: “I told Zuhri that: tell me about the amount of Diya of Dhimmi (non-Muslim citizen) heathen at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), because we have disputed with each other about it, he said: “there is no one wiser than me in this case from the east to the west, it was one thousand Dinar (gold currency unit) at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, until Muawiyah gave five hundred Dinars to family of murdered person and kept five hundred Dinars for Bayt al- Mal”. Ibn Kathir writes in “al- Bidayah wa al- Nihayah”[4] that: “Zuhri says that: “according to the tradition of the Prophet (s.a.w.) Diya of Dhimmi and Muslim was the same and Muawiyah was the first person who divided it and kept half of it for himself”[5]. It is necessary to mention that contrary to the saying of Zuhri Diya of Dhimmi heathen was not one thousand Dinar at the time of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and from among the Sunni leaders just Abu Hanifah has mentioned this amount, and Uthman was the first person who set it.[6] By the way, there are three innovations in the act of Muawiyah: 1- He set Diya one thousand Dinar. 2- He divided it between inheritors of murdered person and Bayt al- Mal. 3- He took half of it as Bayt al- Mal’s share, holding that the amount of Diya is one thousand and a part of it is chargeable to Bayt al-Mal. 3- Innovation of leaving recommended Takbirs (magnification of Allah) of prayer It is mentioned in the book “Sharh al- Muwatta`” that: “Tabari quotes from Abu Harirah that he said: “Muawiyah was the first person who left Takbirs of prayer”. And Abu Ubayd has quoted that: “Ziyad was the first one”. Ibn Hajar has written in “Fath al- Bari”[7] that: “these two matters are not inconsistent with each other, because Ziyad, following the example of Muawiyah, did not say Takbirs, and Muawiyah following the example of Uthman left Takbirs[8]. But a group of scholars believes that it has been said quietly”. It is mentioned in the book “al- Wasai’l Ila Musamirah al- Awai’l”[9] that: “Muawiyah was the first person who did not say Takbirs after reciting "ÓãÚ Çááå áãä ÍãÏå" “Allah hears the one who praises Him”, he prostrated without saying Takbir”. Shafi’i quotes from Ubayd ibn Rufa’ah in the book “al- Um”[10] that he said: “Muawiyah came to Medina and he did not say "ÈÓã Çááå" “in the name of Allah” in his prayer and did not say Takbirs in movements of prayer, after recitation of Taslim (final part of prayer) Muhajir (Emigrants) and Ansar (Helpers) shouted at him: "íÇ ãÚÇæíÉ! ÓÑÞÊ ÕáÇʘ¡ Çíä ÈÓã Çááå ÇáÑÍãä ÇáÑÍíã¿! æ Çíä ÇáʘÈíÑ ÇÐÇ ÎÝÖÊ æ ÇÐÇ ÑÝÚÊ¿!" “O Muawiyah! Did you steal from your prayer? Why did not you say “in the name of Allah”?! Why did not you say Takbirs while bending down and rising?!” he said his prayer again and recited whatever he had not said before”. 4- Innovation of preferring oration to prayer of Eid Abdul-Razaq has quoted from Ibn Jarih from Zuhri that he said[11]: “Muawiyah was the first person who said oration of prayer of Eid before prayer it”. Ibn Munzar has quoted from Ibn Sirin that he said: “Ziyad was the first person who innovated that in Basra”. Ayaz says that: “there are no differences between these two sayings and the saying that considers Marwan as the first person, because Marwan and Ziyad were Muawiyah’s agents, therefore, first, Muawiyah did this act and they followed him”[12]. [1] - Kitab al- Um, vol. 1, p. 208 and vol. 1, p. 235. [2] - al- Mahalli, vol. 5, p. 82. [3] - al- Diyat, p. 50. [4] - al- Bidayah wa al- Nihayah, vol. 8, p. 139 and vol. 8 p. 148, events of the year 60 A.H. [5] - the part in the bracket has been quoted from the original source. [6] - refer to: al-Um, Shafi’i, vol. 7, p. 293 and vol. 7, p. 321; refer to: al- Ghadir, vol. 8, p. 240-248. [7] - Fath al- Bari, vol. 2, p. 215. [8] - Ahmad quotes this narration from Umran in Musnad, vol. 5, p. 579, tradition no. 19380. [9] - al- Wasai’l Ila Musmirah al- Awai’l, p. 15. [10] - Kitab al- Um, vol. 1, p. 94 and vol. 1, p. 108. [11] - al- Musnaf, vol. 3, p. 284, tradition no. 5646. [12] - Shafi'i Shahrudi, A comprehensive selection of Al- Ghadir, p. 982-986-987-992.Text
  9. MUAWVIA AND USURY Nisai, Malik ibn Anas and others have quoted from Ata’ ibn Yasar that he said: “Muawiyah sold a vessel full of gold or Dirham in exchange for more than its weight”. Abu Dorda told him that: “I heard from the Prophet (s.a.w.) who prohibited this act, it should be sold in exchange for its same weight”. Muawiyah said: “I do not find any fault with it”. Abu Dorda said: "ãä íÚÐÑäí ãä ãÚÇæíÉ¿ ÇäÇ ÇÎÈÑå Úä ÑÓæá Çááå (Õáí Çááå Úáíå æ Âáå) æ åæ íÎÈÑäí Úä ÑÇíå¡ áÇ ÇÓÇ˜ä˜ ÈÇÑÖ ÇäÊ ÈåÇ" “Who can account for this act of Muawiyah? I tell him the opinion of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and he tells me his opinion! I won’t stay in the area that you are”. Then he came to Medina and went to Umar ibn Khattab and told him the story. Umar wrote to Muawiyah that: [1]"áÇ ÊÈÚ ÐᘠÇáÇ ãËáÇ ÈãËá¡ æÒäÇ ÈæÒä" “Just exchange it for the good of the same kind and the same weight (without any increasing)”. Bayhaqi and others also have quoted from Hakim ibn Jabir from Ibadah ibn Samit that he said: “I heard from the Prophet (s.a.w.) who said that: “silver should be exchanged for the good of the same kind and the same weight, gold should be exchanged for the good of the same kind and the same weight, until he mentioned salt and said: salt should be exchanged for the good of the same kind and the same weight”. Muawiyah said that: "Çä åÐÇ áÇ íÞæá ÔíÆÇ". “His speech in not a good one and he speaks nonsense”. Ibadah said that: “Allah is my witness that I heard it from the Prophet (s.a.w.) myself”. Nisai writes in “al- Sunan al- Kubra” that Ibadah said: "Çäí æ Çááå ãÇ ÇÈÇáí Çä áÇ Ç˜æä ÈÇÑÖ í˜æä ÈåÇ ãÚÇæíÉ". “I swear to Allah that it is not important to me that I do not live where Muawiyah is”. Ibn Asakir has said that: “Ibadah said: [2]"Çäí æ Çááå ãÇ ÇÈÇáí Çä ǘæä ÈÇÑÖ˜ã åÐå" “I swear to Allah that it is not important to me that I do not live in your area”. It is necessary to be mentioned that prohibition of usury and this matter that it is from major sins, is an essential part of pure Islam and it is proved by Quran, tradition of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and general agreement of scholars.[3] [1] - Muwatta`, vol. 2, p. 59 and vol. 2, p. 634, tradition no. 33; al- Sunan al- Kubra, Nisai, vol. 7, p. 279 and vol. 4, p. 30, tradition no. 6164. [2] - Musnad Ahmad, vol. 5, p. 319 and vol. 6, p. 436, tradition no. 22217; al- Sunan al- Kubra, Nisai, vol. 7, p. 277 and vol. 4, p. 29, tradition no. 6159; Tarikh Medina Damascus, vol. 7, p. 206 and vol. 26, p. 176, no. 3071; AND in Mukhtasar of history of Damscus, vol. 11, p. 302. [3] - Shafi'i Shahrudi, A comprehensive selection of Al- Ghadir, p. 979.
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