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In the Name of God بسم الله
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InshAllah you will all benefit by these sources: Intercession in The Holy Quran: "No intercessor can plead with Him except after His permission."-Qur'an 10:3 Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission?-Quran 2:255 On that Day, no intercession shall avail, except the one from whom Allah the Most Gracious has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him-Qur'an 20:109 And they cannot intercede, except for him with whom He is pleased-Qur'an 21:28 None shall have the power of intercession except such a one as has received permission or a promise from Allah the Most Gracious.-Qur'an 19:87 Intercession with Him profits not except for he whom He permits-Qur'an 34:23 We sent no messenger but to be obeyed by the leave of Allah. If they who have been unjust to themselves had come to you (Prophet Muhammad) and begged Allah's forgiveness, and the Messenger had begged forgiveness for them - indeed, they would have found Allah All-Forgiving, Most Merciful-Qur'an 4:64 (The brothers of Yusuf) said, 'O our father! Ask forgiveness from Allah for our sins. Indeed, we have been sinners.' He said, 'I will ask my Lord for forgiveness for you. Verily, He, only He, is the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful-Qur'an 12:97-98 Intercession of Prophet Mohammad (Sawa) In this Hadith the Prophet(saws) intercedes for this blind man: A blind man came to the Prophet and said: "Invoke Allah for me that he help me." He replied: If you wish I will delay this, and it would be better for you, and if you wish I will invoke Allah the Exalted (for you)." He said:"Then invoke him." The Prophet said to him: idhhab fa tawadda', wa salli rak`atayn thumma qul -- "Go and make an ablution, pray two rak`at, then say: "O Allah, I am asking you (as'aluka) and turning to you (atawajjahu ilayka) with your Prophet Muhammad (bi nabiyyika Muhammad), the Prophet of mercy; O Muhammad (ya Muhammad), I am turning with you to my Lord regarding my present need / I am asking my Lord with your intercession concerning the return of my sight (inni atawajjahu bika ila rabbi fi hajati hadhih -- another version has: inni astashfi`u bika `ala rabbi fi raddi basari) so that He will fulfill my need; O Allah, allow him to intercede (with you) for me (allahumma shaffi`hu fiyya)." Sunni References: -Ahmad (4:138 #17246-17247), -Tirmidhi (hasan sahih gharib -- Da`awat Ch. 119) -Ibn Majah (Book of Iqamat al-salat wa al-sunnat, Ch. on Salat al-hajat #1385), -Nasa'i (`Amal al-yawm wa al-laylat p. 417-418 #658-660), -al-Hakim (1:313, 1:526), -Tabarani in al-Kabir, -Rigorously authenticated as sound (sahih) by nearly fifteen hadith masters -including Ibn Hajar, Dhahabi, Shawkani, and Ibn Taymiyya. My intercession will be for the people who committed the cardinal sins (al-kaba'ir) except shirk and dhulm (polytheism and oppression) Kanz al-Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi The intercessors are five: the Qur'an, near relatives, trusts (amanah), your Prophet, and the family of your Prophet Kanz al-Ummal, al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, hadith #39041 Many of the narrators of hadith narrate a prayer (du'a) from the Holy Prophet (pbuh&hf) which begins: "O my Lord! I turn to you by your Prophet, the Prophet of Mercy (Allahumma, inni atawajjahu ilayka bi nabiyyika nabi al-rahma...)." Then it says: "O Muhammad! I turn to Allah by you to solve my difficulties." Ibn Majah; al-Nisa'i; Tirmidhi; al-Husn al-Hasin, ibn al-Juzri Umar Invoking Intercession: Sahih Bukhari Volume 2, Book 17, Number 123: Narrated Anas: Whenever drought threatened them, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, used to ask Al-Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib to invoke Allah for rain. He used to say, “O Allah ! We used to ask our Prophet to invoke You for rain, and You would bless us with rain, and now we ask his uncle to invoke You for rain. O Allah ! Bless us with rain.” And so it would rain. Intercession Done by The Son of Umar: It is narrated that the feet of 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar al-Khattab became disabled and would no longer carry him. After being told to call upon the closest people to his heart, he said: "Wa Muhammada!" His feet were cured and worked properly again. Shifa' al-Asqam, al-Samhudi Intercession of Sahabi Umar Ibn Ibrahim Al-Khatib narrates in Tarikh Baghdad that the truthful (saduq) qadi al-Husayn ibn `Ali al-Saymari narrated to them, that the trustworthy (thiqa) Imam `Umar ibn Ibrahim [ibn Ahmad] al-Muqri told him, that the trustworthy Shaykh Makram ibn Ahmad told them, that `Umar ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim [status?] told them, that the trustworthy Shaykh `Ali ibn Maymun told them: ‘I heard al-Shafi`i say: “I swear I seek the blessing of Abu Hanifa (inni la’atabarraku bi-Abi Hanifa) and come to his grave every day"’ meaning as a visitor. “Whenever I have a certain need I pray two rak`as then I come to his grave and ask Allah Most High for my need at his grave, and little time passes until it is fulfilled.” Narrated by al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (1:123)cf. al-Kawthari in his Maqalat (p. 453) and by Ibn Abi al-Wafa’ in Tabaqat al-Hanafiyya (p. 519) through al-Ghaznawi. Imam al-Haytami cites it in the thirty-fifth chapter of his book on Imam Abu Hanifa entitled al-Khayrat al- Hisan. Fatwas on the Permissibility of Intercession By Ahlus-Sunnah Scholars: All jurists including Imami, Shafi'i, Maliki, and later-day Hanafi scholars as well as others such as the Hanbalis, are unanimous on the permissibility of this way of supplication, whether it was in the lifetime of the Prophet (s), or whether it is after his passing away. 1. Sharh al-Mawahib, vol. 8, p. 304; 2. al-Majmu', vol. 8, p. 274; 3. Ibn 'Abidin, vol. 5, p.254; 4. al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, vol. 1, p. 266 and vol. 5, 318; 5. Fath al-Qadir, vol. 8, p. 297, 298 6. al-Futuhat al-Rabbaniyyah 'ala al-Azkar al-Nabawiyyah, vol. 5, p. 36 Imam Malik urged an Abbaside Khalifa to seek the tawassal of Rasulullah (s) The Abbasid caliph, Mansur al-Dawaniqi, once asked Imam Malik ibn Anas whether he should turn towards the grave of the Prophet (s) or face the Qiblah for supplication? Malik answered him: Why do you want to turn away from the Prophet (s) when he (Prophet Muhammad (s)) is the wasilah (means) for you and for your father Adam, towards Allah on the Day of Resurrection. Turn to him (the Prophet) and seek his intercession (shafa'at). -Al-Mughni ma' al-Sharh, vol. 3, p. 588; -al-Sharh al-Kabir ma' al-Mughni, vol. 3, p. 494; -al-Qadi `Iyad in al-Shifa (2:92-93) Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal advocated making tawassal through Rasulullah (s) The correct position of the [Hanbali] madhhab is that it is permissible in one's supplication (du`a) to use as means a pious person, and it is said that it is desirable (mustahabb). Imam Ahmad said to Abu Bakr al-Marwazi:yatawassalu bi al-nabi fi du`a'ih -- "Let him use the Prophet as a means in his supplication to Allah -al-Insaf fi ma`rifat al-rajih min al-khilaf `ala madhhab al-Imam al-mubajjal Ahmad ibn Hanbal (3:456): Imam Shaafi would make tawassal through the Ahlul bayt (as) - Ibn Hajr Haytami - al-Sawa`iq al-muhriqa li ahl al-dalal wa al-zandaqa (eg page 180) and al-Khayrat al-hisan (p. 69) Imam Shafi`i made tawassul through the Family of the Prophet (Ahl al-Bayt) when he said Al al-nabi dhari`ati wa hum ilayhi wasilati arju bihim u`ta ghadan bi yadi al-yamini sahifati The Family of the Prophet are my means and my intermediary to him. Through them I hope to be given my record with the right hand tomorrow. -Ibn Hajr Haytami, in Al-Sawa`iq al-muhriqa li ahl al-dalal wa al-zandaqa (eg page 180) -al-Khayrat al-hisan (p. 69) This has also been found in Diwan al-Shafi`i as edited by `Umar Faruq al-Dabbagh (Beirut: Dar al-arqam, n.d.) p. 50. The pilgrim should face the shrine of the Messenger of Allah (s), make him a means (tawassul) towards reaching God and seek his wasilah as intercession (shafa'at), in the same manner as the Bedouin who visited the Prophet's shrine and standing beside it said: Peace unto you O Messenger of Allah, I have heard Allah has said: ...Had they, when they had wronged themselves, come to you and asked Allah's forgiveness and the Apostle had asked forgiveness for them, they would certainly have found Allah Most-Propitious, Most-Merciful. (Holy Qur'an 4: 64). Therefore, I have come to you for forgiveness of my sins and seeking your intercession with Allah. -Al-Majmu', vol. 8, p. 274; -Fayd al-Qadir, vol. 2, p. 134; -I'anah al-Talibiyyin, p. 315. Ibn Qudamah Hanbalis tawassal supplication before the tomb of Rasulullah (s):- Ibn Qudamah Hanbali, defining the manner of pilgrimage to the shrine of the Prophet (s), writes in the book al-Mughni Stand beside the tomb of the Prophet (s), and say: I have come to you for forgiveness of my sins and to seek your intercession with Allah. 1. Al-Mughni ma' al-Sharh, vol. 3, p. 588; 2. al-Sharh al-Kabir ma' al-Mughni, vol. 3, p. 494 Imam Ghazzali al Shaafiis tawassal supplication before the tombs of Rasulullah (s) and Ahlul bayt (as) Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Abdul Hamid Ghazzali allotted a special section in his book Ihya' 'Ulum al-Din concerning the manners of pilgrimage to the shrine of the Prophet (s) in order to repent and seek forgiveness from Allah. He stated: The Prophet should be made the means (wasilah) and the intercessor (shafi'), and with face turned towards the tomb, the pilgrim should implore Allah for the sake and position of the Prophet with the words: "O Allah, indeed You have said, Had they, who had wronged themselves, come to you and asked Allah's forgiveness and the Apostle had asked forgiveness for them, they would have certainly found Allah Most-Propitious, Most-Merciful (Holy Qur'an 4:64); Al-Ghazzali also added: It is recommended the pilgrim should go daily to the Baqi' Cemetery and after saluting the Prophet (s), make pilgrimage to the tombs of (Imam) Hasan ibn 'Ali, (Imam) 'Ali ibn al-Husayn, (Imam) Muhammad ibn 'Ali and (Imam) Ja'far ibn Muhammad (Allah be pleased with them), and also perform the Salat in the Mosque of Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her). -Ihya' 'Ulum al-Din, vol. 1, pp. 258-261
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