In the Name of God بسم الله
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AmirioTheMuzzy posted a topic in Jurisprudence/LawsSalam, I know many Muslim landlord (in the West). Their apartments are typically non-smoking and no pets, and they will ask you about your employment when you contact them (like every other non-Muslim lanlord). According to the Fair Housing Acts this is seemingly the maximum you can get away with before it falls under discrimination. That being said, people clearly violate these rules all the time (e.g. Chinese buildings). What confuses me is the following... Presumably these Muslim landlord are renting out their apartments to boyfriend/girlfriend couples... or else they wouldn't be able to survive in the rental market. One would assume that non-married couples are engaging in Zina. Regardless, it is free-mixing nonetheless. Furthermore, they likely rent out their apartments to gay couples, who are likely engaging in Sodomy, or lesbian intercourse. What does Islam say about this (from a Fiqh perspective)? Should Muslim landlord be able to discriminate in order to have NOT provided the tools necessary to perform immoral sex acts (I.e. housing)? OR Should Muslim landlord be forbidden from discriminating in regards to housing (since shelter is considered basic human right in the religion of Islam? Does it depend on how many listings are available in order for it to be considered reasonable or unreasonable (If many apartments are available, then you could argue that it's not really denying housing, but rather it's deferring housing? OR should Muslim landlord simply assume the best in their tenants, so that a self-proclaimed gay couple is really just two straight dudes hanging out? This question brings up more questions than it answers. Our traditions condemn living alone, as this is a huge gateway to commiting sin... so would it also be wrong to house any non-straight non-married couple? Another question to add on could be regarding transgenders and whether or not they are the sex that they say they are (when considering this question), and whether or not you should refer to them by their preferred pronouns, shake their hands (which sex are they really?) etc... Lastly, breaking the law is Haram in Islam. Discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender, marital status and/or relationship status is ILLEGAL in most western countries, such as Canada. But is it also Haram to break a law that you cannot easily prove as violated in order to follow God's law more closely? Anyways, for the sake of this question, we will assume that this discrimination is legal... despite it being absolutely illegal. TL;Dr...: My main question is the following: Is denying housing to straight non-married couples, and gay couples HARAM or HALAL?
What Your Metadata Can Tell The U.s. Gov About You
Grengo posted a topic in Politics/Current EventsIn a fact sheet published last week, the Obama administration pledges changes to the National Security Agency’s bulk telephony metadata program. One of the expected concessions to civil society is the promise to leave records at the telephone companies, so that the government would allegedly be able to obtain them only in an emergency situation. But in the cold light of the day, records will still be kept. So, what could the ‘metadata’ –information on personal phone calls, claimed to contain no names or content – reveal to the NSA or just to the people who have access to them? Social science has got a clue: and it’s not only the record itself, but also the technical information that could possibly expand the intrusion into private lives of people. A paper published in the Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction shows that the data the NSA collects turns out to be of highly personal character. A group of US and French researchers found that personality of the speaker on the phone could be reliably predicted by the way he or she makes calls. Their database was collected in the MIT Human Dynamics Lab at a leading US research university in a year-and-a-half-long study from March 2010 to June 2011. The researchers, Yves-Alexandre de Montjoye, Jordi Quoidbach, Florent Robic and Alex Pentland used the 36 easy-to-obtain metadata elements, which fall into five categories: Basic phone use including the number of calls; Active user behaviors, as in the number of calls initiated, and the time it took the subject to answer a text; Location, or how far the subject moved, the number of places from which calls have been made, and other indicators of so-called radius of gyration; Regularity of calling routine; Diversity, defined as the ratio between the subject’s total number of contacts and the relative frequency at which he or she interacts with them. To figure out the results of the metadata analysis and to compare it with the personality, ‘hidden’ behind it, the scientists had determined psycho-types of 100 students, who participated in the survey (with a final sample of 69 people), and divided them also into five categories: Extraversion – people who tend to seek stimulation in the company of others, who are outgoing and energetic; Agreeableness – warm, compassionate and cooperative people; Conscientiousness – self-disciplined and organized people, who are eager for success; Neuroticism – people who experience unpleasant emotions more easily; Openness – intellectually curious and creative ones, who are open to feelings. Later on, a special machine-learning algorithm determined which set of technical characteristics referred to what kind of personal traits, one of the so-called Five factor model of personality. “We let the algorithm determine the right mix,” de Montjoye said. “Each indicator is useful but is conditional on all the other indicators. That doesn’t mean each one is causal or that people who travel more are neurotic. Let’s say that the relationships between A and B are not linear, if you do a linear progression you see no relationship; you do a quadratic progression, you do see how A can predict B.” With the accuracy of 49% to 63% scientists could be able to predict which personality type a person would belong to – that is 42% better than on average. No obvious correlations, just combination of behaviors and their frequency could predict most common personality types. And although, according to de Montjoye, “We are unique in a way we use a mobile phone or telephone”,the model he developed alongside with his colleagues can’t name a method to make you less easy to define. Taking into consideration 6 billion world mobile phone subscribers, this study provides telephone and marketing companies with a vast field to investigate implementation of targeted advertising, for example – undermining the necessity to conduct basic research, involving interviewing. Or, we could say, it gives the scientific community an unbelievable sample of people from all over the world. But these are relatively peaceful purposes. Despite a reform that was called a ‘turning point’ by the NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, the NSA still has access to ‘impersonal’ data that is not so innocuous as it seems. U.S. government to collect even more metadata then they already do - Reuters, RT
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