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Found 215 results

  1. Hello im debating with a sunni and he brought up this hadith: part 8 page 245 hadith #341 in al-Kafi which says all the sahaba apostated or something. It seems weak but can someone verify for me? tell me the english translation, the arabic, and the narrator and his trustworthiness. Jazakallah khair to any brother or sister who can help out.
  2. أبو فاطمة المحمدي

    Hadith al-Thaqalayn - Dr. Adnan Ibrahim

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hS4ZSTl_RDo
  3. Salaam Alaykum, Does anyone know of a Hadith which I believe is from our 4th Imam (as) narrating what differentiated truth from falsehood in the event of Ashura in Karbala? It went something like this: "Both camps were Muslims in Karbala but what differentiated truth from falsehood was that one camp believed in Ali (as) un-Waliullah". Thanks in advance
  4. Salaam alaikum, How can I find out about a chain of narrators ? I got the chain, but do not know any of the narrators except Abu Abdullah (a.s). Problem is that I cannot refer to Arabic sources. I need to find out about the grading of an hadith from Usul al-Kafi : Alī ibn Ibrãhīm quoted from his father* and Muḥammad ibn Ismã‘īl quoted from al-Faḍl ibn Shãdhãn, both of them quoted from Ibn Abī ‘Umayr quoted from Ḥafṣ ibn al-Bakhtarī quoted from Abu ‘Abdillah (a.s.), who said: "Do not make worship hateful to yourselves." (Volume 2, The Book of Belief and Unbelief, Chapter 45 “Moderation in Worship”, Hadith No. 1686–2. ) How can I do that without Arabic language skills? Thanks a lot for any advice.
  5. knowledgeseeker

    Fruits- when to eat?

    Salaam Alaykum, Recently I have been wondering about the Islamic recommendation regarding fruits. Is it better to eat fruits before food, after food, with food or independently? I am getting so confused since everyone says either eat on an empty stomach or after meals, or independently. There is no consensus regarding this topic. Are there any ahadith or books outlining what to eat and when, according to the Islamic recommendations from the AhlulBayt [as]? Many thanks, Ma'salaam.
  6. Asalaam Alaikum my dear Sunni and Shia brothers and sisters in faith: I had a quick question regarding Ashura. This is specifically for my Sunni friends on the site. I was just wondering why you fast on Ashura, and if there was a hadith for this reasoning? Thank you Peace.
  7. Asalam, I hope y'all are well. I am looking for the hadith where Nabi Ibrahmin (a) had asked God to keep prophethood within his progeny till the end. I am working on an extensive research paper on Imam Mahdi. So I need this hadith. Don't forget to provide the source. Thank You wa'salaam
  8. Asslamu alaykum, How broad or specific is the sentence "When one loves a thing it blinds him and sickens his heart."? Does it mean the haram only? A person? Something material? Everything? Or only some things? "When one loves a thing it blinds him and sickens his heart. Then he sees but with a diseased eye, hears but with unhearing ears. Desires have cut asunder his wit, and the world has made his heart dead, while his mind is all longing for it. Consequently, he is a slave of it and of everyone who has any share in it. Wherever it turns, he turns towards it and wherever it proceeds, he proceeds towards it. He is not desisted by any desister from Allah, nor takes admonition from any preacher. He sees those who have been caught in neglect whence there is neither rescission nor reversion. " - Imam Ali(As) [Nahjul Balagha Sermon 108] Website: http://www.nahjulbalagha.org/Nahjul-Balagha-Sermons/nahjul-balagha-sermon-108.html JazakAllah.
  9. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته It has been said that one of the signs before Imam Medhi(Aj) is the Yemani rising in Yemen to defeat the Sufyani in Syria. There are a few theories I have heard of: 1. Scholars suggest that the only authentic hadiths in regards to the precursors before Imam al Mehdi(Aj) is the callings from the skies. (I have heard that one of these scholars was Sayed Khoi). 2. There is too much evidence to deny it. Yemen that is poor and has nothing compared to Saudi Arabia is winning against them to the extent that they have destroyed some of their bases. Turkey is also gathering terrorists in Syria to try destabilise it(apparently there is a Hadith that shows Turkey involved with destabilising Syria) and others. 3. ^ From this there are 2 theories - 1. The Yemenis are doing this themselves and the Tyrannical Terrorists. 2. The Yemenis are taking orders from the Yemani that has not yet declared himself but he is here, the Sufyani is giving orders and is behind the terrorists and the objective to destabilise Syria in order for himself to rein. 4. Leave it to Allah Swt if it happens it happens if it doesn't it doesn't. 5. As Muslims we shouldn't deny evidence and should be aware if something is going to happen or not. 6. When the Yemeni comes he is going to call all the Shia to Yemen. Allahu 3alam. If you all could add your knowledge and wisdom to this topic I would be greatful. جزاك الله خير
  10. SKH = S. Kamal al-Haydari 1) First point in this extract from lecture 229 of his 'Opposing evidences' class, is that the methodology of Allamah Majlisi (and he insists on calling him Allamah, respecting his stature as a scholar and major contributor to the Shi'i school), and put the emphasis on the hadith and not the Quran. And this is what has caused the Shia school in general to decline, and this is the reason SKH announced his project to return the focus to the QUran and make IT the first reference point to establish our religious doctrines. 2) Then he briefly mentions the sources al Majlisi uses in Bihar al Anwar, which range from weak sources like tafsir al Qummi, to quotes (from al Majlisi) saying: 'I saw it in an old book...'! And books nobody has heard of, except his contemporaries. 3) This is a book that is revered and used a main source for events in history and seerah by Sheikhs of the pulpit, satellite channels, and even the hawza. 4) SKH's book : 'Bihar al Anwar under the spotlight' out soon! 5) He points out that there are a thousand classes on fiqh, and less than a handful of tafsir classes (in the best case, I'm not aware of any in the arabic hawza). And the overriding perception is that a scholar of tafsir isn't of the high level as scholar of fiqh (as was the view of Allamah Tabataba'i). Allamah Tabataba'i would have been given the Marji'yah if he didn't pursue his religious duty to produce the epic tafsir Al Mizan, and this heritage will remain the pride of the Shia until the Last Day. and... Allamah Tabataba'i's Commentary on Al Bihar, and why it was banned: [summary in english to follow] and... Jalaluldeen alAshtiyani's view on narrations of praises (manaqib of Imams): [summary in english to follow]
  11. Salam un Aliekum, Recently, I was looking for the Shia Ahadiths books in pdf format but I couldn't find them. I would prefer URDU translation first. Can anyone help me out in getting the PDF links for downloading them? > Kitab al-Kafi by Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni > Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih by Muhammad ibn Babawayh > Tahdhib al-Ahkam by Shaykh Muhammad Tusi > Al-Istibsar by Shaykh Muhammad Tusi Peace upon you O reader. :) Wassalam.
  12. ~ThePond~

    Women's Reward In Paradise?

    Salaam Alaikum brothers and sisters. I had a quick question regarding women's reward in paradise. I have heard some hadiths relating to men; however, I was interested in the realm of women. I am familiar with a few hadiths, but I was just hoping you could provide me with some more insight. Thank you.
  13. ive heard from someone, in some hadith it is said "On the authority of Thawban, the Messenger of Allah (upon whom be blessings and peace) said:The Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alaihi Wa Sallam said: "Before your treasure, three will kill each other -- all of them are sons of a different caliph but none will be the recipient. Then the Black Banners will appear from the East and they will kill you in a way that has never before been done by a nation." Thawban, said: 'Then he said something that I do not remember by heart' then continued to say that the Prophet, praise and peace be upon him, said: "If you see him give him your allegiance, even if you have to crawl over ice, because surely he is the Caliph of Allah, the Mahdi. If you see the black flags coming from Khurasan, join that army, even if you have to crawl over ice, for this is the army of the Caliph, the Mahdi and no one can stop that army until it reaches Jerusalem." Can someone clarify me on this Hadith and which one it is? Do you think the Mahdi will be from Afghanistan?, and what do you think " the black flags of Khurasan"?
  14. Salams Came across this new book 'The Perfect Family Virtues of the Ahl al-Bayt' and it is based on classical works by Sunni hadith scholars. www.visions-of-reality.com has the book and you can download the full contents page. The description from the website is Relying on the cream of the traditional Sunni hadith scholars, the work contains four classical works and is further supplemented with chapters from Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim with the commentaries of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani and Imam Nawawi. The book is split into six parts. Part One includes a Foreword by Dr Mostafa al-Badawi, looks briefly at the different sectarian attitudes towards the Prophetic Household, it also defines certain key terms using the classical Arabic dictionary Lisan al-Arab. This is followed by a look at the mention of the Ahl al-Bayt in Quran and also focuses on the famous hadith of the Cloak – Hadith Ahl al-Kisa. The section concludes by looking at the Sahaba making tawassul through the Ahl al-Bayt. Part Two starts by giving a brief biography of the hadith scholars whose works have been used in this book and also includes Imam al-Suyuti’s first risala ‘Reviving the Dead: The Virtues of the Prophetic Household.’ The concluding section of this part looks at the chapter on the relatives of the Prophet from Sahih al-Bukhari with the commentary of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, some poetry about the Ahl al-Bayt by Imam al-Shafi’ Part Three is dedicated to the virtues of the Prophet’s daughter the Lady Fatima and includes the translations of two risala’s the first by Imam al-Suyuti and the second by Ibn Shahin. Further the chapters are taken from the Sahihsof Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim with their respective commentaries. Part Four looks at the virtues of Ali ibn Abi Talib starts with a brief biography and includes the complete translation of Imam al-Nasai’s The Unique Distinctions of Imam Ali (‘Khasa’is Imam Ali’) Further the chapters are taken from the Sahihs of Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim with their respective commentaries. Part Five is dedicated to Imams Hasan and Husayn taking the chapters from the Sahihs of Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim with their respective commentaries. Part Six looks at the virtues of the awaited Imam al-Mahdi, who be from the Ahl al-Bayt and will fill the world with justice and peace.
  15. Salam :) Does anyone know any short stories or hadeeths of the prophet? Appreciated! W/Salam.
  16. (bismillah) One the various compilation that our Qudamaa’ [ra] put to gether, one of the most interesting ones, to me, is Qurb al-Isnad by `Abdullah b. Jafar al-Himyari [ra]. A famous thiqa scholar who’s trustworthiness and knowledge is undoubted. His book is narrated from by the 3 Muhammads [as] in their large compilations. However, upon the majority, the book form that has reached us is not reliable in its tareeq or it’s contents Majalisi included in Bihar. However, the tareeq of Sh. Hurr al-Amili to the book is reliable and he has included many narrations from the book in Wasaa’il al-Shi`ah. Therefore, the `ulemaa’ take into consideration the book’s narrations as found in Wasaa’il. One of the usool books that Himyari [ra] relies on heavily in his book is the Masaa’il of `Ali b. Jafar b. Muhammad al-`Alawi al-Uraydi [ra], the son of al-Sadiq [as] and brother al-Kathim [as] – he is thiqa as mentioned by Tusi in his Fihirist. His book is where he asks his brother [as] questions and he answers them. This masaa’il is also no reliable in its sanad as it is found in Bihar. But Himyari has a different tareeq and it is not related to what Majalisi compiled. This is the only one book he had and that was narrated from. The tareeq of al-Himyari [ra] as found in Qurb is the following, always: حدثنا عبد الله بن الحسن العلوي، عن جده علي بن جعفر قال: سألت أخي موسى بن جعفر عليه السلام `Abdullah b. al-Hasan al-`Alawi narrated to us from his grandfather `Ali b. Ja`far, he said: I asked my brother Musa b. Ja`far [as]… Unfortunately, this tareeq is weak because the intermediary between al-Himyari [as] and the Masaa’il, Abdullah b. al-Hasan, is majhool – very majhool. So it unfortunately would make everything al-Himyari [ra] takes from this Masaa’il as unreliable (this is if we put aside ideas like shuhra of the book and other reasons to accept it). However, if we examine al-Tusi’s [ra] turuq to the Masaa’il of `Ali b. Jafar in his Fihrist, we discover that al-Himyari [ra] received the book from another tareeq: ورواه أبو جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن بابويه، عن ابيه، عن سعد والحميري واحمد بن ادريس وعلي بن موسى، عن احمد بن محمد، عن موسى بن القاسم البجلي، عنه. And Abu Ja`far Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babuwayh [al-Saduq] narrated it from his father from Sa`d & al-Himyari & Ahmad b. Idris & Ali b. Musa from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Musa b. al-Qasim al-Bijli from him. This tareeq is saheeh. So we see that al-Himyari [ra] has a parallel chain running along with whatever he narrates through Abduallah b. al-Hasan, he also has from this tareeq which is saheeh. Why would he list this tareeq instead of the Saheeh one? Well, putting aside that rijal/dirayah was not always their goal, the point of Qurb al-Isnad (as evidence from his title, “Nearness of the Chain”) is to have the shortest chains possible. So the chain with the majhool grandson is shorter because then al-Himyari [ra] has one intermediary between him and the Masaa’il rather than 2. Therefore, everything al-Himyari [ra] narrates from the Masaa’il in Qurb al-Isnad, upon accepting this argument, is saheeh. والله أعلم All mistakes are my own and all guidance and correct information is from Allah [swt]. في امان الله
  17. Haydar Amuli

    Restricted Weightiness Of The Ahlul Bayt ?

    Salam alaykum, I was running through the lectures of Sheikh Arif Abdul Hussain of this Muharram which according to me are somewhat briging new paradigms into the field of qur'anic hermeneutics and his ideas within the shi'ite thought are remarkably innovative, specially considering the stagnation of the system of marja'iyya for two centuries. The need of a refreshing revaluation of our qur'anic interpretation and understanding was really necessary as we are already going through major crisis particularly inside Islam. And the efforts of Sheikh Arif Abdul Hussain in trying to satisfy this intellectual gap are valuable specially considering that the new generation of muslims in the West are higly educated and in a constant exigency of orginal and advanced knowledge. The shi'ite thought is certainly at the edge of a new revolution in terms of Kuhn's concept of scientific revolution. However, until now this revolution was not possible primarily because of our coercive dependency to the textual material belonging to the Ahlul Bayt ie. their eternal role in qur'anic interpretation and understanding. The concept of "essence and form" introduced by Sheikh Arif Abdul Hussain within the framework of hadith ath-thaqalayn is the master key that paves the way for the autonomy of qur'anic interpretation and understanding at a private and community level. The problem that could arise from a traditional point of view is certainly that of looking at the Qur'an and the Ahlul Bayt (the two weights) as having the same weight. To support his thoughts Sheikh Arif Abdul Hussain is relying to a certain extent on the tradition also given by Allamah Tabatabai in his tafseer al-Mizan (see 3:7-9) which says : ‘‘Certainly I am leaving among you two weighty things : The bigger one and the smaller (lighter) one. As for the bigger one, it is the Book of Allah; and as for the smaller one, it is my progeny, the people of my house. Therefore, keep me in mind about these two things; because you shall never go astray so long as you hold fast to them." Here we can see that the Qur'an and the Ahlul Bayt have no equal weight, but one is bigger and the other one is lighter or smaller. The religious and pragmatic consequences of this dichotomy are challenging because the tradition itself opens the Pandora's box of multiple interpretations and actions. -their substantial value are not same -Qur'an has a spiritual essence and a form bound to its own context and the Ahlul Bayt are only representative of their time and space, then restricted by their context also -companions are also representative of their time and space, then restricted by their context and the validity of their judgements are not to be questionned if the pattern "essence and form" is valid -same substantial value of the Ahlul Bayt and the companions -disestablishment of the old system of marja'iyya and elaboration of a new system less coercive and more tractable -from what follows, the hawza system is to be revisited and some courses like usul al-fiqh, fiqh, ilm al-hadith and ilm al-rijal are to be reassessed -establishing new disciplines more human-oriented (sciences)
  18. Salaam alaikum brothers and sisters! I had a question regarding the reasoning behind women standing behind men in prayers (for both married couples and in congregations). I am currently conducting research regarding the Symbolism of Salat for my symbolism class in the university. I was wondering the reasoning behind this positioning. I know from a logical standpoint it makes complete sense (I would never want to do sujood in front of man) but I want to know what is the Islamic reasoning. If possible include hadiths or any other form of justification. My professor is interested in the reasoning so I would like some evidence to support this. I wasn't sure if there are jurisdiction regarding this or hadiths. Thank you! Salaam
  19. (bismillah) As-Salamu `Alaykum jami`an, could someone verify/ correct this translation (word-for-word)? عن الإمامْ الصّادِقْ جَعفَر بِن مَحَمَد, عَن أبِيهِ, عَنْ جَدِه عَليَهم الَسلام ْأن الحُسيَن بِن عَليّ بِنْ أبي طَالِب (ع) دَخَلَ يوَماً إلى الحُسَّن (ع), فلَما نَظَرَ إليه بَكَى, فَقالَ له: ما يبُكّيكَ يا أبا مُحَمَّد؟ قالَ: أبّكْي لِما يُصنَع ُبِكَ, فقالَ له الحُسَن (ع): إنّ الذيَ يُؤتى إليَّ سُمٌّ يُدَسُّ إليّ فأقُتَلُ بِهِ, ولكنّ لا يَوم ْكَيَومِكَ يا أبا عَبّد ُالله, يزَدَلِفّ إليكَ ثَلاثونَ ألفَ رَجُلْ, يَدعّونَ أنَهمٌ ِمن ْأُمة جَدُنا مُحَمَد (ص), وَينتَحلِونَ ديّنُ الإسّلام, فيَجتمعون َعلى قتَلَكَ, وَسفّكِ دَمَُك, وآنَتِهاكِ حُرّمتِكَ, وَسبي ذّراريّك ونَسائُك,َ وانتِّهابُ ثُقلَك, فَعِندُها تَحِلّ بِبنَي أُميّة اللَعنَة, وَتمُطرُ الَسماّء ُرَمَاداً وَدَماً, وَيبَكي عَليكَ كُل ُّشَيء حَتى الوُحوُش ُفي الفَلَوات, والحِيتاّنُ في البِحارْ. From Imam Ja`far al-Sadiq (Ja`far b. Muhammad) from his father, from his grandfather. Al-Husayn b. `Ali b. Abi Talib entered on the day al-Hasan (was poisoned). When his (Imam Husayn’s) eyes fell on him he started crying. Imam al-Hasan asked, ‘What makes you cry, O Aba Muhammad?’ He (Husayn) said, ‘I am crying because of what is going to happen to you’. He (Hasan) said, ‘What is in my destiny is that I have been poisoned with trickery and the… kill me (?). However, no day is like your day O’ Aba `Abdillah! On that day, thirty thousand individuals from those who claim to be the ummah of our grandfather Muhammad (s) and Muslims will collaborate to spill your blood and kill you and to violate your honour and take your women and children as prisoners and to plunder your assets. It is in that time that Allah will allow the cursing of Bani `Umayyah and it will rain blood and ashes from the sky and all creatures, even the wild animals and fishes in the sea will cry for you.’ [bihar al-Anwar, volume 22, page 274]
  20. In the Name of the One, Overflowing Compassion and Mercy... Assalamu Alaykum I am looking for Shia hadith and sayings on the following topics: descriptions of the Prophet's (peace be upon him) personality compassion kindness love charity sharing good deeds the heart forgiveness creating harmony good conduct/manners justice equality family hadith qudsi
  21. Salaam alaikum respected brothers and sisters. I will keep this brief (I love ranting). I know that us Shiites derive our standing position in prayer--with hands at sides--from the concept of the natural standing position (Maliki Sunnis follow this as well and derive theres from the traditions of the people of Medina. So I would like a hadith supporting this, showing that Muhammad (s.a.w.) prayed in this manner. I usually use Al-Islam.org for this information, but the articles tend to be lengthy and overwhelming, so I would appreciate hadiths from my brothers and sisters. Thank you, salaam!
  22. بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم السلام علیکم hojatollah.com website has been established in order to spread great Shia culture to the whole world and present shia ethics and spirituality to everyone. In addition to that, many of our shia brothers & sisters throughout different parts of the world don't have access to hadith and other sources because of either the sources not being translated or even having problem finding the sources. For example wasail ul shia which is one of the greatest shia sources hasn't been translated completely and you can find topics in this forum which people are looking for the translation and they haven't found it though it has passed years from the topic's start. This website intends to develop a complete portal for hadith, dua, ziarat, etc. in different languages and provide it fi sabilallah in the internet. Right now, the Arabic and Persian versions of the hadiths are available and the application's software and hardware are ready. We ask help from those who are interested in this field to translate the materials. Please inform us through the email khadem@hojatollah.com or use this form.
  23. Salam. In This Section This Article Will Cover: Tawatur Reports Regarding The Twelve Imams (a.s) Imam Al-Hussain (a.s) Is The Father Of Nine Imams (a.s) And The Ninth is Their Qa'im (ajf) Asl Of Abbaad, Aba Sa'eed Al-Usfuriy Hadeeth Of The Tablet and The Scroll Hadeeth Of Khidhr (a.s) Designation Of Each Imam By The Previous Imam (a.s) Appointment Of Imam Al-Qa'im Al-Mahdi (ajf) Some Other Narrations Pertaining To The Twelve Imams and Imam Al-Mahdi (ajf) As The Last Of Them Refuting Common Objections Read here: http://www.revisitingthesalaf.org/2015/03/imam-al-mahdi-ajf-part-v_20.html
  24. Sword_Of_Allah

    Moderately Religious?

    AsSalam aleykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh, I am not sure if this question was asked previously since I am new here, but here is the question: Why a lot of modern muslims use term suchs as "slightly religious," " moderately religious" etc (not as something bad but rather to what extent, in their opinion, Islam should be practiced). We have a Prophet (saw) , Ahlu Bayt (a.s) and our Imams (a.s) and they all followed the same religion, in the same manner. So are we trying to say that they were (authubillah) fanatics and we should not strive to be like them? If not then why muslims are using these terms ? Or are we just covering our lack of ibada by giving it a "moderate" name not to feel too guilty? WasSalam
  25. The First Discussion These are the rules which are required to be understood and followed by the one who wants to investigate the condition of the narrators, so that if even one of them is ignored, the truth will not be reached to, and these rules with their description are given below: 1. The Wathaqa of the one giving the Tawthiq or Tadhif This rule is inferred by the the necessity of not depending (following) the words of a Kadhab or a Majhul person in the Ta’dil or Tadhif of somebody else. And it is because of this rule that we do not accept the Tawthiqat and Tadhifat of a number of scholars, among them: Nasr b. Sabah, al-Uqayqi – both father and son – Ibn Nadim; for the lack of the establishment of their own Tawthiq [thus they are Majhul]. Similarly, we do not accept the witness of someone upon/about himself, for it results in circularity of logic. So if a Majhul narrator narrates his own praise from the Imam, we do not rule upon his Tawthiq using his own narration, what we need to do is - first prove his Wathaqa (apriori) before we can accept any of his narrations, so how can we prove his Tawthiq using his own narration? Would this not constitute a clear infinite regression? 2. Similarity in meaning of Adalah Know that Tawthiq is given to a narrator if he posesses Adalah, but the meaning of Adalah to the Muta’akhir scholar may be different than to the Mutaqadim scholar. If we assume that Adalah to the one giving the Tawthiq simply requires him - being a Muslim and not exposing (or having apparent) Fisq [Asl al-Adalah] like it has been attributed to some of the past scholars, but to us it means a state/condition requiring much more than that, then the Tawthiq given by those who hold the former meaning of Adalah will not be beneficial to us, in fact, it will not even reveal the truthfulness of the narrator in question, and this is a rule whose ignorance cannot be tolerated. [in other words – the meaning of Adalah must be the same between how we understand it today and how it was understood by the one giving the Tawthiq, for the Tawthiq to be relevant and useful to us, meaning - the Tawthiq given by the Mutaqadim who gives it due to his belief in Asl al-Adalah will not benefit us presently, since we do not consider Asl al-Adalah to be a valid principle] Adalah is defined by most modernist scholars as the performance of all the Wajibat and the protection of oneself against the all the Haramat, it is proactive not reactive as Asl al-Adalah was. 3. Hujiyyah of Hiss and Ibtal of Hadas in Ilm ar-Rijal The one giving the Tawthiq must be contemporary to the narrator he is giving Tawthiq to, so that we are assured that his evaluation is based on his Hiss [sensory observation] and that he witnessed the signs of Adalah or the signs of Sidq from the subject of the Tawthiq OR We must have (I) certain knowledge or (II) justifiable possibility - that - the one giving the Tawthiq has obtained it (i.e. the Tawthiq) from a connected chain of predecessors, and that it was reported to him the signs of Adalah or Sidq through individual from individual (going upwards) until it reached to the contemporary of the subject of the Tawthiq. And if we are to assume that both these options are not present, the words of the one giving the Tawthiq are not a Hujjah unto us, for he is deriving the Tawthiq from far-away (generational gap) Hadas (cognitive function), and Hadas is not a Mu’tabar Khabar Wahid. One may say: Adalah as you define it is a condition which someone posesses, so it cannot be observed by the senses. It is Answered: Yes, it is true that Adalah is a condition that someone posesses and therefore not tangible, but its signs can be observed, and this is enough. So, in conslusion, there is no dependence upon the Tawthiq or Tahsin if we do not have certain knowledge or justifiable possibility that it is based (originates) from a connected chain to the contemporary of the subject of the Tawthiq who based it on his Hiss [sensory observation]. And it is because of this rule that we do not accept the independent Tawthiq and Tahsin of our Muta’akhir scholars - like the Allamah, and the Shahidayn, and al-Majlisi and their like, when they give it to the companions of the Sadiqayn, for they could not have witnessed the signs of Adalah and Sidq of these companions by observation, and also, we cannot possibly justify that their Tawthiqat and Tadhifat are coming through a connected chain from their predecessors and reaching to the contemporaries of these companions, except that any such chain if it exists would certainly have passed through the Shaykh and an-Najashi and their like, and if so – they do not have anything new to add which we cannot obtain from the Shaykh or an-Najashi and their like directly. Using this rule, one can argue against the words of the Shaykh and an-Najashi in strengthening and weakening the companions of Amir al-Mu’mineen and al-Hasanayn, due to the lengthy gap in-between and the unjustifiability of even the possibility that these information coming down to them in a connected chain [since they have not mentioned the Turuq]. 4. The Tawthiq should not be Mursal [When we look at the Tawthiqat availabe to us from the three main sources of the accepted Tawthiqat, that is the Shaykh, an-Najashi and al-Kashi, and how they fulfill the previous rule, in the case of al-Kashi we have certain knowledge that the Tawthiqat of the companions of the Sadiqayn and others were obtained via a connected chain reaching to the contemporaries of the subjects of Tawthiq (since he recorded the Turuq in his book), and in the case of the Shaykh and an-Najashi we have justifiable possibility that they were basing the majority of their Tawthiqat on Naql that is via a connected chain - this judgement is due to the Indicators present in their own works [like their obvious dependence on their Shuyukh and the past books, and the words in their Muqadimma – Introductory prefaces]. But this fourth rule requires of them to mention the Wasita – intermediaries – between them and the original (principal) giver of the Tawthiq or Tahsin who is a contemporary of the subject of the Tawthiq or Tahsin (i.e. the narrator in question). And this is what is not available, and more about this rule and what it means to Ilm ar-Rijal will follow in the Fourth Discussion in detail, and it is this that will decide whether Ilm ar-Rijal is more beneficial or less. 5. The Tawthiq or Tadhif should reach US via a Mu’tabar chain And it is because of this rule that we do not accept what has been attributed to Ibn Uqdah, Ibn al- Ghadhairi and al-Barqi about the Tawthiq and Tadhif of narrators, for their books have not reached us through a Mu’tabar chain. 6. The Reasons for the Tawthiq and Tadhif mentioned by the scholars of Jarh and Ta’dil should be acceptable based on Shariah, Aql and Urf (customary usage) And more detail about this rule, and what has happened in contravention to it - due to the misunderstandings of most scholars will follow in the Second Discussion. And you will come to know there, that some have understood Adalah or Sidq due to matters that do not allow such an understanding at all. [Example: some have based the word of the Shaykh about Ali b. Muhammad b. Qutayba, wherein he said about him 'Fadhil' to be revealing his Tawthiq or Tahsin, and this is not acceptable to al-Muhsini] [For the Madh/Husn (praise) that al-Mushini accepts to give Tahsin is the one that reveals the Sidq of the narrator in question, so what is the relation between being Fadhil and being Sadiq he asks?] 7. The words of the one giving the Tawthiq or Tahsin should be clear – based on the rules of the language and not general or given to contradiction And due to the contravening of this rule, there has occurred Ikhtilaf over the Tawthiq of al-Husayn b. Ulwan, this is due to the difficulty in understanding the apparent words of an-Najashi – on whether the Tawthiq refers back to al-Husyan (the subject of the Tarjama) or his brother al-Hasan. 8. The Tawthiq or Tadhif should not have a contradicting Mu’tabar opponent When there is a Mu’tabar Tawthiq and a Mu’tabar Tadhif about the same narrator, they clash and both are dropped (none is followed) except if one is closer/more in accordance – like the words of the Shaykh and an-Najashi in the case of the narrator Salim b. Mukrim, where the scholars have found an opening in not following this rule, by ruling that an-Najashi is more aware in this field, and so his decision takes precedence. These, then are the important rules for Ta’dil and Tajrih and Tahsin and Tadhif, which we repeat once more, are necessary to keep in mind and follow, and there is no dependence on the words of the Rijaliyun in proving Madh and Dhamm that are outside (do not follow) these rules.
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