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  1. Words of Wisdom – by Imam Ali AS (From Ghurar Al-Hikam Wa Durar Al-Kalim, -- Exalted Aphorisms And Pearls Of Speech) A Collection of Aphorisms of Imam ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib by Al-Amudi Parents 1. Being good to parents is the greatest [and most important] duty. 2. Be good to your parents and your children will be good to you. 3. Whoever is good to his parents, his child will be good to him. 4. The death of a father breaks one’s back. 5. One who scorns his parents has diverged from the right path. 6. The affection of parents is [the basis of] the relationship between siblings. The Camel 1. Seek goodness in the hoofs of the camel when driven away and when coming back. (To be continued)
  2. أبواب السبعين وما فوقه (PART 24-ON SEVENTY AND ABOVE-NUMBERED CHARACTERISTICS) A NUMERIC CLASSIFICATION OF TRADITIONS ON CHARACTERISTICS Translation of AL-KHISAL, by Sheikh Saduq لامير المؤمنين عليه السلام سبعون منقبة لم يشركه فيها أحد من الامة IMAM ALI HAS 70 CHARACTERISTICS WHICH NONE HAVE ( Ahmad ibn al-Hassan al-Qat’tan, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Senani, Ali ibn Musa al-Daq’qaq, al-Hussein ibn Ibrahim ibn Hisham al-Mokattib[1036] and Ali ibn Abdullah al-Warraq - may God be pleased with them - narrated that Abul-Ab’bas Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Zakaria al-Qat’tan quoted on the authority of Bakr ibn Abdullah ibn Habib, on the authority of Tamim ibn Buhlool, on the authority of Suleiman ibn Hakeem, on the authority of Soor ibn Yazid, on the authority of Makhul,) “The Commander of the Faithful Ali ibn Abi Talib (MGB) said, ‘Indeed those companions of the Prophet who know the whole Quran by heart all know that there is no one amongst them who has any virtues which I do not have, or I may even be surpass him in that respect. However, I have seventy virtues which none of them has.’ I asked, ‘O Commander of the Faithful! Please inform me about those virtues.’ Then Ali (MGB) said, ‘1- I never associated any partners with God - even for a twinkling of an eye. I never worshipped Lat and Uzza. 2- I never drank any alcohol. 3- I have been with God’s Prophet since my childhood when God’s Prophet (MGB) asked my father to become my guardian. From then on I have been with him, eaten and drank with him, associated and talked with him. 4- I am the first person to believe in and submit to Islam. 5- God’s Prophet (MGB) told me, ‘O Ali! Your relationship to me is like that of Aaron’s relationship to Moses (MGB) except that there will be no Prophets after me.’ 6- I was the last person who separated from God’s Prophet (MGB) and placed him in his grave. 7- When God’s Prophet (MGB) wanted to go to the cave of Sowr, he put me to sleep in his own bed and covered me up with his blanket. When the polytheists came to his house, they suspected that I was Muhammad (MGB). They woke me up from sleep and asked, ‘What happened to your friend?’ I said, ‘He (MGB) went to take care of something.’ They said, ‘If he had escaped, then Ali would have escaped along with him.’ 8- God’s Prophet (MGB) taught me one-thousand gates of knowledge each of which opens up to one-thousand other gates. 9- God’s Prophet (MGB) told me, ‘When the Honorable the Exalted God resurrects the first up to the last of the people on the Resurrection day, He will install a pulpit for me above that of all the other Prophets and install apulpit for you above that of all other Trustees. Then you shall climb up it. (To be Continued ..........)
  3. Salaam alai kum, There is no wrong or right answer here but just something to ponder over, reflect and shares thoughts and ideas. This is meant as a way to praise our Imams. Imam Ali (a.s.) was martyred while in sajdah. Imam Hussain (a.s.) was martyred in sajdah. If you had to compare the two, how would you? I don't mean which is better but how they are different yet similar. brother @Kazemi - I would love it if you can write a poem on this...
  4. 1. I have read a hadith of Imam Ali AS that says : " Forgiveness is the best revenge. " In another hadith of the Commander of the faithful I read " The best revenge is to improve yourself, " 2. I am not sure about this but I was suprised that I read a hadith of one of the imams (AS) that drinking water while standing is tastier ( and possibly also healtier , in the same hadith ) But If I am right there are also hadiths that says drinking while standing is bad and drink while you sit. Could somebody give some knowledge about the first point ? Is it about context ? And maybe, even though I did not mention the hadith somebody can help with the second point. Thank you all and may God grant you succes.
  5. In how many parts nahjul balagha is divided?
  6. #salam You don’t have to go to school to understand that bad habits are harmful to you in one way or the other. The difference between Muslims and other people when it comes to bad habits is that we have one extra reason to stop our bad habits: #Islam. You see in Islam, it’s a sin to intentionally do things that will harm your body. It is also a sin to do things that will harm other people as well as things that will affect you in a negative way. Shouldn’t that be an enough incentive to stop our bad habits? Find yours and try to #kickaBadHabit in a week. Start from Eid al-Adhha (sacrifise feast) to Eid al-Ghadeer . Tell your words with #kickaBadHabit and share it on your pages. #SalamIslam
  7. Salam aleikum, Dear brothers and sisters. This Android App consist of 1000 virtues of First Imam, Imam Ali a.s. Please remember that even these 1000 virtues of Imam Ali a.s, they are just a drop from an ocean. Download from: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.a1000virtuesofimamali References Included. You can also receive 1 random virtue daily to your phone or tablet. In this way you can learn new virtue of your beloved Imam, each day. All the virtues are categorized into 150 categories for easy viewing. You can bookmark your favorite ahadith and read them again later. App also consist of search option, so you can find the virtue based on the quote, hadith number or reference you remember. This app is also designed for Tablets. With multi view pane, you can easily select the category from left side and view the virtues inside it on the right side. App is completely free and has no advertisements. Currently this App only consist of english language.
  8. Did Imam Ali a.s ever recieve any sort of revelation?
  9. الإمامُ عليٌّ عليه السلام : أصلُ العَقلِ القُدرَةُ ، وثَمَرَتُها السُّرورُ Imam Ali (AS) said, 'The root of the intellect is power, and its fruit is happiness.'
  10. 1. The Prophet saww closed all the doors opening in the mosques except that of Imam Ali AS. The following hadith describe this closing of doors: Zaid b. Arqam narrates – Some companions had a path through the mosques one day the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said – Close all the doors except that of Ali. Zaid says that people [the companions whom we are told would accept any order of the Prophet (s.a.w.a.)] started speaking (against the order). Thus, the Prophet (s.a.w.a.) stood up and praised Allah and said – I have ordered to close all the doors except the door of Ali, by Allah! I have not closed anything nor opened but I have been ordered to do so and I obeyed. i. Musnad-o-Ahmad vol. 4, p. 329, tradition 19,502 – Imam Ahmed b. Hanbal is one of the four Sunni Imams of jurisprudence ii. Sunan-e-Kubra of Nesaai one of the authors of Sihah-e-Sittah (vol. 7, p. 422, tradition 8,369 & later edition vol. 5, p. 118, tradition 8,423) iii. Al Bedaya wa al-Nehaya of Ibn Kathir, vol. 5 p. 456 – he was a student of Ibn Taymiyyah who has rejected this tradition as a Shiite fabrication iv. Haakim in Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain (vol. 3, p. 125, tradition 4,688) records that this report is with correct chain of narrators (Sahih al-sanad). v. Zahabi in his Talkhees al-Mustadrak records that the report is Sahih vi. Fadhail al-Sahaabah vol. 2 p. 618-620/985 vii. Majma al-Zawaaid vol. 9 p. 114 tradition 14,671 viii. Riyaaz al-Nazarah vol. 4 p.136 2- The hadith in sunni books mention Imam Ali as ordinary person, The detailed analysis on the subject in the light of verses of Quran and hadiths of the prophet saww reveal that such hadith are fabricated by Ummayad and their followers just to degrade the image and status of Imam Ali AS and Ahl al bayat AS. The detail can be seen at the given link: 4. The verses of quran and hadith indicate that Imam Ali is Sideeq Akbar. The confirmation of the fact comes by the sayings of the prophet Muhammad saw by the following hadith: In: "Sun'an Ibn Maj'ah (سنن ابن ماجة)", By: Muhammad bin Yaz'eed Al-Qazwini Abu abdullah Bin Maj'ah (محمد بن يزيد القزويني أبو عبد الله ابن ماجة), Investigated by: Muhammad Fo'a'ad Ab'd Al-Baqi (محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي): Association: Da'ar I'h'ya Al-Kutub Al-I,miyah (دار إحياء الكتب العربية), volume #1, Page# 44, Narration# 120: حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الرَّازِيُّ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى قَالَ: أَنْبَأَنَا الْعَلَاءُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، عَنِ الْمِنْهَالِ، عَنْ عَبَّادِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: قَالَ عَلِيٌّ: «أَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَأَخُو رَسُولِهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَأَنَا الصِّدِّيقُ الْأَكْبَرُ، لَا يَقُولُهَا بَعْدِي إِلَّا كَذَّابٌ، صَلَّيْتُ قَبْلَ النَّاسِ لِسَبْعِ سِنِينَ Told us Muhammad bin Isma'ail Al-Razi, said: told us Ubaidullah bin Musa said: informed us Al-Ala'a bin Sal'eh, from Al-Munhil, from Ab'ad bin Abdullah said: Said Ali (a.s): "I am the servant of Allah and the brother of his Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, and I am the greatest truthful (righteous) (Sideeq Al-Akbar), and no one says it after me, except a liar. I preformed Salat before the people for seven years." في الزوائد هذا الإسناد صحيح. رجاله ثقات. رواه الحاكم في المستدرك عن المنهال وقال صحيح على شرط الشيخين. In Al-Zawa'id, this is an Authentic (Sahih) Isn'aad/chain, and its men are trustworthy (thiqa'at). Narrated it Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak from Al-Mun'haal, and said: Authentic on the guidelines of Bukhari And Muslim. Thus confirming no one is Sideeq Akbar except Imam Ali AS. The following link describes the details based on the verses of Quran and hadith. 5.The reasons for the door of Imam Ali kept open in the mosque and other doors were closed are enforced by the hadith of the prophet saww as given below: a) The Prophet said, "The verse of purification was revealed concerning five people: myself, ALI, Hassan, Hussein, and Fatima." (Is'af Al-Raghibeen, p. 116; Sahih Muslim, Kitab Fada'il Al-Sahaba) b) The Prophet said, “The carrier of my flag in this life and the Hereafter is ALI.” (Kanz Al-Umal, 6/122; Al-Tabari, 2/201; Al-Khawarizmi, 250; Al-Fada’il of Ahmad, 253; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 42/200) c) The Prophet said, “Every prophet has an executor and inheritor, and my executor and inheritor is ALI.” (Kanz Al-Umal, 6/158; Tarikh Baghdad of Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi, 11/173; Shawahid Al-Tanzil, 2/223; Yanabi' Al-Mawda, 94) a) The Prophet said, “We were created from the same tree, I and ALI .” (Al-Tirmidhi, 13/178; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 122; Asad Al-Ghaba, 4/26; Al-Riyadh Al-Nudhra, 2/216) b) The Prophet said, “The most knowledgeable person in my nation after me is ALI .” (Manaqib Al-Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib of Ibn Al-Maghazeli Al-Shafi'i.) c) The Prophet said, “The first of you to reach the Pond is the first of you who accepted Islam: ALI.” (Kenz Al-Omal, 6/154; Al-Tabarani, 5/32; Al-Riyadh Al-Nudhra, 1/165; Dhaka’ir Al-'Aqil, 65; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 230) d) The Prophet said, “No one is permitted on the Bridge except by the sainthood of ALI .” (Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 15; Al-Isti'ab, 2/457) e) The Prophet said, “There is a tree in Paradise called Tuba. Its roots are in the house of ALI, and its branches are ALI .” (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/109; Musnad Ahmad, 4/370; Al-Khasa’is of Al-Nisa’i, 25; Al-Tirmidhi; Al-Tabarani.) f) The Prophet said, “ALI is the distinguisher between truth and falsehood.” (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/132; Musnad Ahmad, 1/331; Yanabi' Al-Mawda, 92) g) The Prophet said, “The most righteous one is ALI .” (Al-Bayhaqi, 4/35; Kenz Al-Omal, 7/176; Al-Jami' of Al-Suyuti, 2/276; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 93) h) The Prophet said, “The hand of ALI and my hand are equal in justice.” (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/14; Al-Tabari, 2/272; Al-Tirmidhi, 2/299; Ibn Al-Maghazali) i) The Prophet said, “ALI is my brother in this life and the Hereafter.” (Al-Khasa’is of Al-Nisa’i, 5; Al- Tirmidhi; Yanabi^ Al-Mawda, 61; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 37; Yanabi' Al-Mawda, 57) j) The Prophet said, “ALI is to me what Harun was to Musa.” (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al- Nisabori, 3/137; Ibn Al-Maghazali, 65, 104; Al-Tabarani; HAliyat Al-Awliya’, 1/63; Akhtab Khawarizm, 229) k) The Prophet said, “ALI holds a right over this nation like the right of a father over his son.” (Muslim, 2/361; Al-Tirmidhi, 2/299; Al-Hakim, 3/130; Musnad Ahmad, 3/198; Al-Nisa’i, 7; Asad Al-Ghaba, 3/40) l) The Prophet said, “ALI is with the Qur’an, and the Qur’an is with Ali.” (Al-Bukhari, 5/19; Muslim, 2/360; Al-Tirmidhi, 5/304; Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/109; Ibn Majah, 1/28; Musnad Ahmad, 3/328) m) The Prophet said, “Love for ALI is faith, and hatred for Ali is hypocrisy.” (Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 67; Al-Khawarizmi, 236; Fara’id Al-Samateen; Yanabi' Al-Mawda) n) The Prophet said, “The position of ALI amongst the people is like Surat Ikhlas in the Qur’an.” (Muslim, 1/48; Al-Tirmidhi, 2/299; Al-Nisa’i, 27; Musnad Ahmad, 6/299; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 191) o) The Prophet said, “ALI is the beloved between two friends, myself and Ibrahim.” (Yanabi' Al-Mawda, 88; Fara’id Al-Samatin; Al-Abrar; Moniq Ibn Ahmad Al-Khawarizmi) p) The Prophet said, “Whoever splits with ALI has split with me, and whoever splits with me has split with God.” (Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 45; Yanabi' Al-Mawda, 181) q) The Prophet said, “ALI is from me and I am from him, and he is the protector of every true believer after me.” (Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 69; Yanabi' Al-Mawda, 125) r) The Prophet said, “ALI is the most beloved of God and His Prophet in all of creation.” (Kanz Al-Umal, 5/33; Al-Riyadh Al-Nudhra, 2/211; Ibn Al-Maghazali, 219) s) The Prophet said, “Mentioning ALI is a form of worship, and looking upon him is a form of worship.” (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisapuri, 3/123; Kenz Al-Omal, 6/156; Al-Tabarani; Ibn Al-Maghazeli, 240, 278; Al-Khawarizmi, 62) t) The Prophet said, “ALI stands in relation to me as my head to my body.” (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori, 3/141; Al-Jami^ of Al-Suyuti, 1/583; Tarikh Baghdad of Al-Khateeb Al-Baghdadi, 1/51; Hiliyat Al-Awliya’, 1/182; Al-Riyadh Al-Nudhra, 2/219) 6- The Prophet said, “ALI is the door of servitude, and whoever passes through that door is a true believer.” (Mustadrak Al-Sahihain of Al-Hakim Al-Nisabori; Kanz Al-Umal, 6/156; Al-Dilmi) 7- The Prophet said, “ALI is the door of my knowledge, and the one who will clarifies for my nation that which I was sent with.” (Tafsir Al-Tabari, 3/171; Shawahid Al-Tanzil, 2/356; Al-Darr Al-Manthour, 6/379; Yanabi' Al-Mawda, 61) Thus it is well proven that the Prophet saww never closed the Door leading to him. It also confirms that all the doors were closed except the Door of Imam Ali AS to the mosque.
  11. fan Per Rumi’s Spiritual Shiism By: Seyed G Safavi London Academy of Iranian Studies, UK Abstract The present paper aims to provide textual evidence in support of Rumi’s spiritual shiism. The evidence will be taken from Rumi’s Mathnawi. Shiism, in its true form, believes in the welayat (authority) of Imam Ali and his eleven descendents following the demise of Prophet Muhammad. Allah has chosen Ali and his descendents, as the true spiritual and religious successors of Prophet Muhammad, after whom there will always be a representative from Ali’s family to guide and lead human kind. This paper deals with three types of welayat: solar, lunar and stellar welayats. Interpretation of the Mathnawi text by ‘conceptual’, ‘synoptic’ and ‘hermeneutic circle’ research techniques – makes clear that Maulana Jalal-Din Rumi honoured the office of the Imamate that is the authority – Wilayah of Allah, the Prophet Muhammad and his 12 Divinely appointed successors. In this context, Maulana focuses on the Wilayah of Imam ‘Ali –the first Divine successor of the Prophet Mohammad. According to Dr Shahram Pazouki “Maulawi is a Shiite, not in the current sense of the jurists or dialectical theologians, but in its true meaning, that is, Allah only appoints the wali, belief in the continuing spirituality and walayah of the Prophet Mohammad in the person of Imam ‘Ali and his sons which appointed by Allah. Allah appointed Ali to be the spiritual successor and wali after the prophet Mohammad and belief that after the prophet there is always a living spiritual guide, wali, from Imam ‘Ali family on the way of love. Then here there is different between spiritual Shiism and jurisprudence Shiism. The Sufis believe that in every period of time there is a divine spiritual guide or wali,and that it is only through him that one cam find the way to Allah. Walayah is the reality of Sufism and inner aspect of islam.the wali is the shadow of Allah on earh.the wali is the perfect of the age and the intermediary of grace from Allah to man. Walayah differs from caliphate .it is possible to engage in choosing the caliph by giving him their vote, but only Allah appoints the wali. Allah appointed ‘Ali to be the spiritual successor and wali after the prophet ohammad”. (Pazouki, Shahram. (2003). Spiritual Walayah. In: SG. Safavi(ed), RUMI’S THOUGHTS. Tehran: Salman Azadeh Publication) ‘Ali appointed as wali by Allah is based on some Qur’an verses and prophet Mohammad narrations such as balegh ma onzel ilaik (Chapter 5:67), alum akmalt lakom dinakom(Chapter 5:3), Hadith Ghadir Khoma and Ttheqlain. What is important is believing that after the prophet, walayah continued in ‘Ali and after ‘Ali ,walayah continued through the other Shiite Imams which are appointed as wali by Allah. Shi’ism is based upon the principle of Imamah or Wilayah (referred to in gnostic – Irfanic literature as ‘The Perfect Man’ – Insan al-Kamil). Qur’anic and ahadith references, narrated by all Muslim sources, confirm that love for the Prophet’s progeny is a basic precept of Islam. The Mathnawi evidences that Maulana believed in the Wilayah of Imam ‘Ali, one of the main principles of Shi’ah Islam. The different levels between Imamah and Wilayah: The Ultimate Guardian – Wali is Allah, followed, in order, by: The Prophet Muhammad and the 12 Imams. As the Prophet and the 12 Imams are all manifestations of ‘The Perfect Man’ who represent Divine Guardianship in their times – Imamah in Shi’ah literature, and ‘The Perfect Man’ in Sufi literature, correspond to the same identity. That the essence of ‘The Perfect Man’ in Sufism is denoted by Imamah – the distinguishing principle of Shi’ism, indicates that Sufis, regardless of the religious practices they follow – taqlid, are, in this respect, Shi’ah Muslims. In the ‘Irfanic view there are two distinct types of Wilayah, “General Wilayah” – “Wilayah ‘Ammah” and “Specific Wilayah” –“Wilayah Khassah”. General Wilayah – Wilayah ‘Ammah (Lit. Stellar), comprises two levels: 1) The first starts with “withdrawal” – “takhliyyah”, and ends with the station of the “nearness of supererogatory works” –“Qorb Nawafil.” When Allah becomes the eyes, ears, and tongue of His servant, the seeker of truth – salik achieves the state –maqam of “the reality of certainty” – “Haq al-Yaqin”. 2) The second level relates to those – annihilated in “the Real” –Haqq – who remain in the Existence of the King of Existence The final stage of this state is referred to as “Maqam Qab Quysayn”. “Specific Wilayah”, Wilayah Khassah, is only held by the Prophet Muhammad and his Divinely appointed successors from his Ahl al-Bayt,Prophet’s Houshold(The family of the Prophet,specificly his daughter Fatima, her husband ‘Ali, and their children Hassan and Hussein). Such Specific Wilayah proceeds from Maqam Qab-e Quysayn, to the achievement of “The Station of Manifestation on Intrinsic Discourser” – “Maqam-e Mazhariyyat-eTajaliya-e Zati” and “Maqam-e Aw Adna”. At that stage, those who hold this Wilayah comprehend the seventh inner level, Battn Haftom of Kalam Allah, i.e. the word of Allah, namely the Qur’an. It is recorded in one narration – hadith, regarding the Qur’an that, ‘The Qur’an has a superficial level and an inner level of understanding that encompasses seven inner depths.’ ( ‘Alama Tabataeai, Tafsir Al-Mizan, Vol. 3, p. 72). Holders of Wilayah Khassah – Wali’s, are like a great tree of which Abdal, Noqaba and Awtad are mere shadows. For every age there is a single Perfect Man – Qutub, with all other spiritual beings of the age under his shadow. (See verses 1924 – 2305 Book 3 of Rumi’s Mathnawi and Mulla Hadi Sabsavari’s commentary on verse 2003 of Book Three of the Mathnaw‡). Maulana said Wilayah Khassah has two aspects, Wilayah Shamsiyyah (Lit.Solar) and Wilayah Qamariyyah (Lit. Lunar). (Book Three verses 3104 – 3106). The manifestation of Wilayah Shamsiyyah is Wilayah Muhammadiyyah – held by Prophet Muhammad Mustafa, while Wilayah Qamariyyah, refers specifically to those of his progeny – Ahl Al-Bayt, who Allah appointed to inherit his authority and succeed him. According to Mathnawi Book One, verses 2959 – 2980, Wilayah Allawiyyah – that is the Wilayah of Imam‘Ali and the inheritors of his authority – falls within Wilayah Muhammadiyyah. According to Book One, verses 3761 – 3766, the Wilayah Qamariyyah of Imam ‘Ali falls within the Wilayah Shamsiyyah of the Prophet Muhammad. Rumi based his repeated comments of Imam ‘Ali’s Wilayah Khassah, on the Prophet Muhammad’s saying, ‘Whomever I hold authority over, ‘Ali holds authority over’ – ‘Man kuntum Mawla fa ‘Aliyun Mawla’. In the first story at the beginning of Book One of the Mathnawi, ‘The King and the Handmaiden’, the Perfect Man – Pir or Hakim Haziq is raised in reference to one of Imam ‘Ali’s titles ‘The Approved One’ – Murtadha, whom he then proceeds to describe as, ‘The One who holds authority over the people – Mula al-Qum’. (Mathnawi Book One verses 99- 100). In the last story of Book One – A Story about Imam ‘Ali, Rumi discusses nafs mutma’nah (verses 3721-3991) and introduces Imam ‘Ali as a holder of Wilayah Khassah. In the last book, Book Six, he again raises the Wilayah of Imam ‘Ali based upon the Prophet’s saying ‘Whomever I hold authority over, ‘Ali holds authority over’, ‘Man kuntum Mawla fa ‘Aliyun Mawla’. Book Six, verse 4538. Thus, the Mathnawi of Rumi both begins and ends with the Wilayah of Imam ‘Ali. Sequential textual evidence in the Mathnawi that supports Rumi’s acceptance of Imam ‘Ali’s Wilayah and spiritual superiority over other companions of the Prophet. 1) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘AMIR AL-MUMININ – COMMANDER OF THE FAITHFUL – TRANSLATED BY NICHOLSON AS PRINCE OF THE FAITHFUL’ – in the story titled Imam ‘Ali. See Book One, heading after verse 3720. 2) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ONE WHO ACTS SINCERELY’ –‘Learn how to act sincerely from ‘Ali’. Book One, verse 3721 (first part). 3) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali u as, ‘THE LION OF Allah’ – ‘Know that the lion of Allah (‘Ali ) was purged of all deceit’. Book One, verse 3721 (second part). 4) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali u as, ‘THE PRIDE OF EVERY PROPHET’ –‘Ali, the pride of every Prophet’. Book One, verse 3723. 5) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE PRIDE OF EVERY SAINT’ – ‘Ali the pride of every Prophet and every saint.’ Book One, verse 3723. 6) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE FACE BEFORE WHICH THE MOON BOWS LOW’ – ‘He spat on the countenance before which the face of the moon bows low in the place of worship.’ Book One, verse 3724. 7) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE LION OF THE LORD’ – ‘In bravery you are the lion of the Lord: in generosity who indeed knows who you are?’ Book One, verse 3732. 8.) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ALL MIND AND EYE’ – ‘O ‘Ali you who are all mind and eye, relate a little of that which you have seen.’ Book One, verse 3745. 9) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘FALCON OF THE EMPYREAN’ – ‘Tell, O falcon of the empyrean that finds goodly prey, what you have seen at this time from the Maker.’ Book One, verse 3750. 10) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE LEARNED WHO PERCEIVES THE UNSEEN’ – ‘Your eyes have learned to perceive the unseen while the eyes of the bystanders are sealed.’ Book One verse 3751. 11) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali u as, ‘THE ONE WHO IS APPROVED BY Allah’ – ‘Reveal the mystery O ‘Ali you who is approved by Allah.’ Book One, verse 3751 (part 1). 12 Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as being, ‘GOODLY EASE’ – ‘O you who are a goodly ease after evil fate.’ Book One, verse 3752. 13) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ORB OF THE MOON (WILAYAH QAMARIYYAH)’ – ‘From you it shone forth on me, how could you conceal it? Without tongue you are darting rays of light, like the moon. But if the moonsorb come to speech, it more quickly leads the night-travellers the (right) way. They become safe from error and heedlessness: the voice of the moon prevails over the voice of the ghoul.’ Book One, verse 3759-3761. 14) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali u as, ‘LIGHT UPON LIGHT’ – ‘In as much as the moon (even) without speech shows the way, when it speaks it becomes light upon light,’ Book One, verse 3762. 15) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘GATE OF THE CITY OF KNOWLEDGE (‘Ali GATE OF WILAYAH MUHAMMADIYYAH)’ – ‘Since you are the Gate of the City of Knowledge, since you are the beams of the sun of clemency (Prophet Muhammad ).’ Book One verse 3763. This verse refers to the Prophet Muhammad saying, ‘I am the City of Knowledge and ‘Ali is its gate, so anyone who seeks knowledge should enter through its gate.’ 16) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘GATE OF MERCY’ – ‘Remain open forever.’ Book One, verse 3765 (part one). 17) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ENTRANCE-HALL TO ‘NONE IS LIKE UNTO HIM.’ Book One, verse 3765. This is a reference to Surah Ikhlas – Qur’an 112. 18) Rumi refers to Imam ¡Ali u as, ‘THE SUN OF WILAYAH’ – ‘Speak, O Prince of the faithful, that my soul may stir within my body like an embryo. How has the embryo the means (to stir) during the period when it is ruled (by the stars)? It comes (turns) from the stars towards the sun. When the time comes for the embryo to receive the (vital) spirit, at that time the sun becomes its helper. Book One, verses 3773-5. These verses refer to the Ahl al-Bayt’s Wilayah Qamariyyah being within the Wilayah Shamsiyyah of the Prophet Muhammad . Here Rumi clari fies that those who hold general or stellar Wilayah – Wilayah ‘Ammah / Wilayah Najmiyyah are merely stars in comparison to ‘Ali who, being like the sun, represents the Perfect Man or perfect shaykh. Thus, while those who hold Wilayah ‘Ammah may aid a ‘Searcher for Truth’ – Salik, complete guidance is only obtainable via those who hold Wilayah Shamsiyyah – a reference to Imam ‘Ali and his successors. Here Rumi presents the three types of Wilayah described in the introduction – Wilayah Shamsiyyah and Wilayah Qamariyyah –aspects of Specific Wilayah – Wilayah Khassah, and Wilayah ‘Ammah, that is also referred to as Stellar Wilayah – Wilayah Najmiyyah. These may be considered Advanced and Element ary levels of Wilayah. 19) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as ‘HOLDER OF SOLAR WILAYAH – WILAYAH SHAMSIYYAH’ – ‘When the time comes for the embryo to receive the (vital) spirit, at that time the sun becomes its helper. This embryo is brought into movement by the sun, for the sun quickly endows it with ‘spirit’. ‘ Book One, verses 3775-3776. On the spiritual journey towards Allah, the embryo – Spiritual Seeker – Salik, obedient to Wilayah Allawiyyah, arrives at her/his destination. 20) Rumi refers to all Spiritual Seekers having, if they are aware of it not, an inherent connection with Wilayah Allawiyyah, that is, the Wilayah Shamsiyyah of Imam ‘Ali – ‘By the hidden way that is remote from our senses-perception, the sun in the heavens has many ways,’ Book One, verse 3779. It is via that inherent connection, with the Wilayah Shamsiyyah of ‘Ali, that exists beyond the physical senses, that the Spiritual Seeker is able to develop. 21) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as ‘THE ROUTE OF SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE – WILAYAH’, – ‘And the way whereby it makes the Ruby red and the way whereby it gives the lightening-flash to the (iron) horse shoe. And the way whereby it ripens the fruit, and the way whereby it gives heart to one who is distraught.’ Book One verse 3781-82. These verses refer to Qur’an 100 – Surah Al-‘adiyat that was revealed to illuminate the status of Imam ‘Ali. 22) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘A FALCON WITH SHINING WINGS’ –‘Say it O falcon with shining wings,’ Book One verse, 3783 (part one). 23) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ONE WHO LEARNED FROM AND BECAME FAMILIAR WITH THE TRUE KING OF THE UNIVERSE’ – ‘Who has learned from the King and His fore arm.’ Book One, verse 3783 (part two). 24) Rumi refers to Imam Ali as, ‘ROYAL FALCON OF Allah WHO CATCHES THE ANGA.’ – ‘Say it, O Royal falcon who catches the Anga, O you who vanquished an army all by yourself.’ Book One, verse 3784. 25) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ONE NATION OF HUMANITY’ –‘You alone are the (entire community) you are one and a hundred thousand. Say it O you to whose falcon your slave has fallen prey’. Book One, verse 3785. This verse refers to an ayah of the Qur’an in which Allah tells us that all people are ‘a single nation’ Qur’an 2:213. While all have the potential, only some actually follow the Wilayah of ‘Ali , the one who is obedient to Allah. 26) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE SERVANT OF Allah’ – ‘He said I am wielding my sword for Allah’s sake. I am the servant of Allah; I am not under the command ofthe body.’ Book One verse 3787. 27) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE LION OF Allah’ – ‘I am the lion of Allah, not the lion of my passions.’ Book One, verse 3788 (part one). 28) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘HE WHOSE DEED WITNESSES HIS RELIGION’ – ‘My deed bears witness to my religion.’ Book One verse 3787 (part two). 29) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE MANIFESTATION OF THE WILL OF Allah’ – ‘In war I am the manifestation of the truth of “ It was not you who threw when you threw”: but the sword and the wielder is the (Divine) Sun.’ Book One, verse 3789. This is a reference to Qur’an 8:17. 30) Rumi refers to Imam ¡Ali u as, ‘ANNIHILATED IN Allah’ – ‘I have removed the baggage of “ self” out of the way.’ Book One, verse 3790 (part one). 31) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ONE WHOSE TAWHID IS “ESSENTIAL” TAWHID’ – ‘I have deemed (what is) other than Allah to be non-existent.’ Book One, verse 3790 (part two). 32) Rumi refers to Imam ¡Ali u as, ‘SHADOW OF THE DIVINE’ – ‘I am a shadow, the Sun is my Lord.’ Book One, verse 3791 (part one). Ali’s Wilayah is from Allah. 33) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE CHAMBERLAIN OF Allah’ – ‘I am the chamberlain, not the curtain (that prevents approach) to Him.’ Book One verse 3791 (part two). ‘Ali’s function is to guide people to Allah. 34) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘FILLED WITH THE PEARLS OF UNION WITH Allah’ – ‘I am filled with the pearls of union like a (jewelled) sword.’ Book One verse 3792 (part one). 35) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE REVIVER OF SPIRITUAL LIFE’ –‘In battle I revive but do not kill people.’ Book One, verse 3792 (part two). 36) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ADVANCER OF LEVELS OF SPIRITUAL ESSENCE AND DIVINE MORALITY’ – ‘Blood does not cover the sheen of my sword: how should the wind sweep away my clouds? Book One verse 3793. The great commentator of Rumi’s Mathnawi, Akbar Abadi said that ‘Sword and clouds here refer to the advanced level of the Spiritual Essence of ¡Ali u – wind refers to negative morality (Akhlaq Nafsani) and the sheen of the sword to Divine Morality. Clear reference that negative attributes do not impinge upon the perfected attributes of ‘Ali u.’ See Akbar Abadi, Sharh Mathnawi, Book 1. P. 307. 37) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘MOUNTAIN OF FORBEARANCE, PATIENCE AND JUSTICE’ – ‘I am not a straw, I am a mountain of forbearance, patience and justice: how should the fierce wind carry off the mountain?’ Book One, verse 3794. 38) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘Allah’S BUILDING BEING THE BEING OF ‘ALI ’ – ‘I am a mountain and my being is His building. If I become like a straw, my wind (that which moves me) is the recollection of Him.’ Book One, verse 3797. 39) In reference to Imam ‘Ali , Rumi writes, ¡HIS COMMANDER IS ‘LOVE OF Allah’ – ‘My longing is not stirred save by His wind; my captain is naught but Love of the One.’ Book One, verse 3798. 40) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘REPRESSOR OF ANGER’ – ‘Anger, king over kings is to me but a slave: even anger I have bound under the bridle.’ Book One, verse 3799. 41) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘IMMERSED IN THE LIGHT OF Allah’ – ‘I am immersed in the light although my roof is ruined.’ Book One, verse 3801 (part one). 42) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘A DIVINE GARDEN’ – ‘I have become a gardenalthough I am (styled) Father of Dust – Bu Turab.’ Book One, verse 3801 (part two). This verse refers to the hadith in which the Prophet titled ‘Ali; Abu Turab. 43) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘LOVER OF Allah’ – ‘That my name may be ‘He Loves for the sake of Allah.’ That my desire may be ‘He hates for the sake of Allah’ Book One,verse 3803. 44) Rumi refers to the manifestation of ‘Ali’s ‘generosity’ as, ‘GIVING FOR Allah’ – ‘Thatmy generosity may be ‘He gives for the sake of Allah’ Book One verse 3804 (part one). 45) Rumi refers to the mani festation of ‘Ali’s ‘withholding’ as, ‘WITHHOLDING FOR THE SAKE OF Allah’ – ‘That my being may be “He withholds for Allah’s sake” ’. Book One, verse 3804 (part two). Verses 3803 and 4 refer to a hadith, ‘The faith of any who give for the sake of Allah or withhold for the sake of Allah or love for Allah or hate or marry for Allah, will attain perfection.’ Foruzanfar, Ahadith Mathnawi, P.37, Tehran 1361. 46) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘BELONGING ENTIRELY TO Allah’ – ‘I belong entirely to Allah, I do not belong to any other.’ Book One, verse 3805 (part two). The will and being of Imam ‘Ali is circumscribed by the Will and Existence of Allah. 47) In reference to Imam Ali Rumi writes, ‘ALI’S ACTIONS ARE FOR Allah ALONE DRAWN FROM HIS u ILLUMINATED KNOWLEDGE OF Allah’ – ‘And that which I do for Allah’s sake is (not done in) conformity, it is not fancy or opinion, it is naught but intuition.’ Book One, verse 3806. ‘Ali’s knowledge is intuitive rather than theoretical. 48) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘ATTACHED TO Allah ALONE’ – ‘I have been freed from effort and search, I have tied my sleeve to the skirt of Allah.’ Book One verse 3807. 49) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘SEEING Allah EVERYWHERE’ – ‘If I am flying, I behold the place to which I soar; and if I am circling, I behold the axis on which I revolve.’ Book One verse 3808. 50) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE HOLDER OF LUNAR AND SOLAR WILAYAH, WILAYAH QAMARIYYAH AND WILAYAH SHAMSIYYAH’ – ‘I am the moon and the sun is before me as my guide.’ Book One, verse 3809 (part two). 51) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘GATE OF DIVINE KNOWLEDGE’ –‘Come in! I will open the door for you.’ Book One verse 3841. 52) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘GRANTING ETERNAL TREASURE TO HIS FOLLOWERS’ – ‘What then do I bestow on the doer of righteousness? Know you, I bestow treasures and kingdoms everlasting.’ Book One verse 3843. 53) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘MASTER OF THE SPIRIT’ – ‘But do not grieve: I am intercessor for you: I am the spirit’s master, I am not the body’s slave.’ Book One, verse 3942. 54) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘Sun of The Noble’ – ‘This body has no value in my sight: without my body I am the noble (in spirit) the sun of the spirit.’ Book One verse 3943. 55) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE GUIDANCE OF KINGS’ –‘Outwardly he strives aft er power and authority, but (only) that he may show princes the right way and judgement. That he may another spirit to the Princedom; that he may give fruit to the palm tree of the Caliphate.’ Book One, verse 3946-47. 56) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE DIVINE BALANCE’ – ‘You have really been the balance with the just nature of the One (Allah). Book One, verse 3981 (part one). 57) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘The Balance By Which To Weigh Other Saints’ – ‘Nay, you have been the pivot of every balance.’ Book One, verse 3981 (part two). 58) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE ILLUMINATION OF ¡HIS WILAYAH IS THE LIGHT OF Allah’S WILAYAH’ – ‘I am the slave of that eye-seeking lamp from which the lamp receives its splendour.’ Book One, verse 3984. 59) Rumi refers to Imam ‘Ali as, ‘THE PEARL OF Allah’S OCEAN OF LIGHT’ – ‘I am the slave of the billow of that Sea of Light that brings a pearl like this into view.’ Book One verse 3985. 60) Rumi refers to Imam Hussein as, ‘KING OF RELIGION, ROYAL AND PURE SPIRIT’ – ‘A royal spirit escaped from a prison; why should we rend our garments and how should we gnaw our hands. Since they (Hussein and his family) were Kings of the (true) religion, it was the hour of joy for them when they broke their bounds.’ Book Six verse 797-8. In Book Six of the Mathnawi, Rumi refers, with deep respect, to Imam Hussein son of Imam ‘Ali as Royal Spirit and King of Religion. Although greatly upset by it, he introduces the Day of Imam Hussein’s martyrdom – ‘Ashura, as a day of mourning for his spirit. Rumi regards love for Imam Hussein as the continuation of love for the Prophet Muhammad , in the same way that an ear loves a pearl. He describes Prophet Muhammad as being the ear and Imam Hussein u the pearl, ‘Don’t you know that the Day of ‘Ashura is a day of mourning for a single soul that is more excellent than an entire century. How this tragedy should be lightly estimated by a true believer? Love for the earring (Hussein) is in proportion to love for the ear (Prophet Muhammad). In the view of a true believer, the mourning for that pure spirit is more celebrated than a hundred floods of Noah.’ Book Six verses 790-92. (Verses 776-805 refer specifically to the Shi’ah community in the city of Halab, whom Maulana criticises for having spirits that are asleep. He tells them to mourn for their spirits that are as good as dead. He then refers to the Royal Spirit of Imam Hussein that escaped from prison and is still alive. Some commentators have misunderstood this to imply that Rumi was against Shi’ah which from the above references he clearly was not. From a synoptical understanding of the Mathnawi, each of the six books of the Mathnawi contains 12 discourses – a total of 72. The repetition of 12 discourses was not accidental but rather a tribute to each of the 12 Imams l of Ahl al-Bayt – spiritual inheritors and successors of Prophet Muhammad. The 72 discourses equate to Imam Hussein’s 72 companions who were martyred with him at Karbala. Since their inception, the sama¡ of the Mevlevi order pays respects to the martyrs of Karbala. In Maulana’s shrine in Konya, the names of the fourteen Masumin, the Prophet to the twelfth Imam (Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatima, Hassan, Hussein, ‘Ali ibn Hassan, Mohammad ibn ‘Ali, J’afar ibn Muhammad, Musa ibn Ja’far, ‘Ali ibn Musa, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad, Hassan ibn ‘Ali, Muhammad ibn Hassan (Mahdi)) are inscribed on the walls of his burial chamber. This textual evidence illustrates that Maulana was a real Shi’ah of ‘Truth Shi’ism’, Tashaya Haqqiqi, and follower of Imam ‘Ali (A.S). As Dr Shahram Pazouki said “the conclusion we would like to draw from this is that the most important principle shared by both Shi’ism and Sufism is the question of Imamate or Wayalaah, and the wali is the divine mediator and guide through whom God saves humanity. The point that should be taken into consideration here is that, contrary to what is commonly asserted, Shi’ism originally is not a political movement against the caliphs or a jurisprudential school, alongside the Sunnite school of jurisprudence, or a school of kalam with affinity to the Mu’tazilites. Shi’ism is a heartfelt way based on the concept of wayalah, and the differences in jurisprudence, politics and theology are secondary issues aside from this main core. Thus, in true Shi’ism, one believes that God is known not by one’s own reasoning and speculations, nor by narrations handed down through others, but by submission to the wali and wayfaring on the path of love. Thus we see that in his Mathnawi, Mawlawi speaks favourably about all the first four caliphs, but his tone of speaking differs completely when he comes to Ali, because he recognises him as being the wali after the Prophet”.(Pazouki, Shahram. (2003). Spiritual Walayah. In: S.G. Safavi(ed), RUMI’S THOUGHTS. Tehran: Salman Azadeh Publication) Bibliography 1- See on Rumi’s Life : Aflaki, Ahmad, Manaqeb al – ‘arefin, Tehran, 1983. Alavi, Mahvash, Maulana, Khodawandegar-e Tariqat-e Ishq, Tehran, 1998. Chittick, William, Me & Rumi, Kentucky, 2004. Foruzanfar, Badi’a al- Zaman, Mawlavi, Tehran, 1971/1354. Golpinarli, Abdulbaki, translated ito Farsi by Sobhani, Tofiq, Mowlana, Tehran, 1996. Iqbal, Afzal, Rumi, Lahore, 1991. Lewis, Franklin, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West, Oxford, 2,000. Sepahsalar, Faridun, Mowlavi, Tehran, 1983. Shams al-Din Shirazi, Maqalat-e Shams Tabrizi, ed. Mohamad ‘Ali Movahed, Tehran, 1990. Zarrinkub, Abdul Hosayn, Pele-pele molaqat ta Khoda, Tehran, 1994. 2- For a full account of Maul ana’s theological and spiritual thought see: Chittick, W, The Sufi Path of Love, SUNY, New York, 1983. Este’lami,Muhammad, edited with commentary,”Masnavi-ye Jalal al-Din Mohammad-e Balkhi”, 7 volumes, (6th edition), Tehran, 2000/1379. Schimmel, A, The Triumphal Sun, Fine Books, London, 1978. Homaei, Jalal al-Din, Mowlawi nameh, Tehran, 1996/1374. Ja’fari, Mohammad Taqi, Mowlawi wa Jahanbinih dar maktabhay-e sharq wa gharb, Tehran, 1992/1370. Safavi, Seyed G., Rumi’s Thoughts, Tehran, 2003. Safavi, Seyed Ghahreman, The Structure of Rumi’s Mathnawi, London, 2006 Turkmen, Erkan, The Essence of Rumi’s Mathnavi Including his Life and Works, Konya, 2004. 3-See on Classical Persian Literature: Arberry, A J, Classical Persian Literature, George Allen and Unwin, London, 1958. Baldick, J, “Persian Sufi Poetry up to the FifteenthCentury” in Morrison, G. (ed) History of Persian Literature, Brill, Leiden, 1981. De Bruijn, J T P, Persian Sufi Poetry, Curzon, Richmond, 1997. 4- See on Rumi’s spiritual shiism: Ashtiani, Seyed, Jalal al-Din, Sharh-e Moqadameh Qaysari, Mashhad, Homaei, Jalal al-Din, Mowlawi nameh, Tehran, 1995/1374 Khowrazmi, Kamal al- Din Hossein b. Hassan, Jawaher al-asrar wa Zawaher al-anwar, Sharh-e Mathnawi, ed. Shariat,M.J., Isfahan, Khowrazmi, Taj al-Din Hossein, Sharh-e Fosos al-hekam, ed. Najib Mail Harawi, Tehran, 1985/1364. Safavi, Seyed, G., Rumi’s Thoughts, Tehran, 2003 Safavi, Seyed, G, The Structure of The Rumi’s Mathnawi, London, 2006. Sufi terms Wali divine spiritual guide Walaya sanctity Awlia the spiritual successors Wali Perfect Man, Shadow of Allah, Divine mediator, Divine guide Baqa subsistence Fana annihilation Qorb-e Nawafil the nearness of supererogatory works Ibadat-e wajib obligatory work/worship Takhalli withdrawal Tahalli Adornment Maqam station Haqq the Real Haqq al yaqin the reality of certainty Qotb poles, absolute pole Zahir manifest, outward, outer Batin non-mani fest, inward, inner Mazhar locus of mani festation Zati(dhati) intrinsic Tajalli discloser Maqam-e Mazhariyat-e Tajalli-e Zati The Station of Manifestation on Intrinsic Discloser
  12. There are many fake and fabricated versions of the lineage of Imam Ali, Amir al-mumineen. Here is the authentic one- (1) Ali (as) (2) Abu Talib (as) (3) Abdu'l-Muttalib (4) Hashim (5) Abd-e-Manaf (6) Qusai (7) Kilab (8) Murra (9) Ka'b (10) Luwai (11) Ghalib (12) Fehr (13) Malik (14) Nazr (15) Kinana (16) Khazima (17) Madreka (18) Ilyas (19) Muzar (20) Nizar (21) Ma'd (22) Adnan (23) Awwad (24) Al-Yasa' (25) Al-Hamis (26) Bunt (27) Sulayman (28) Haml (29) Qidar (30) Isma'il (31) Ibrahim Khalil-Ullah (32) Ta'rikh (33) Tahur (34) Sharu (35) Abraghu (36) Taligh (37) Abir (38) Shale' (39) Arfakhad (40) Sam (41) Noah(42) Lumuk (43) Mutu Shalkh (44) Akhnukh (45) Yarad (46) Mahla'il (47) Qinan (48) Anush (49) Seth (50) Adam Abu'l-Bashir ( the first human ).
  13. SayedAA

    Role Model

    A piece of work which I've written and recorded in honor of the birth of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib(as) Enjoy.
  14. I would like to know where I can get a copy of Kitab al Jafr. In arabic or English(preferably English although arabic is okay). Also I'd like this to be a general discussion thread about the book
  15. I tried finding some hadiths from the sunni books about proof of Imam Ali (AS) wilayah but i did not find even a mention about Ali ibn Abi Talib, are they edited out or what? Should i buy the books by text instead?
  16. Quotes By Imam Ali: "The moment you start arguing with an ignorant fool, you have already lost." "Do not be a slave to others when Allah has created you free." "Beautiful people are not always good, but good people are always beautiful." Quotes by Prophet Muhammad: "The strongest among you is the one who controls his anger." "There is no beauty better than intellect." "When you are angry, be silent." "Hussain is from me and I am from Hussain." Quotes by Imam Hussain: "It is better to die on your feet, than to live on your knees." "The most merciful person is the one who forgives when he is able to take revenge." "If you never believe in religion nor fear the hereafter, then at least be free from Tyranny and Arrogance."
  17. I had a dream regarding imam Ali. If anyone knows anything about dreams or how to interpret one, that would be great, as im really really curious what it meant. Its really long, i apologize in advance! My family and i were moving to iraq for my dad's business, and i was really saddened by this because iraq is not an ideal place to live. I cried the whole way there (we walked there from California in the dream). When we arrived, my sister and i separated from my family and were told one of the imam's shrine was near by. We went near the shrine, but it was covered with a cloth because no one was allowed to see it at that hour. My sister and i went near the shrine and i asked her who's shrine it was and she told me it was imam ali's. A man came up to us and asked me if i wanted to see the shrine, and i said yes. He told me i couldnt go near it or touch it though and i can only see it from a distance. I agreed and he told my sister this offer was only for me. He removed the cloth and i saw the shrine. i began to cry and the man told me crying wasnt allowed, so i stopped. I began reciting "Nady Ali" which means "Call upon Ali" and after i said that verse a big brown horse came from behind the shrine and stood next to it. I recited the verse again so the horse came near me and lowered its head allowing me to pet it,and the last time i said the verse the hoarse jumped, opening the curtain that covered the shrine. I walked in and saw the hoarse planting a pink flower near the shrine. Itold the horse i wanted the flower as a memory of that moment. the horse told me i wasnt allowed to take the flower because it was not "a flower from heaven." i took the flower anyway, pulling it from the ground, and the horse looked upset. I gave the flower back and said id just plant my own flower next to the shrine. I know its long and weird, but im really really curious as to what all of this means! if anyone knows or knows where icould find out that would be great!
  18. Salam, My question is that on one hand Imam Ali a.s says that he is far away from world (he has said Talaaq to this World) but on other hand we're living in this world. We have to make money and for the sake, when someone indulges in making money, he really gets into the world and its affairs that he forgets Allah (I mean not doing bad things in it but you know, couldn't remember Allah). How is it possible to be working in this world and hate it? I couldn't understand the statement of Imam. I would love your insights, some good lectures on this, quotes, riwayaats etc.
  19. Salam everyone, I hope you're all having a wonderful day. I was just wondering from which hadith collections I can find the following narration attributed to Imam Ali (as)? All of your responses are greatly appreciated
  20. 1) There is literally no evidence that she poisoned him. 2) There is literally no way (save a time machine) to find out whether or not she poisoned him. 3) There are plenty of respectable sources that both Shia and Sunni agree on that show that the prophet loved her and showed her a lot of affection. 4) What purpose does it serve to propagate or start rumors about her without evidence that doesn't exist and is unobtainable? 5) How will this information affect how you practice Islam? If you are Shia you like likely already reject hadiths reported by her, and if you are Sunni you likely accept hadiths reported by her. And if you're trying to decide whether to be shia or sunni based solely off a matter that is unprovable at this point in time, then I think you need to reevaluate. Sorry for not answering your question. My guess would be that I highly doubt it.
  21. "What sprinkles in you, overflows in me.” - Imam Ali This has been attributed to Imam Ali, like many other things. Does any one knows about authentic source/reference. ?
  22. This is a continuation of my thread Imamate in the Quran. In the previous article, we demonstrated that the Quranic concept of leadership is intricately connected to the themes of divine mandate, superiority in knowledge and form, familial succession, covenants, miraculous qualities, and love. We also established that there is no contradiction between the sealing of prophethood and the continuation of divinely-appointed leadership. The succession of the Prophet (s) is a pertinent matter, because he himself spoke of the institution of khilafa. The word khalifa means successor, representative, and deputy, and so even though the religion would be completed with Muhammad (s), the khalifa would be his personal spokesperson and benefactor. `Ali (as) was the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad (s). He was raised by the Prophet in the household of his uncle Abu Talib, and `Ali became the first male to join the Prophet after his first encounter with the Angel Gabriel. `Ali (as) was the first to pray with the Prophet, the first to stand up to defend the Prophet's claim at Da`wat Dhul `Ashira, the one to stay in the Prophet's bed during his escape from Mecca, the one at the front line of Badr, the only swordsman to remain with the Prophet at Uhud, the only one brave enough to stand up to `Amr ibn Abd al-Wud the champion of Quraysh at Khandaq, the scribe of the Treaty of Hudaybiyya, the flagbearer at the Battle of Khaybar, the governor of Medina at the Battle of Tabuk, and the one to wash the body and lead the funeral prayers over the Messenger (s). The Prophet prepared him for the role of leadership by putting him in every possible position: as a soldier, a commander, a diplomat, a governor, a judge, and a leader in prayer. Furthermore, Imam `Ali's wise and moving maxims are memorized and shared by all Muslims, Sunnis and Shi`is alike. `Ali's right to succession is based on divine appointment and his superior virtues. There is no companion who has been given more Quranic and Prophetic praises than `Ali b. Abi Talib, making him the person most qualified for the office of Imamate and Caliphate. One immediate objection to this would be that `Ali (as) is not explicitly mentioned by name in the Quran. This point was beautifully answered by Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (as): A man asked Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq [a] about the verse, "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you" (4:59). The Imam replied, "This was revealed regarding `Ali b. Abi Talib, al-Hasan, and a-Husayn." The man said, "The people say, 'Then why weren't `Ali and his Ahl al-Bayt mentioned by name in the Book of Allah?'" The Imam replied, "Say to them: The command for prayer was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (s), but Allah did not specifically mention [in the Quran] three or four units. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) who detailed that for them. The command to give alms was revealed to him, but He did not mention that it was applied to 1/40 dirhams. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) who detailed for them. The command for Hajj was revealed, but He does not say, 'Circle [the Ka`ba] seven times'. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) detailed that for them. He revealed, 'Obey Allah and obey the Messenger those in authority among you' (4:59), and it was revealed regarding `Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. The Messenger of Allah (s) said, regarding `Ali, 'Whoever takes me as a Master, then `Ali is his Master.' And he (s) said, 'I leave you with the Book of Allah and my Ahl al-Bayt, so I asked Allah to never separate them from one another until they return to me at the Pond [of Paradise], and He granted my prayer.' And he said, 'Do not lecture them, for they are more knowledgeable than you.' And he said, 'They will not lead you away from the gate of guidance, and they will not make you enter the gate of misguidance.' Had the Messenger of Allah (s) kept quiet, it would not be clear who his Ahl al-Bayt would be, and the dynasties would have claimed it (that title). But Allah revealed it in in a Book, clarifying it to His Prophet (s). 'Surely, Allah wishes to remove uncleanliness from you, Ahl al-Bayt, and purify you with a thorough purification.' (33:33)" ( علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس وعلي بن محمد، عن سهل ابن زياد أبي سعيد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن ابن مسكان، عن أبي بصير قال سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عز وجل: " أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول وأولي الامر منكم (2) " فقال: نزلت في علي بن أبي طالب والحسن والحسين عليهم السلام: فقلت له: إن الناس يقولون: فما له لم يسم عليا وأهل بيته عليهم السلام في كتاب الله عز و جل؟ قال: فقال: قولوا لهم: إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله نزلت عليه الصلاة ولم يسم الله لهم ثلاثا ولا أربعا، حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزلت عليه الزكاة ولم يسم لهم من كل أربعين درهما درهم، حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزل الحج فلم يقل لهم: طوفوا اسبوعا حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزلت " أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول واولي الامر منكم " - ونزلت في علي والحسن والحسين - فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: في علي: من كنت مولاه، فعلي مولاه، وقال صلى الله عليه وآله اوصيكم بكتاب الله وأهل بيتي، فإني سألت الله عز وجل أن لا يفرق بينهما حتى يوردهما علي الحوض، فأعطاني ذلك وقال: لا تعلموهم فهم أعلم منكم، وقال: إنهم لن يخرجوكم من باب هدى، ولن يدخلوكم في باب ضلالة، فلو سكت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فلم يبين من أهل بيته، لادعاها آل فلان وآل فلان، لكن الله عز وجل أنزله في كتابة تصديقا لنبيه صلى الله عليه وآله " إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا (1) " ) The role of the Quran is to provide directives on the Islamic obligations, but it is the role of the Sunna to go through the meticulous details of these obligations. The Quran does not hold a monopoly on truth, and so it was the Prophet who detailed the fara'id for us. Still, Imam `Ali was present throughout the Prophet's mission, and he would play a vital role thereafter, and so it is befitting that much of the Quran would relate to him in one way or another. While the previous article highlighted the explicit importance of the Prophet's kin (42:23, 33:33, 14:37, 4:54) all Muslims agree that `Ali b. Abi Talib is alluded to in many Quranic verses. "Your guardian is none but Allah and His Messenger and those who have believed - those who establish prayer and give zakat while bowing." (5:55) The word for guardian in the verse above is wali, which comes from the same root as ulil amr in 4:59. In the Quran, the word is always used in conjunction with God's authority over the creation (wilaya), as can be seen in 2:107, 2:120, 2:257, 3:68, 3:122, 4:45. 4:119, 6:14, 6:127, 7:155, 7:196, 9:74, 9:116, 12:101, 13:37, 18:17, 18:26, 29:22, 32:4, 33:17, 33:65, 34:41, 42:8-9, 42:28, 42:31, 42:44, 45:19, and 48:22. Most of these verses emphasize that only Allah is our wali, and that besides Him, we have no protector, no guardian, no helper, and no master. The above verse however extends this wilaya to the Messenger, because it is through the Messenger that Allah is sought. It also extends it to those who "give zakat while bowing". Since this is the only verse where Allah includes people in His otherwise solitary authority, this third category cannot simply refer to humble believers. It must refer to a vicegerent that has a share in this grand wilaya. Even this idea of one giving charity whilst in ruku` sounds quite rare, and indeed, 5:55 is not an ordinary verse. Both Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid ibn Jabr, who are among the earliest authorities in tafsir, note that the verse is referring to an incident in which `Ali (as) gave his ring to a beggar whilst in ruku`. This is also referenced in Tabari, Zamakhshari, al-Wahidi, and other Sunni commentaries. The implication therefore is that Imam `Ali (as) has been distinguished as a master of all believers - his authority being an extension of God's authority. "Then whoever argues with you about it after [this] knowledge has come to you - say, "Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly [together] and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars [among us]."" (3:61) This verse describes the incident of Mubahala, where the Prophet invites the Christian priests of Najran to an imprecation. The ayah pledges that the Prophet would bring "our sons, our women, and ourselves". In an authentic narration reported in Sunan at-Tirmidhi, Sa`d b. Abi Waqqas reports, "When this verse was revealed, the Messenger of Allah called for `Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn, and said, 'O Allah, this is my Family.'" (وأنزلت هذه الآية ندع أبناءنا وأبناءكم ونساءنا ونساءكم الآية دعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عليا وفاطمة وحسنا وحسينا فقال اللهم هؤلاء أهلي ) This verse is significant because it actually includes `Ali (and exclusively `Ali) under "ourselves", emphasizing that `Ali was the other "self" of the Prophet. Allah actually ordered the Prophet to do so, as the invocation of these five pure individuals (33:33) would be most superior for a mubahala. "And of the people is he who sells himself, seeking means to the approval of Allah. And Allah is kind to [His] servants." (2:207) According to the Sunni exegete al-Tha`labi in his Kashf wal Bayan, this verse was revealed regarding Imam `Ali, as he stayed in the bed of the Prophet (s) during the hijra. "Selling" oneself for Allah and His Messenger is the best act of sacrifice one can perform. While Abi Bakr may have been scared in the cave during the hijra (9:40), this verse on Imam `Ali can only interpreted more positively. It should also be noted that Abi Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthman had all run away from battles, whilst `Ali remained defending the Prophet, and thus this verse cannot refer to them. "So what about one who stands upon a clear evidence from his Lord [like the aforementioned]? And a witness from Him follows it. (11:17) Al-Qurtubi says in his Jami` that "a witness from Him follows it" is Imam `Ali (as), who is a divinely-appointed witness over the Umma after the Prophet and the revelation of the Quran. "That We might make it for you a reminder and [that] a conscious ear would be conscious of it." (69:12) According to most Sunni tafasir, the "conscious ear" in this verse is `Ali b. Abi Talib, who was the Prophet's principal student. In al-Wahidi's tafsir, this verse was revealed when the Prophet said to Imam `Ali, "Allah has commanded me to draw you closer to me and not exclude you, and that I teach you so that you understand; and Allah has taken it upon Himself that you understand." According to Qurtubi, Razi, and Tabari's exegeses, when this verse was revealed, the Prophet said, "I asked my Lord that He make it the ear of `Ali"; and that `Ali used to say, "I never heard anything from the Messenger of Allah but that I remembered it." Imam `Ali (as) was the only Rashidun Caliph and muhajir to ever make this claim. Being the first Muslim male, this is very significant, because it would make `Ali (as) the only sanctioned medium to the Prophet's complete message, from its inception to its completion. "O you who have believed, when you [wish to] privately consult the Messenger, present before your consultation a charity. That is better for you and purer. But if you find not [the means] - then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful." (58:12) This is the only verse in the Quran that has been fully abrogated, and it instructs the believers to distribute charity in their gatherings with the Prophet. Soon after this was revealed, the following verse ended this obligation. Qurtubi, Suyuti, Tabari, and Wahidi all reported that Imam `Ali b. Abi Talib (as) was the only one to ever fulfill this obligation. Since Allah knew that this verse would soon be abrogated, it would mean that the main reason why it was revealed was to give `Ali (as) a virtue that no other person can ever have. Although this article focuses on more overt references to Imam `Ali, it is worth mentioning that the Prophet (s) said to Imam `Ali (as) in an authentic report, "You are to me as Aaron was to Moses, except there will be no prophet after me." (Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, Hadith 700) In Shi`i sources, the Prophet spoke this phrase several times. While some relegate this hadith only to the event of Tabuk, the Prophet is clearly addressing what would occur after him at the end of the hadith. Furthermore, those involved in Muslim-Christian polemics know that the chief Biblical prophecy that discusses Muhammad (s) was that he would be "a prophet like unto Moses". Moses also happens to be the most mentioned prophet in the Quran due to the many parallels between his life and that of the Prophet. A Second Moses would therefore need a Second Aaron, and this hadith confirms that the Aaron of this Umma is `Ali (as), except in prophethood. An investigation into the verses on Aaron will therefore give us some hints on `Ali's own status. "And appoint for me a vizier from my family - Aaron, my brother. Increase through him my strength and let him share my task" (20:25-32) This is a part of the prayer of Moses. (1) Just like `Ali, Aaron was divinely appointed to lead the Children of Israel in Moses' absence. The Children of Israel did not appoint their own leader. (2) Aaron was a vizier (wazir) of Moses, which means that `Ali is also the chief representative of Muhammad (s). (3) Aaron was the first person to enter Moses' movement, just as `Ali was the first to enter the movement of Muhammad (s). (4) Aaron is called the brother of Moses, just as `Ali was called the "brother" of Muhammad (s) in this world and the hereafter in a reliable hadith in Tirmidhi (قال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنت أخي في الدنيا والآخرة). (5) The wazir adds strength and shares the task with the Prophet (amr - command, authority, order, affair). While the Children of Israel split under Aaron, he remained calm and diplomatic, and preferred the unity of his community over asserting his own authority. Imam `Ali did the same when the Caliphate was taken from him and the ridda wars began. "And Moses said to his brother Aaron, "Take my place among my people, do right [by them], and do not follow the way of the corrupters."" (7:142) It is interesting that Allah would use the word ukhlufni (take my place), which is the same word as khalifa. Just as much of Moses' story is an allusion to the Prophet's own ministry, this verse may be alluding to `Ali's own selection as "Caliph". There are many ayat, exoteric and esoteric, that refer to `Ali (as) that have not been mentioned. Since `Ali (as) was the wali of the believers, the one whose self was described with the Prophet, the one who repeatedly risked his life for Islam, the witness after the Quran, the ear who memorized the Prophetic message from its beginning until its completion, the vizier of the Prophet, and the one whose virtues (fada'il) outnumbered that of every companion, he was the one best suited for the Caliphate. Balance this with the Quranic principles of leadership, which are tied to divine mandate, knowledge, and familial succession, as well as the references to Ahl al-Bayt's purity and love. The position of `Ali (as) becomes crystal clear when the hadith material is examined. When the Prophet first publicly announced his mission at Da`wat Dhul `Ashira (26:214), he said to the attendees, "By Allah! I do not know of any person among the Arabs who has come to his people with better than what I have brought to you. I have brought to you the good of this world and the next, and I have been commanded by the Lord to call you unto Him. Therefore, who amongst you will support me in this matter. so that he may be my brother (akhhí), my deputy (wasiyyí) and my successor/representative (khalifatí) among you?" So they moved away from him and were about to leave him, but `Ali, who was a young child stood up and said, "I, O Messenger of Allah, am your support. I will fight whomever you will fight." So the Banu Hashim smiled and some of them laughed. Their eyes moved between Abu Talib and his son, then they left, mocking." ( قال لهم: ما أعلم إنسانا من العرب جاء قومه بأفضل مما جئتكم به، قد جئتكم بخير الدنيا والآخرة، وقد أمرني ربي أن أدعوكم اليه، فأيكم يوازرني على هذا الأمر وأن يكون أخي ووصيي وخليفتي فيكم؟ فأعرضوا عنه وهموا بتركه، لكن عليا نهض وما يزال صبيا دون الحلم، وقال: أنا يا رسول الله عو نك، أنا حرب على من حاربت. فابتسم بنو هاشم وقهقه بعضهم، وجعل نظرهم ينتقل من أبي طالب إلى ابنه ثم انصرفوا مستهزئين20 ) This account, which was recorded in Tabari's history, is the first instance in which Imam `Ali (as) was called a deputy and a Caliph of the Prophet Muhammad (s). No other person has been given this title by the Prophet (s) in Islamic literature. The implication therefore is that `Ali (as) would be the Prophet's partner, supporter, representative, and successor. The following narrations from Tirmidhi's Manaqib `Ali b. Abi Talib make a clear case for `Ali's succession to the Prophet Muhammad (s). The Prophet Muhammad (s) said, "Surely, `Ali is from me and I am from him, and he is the Master (wali) of every believer after me." ( إن عليا مني وأنا منه وهو ولي كل مؤمن بعدي) This narration was marked hasan by Tirmidhi, and it makes `Ali (as) the unequivocal successor of the Prophet (s). The statement "`Ali is from me and I am from him" shows the intimate relationship between the two, tying back to the concept of the two being together in "selves" (3:61). While some may retort that `Ali did become the Caliph eventually, and therefore became the Master of every believer sometime after the Prophet, this meaning is not intuitive to the hadith, nor was this hadith ever applied to those who would rule directly after the Prophet. Had this same quote been given to Abi Bakr along with `Ali, then this reconciliation would make sense; but `Ali was the only one whom the Quran and the Sunna described as the wali of the believers. The Prophet Muhammad (s) said, "To whomever I am his Master, `Ali is his Master." ( من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه ) This is a truncated part of Hadith al-Ghadeer, which is one of the most mutawatir sayings in the Islamic tradition. It first establishes Allah as the Master of the Prophet (mawlaay), then it establishes that the Prophet having more authority over (awla) the believers than they do over themselves. This absolute authority is then given to `Ali (as), who is the mawla of all believers in the Prophet. Mawla a word that has several meanings, but the Prophet does not speak ambiguously. He (s) contextualized this word by saying that he (s) was above the believers in authority (awla). Mawla is related to awla, wali, and ulil amr, all of which have been used to describe this sacred authority. The Prophet Muhammad (s) said, "May Allah have mercy upon `Ali: O Allah, place the truth with him wherever he turns." ( رحم الله عليا اللهم أدر الحق معه حيث دار ) Not only is this a supplication for `Ali, but it is a request to pair `Ali with the truth at all times. This is, in affect, the concept of infallibility, because `Ali would always be with the truth, and whomever was with whom would be with the truth. Who then would be more qualified to govern? This concept is further supported in the following narration. The Prophet Muhammad (s) said, "No hypocrite will love `Ali, and no believer will hate him." ( لا يحب عليا منافق ولا يبغضه مؤمن ) Since no hypocrite can love `Ali and no believer can hate him, he must always be with the truth and the right. Tirmidhi considered this hadith to be hasan. The Prophet Muhammad (s) said, "Surely, Allah ordered me to love four, and He informed me that He loves them. `Ali is among them" - he said that three times - "and Abu Dharr, and al-Miqdad, and Salman. He ordered me to love them, and He informed me that He loves them." ( إن الله أمرني بحب أربعة وأخبرني أنه يحبهم قيل يا رسول الله سمهم لنا قال علي منهم يقول ذلك ثلاثا وأبو ذر والمقداد وسلمان أمرني بحبهم وأخبرني أنه يحبهم ) In this hasan tradition, Allah reveals a list of people whom the Prophet (and therefore the believers) should love. `Ali is given special emphasis here, as his name was said three times, and he is at the beginning of the list. The other three companions were the biggest supporters of `Ali's rights after the Prophet's demise. Allah distinguished them due to their special loyalty towards `Ali, even at a time when most Muslims had accepted the Caliphate of other men. The Prophet Muhammad (s) said, "`Ali is from me, and I am from `Ali, and no one can represent me except for myself or `Ali." ( علي مني وأنا من علي ولا يؤدي عني إلا أنا أو علي ) This is a clear sahih nass that starts with the negative "none should represent me" and ends with the exception "except me or `Ali". Representation in general matters is synonymous to khilafa, Some may argue that this hadith is not a virtue of `Ali, but rather, a very specific instance in which the Prophet was simply following the cultural customs of his time. However, there is no indication that this hadith was specific to a particular event. Furthermore, to say that the Prophet was following Arab custom is in contrast the Quranic verse, "Nor does he speak from [his own] desire" (53:3), which states clearly that the Prophet is the mouthpiece of God, and everything that he says is the revealed word of God. The statement of representation is preceded with "Ali is from me and I am from Ali", which indicates that this hadith is indeed a virtue of Ali and not just a result of a cultural technicality. A cooked bird was with the Prophet (s), so he said, "O Allah, bring the most beloved of Your creation to You to eat this bird with me." So `Ali came and ate with him. ( كان عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم طير فقال اللهم ائتني بأحب خلقك إليك يأكل معي هذا الطير فجاء علي فأكل معه ) This narration is simple: the Prophet asked Allah to summon the best person (after himself) in the creation to dinner, and that person was none other than `Ali b. Abi Talib. A leader must always be the best person in any community. `Ali said, "Whenever I asked the Messenger of Allah (s), he would give me [the answer], and whenever I was silent, he would initiate [discussion] with me." ( قال علي كنت إذا سألت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أعطاني وإذا سكت ابتدأني ) There are many instances where the Prophet kept silent among his companions, but this hasan hadith shows that the Prophet was especially committed to teaching `Ali. And I heard him (s) say on the day of Khaybar, "I will give this flag to a man who loves Allah and His Messenger, and Allah and His Messenger love him". So we waited for that, then he said, "Call `Ali for me." He said: So he came to him, and he had an eye infection, so he (s) applied saliva in his eye and gave the flag to him, then Allah granted him victory. ( لأعطين الراية رجلا يحب الله ورسوله ويحبه الله ورسوله قال فتطاولنا لها فقال ادعوا لي عليا فأتاه وبه رمد فبصق في عينه فدفع الراية إليه ففتح الله عليه ) Out of all of the companions, the Prophet (s) selected `Ali (as) on the day of Khaybar in this sahih report, showing that he was the one preferred the most by Allah and His Messenger. This selection was made despite `Ali's infection, which the Prophet proceeded to heal. The Messenger of Allah (s) took the hand of Hasan and Husayn and said, "Whoever loves me and loves these two and their father and their mother will be with me in my rank on the Day of Resurrection." ( أن رسول الله [ ص: 600 ] صلى الله عليه وسلم أخذ بيد حسن وحسين فقال من أحبني وأحب هذين وأباهما وأمهما كان معي في درجتي يوم القيامة ) This report emphasizes importance of having reciprocal love with the Ahl al-Bayt, which was ordered in 42:23. This love is not just affection, but obedience and loyalty, which will result in Paradise. The only so-called "defect" in the chain of this hadith that one can point to is `Ali b. Ja`far, the son of the sixth Imam of Ahl al-Bayt, brother of the seventh Imam, and a scholar of Shi`i Islam. The trustworthy Sunni man who narrated this hadith from `Ali b. Ja`far was taken to the court of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil. The Caliph wanted to strike him one thousand times (لما حدث نصر بهذا ، أمر المتوكل بضربه ألف سوط ، فكلمه جعفر بن عبد الواحد ، وجعل يقول له : الرجل من أهل السنة ، ولم يزل به حتى تركه). Outside of this chapter, there are many other virtues given to Imam `Ali. Perhaps the strongest endorsement is in Hadith al-Thaqalayn, wherein the Prophet says, "I leave among you two weighty things: the Book of Allah, and my progeny the Ahl al-Bayt. They are the successors (khalifatan) after me, and they will not separate from each other until they reach me at the Pond [of Paradise]." (Sunan Tirmidhi, Vol 6, pg. 435 Hadith #3786) This powerful and mutawatir narration, which was said on Mount `Arafat, demonstrates the following: (1) The Prophet left two consequential testaments with us. One must remember that this was said during the Farewell Pilgrimage, wherein the Prophet announced his death, and most of his companions were present, listening to his final instructions. These two weighty things (thaqalayn) are clearly related to our religion, and are not just what the Prophet left behind in general, such as his home, his land, or his livestock. (2) These two weighty things are the Quran and the Ahl al-Bayt. Contrary to popular belief, the narration that the Prophet left us with "the Quran and the Sunna" cannot be found in the Sihah as-Sitta, and it is not considered reliable. Still, the Sunna of the Prophet is extracted from the teachings of the Prophet and his Ahl al-Bayt. Of course, after the Messenger, `Ali is the chief member of the Ahl al-Bayt. (3) The Quran is called a khalifa, and the Ahl al-Bayt are called a khalifa, because they are the vicegerents of Allah on Earth. (4) The thaqalayn will not separate from one another, which means that the Quran and the Ahl al-Bayt are interdependent. One cannot understand the Quran without the interpretations of the Ahl al-Bayt. This will continue until the Day of Resurrection, which means that there must be a representative of the Prophet's family that is the guardian over the Quran at all times. Abu Sa`eed al-Khudri (r) said, "We were walking with the Prophet (s), and the insole of his sandal ripped. So it was given to `Ali so that he may repair it. Then, he continued walking, and he said: Surely, from you is one (Ali) who will be fought in the interpretation of the Quran just as I was fought in its revelation." Abu Sa`eed said: "So I went out and I told him (Ali) what the Messenger of Allah (s) had said, but his joy did not increase - as if he had already heard what was said." (وروى الإمام أحمد في الفضائل بسنده عن أبي سعيد قال : كنا نمشي مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فانقطع شسع نعله ، فتناولها علي يصلحها ، ثم مشى ، فقال : إن منكم لمن يقاتل على تأويل القرآن ، كما قاتلت على تنزيله ، قال أبو سعيد : فخرجت فبشرته بما قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فلم يكبر به فرحا ، كأنه قد سمعه ( 2 ) .) This reliable tradition from the Musnad of Ahmad b. Hanbal states that `Ali (as) will be fought in the interpretation (ta'wil) of the Quran just as the Prophet (s) was fought in its revelation (tanzil). This shows that `Ali (as) plays a vital role in guarding the correct interpretation of the Quran in the Prophet's absence. History shows that `Ali (as) was indeed fought by `A'isha, Talha, Zubayr, Mu`awiya, the Khawarij, and others. In conjunction with other narrations, one can conclude that `Ali was always with the truth, united with the Quran, fighting against hypocrites just as the Prophet fought against the disbelievers of his time. Lastly, it is reported in al-Hakim's Mustadrak al-Sahihayn, Tabarani's Mu`jam al-Sagheer, and Haythami's Majmu`a az-Zawa'id that the Prophet said, "Surely, my Ahl al-Bayt are like the Ark of Noah: whomever boards it is saved, and whomever separates from it is drowned" ( سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وآله وسلم يقول إنما مثل أهل بيتي فيكم كمثل سفينة نوح من ركبها نجا ومن تخلف عنها غرق ) From all of the aforementioned sources, it is therefore clear that `Ali (as) was the most qualified for the office of Imamate and the succession of the Prophet Muhammad (s). Imam `Ali was the brother and vizier of the Prophet, who demonstrated his loyalty to him time and time again. We will not lengthen this article with every instance in which Imam `Ali b. Abi Talib (as) fulfilled a virtue and overcame a trial. We encourage the readers to do their own investigation into the biography of `Ali (as), and compare his praises to those of his peers. Imam `Ali (as) was given special knowledge that no other person claimed, and superiority in knowledge is one of the Quranic principles of leadership. He said, “Ask me before you lose me, for I swear by Allah, there is not a single thing that you can ask me about until the Day of Resurrection except that I can tell you about it. Ask me about the Book of Allah, for I swear by Allah, there is not a verse in it except that I know whether it was revealed during the night or the day, and whether it was revealed in a plain or on a mountain.” (al-Qurtubi, Jaami` Bayan al-'ilm wa Fadlih, hadith 726, pg 464) We will conclude this article with the following conversation between Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (as) and one of his companions. A companion of Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq [a] said to him: I asked the people, "Do you know that the Messenger of Allah (s) was the Proof from Allah over His creation?" They said, "Of course." So I said, "So after the passing of the Messenger of Allah (s), who was the Proof over His creation?" So they said, "The Qur'an." So I considered the Qur’an, which is used in debates by the Murji’a, the Qadriyya, and the heretic that does not even believe in it, but uses it in his debates to defeat others. So I came to know that the Qur’an cannot be a Proof without a Guardian. Whatever he says regarding it would be true. So I said to them, "Who is the Guardian of the Qur’an?" So they said, "`Abdullah b. Mas`ud, for he was learned, `Umar was learned, and Hudhayfa was learned." I said: [Learned in] all of it?" They said: "No." I did not see anyone who said “he knew all of it” except `Ali [a]. And if an issue emerged within the community, one would say, “I do not know”, and another would say “I do not know”, and another would say “I do not know”, but `Ali would say “I know” – so I bear witness that `Ali was the Guardian of the Qur’an, and that obedience to him is obligatory and that he is the Proof upon the people after the Messenger of Allah (s) and whatever he said regarding the Qur’an is true." Imam Ja`far [a] then said, "May Allah's mercy be upon you." ( محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن منصور ابن حازم قال: قلت لابي عبد الله عليه السلام: إن الله أجل وأكرم من أن يعرف بخلقه، بل الخلق يعرفون بالله، قال: صدقت، قلت: إن من عرف أن له ربا، فينبغي له أن يعرف أن لذلك الرب رضا وسخطا وأنه لا يعرف رضاه وسخطه إلا بوحي أو رسول، فمن لم يأته الوحي فقد ينبغي له أن يطلب الرسل فإذا لقيهم عرف أنهم الحجة وأن لهم الطاعة المفترضة. وقلت للناس: تعلمون أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله كان هو الحجة من الله على خلقه؟ قالوا: بلى قلت فحين مضى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله من كان الحجة على خلقه؟ فقالوا: القرآن فنظرت في القرآن فإذا هو يخاصم به المرجي والقدري والزنديق الذي لا يؤمن به حتى يغلب الرجال بخصومته، فعرفت أن القرآن لا يكون حجة إلا بقيم، فما قال فيه من شئ كان حقا، فقلت لهم: من قيم القرآن ؟ فقالوا ابن مسعود قد كان يعلم وعمر يعلم وحذيفة يعلم، قلت: كله؟ قالوا: لا، فلم أجد أحدا يقال: إنه يعرف ذلك كله إلا عليا عليه السلام وإذا كان الشئ بين القوم فقال هذا: لا أدري، وقال هذا: لا أدري، وقال هذا: لا ادرى، وقال هذا: أنا أدري، فأشهد أن عليا عليه السلام كان قيم القرآن، وكانت طاعته مفترضة وكان الحجة على الناس بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وأن ما قال في القرآن فهو حق، فقال: رحمك الله. )
  23. Salam, hope all is well I was wondering if this quote is from Imam Ali (as) "Be like the flower that gives its fragrance to even the hand that crushes it." Does anyone know ?
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