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In the Name of God بسم الله


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  1. Many Christians also try to argue that America was founded on "Christian principles". This is also false. It was founded on the ideas of the Enlightenment and to a lesser extent, Freemasonry.
  2. I was curious about the rules and customs of circumcision (khitan) within Islam, and Shia Islam in particular. In Jewish tradition, it's known as a bris milah, it is performed on the 8th day, it is also when we name the baby boy. If it's the first born son, then we perform a special mitzvah called pidyon ha'ben (redemption of the firstborn). It is through the bris that the baby boy enters into the covenant of Avraham, per the instructions given at Mt Sinai. So in Islam (and in particular Shia), what are the rules and customs? Are certain blessings said? Do Muslims do it to reaffirm the covenant of Avraham and his descendants? Or is it commanded to all male Muslims, regardless of ancestry? Is there a celebration? I'm curious. Salaam and Shalom!
  3. I miss Maimonides, Salman, Qizilbash and Bahlool the most!
  4. It should have been shot and thrown into a ditch like the traitor it is. I used gender neutral pronouns as to not offend anyone. Bringing war crimes to light is a good thing, but putting our soldiers, foreign collaborators and their families at risk was downright shameful.
  5. I kinda want to draw a tree. There are several "sects" within Shiaism (and I guess "sects" within "sects" of Shiaism). The main three are Twelver, Ismaili, and Zaidi. They follow different madhabib (schools of thought within fiqh), but sometimes it overlaps. I think the tree would get confusing, so here's an attempt to briefly explain them: The most prominent and well known are the Ithnā'ashariyyah (often called "Twelver Islam" in English). These are the Shia that believe in the 12 infallible Imams. The prominant school of thought within Twelver system is Ja'fari Fiqh (after the 6th Imam). There are a few variances within this Fiqh as well: Usuli, Akhbari, and Shayki. Nearly all Shia follow the Usuli school of thought. Most Shia on this Forum fall into this category! Both Akhbari and Shayki schools are now practically non-existent (and most Shaykis apostated to the newly formed Bahai religion). Aside from the Ja'fari Fiqh, there is a Batiniyya school of thought within the Twelvers. The Alevis and Alawites (Nusayris) fall into this category, but some consider them to have their own distinct version of Islam due to the variety of differing beliefs and practices they adhere to. They combine many elements from Sufi practice with certain Twelver beliefs. Some Alevis even follow Ja'fari fiqh. Most mainstream Shia deem these two groups to be heretical. The second major Shia sect are known as al-Ismāʿīliyya (or Ismailis). At one point in time (during the Fatimid Caliphate), this was actually the largest sect of Shiaism! They differ from the Twelvers over the succession of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. Twelvers accepted Imam Musa al-Kadhim as the 7th Imam, while Ismailis accepted Musa's older brother, Ismail ibn Ja'far, as the rightful successor. There are several sects within Ismailis. The Nizari is the main sect that nearly all Ismailis belong to. They beleive that there is a current Imam in every age. They're currently following their 49th Imam, Aga Khan IV. There are also sects like the Mustaalis, who have divided themselves into so many sub-sects that it's hard to count. Druze are often classified under the umbrella of Ismailism as well. The third sect of Shia are known as az-Zaydiyya (Zaidis). They recognize Zayd ibn Ali, the grandson of Imam Hussein, as the 5th Imam (as opposed to the Twelvers who accepted Imam Muhammad al-Baqir). Although they're "Shia", they follow the Hanafi fiqh of the Sunnis. Hope this helped a little! Salaam and Shalom
  6. It appears that He took the land away from Muslim control and give it to the Jewish people!
  7. An interesting read. As the article notes, there's no record of this in Jewish belief (aside from the Qur'an). There are a few possibilities. Perhaps there were groups in Arabia that believed such a thing. There have been times in the past where Jewish communities in isolated regions held certain misguided beliefs or were mired in ignorance. Usually one of two things would happen. Sometimes, knowledgeable Rabbis would move to the community and guide them in correct Torah observance (as in the case of Bukharian Jewry, or more recently, the Falashim of Ethiopia). At other times, when faced with great upheaval, they would flee to a larger Jewish community, in which case most would assimilate into mainstream Judaism. Perhaps one of these two scenarios occurred with the Jews that the Qur'an speaks of. I'm only vaguely familiar with the Gnostic religions of the Middle East. While the first book of Enoch at one time did enjoy popularity among the Jewish people of the 1st and 2nd century, it was never accepted as "canonical". The 2nd and 3rd books of Enoch were likely written by Christians. I'm unaware of any connections with Ezra. But one thing did catch my eye: The Arabic name for Enoch (Idris) and the Greek name for Ezra (Esdras) seem very similar. Maybe there's a connection. It's speculation, but perhaps there could have been some strange Gnostic/Jewish/Christian group in Arabia that used both Arabic and Greek and eventually confused the two names. The names Ezra (עזרא‎) and Azarias (עזריה‎‎) are also somewhat similar. I personally find it hard to believe people would confuse these names and personas, but I guess it's within the realm of possibility. Salaam and Shalom!
  8. What constitutes an illegimate child? One born out of adultery, or any child born out of wedlock? Perhaps it's because the child is the physical manifestation of the parents sins. And, is being ineligible for a communal leadership position considered an actual punishment?
  9. It's always good to double check! Objects that rewrite religious history tend to be worth obscene amounts of money, hence counterfeiters produce these sort of things. They know it will eventually be exposed as a fake, but they also know that someone will take the risk of buying it to find out! I'm interested in what your scholar has to say. You can click on my name to see my religion
  10. I'm not aware of anything regarding this codex in particular. But there are plenty of forgeries in the world of antiquity dealers. The most famous recent one I can think of is the infamous "Viking map". I also know that Israel recently announced that several of the "newly discovered" Dead Sea Scroll fragments were highly sophisticated forgeries. NEWLY DISCOVERED DEAD SEA SCROLLS ARE SKILLFULLY CRAFTED FAKES, EXPERTS SUSPECT I'm not using this discredit the codex (finding an unknown hruf is thrilling), but one should simply be careful when accepting evidence based solely on carbon dating. Counterfeiters are cunning and try to stay a few steps ahead of science. If this is genuine Islamic history, someone will be more than willing to pay big money for this codex $$$
  11. Okay, this makes sense. In light of this, what is the meaning of 17:104 then? In 17:4 "the promise of the last" is followed by punishment. In 17:104 "the promise of the last" is followed by a gathering of the people. Why? Did Allah gather Bani Israel together to punish them? Or is there another meaning? In our traditions the "gathering" is a good thing! Are there any tafsir on this ayat in particular?
  12. In regards to this particular codex, or in the history of antiquities dealing?
  13. I'm not sure what your point is. I was making a point that one should be careful in drawing conclusions based solely on carbon dating, as expert counterfeiters know how to use that to their advantage.
  14. Yes. If someone today decides to write on a 900 year old parchment, the parchment will still carbon date to 900 years ago.
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