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In the Name of God بسم الله

Islamic Salvation

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    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Mikael in The Grandson of George and Temporary Marriage   
    The Narration of Ismail b. Fadhl al-Hashimi
    In al-Kafi, al-Kulayni narrates a very interesting Hadith in which the Imam directs one of his companions i.e. Ismail - to Ibn Jurayj to learn about Mut'a. By this - the Imam wished to acknowledge that Ibn Jurayj's stance about Mut'a was accurate. 
    [-/8] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عمر بن أذينة، عن إسماعيل بن الفضل الهاشمي، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن المتعة، فقال: إلق عبد الملك بن جريح فسله عنها فإن عنده منها علما، فلقيته فأملى علي منها شيئا كثيرا في استحلالها، فكان فيما روى لي ابن جريح، قال: ليس فيها وقت ولا عدد إنما هي بمنزلة الإماء يتزوج منهن كم شاء، وصاحب الأربع نسوة يتزوج منهن ما شاء بغير ولي ولا شهود، فإذا انقضى الاجل بانت منه بغير طلاق ويعطيها الشئ اليسير، وعدتها حيضتان، وإن كانت لا تحيض فخمسة وأربعون يوما، فأتيت بالكتاب أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فعرضت عليه، فقال: صدق وأقر به
    [8/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Umar b. Udhayna from Ismail b. al-Fadhl al-Hashimi who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about Mut’a so he said: go and see Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj and ask him about it for he has some knowledge about it, so I met him and he (Ibn Jurayj) dictated a lot of material in regards its permissibility to me, so from among that which Ibn Jurayj transmitted to me included: it (Mut’ah) has no fixed duration nor limit in number [of partners with whom you can contract], it has the same status as [union with] slave girls, a man marries with them as he likes, even someone who already has four wives can marry as many as he wishes, without [permission from] guardian required nor witnesses, so when the period terminates she departs from him without divorce, and he gives her some small thing [as her Mahr], and her Idda is two menstrual cycles, and if she does not menstruate then forty five days, so I came with the book to Aba Abdillah عليه السلام  and presented its contents to him, so he said: he is truthful, and he agreed with it.
    - What is to be noted is how similar this is to what the Imamiyya hold even to this day.
     
    Was this View of Ibn Jurayj based on Personal Opinion?
    This view of Ibn Jurayj was not based on personal opinion but because he did not believe that the allowance by the prophet was abrogated.
    He himself narrates Umar’s decision to annul Mut’a from his teacher Ata.
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج عن عطاء قال: لاول من سمعت منه المتعة صفوان بن يعلى، قال: أخبرني عن يعلى أن معاوية استمتع بامرأة بالطائف، فأنكرت ذلك عليه، فدخلنا على ابن عباس، فذكر له بعضنا، فقال له: نعم، فلم يقر في نفسي، حتى قدم جابر ابن عبد الله، فجئناه في منزله، فسأله القوم عن أشياء، ثم ذكروا له المتعة، فقال: نعم، استمتعنا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وأبي بكر، وعمر، حتى إذا كان في آخر خلافة عمر استمتع عمرو بن حريث بامرأة - سماها جابر فنسيتها - فحملت المرأة، فبلغ ذلك عمر، فدعاها فسألها، فقالت: نعم، قال: من أشهد؟ قال عطاء: لا أدري قالت: أمي، أم وليها، قال: فهلا غيرهما
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj from Ata who said: the first time I heard about Mut’a was from Safwan b. Ya’la, he reported to me from Ya’la that Muawiya made Mut’a with a woman in Taif, so I rejected that from him, then we entered upon Ibn Abbas, so one of us broached this topic, so he said: yes [it is permitted], but that did not comfort my heart, until Jabir b. Aballah came so we went to his house, so the group asked him about different things, then they asked about Mut’a so he said: yes, we did it in the time of the messenger of Allah, and Abi Bakr and Umar, until the last period of the Khilafa of Umar when Amr b. Hurayth did Mut’a with a woman – Jabir mentioned her name but I have forgotten it – so the woman became pregnant, and that was reported to Umar, so he called her and questioned her, she said: yes [it happened via Mut’a], he said: who witnessed it [the marriage]? Ata said – I forgot whether she said: my mother – or my guardian, he (Umar) said: did no one else do so (witness it)?
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير قال: سمعت جابر بن عبد الله يقول: استمتعنا أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، حتى نهي عمرو بن حريث 
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me saying: I heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: we the companions of the prophet contracted Mut’a marriages until Amr b. Hurayth was forbidden it [by Umar].
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير أنه سمع جابر بن عبد الله يقول: قدم عمرو بن حريث من الكوفة فاستمتع بمولاة، فأتي بها عمر وهي حبلى، فسألها، فقالت: استمتع بي عمرو بن حريث، فسأله، فأخبره بذلك أمرا ظاهرا ... فذلك حين نهى عنها، قال ابن جريج: وأخبرني من أصدق أن عليا قال بالكوفة: لولا ما سبق من رأي عمر بن الخطاب - لامرت بالمتعة ، ثم ما زنا إلا شقي
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me that he heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: Amr b. Hurayth came from Kufa and contracted Mut’a with a slave girl, so Umar brought her forward while she was pregnant and questioned her, she said: Amr b. Hurayth made Mut’a with me, so he asked him (Amr) and he admitted it openly … so that’s when he forbade it.
    Ibn Jurayj said: reported to me the one I consider truthful that Ali said in al-Kufa: If Umar b. al-Khattab’s decision had not preceded I would have reinstated Mut’a again, then no one would have committed adultery except the wretched.  
     
    Note: These three narrations are from the Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq al-San’ani, the famous Yamani Muhadith who took a lot of narrations from Ibn Jurayj thus preserving Fiqhi positions  of the ancient Meccan school of Jurisprudence as taught by Ata and Ibn Jurayj. For more on this refer to Harald Motzki’s book - Origins of Islamic Jurisprudence: Meccan Fiqh before the Classical Schools.
    In it, Motzki proposes to analyse the authenticity of the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211/826), in particular the legal traditions from Ibn Jurayj (d. 150/767), which often refer to his teacher Ata b. Abi Rabah (d. 115/633). His major methodological innovation is in drawing up a range of indices, by which he seeks to determine if a particular name in an isnād is associated with a genuine authorial voice, thus demonstrating the implausibility of fabrication.
    Motzki argues that on the basis of these indices we have good reason to believe that the material in the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq that is ascribed to Ata b. Abi Rabah via Ibn Jurayj is an accurate representation of the teachings taken down by an honest and assiduous legal student from his well-respected master, a successor, who lived most of his life within the first Islamic century.
     
    Did Ibn Jurayj change his Stance?
    Some Sunni scholars claim that Ibn Jurayj changed his stance and came over to the position that it is prohibited. They use the following as evidence:
    نسبهُ الشوكاني إلى أبي عوانة ـ فقال: فقد روى أبوعوانة في صحيحه عن ابن جريج أنّه قال لهم بالبصرة: اشهدوا أني قد رجعت عنها
    Al-Shawkani quotes Abu Awana that Ibn Jurayj said to them in Basra: I bear witness that I have recanted from that (its permissibility). [Nayl al-Awtar 6/136]
    But this is Mursal, because Ibn Jurayj died in 150 AH, while Abu Awana was born on the year 230 AH, so how can he narrate from Ibn Jurayj without any intermediary!
     
    This was the position of Ibn Jurayj’s teacher Ata as well 
    ابن حزم: فيمن ثبت على تحليل المتعة بعد رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)... ومن التابعين... عطاء
    Ibn Hazm: Those who remained steadfast in permitting Mut’a after the messenger of Allah … and from among the Tabi’in - Ata [al-Muhalla 9/519; al-Mughni of Ibn Qudama 7/571]
    الكرابيسي: قال بنكاح المتعة... جماعة من التابعين، منهم: عطاء
    al-Karabisi: Those who agreed with Mut’a … a number of the Tabi’in including: Ata [Masail al-Saghaniyya Pg. 37]
     
    Ata had to resort to Taqiyya to avoid Persecution
    الفاكهي: حدّثنا يعقوب بن حميد، قال: ثنا عبدالله بن الحارث المخزومي، قال: حدّثني غير واحد، أنّ محمد بن هشام سأل عطاء بن أبي رباح عن متعة النساء، فحدّثه فيها ولم يربها بأساً قال (فقدم) القاسم بن محمد قال: فأرسل إليه محمد بن هشام، فسأله فقال: لا ينبغي هي حرام قال ابن هشام: عطاء حدّثني فيها وزعم أن لا بأس بها! فقال القاسم: سبحان الله، ما أرى عطاءً يقول هذا قال: فأرسل إليه ابن هشام، فلمّا جاءه قال: يا أبامحمد حدّثَ القاسم الذي حدّثتني في المتعة فقال: ما حدّثتك فيها شيئاً قال ابن هشام: بلى قد حدّثتني فقال: ما فعلت، فلّما خرج القاسم قال له عطاء صدقت أخبرتك، ولكن كرهت أن أقولها بين يدي القاسم، فيلعنني ويلعنني أهل المدينه
    al-Fakihi: narrated to us Ya’qub b. Humayd who said: Abdallah b. al-Harith al-Makhzumi said: narrated to me more than  one that Muhammad b. Hisham asked Ata b. Abi Rabah about Mut’a of the women, so he narrated to him in regards that and did not see in it any wrong, then al-Qasim b. Muhammad came, so Muhammad b. Hisham sen for him and asked him, so he said: it should not be done - it is prohibited, Ibn Hisham said: Ata narrated to me about it and claimed that there was nothing wrong in it, so al-Qasim said: glory be to Allah! I can’t imagine Ata would have said that, he said: so Ibn Hisham sent for him, so when he (Ata) had come he said: O Aba Muhammad, narrate to al-Qasim what you narrated to me about Mut’a, he said: I did not narrate to you about it anything, Ibn Hisham said: yes you did narrate to me, he said: no I did not, so when al-Qasim had left Ata said to him: you are right I did narrate to you, but I did not like to say it in front of al-Qasim for he will curse me and the people of Madina will curse me. [Akhbar Makka 3/14]
     
    Conclusion
    I quote a narration in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqi in which Ibn Jurayj is narration from Abu Ja’far al-Baqir the particulars of the Ghusl of the prophet as Baraka.
    عن عبد الملك بن جريج قال سمعت محمد بن علي ابا جعفر قال غسل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثلاثا بالسدر وغسل وعليه قميص وغسل من بئر يقال له الغرس بقباء كانت لسعد بن خيثمة وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يشرب منها وولى سفلته علي والفضل محتضنه والعباس يصب الماء ...
    Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj who said: I heard Muhammad b. Ali Aba Ja’far saying: the prophet was washed thrice using Sidr [jujube], and he was washed while he had a long shirt on, and he was washed using the well-water called al-Ghurs found in Quba belonging to Sa’d b. Khaythama – and the prophet used to drink water from it, and Ali undertook thewashing of the lower body while al-Fadhl the upper-body, and al-Abbas was pouring water.
     
    Reference: al-Zawwaj al-Muwaqqat inda al-Sahaba wa al-Tabi’in (by Najm al-Diin al-Tabasi)
  2. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Diaz in The Grandson of George and Temporary Marriage   
    The Narration of Ismail b. Fadhl al-Hashimi
    In al-Kafi, al-Kulayni narrates a very interesting Hadith in which the Imam directs one of his companions i.e. Ismail - to Ibn Jurayj to learn about Mut'a. By this - the Imam wished to acknowledge that Ibn Jurayj's stance about Mut'a was accurate. 
    [-/8] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عمر بن أذينة، عن إسماعيل بن الفضل الهاشمي، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن المتعة، فقال: إلق عبد الملك بن جريح فسله عنها فإن عنده منها علما، فلقيته فأملى علي منها شيئا كثيرا في استحلالها، فكان فيما روى لي ابن جريح، قال: ليس فيها وقت ولا عدد إنما هي بمنزلة الإماء يتزوج منهن كم شاء، وصاحب الأربع نسوة يتزوج منهن ما شاء بغير ولي ولا شهود، فإذا انقضى الاجل بانت منه بغير طلاق ويعطيها الشئ اليسير، وعدتها حيضتان، وإن كانت لا تحيض فخمسة وأربعون يوما، فأتيت بالكتاب أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فعرضت عليه، فقال: صدق وأقر به
    [8/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Umar b. Udhayna from Ismail b. al-Fadhl al-Hashimi who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about Mut’a so he said: go and see Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj and ask him about it for he has some knowledge about it, so I met him and he (Ibn Jurayj) dictated a lot of material in regards its permissibility to me, so from among that which Ibn Jurayj transmitted to me included: it (Mut’ah) has no fixed duration nor limit in number [of partners with whom you can contract], it has the same status as [union with] slave girls, a man marries with them as he likes, even someone who already has four wives can marry as many as he wishes, without [permission from] guardian required nor witnesses, so when the period terminates she departs from him without divorce, and he gives her some small thing [as her Mahr], and her Idda is two menstrual cycles, and if she does not menstruate then forty five days, so I came with the book to Aba Abdillah عليه السلام  and presented its contents to him, so he said: he is truthful, and he agreed with it.
    - What is to be noted is how similar this is to what the Imamiyya hold even to this day.
     
    Was this View of Ibn Jurayj based on Personal Opinion?
    This view of Ibn Jurayj was not based on personal opinion but because he did not believe that the allowance by the prophet was abrogated.
    He himself narrates Umar’s decision to annul Mut’a from his teacher Ata.
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج عن عطاء قال: لاول من سمعت منه المتعة صفوان بن يعلى، قال: أخبرني عن يعلى أن معاوية استمتع بامرأة بالطائف، فأنكرت ذلك عليه، فدخلنا على ابن عباس، فذكر له بعضنا، فقال له: نعم، فلم يقر في نفسي، حتى قدم جابر ابن عبد الله، فجئناه في منزله، فسأله القوم عن أشياء، ثم ذكروا له المتعة، فقال: نعم، استمتعنا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وأبي بكر، وعمر، حتى إذا كان في آخر خلافة عمر استمتع عمرو بن حريث بامرأة - سماها جابر فنسيتها - فحملت المرأة، فبلغ ذلك عمر، فدعاها فسألها، فقالت: نعم، قال: من أشهد؟ قال عطاء: لا أدري قالت: أمي، أم وليها، قال: فهلا غيرهما
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj from Ata who said: the first time I heard about Mut’a was from Safwan b. Ya’la, he reported to me from Ya’la that Muawiya made Mut’a with a woman in Taif, so I rejected that from him, then we entered upon Ibn Abbas, so one of us broached this topic, so he said: yes [it is permitted], but that did not comfort my heart, until Jabir b. Aballah came so we went to his house, so the group asked him about different things, then they asked about Mut’a so he said: yes, we did it in the time of the messenger of Allah, and Abi Bakr and Umar, until the last period of the Khilafa of Umar when Amr b. Hurayth did Mut’a with a woman – Jabir mentioned her name but I have forgotten it – so the woman became pregnant, and that was reported to Umar, so he called her and questioned her, she said: yes [it happened via Mut’a], he said: who witnessed it [the marriage]? Ata said – I forgot whether she said: my mother – or my guardian, he (Umar) said: did no one else do so (witness it)?
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير قال: سمعت جابر بن عبد الله يقول: استمتعنا أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، حتى نهي عمرو بن حريث 
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me saying: I heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: we the companions of the prophet contracted Mut’a marriages until Amr b. Hurayth was forbidden it [by Umar].
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير أنه سمع جابر بن عبد الله يقول: قدم عمرو بن حريث من الكوفة فاستمتع بمولاة، فأتي بها عمر وهي حبلى، فسألها، فقالت: استمتع بي عمرو بن حريث، فسأله، فأخبره بذلك أمرا ظاهرا ... فذلك حين نهى عنها، قال ابن جريج: وأخبرني من أصدق أن عليا قال بالكوفة: لولا ما سبق من رأي عمر بن الخطاب - لامرت بالمتعة ، ثم ما زنا إلا شقي
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me that he heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: Amr b. Hurayth came from Kufa and contracted Mut’a with a slave girl, so Umar brought her forward while she was pregnant and questioned her, she said: Amr b. Hurayth made Mut’a with me, so he asked him (Amr) and he admitted it openly … so that’s when he forbade it.
    Ibn Jurayj said: reported to me the one I consider truthful that Ali said in al-Kufa: If Umar b. al-Khattab’s decision had not preceded I would have reinstated Mut’a again, then no one would have committed adultery except the wretched.  
     
    Note: These three narrations are from the Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq al-San’ani, the famous Yamani Muhadith who took a lot of narrations from Ibn Jurayj thus preserving Fiqhi positions  of the ancient Meccan school of Jurisprudence as taught by Ata and Ibn Jurayj. For more on this refer to Harald Motzki’s book - Origins of Islamic Jurisprudence: Meccan Fiqh before the Classical Schools.
    In it, Motzki proposes to analyse the authenticity of the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211/826), in particular the legal traditions from Ibn Jurayj (d. 150/767), which often refer to his teacher Ata b. Abi Rabah (d. 115/633). His major methodological innovation is in drawing up a range of indices, by which he seeks to determine if a particular name in an isnād is associated with a genuine authorial voice, thus demonstrating the implausibility of fabrication.
    Motzki argues that on the basis of these indices we have good reason to believe that the material in the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq that is ascribed to Ata b. Abi Rabah via Ibn Jurayj is an accurate representation of the teachings taken down by an honest and assiduous legal student from his well-respected master, a successor, who lived most of his life within the first Islamic century.
     
    Did Ibn Jurayj change his Stance?
    Some Sunni scholars claim that Ibn Jurayj changed his stance and came over to the position that it is prohibited. They use the following as evidence:
    نسبهُ الشوكاني إلى أبي عوانة ـ فقال: فقد روى أبوعوانة في صحيحه عن ابن جريج أنّه قال لهم بالبصرة: اشهدوا أني قد رجعت عنها
    Al-Shawkani quotes Abu Awana that Ibn Jurayj said to them in Basra: I bear witness that I have recanted from that (its permissibility). [Nayl al-Awtar 6/136]
    But this is Mursal, because Ibn Jurayj died in 150 AH, while Abu Awana was born on the year 230 AH, so how can he narrate from Ibn Jurayj without any intermediary!
     
    This was the position of Ibn Jurayj’s teacher Ata as well 
    ابن حزم: فيمن ثبت على تحليل المتعة بعد رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)... ومن التابعين... عطاء
    Ibn Hazm: Those who remained steadfast in permitting Mut’a after the messenger of Allah … and from among the Tabi’in - Ata [al-Muhalla 9/519; al-Mughni of Ibn Qudama 7/571]
    الكرابيسي: قال بنكاح المتعة... جماعة من التابعين، منهم: عطاء
    al-Karabisi: Those who agreed with Mut’a … a number of the Tabi’in including: Ata [Masail al-Saghaniyya Pg. 37]
     
    Ata had to resort to Taqiyya to avoid Persecution
    الفاكهي: حدّثنا يعقوب بن حميد، قال: ثنا عبدالله بن الحارث المخزومي، قال: حدّثني غير واحد، أنّ محمد بن هشام سأل عطاء بن أبي رباح عن متعة النساء، فحدّثه فيها ولم يربها بأساً قال (فقدم) القاسم بن محمد قال: فأرسل إليه محمد بن هشام، فسأله فقال: لا ينبغي هي حرام قال ابن هشام: عطاء حدّثني فيها وزعم أن لا بأس بها! فقال القاسم: سبحان الله، ما أرى عطاءً يقول هذا قال: فأرسل إليه ابن هشام، فلمّا جاءه قال: يا أبامحمد حدّثَ القاسم الذي حدّثتني في المتعة فقال: ما حدّثتك فيها شيئاً قال ابن هشام: بلى قد حدّثتني فقال: ما فعلت، فلّما خرج القاسم قال له عطاء صدقت أخبرتك، ولكن كرهت أن أقولها بين يدي القاسم، فيلعنني ويلعنني أهل المدينه
    al-Fakihi: narrated to us Ya’qub b. Humayd who said: Abdallah b. al-Harith al-Makhzumi said: narrated to me more than  one that Muhammad b. Hisham asked Ata b. Abi Rabah about Mut’a of the women, so he narrated to him in regards that and did not see in it any wrong, then al-Qasim b. Muhammad came, so Muhammad b. Hisham sen for him and asked him, so he said: it should not be done - it is prohibited, Ibn Hisham said: Ata narrated to me about it and claimed that there was nothing wrong in it, so al-Qasim said: glory be to Allah! I can’t imagine Ata would have said that, he said: so Ibn Hisham sent for him, so when he (Ata) had come he said: O Aba Muhammad, narrate to al-Qasim what you narrated to me about Mut’a, he said: I did not narrate to you about it anything, Ibn Hisham said: yes you did narrate to me, he said: no I did not, so when al-Qasim had left Ata said to him: you are right I did narrate to you, but I did not like to say it in front of al-Qasim for he will curse me and the people of Madina will curse me. [Akhbar Makka 3/14]
     
    Conclusion
    I quote a narration in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqi in which Ibn Jurayj is narration from Abu Ja’far al-Baqir the particulars of the Ghusl of the prophet as Baraka.
    عن عبد الملك بن جريج قال سمعت محمد بن علي ابا جعفر قال غسل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثلاثا بالسدر وغسل وعليه قميص وغسل من بئر يقال له الغرس بقباء كانت لسعد بن خيثمة وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يشرب منها وولى سفلته علي والفضل محتضنه والعباس يصب الماء ...
    Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj who said: I heard Muhammad b. Ali Aba Ja’far saying: the prophet was washed thrice using Sidr [jujube], and he was washed while he had a long shirt on, and he was washed using the well-water called al-Ghurs found in Quba belonging to Sa’d b. Khaythama – and the prophet used to drink water from it, and Ali undertook thewashing of the lower body while al-Fadhl the upper-body, and al-Abbas was pouring water.
     
    Reference: al-Zawwaj al-Muwaqqat inda al-Sahaba wa al-Tabi’in (by Najm al-Diin al-Tabasi)
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    The Narration of Ismail b. Fadhl al-Hashimi
    In al-Kafi, al-Kulayni narrates a very interesting Hadith in which the Imam directs one of his companions i.e. Ismail - to Ibn Jurayj to learn about Mut'a. By this - the Imam wished to acknowledge that Ibn Jurayj's stance about Mut'a was accurate. 
    [-/8] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عمر بن أذينة، عن إسماعيل بن الفضل الهاشمي، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن المتعة، فقال: إلق عبد الملك بن جريح فسله عنها فإن عنده منها علما، فلقيته فأملى علي منها شيئا كثيرا في استحلالها، فكان فيما روى لي ابن جريح، قال: ليس فيها وقت ولا عدد إنما هي بمنزلة الإماء يتزوج منهن كم شاء، وصاحب الأربع نسوة يتزوج منهن ما شاء بغير ولي ولا شهود، فإذا انقضى الاجل بانت منه بغير طلاق ويعطيها الشئ اليسير، وعدتها حيضتان، وإن كانت لا تحيض فخمسة وأربعون يوما، فأتيت بالكتاب أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فعرضت عليه، فقال: صدق وأقر به
    [8/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Umar b. Udhayna from Ismail b. al-Fadhl al-Hashimi who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about Mut’a so he said: go and see Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj and ask him about it for he has some knowledge about it, so I met him and he (Ibn Jurayj) dictated a lot of material in regards its permissibility to me, so from among that which Ibn Jurayj transmitted to me included: it (Mut’ah) has no fixed duration nor limit in number [of partners with whom you can contract], it has the same status as [union with] slave girls, a man marries with them as he likes, even someone who already has four wives can marry as many as he wishes, without [permission from] guardian required nor witnesses, so when the period terminates she departs from him without divorce, and he gives her some small thing [as her Mahr], and her Idda is two menstrual cycles, and if she does not menstruate then forty five days, so I came with the book to Aba Abdillah عليه السلام  and presented its contents to him, so he said: he is truthful, and he agreed with it.
    - What is to be noted is how similar this is to what the Imamiyya hold even to this day.
     
    Was this View of Ibn Jurayj based on Personal Opinion?
    This view of Ibn Jurayj was not based on personal opinion but because he did not believe that the allowance by the prophet was abrogated.
    He himself narrates Umar’s decision to annul Mut’a from his teacher Ata.
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج عن عطاء قال: لاول من سمعت منه المتعة صفوان بن يعلى، قال: أخبرني عن يعلى أن معاوية استمتع بامرأة بالطائف، فأنكرت ذلك عليه، فدخلنا على ابن عباس، فذكر له بعضنا، فقال له: نعم، فلم يقر في نفسي، حتى قدم جابر ابن عبد الله، فجئناه في منزله، فسأله القوم عن أشياء، ثم ذكروا له المتعة، فقال: نعم، استمتعنا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وأبي بكر، وعمر، حتى إذا كان في آخر خلافة عمر استمتع عمرو بن حريث بامرأة - سماها جابر فنسيتها - فحملت المرأة، فبلغ ذلك عمر، فدعاها فسألها، فقالت: نعم، قال: من أشهد؟ قال عطاء: لا أدري قالت: أمي، أم وليها، قال: فهلا غيرهما
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj from Ata who said: the first time I heard about Mut’a was from Safwan b. Ya’la, he reported to me from Ya’la that Muawiya made Mut’a with a woman in Taif, so I rejected that from him, then we entered upon Ibn Abbas, so one of us broached this topic, so he said: yes [it is permitted], but that did not comfort my heart, until Jabir b. Aballah came so we went to his house, so the group asked him about different things, then they asked about Mut’a so he said: yes, we did it in the time of the messenger of Allah, and Abi Bakr and Umar, until the last period of the Khilafa of Umar when Amr b. Hurayth did Mut’a with a woman – Jabir mentioned her name but I have forgotten it – so the woman became pregnant, and that was reported to Umar, so he called her and questioned her, she said: yes [it happened via Mut’a], he said: who witnessed it [the marriage]? Ata said – I forgot whether she said: my mother – or my guardian, he (Umar) said: did no one else do so (witness it)?
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير قال: سمعت جابر بن عبد الله يقول: استمتعنا أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، حتى نهي عمرو بن حريث 
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me saying: I heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: we the companions of the prophet contracted Mut’a marriages until Amr b. Hurayth was forbidden it [by Umar].
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير أنه سمع جابر بن عبد الله يقول: قدم عمرو بن حريث من الكوفة فاستمتع بمولاة، فأتي بها عمر وهي حبلى، فسألها، فقالت: استمتع بي عمرو بن حريث، فسأله، فأخبره بذلك أمرا ظاهرا ... فذلك حين نهى عنها، قال ابن جريج: وأخبرني من أصدق أن عليا قال بالكوفة: لولا ما سبق من رأي عمر بن الخطاب - لامرت بالمتعة ، ثم ما زنا إلا شقي
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me that he heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: Amr b. Hurayth came from Kufa and contracted Mut’a with a slave girl, so Umar brought her forward while she was pregnant and questioned her, she said: Amr b. Hurayth made Mut’a with me, so he asked him (Amr) and he admitted it openly … so that’s when he forbade it.
    Ibn Jurayj said: reported to me the one I consider truthful that Ali said in al-Kufa: If Umar b. al-Khattab’s decision had not preceded I would have reinstated Mut’a again, then no one would have committed adultery except the wretched.  
     
    Note: These three narrations are from the Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq al-San’ani, the famous Yamani Muhadith who took a lot of narrations from Ibn Jurayj thus preserving Fiqhi positions  of the ancient Meccan school of Jurisprudence as taught by Ata and Ibn Jurayj. For more on this refer to Harald Motzki’s book - Origins of Islamic Jurisprudence: Meccan Fiqh before the Classical Schools.
    In it, Motzki proposes to analyse the authenticity of the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211/826), in particular the legal traditions from Ibn Jurayj (d. 150/767), which often refer to his teacher Ata b. Abi Rabah (d. 115/633). His major methodological innovation is in drawing up a range of indices, by which he seeks to determine if a particular name in an isnād is associated with a genuine authorial voice, thus demonstrating the implausibility of fabrication.
    Motzki argues that on the basis of these indices we have good reason to believe that the material in the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq that is ascribed to Ata b. Abi Rabah via Ibn Jurayj is an accurate representation of the teachings taken down by an honest and assiduous legal student from his well-respected master, a successor, who lived most of his life within the first Islamic century.
     
    Did Ibn Jurayj change his Stance?
    Some Sunni scholars claim that Ibn Jurayj changed his stance and came over to the position that it is prohibited. They use the following as evidence:
    نسبهُ الشوكاني إلى أبي عوانة ـ فقال: فقد روى أبوعوانة في صحيحه عن ابن جريج أنّه قال لهم بالبصرة: اشهدوا أني قد رجعت عنها
    Al-Shawkani quotes Abu Awana that Ibn Jurayj said to them in Basra: I bear witness that I have recanted from that (its permissibility). [Nayl al-Awtar 6/136]
    But this is Mursal, because Ibn Jurayj died in 150 AH, while Abu Awana was born on the year 230 AH, so how can he narrate from Ibn Jurayj without any intermediary!
     
    This was the position of Ibn Jurayj’s teacher Ata as well 
    ابن حزم: فيمن ثبت على تحليل المتعة بعد رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)... ومن التابعين... عطاء
    Ibn Hazm: Those who remained steadfast in permitting Mut’a after the messenger of Allah … and from among the Tabi’in - Ata [al-Muhalla 9/519; al-Mughni of Ibn Qudama 7/571]
    الكرابيسي: قال بنكاح المتعة... جماعة من التابعين، منهم: عطاء
    al-Karabisi: Those who agreed with Mut’a … a number of the Tabi’in including: Ata [Masail al-Saghaniyya Pg. 37]
     
    Ata had to resort to Taqiyya to avoid Persecution
    الفاكهي: حدّثنا يعقوب بن حميد، قال: ثنا عبدالله بن الحارث المخزومي، قال: حدّثني غير واحد، أنّ محمد بن هشام سأل عطاء بن أبي رباح عن متعة النساء، فحدّثه فيها ولم يربها بأساً قال (فقدم) القاسم بن محمد قال: فأرسل إليه محمد بن هشام، فسأله فقال: لا ينبغي هي حرام قال ابن هشام: عطاء حدّثني فيها وزعم أن لا بأس بها! فقال القاسم: سبحان الله، ما أرى عطاءً يقول هذا قال: فأرسل إليه ابن هشام، فلمّا جاءه قال: يا أبامحمد حدّثَ القاسم الذي حدّثتني في المتعة فقال: ما حدّثتك فيها شيئاً قال ابن هشام: بلى قد حدّثتني فقال: ما فعلت، فلّما خرج القاسم قال له عطاء صدقت أخبرتك، ولكن كرهت أن أقولها بين يدي القاسم، فيلعنني ويلعنني أهل المدينه
    al-Fakihi: narrated to us Ya’qub b. Humayd who said: Abdallah b. al-Harith al-Makhzumi said: narrated to me more than  one that Muhammad b. Hisham asked Ata b. Abi Rabah about Mut’a of the women, so he narrated to him in regards that and did not see in it any wrong, then al-Qasim b. Muhammad came, so Muhammad b. Hisham sen for him and asked him, so he said: it should not be done - it is prohibited, Ibn Hisham said: Ata narrated to me about it and claimed that there was nothing wrong in it, so al-Qasim said: glory be to Allah! I can’t imagine Ata would have said that, he said: so Ibn Hisham sent for him, so when he (Ata) had come he said: O Aba Muhammad, narrate to al-Qasim what you narrated to me about Mut’a, he said: I did not narrate to you about it anything, Ibn Hisham said: yes you did narrate to me, he said: no I did not, so when al-Qasim had left Ata said to him: you are right I did narrate to you, but I did not like to say it in front of al-Qasim for he will curse me and the people of Madina will curse me. [Akhbar Makka 3/14]
     
    Conclusion
    I quote a narration in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqi in which Ibn Jurayj is narration from Abu Ja’far al-Baqir the particulars of the Ghusl of the prophet as Baraka.
    عن عبد الملك بن جريج قال سمعت محمد بن علي ابا جعفر قال غسل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثلاثا بالسدر وغسل وعليه قميص وغسل من بئر يقال له الغرس بقباء كانت لسعد بن خيثمة وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يشرب منها وولى سفلته علي والفضل محتضنه والعباس يصب الماء ...
    Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj who said: I heard Muhammad b. Ali Aba Ja’far saying: the prophet was washed thrice using Sidr [jujube], and he was washed while he had a long shirt on, and he was washed using the well-water called al-Ghurs found in Quba belonging to Sa’d b. Khaythama – and the prophet used to drink water from it, and Ali undertook thewashing of the lower body while al-Fadhl the upper-body, and al-Abbas was pouring water.
     
    Reference: al-Zawwaj al-Muwaqqat inda al-Sahaba wa al-Tabi’in (by Najm al-Diin al-Tabasi)
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    The Narration of Ismail b. Fadhl al-Hashimi
    In al-Kafi, al-Kulayni narrates a very interesting Hadith in which the Imam directs one of his companions i.e. Ismail - to Ibn Jurayj to learn about Mut'a. By this - the Imam wished to acknowledge that Ibn Jurayj's stance about Mut'a was accurate. 
    [-/8] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عمر بن أذينة، عن إسماعيل بن الفضل الهاشمي، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن المتعة، فقال: إلق عبد الملك بن جريح فسله عنها فإن عنده منها علما، فلقيته فأملى علي منها شيئا كثيرا في استحلالها، فكان فيما روى لي ابن جريح، قال: ليس فيها وقت ولا عدد إنما هي بمنزلة الإماء يتزوج منهن كم شاء، وصاحب الأربع نسوة يتزوج منهن ما شاء بغير ولي ولا شهود، فإذا انقضى الاجل بانت منه بغير طلاق ويعطيها الشئ اليسير، وعدتها حيضتان، وإن كانت لا تحيض فخمسة وأربعون يوما، فأتيت بالكتاب أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فعرضت عليه، فقال: صدق وأقر به
    [8/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Umar b. Udhayna from Ismail b. al-Fadhl al-Hashimi who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about Mut’a so he said: go and see Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj and ask him about it for he has some knowledge about it, so I met him and he (Ibn Jurayj) dictated a lot of material in regards its permissibility to me, so from among that which Ibn Jurayj transmitted to me included: it (Mut’ah) has no fixed duration nor limit in number [of partners with whom you can contract], it has the same status as [union with] slave girls, a man marries with them as he likes, even someone who already has four wives can marry as many as he wishes, without [permission from] guardian required nor witnesses, so when the period terminates she departs from him without divorce, and he gives her some small thing [as her Mahr], and her Idda is two menstrual cycles, and if she does not menstruate then forty five days, so I came with the book to Aba Abdillah عليه السلام  and presented its contents to him, so he said: he is truthful, and he agreed with it.
    - What is to be noted is how similar this is to what the Imamiyya hold even to this day.
     
    Was this View of Ibn Jurayj based on Personal Opinion?
    This view of Ibn Jurayj was not based on personal opinion but because he did not believe that the allowance by the prophet was abrogated.
    He himself narrates Umar’s decision to annul Mut’a from his teacher Ata.
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج عن عطاء قال: لاول من سمعت منه المتعة صفوان بن يعلى، قال: أخبرني عن يعلى أن معاوية استمتع بامرأة بالطائف، فأنكرت ذلك عليه، فدخلنا على ابن عباس، فذكر له بعضنا، فقال له: نعم، فلم يقر في نفسي، حتى قدم جابر ابن عبد الله، فجئناه في منزله، فسأله القوم عن أشياء، ثم ذكروا له المتعة، فقال: نعم، استمتعنا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وأبي بكر، وعمر، حتى إذا كان في آخر خلافة عمر استمتع عمرو بن حريث بامرأة - سماها جابر فنسيتها - فحملت المرأة، فبلغ ذلك عمر، فدعاها فسألها، فقالت: نعم، قال: من أشهد؟ قال عطاء: لا أدري قالت: أمي، أم وليها، قال: فهلا غيرهما
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj from Ata who said: the first time I heard about Mut’a was from Safwan b. Ya’la, he reported to me from Ya’la that Muawiya made Mut’a with a woman in Taif, so I rejected that from him, then we entered upon Ibn Abbas, so one of us broached this topic, so he said: yes [it is permitted], but that did not comfort my heart, until Jabir b. Aballah came so we went to his house, so the group asked him about different things, then they asked about Mut’a so he said: yes, we did it in the time of the messenger of Allah, and Abi Bakr and Umar, until the last period of the Khilafa of Umar when Amr b. Hurayth did Mut’a with a woman – Jabir mentioned her name but I have forgotten it – so the woman became pregnant, and that was reported to Umar, so he called her and questioned her, she said: yes [it happened via Mut’a], he said: who witnessed it [the marriage]? Ata said – I forgot whether she said: my mother – or my guardian, he (Umar) said: did no one else do so (witness it)?
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير قال: سمعت جابر بن عبد الله يقول: استمتعنا أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، حتى نهي عمرو بن حريث 
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me saying: I heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: we the companions of the prophet contracted Mut’a marriages until Amr b. Hurayth was forbidden it [by Umar].
    عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال: أخبرني أبو الزبير أنه سمع جابر بن عبد الله يقول: قدم عمرو بن حريث من الكوفة فاستمتع بمولاة، فأتي بها عمر وهي حبلى، فسألها، فقالت: استمتع بي عمرو بن حريث، فسأله، فأخبره بذلك أمرا ظاهرا ... فذلك حين نهى عنها، قال ابن جريج: وأخبرني من أصدق أن عليا قال بالكوفة: لولا ما سبق من رأي عمر بن الخطاب - لامرت بالمتعة ، ثم ما زنا إلا شقي
    Abd al-Razzaq from Ibn Jurayj who said: Abu al-Zubayr reported to me that he heard Jabir b. Abdallah saying: Amr b. Hurayth came from Kufa and contracted Mut’a with a slave girl, so Umar brought her forward while she was pregnant and questioned her, she said: Amr b. Hurayth made Mut’a with me, so he asked him (Amr) and he admitted it openly … so that’s when he forbade it.
    Ibn Jurayj said: reported to me the one I consider truthful that Ali said in al-Kufa: If Umar b. al-Khattab’s decision had not preceded I would have reinstated Mut’a again, then no one would have committed adultery except the wretched.  
     
    Note: These three narrations are from the Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq al-San’ani, the famous Yamani Muhadith who took a lot of narrations from Ibn Jurayj thus preserving Fiqhi positions  of the ancient Meccan school of Jurisprudence as taught by Ata and Ibn Jurayj. For more on this refer to Harald Motzki’s book - Origins of Islamic Jurisprudence: Meccan Fiqh before the Classical Schools.
    In it, Motzki proposes to analyse the authenticity of the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq (d. 211/826), in particular the legal traditions from Ibn Jurayj (d. 150/767), which often refer to his teacher Ata b. Abi Rabah (d. 115/633). His major methodological innovation is in drawing up a range of indices, by which he seeks to determine if a particular name in an isnād is associated with a genuine authorial voice, thus demonstrating the implausibility of fabrication.
    Motzki argues that on the basis of these indices we have good reason to believe that the material in the Muṣannaf of Abd al-Razzaq that is ascribed to Ata b. Abi Rabah via Ibn Jurayj is an accurate representation of the teachings taken down by an honest and assiduous legal student from his well-respected master, a successor, who lived most of his life within the first Islamic century.
     
    Did Ibn Jurayj change his Stance?
    Some Sunni scholars claim that Ibn Jurayj changed his stance and came over to the position that it is prohibited. They use the following as evidence:
    نسبهُ الشوكاني إلى أبي عوانة ـ فقال: فقد روى أبوعوانة في صحيحه عن ابن جريج أنّه قال لهم بالبصرة: اشهدوا أني قد رجعت عنها
    Al-Shawkani quotes Abu Awana that Ibn Jurayj said to them in Basra: I bear witness that I have recanted from that (its permissibility). [Nayl al-Awtar 6/136]
    But this is Mursal, because Ibn Jurayj died in 150 AH, while Abu Awana was born on the year 230 AH, so how can he narrate from Ibn Jurayj without any intermediary!
     
    This was the position of Ibn Jurayj’s teacher Ata as well 
    ابن حزم: فيمن ثبت على تحليل المتعة بعد رسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)... ومن التابعين... عطاء
    Ibn Hazm: Those who remained steadfast in permitting Mut’a after the messenger of Allah … and from among the Tabi’in - Ata [al-Muhalla 9/519; al-Mughni of Ibn Qudama 7/571]
    الكرابيسي: قال بنكاح المتعة... جماعة من التابعين، منهم: عطاء
    al-Karabisi: Those who agreed with Mut’a … a number of the Tabi’in including: Ata [Masail al-Saghaniyya Pg. 37]
     
    Ata had to resort to Taqiyya to avoid Persecution
    الفاكهي: حدّثنا يعقوب بن حميد، قال: ثنا عبدالله بن الحارث المخزومي، قال: حدّثني غير واحد، أنّ محمد بن هشام سأل عطاء بن أبي رباح عن متعة النساء، فحدّثه فيها ولم يربها بأساً قال (فقدم) القاسم بن محمد قال: فأرسل إليه محمد بن هشام، فسأله فقال: لا ينبغي هي حرام قال ابن هشام: عطاء حدّثني فيها وزعم أن لا بأس بها! فقال القاسم: سبحان الله، ما أرى عطاءً يقول هذا قال: فأرسل إليه ابن هشام، فلمّا جاءه قال: يا أبامحمد حدّثَ القاسم الذي حدّثتني في المتعة فقال: ما حدّثتك فيها شيئاً قال ابن هشام: بلى قد حدّثتني فقال: ما فعلت، فلّما خرج القاسم قال له عطاء صدقت أخبرتك، ولكن كرهت أن أقولها بين يدي القاسم، فيلعنني ويلعنني أهل المدينه
    al-Fakihi: narrated to us Ya’qub b. Humayd who said: Abdallah b. al-Harith al-Makhzumi said: narrated to me more than  one that Muhammad b. Hisham asked Ata b. Abi Rabah about Mut’a of the women, so he narrated to him in regards that and did not see in it any wrong, then al-Qasim b. Muhammad came, so Muhammad b. Hisham sen for him and asked him, so he said: it should not be done - it is prohibited, Ibn Hisham said: Ata narrated to me about it and claimed that there was nothing wrong in it, so al-Qasim said: glory be to Allah! I can’t imagine Ata would have said that, he said: so Ibn Hisham sent for him, so when he (Ata) had come he said: O Aba Muhammad, narrate to al-Qasim what you narrated to me about Mut’a, he said: I did not narrate to you about it anything, Ibn Hisham said: yes you did narrate to me, he said: no I did not, so when al-Qasim had left Ata said to him: you are right I did narrate to you, but I did not like to say it in front of al-Qasim for he will curse me and the people of Madina will curse me. [Akhbar Makka 3/14]
     
    Conclusion
    I quote a narration in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqi in which Ibn Jurayj is narration from Abu Ja’far al-Baqir the particulars of the Ghusl of the prophet as Baraka.
    عن عبد الملك بن جريج قال سمعت محمد بن علي ابا جعفر قال غسل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ثلاثا بالسدر وغسل وعليه قميص وغسل من بئر يقال له الغرس بقباء كانت لسعد بن خيثمة وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يشرب منها وولى سفلته علي والفضل محتضنه والعباس يصب الماء ...
    Abd al-Malik b. Jurayj who said: I heard Muhammad b. Ali Aba Ja’far saying: the prophet was washed thrice using Sidr [jujube], and he was washed while he had a long shirt on, and he was washed using the well-water called al-Ghurs found in Quba belonging to Sa’d b. Khaythama – and the prophet used to drink water from it, and Ali undertook thewashing of the lower body while al-Fadhl the upper-body, and al-Abbas was pouring water.
     
    Reference: al-Zawwaj al-Muwaqqat inda al-Sahaba wa al-Tabi’in (by Najm al-Diin al-Tabasi)
  5. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Sumerian in Blood on Hisham b. al-Hakam's Hands   
    I have touched on that in the following posts:
    https://www.shiachat.com/forum/blogs/entry/376-the-madhhab-of-hisham/
    https://www.shiachat.com/forum/blogs/entry/381-hisham-b-al-hakam-god-is-a-body/
    https://www.shiachat.com/forum/blogs/entry/383-god-a-body-unlike-other-bodies/
  6. Like
    Islamic Salvation reacted to Qa'im in Blood on Hisham b. al-Hakam's Hands   
    A relevant tradition to meditate on:
    - علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن بعض أصحابنا، عن أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام قال: إن الله عز وجل غضب على الشيعة (1) فخيرني نفسي أوهم، فوقيتهم والله بنفسي.
    Narrated by Imam Musa b. Ja’far [a], "Allah became angry with the Shi`a, so he gave me the choice between myself or them, so I redeemed them by Allah with my own self."
    al-Majlisī suggests that it refers to a time where the Shīʿah had abandoned the practice of taqiyyah (dissimulation) during the reign of Hārun al-Rashīd (d. 763/766 or 809 AD) and as a result, al-Kāẓim had to put himself forward as a sacrifice in order to save them.
  7. Like
    Islamic Salvation reacted to Agha-Shabbir-Abbas in The Madhhab of Hisham?   
    It is terribly sad that not much of Hisham b. al-Hakam's work has remained, other than a full treatise that Ibn al-Qayyim recorded for polemical purposes. only bits and pieces remain.
    Whereas the works of 'Abd Allah ibn Yazid, the Khariji theologian, who was the best friend and business-partner of Hisham b. al-Hakam, have been preserved by the Ibadhis of Oman and Algeria. Manuscripts from him are quite extant.
  8. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Ashvazdanghe in Ghulu: The Case of Mughira the Sorcerer   
    This is an extract of the teachings of Mughira to his followers the Mughiriyya [Taken from Abu Tammam’s Bab al-Shaytan of the Kitab al-Shajara, translated by Wilferd Madelung and Paul E. Walker]:
     
    The tenth sect is the Mughiriyya related to al-Mughira b. Sa’id al-Ijli [sic. al-Bajali]. They make up one group of the anthropomorphists. The object of their worship according to them, is a [divine] man the light on whose head forms a crown and he wears garments. His loincloth is the Qur’an that was revealed to Muhammad, the messenger of God, may God bless him and his family; His robes are the Gospels that were revealed to Jesus, on whom be peace; His shirt is the Torah that was revealed to Moses, on whom be peace; and His pants are the Pslams that were revealed to David, on whom be peace. He possesses limbs and a physical constitution like that of a man and has a belly from which flows wisdom.
    They claim that the letters of the alphabet agree with the number of His limbs and that each letter in it resembles one of His limbs. The alif  is the position of His foot because of its curvature. The rest of the members they describe in accord with the description of these letters. They insist that al-Mughira said to his followers once when speaking of the letter ha’: if you were to see its place on Him, you would see something awesome. He was hinting at some genitalia of His and that he had seen Him [in a heavenly ascent].
    The Mughiriyya claim that these letters are all a part of one name which is the greatest name of God. In addition they insist that al-Mughira was a prophet and he knew that name. With it he used to revive the dead and perform other marvels. They report that once al-Mughira passed through a cemetery with some of his followers and there in that cemetery he revived the dead and fed them fruits in mid-winter. Moreover, he displayed to them a flash of light that ran from the crown of his head to his feet; he toyed thus with his followers and bewitched their eyes with tricks of magic.
    They also report that al-Mughira spoke about the beginning of creation. He said that God, the glorious and most high, was once alone and nothing was with Him. When He wished to create things, He spoke His own name. His word flew and landed over His head above the crown. Al-Mughira said that this was His statement, “Glorify the name of your Lord most high” (87:1). Then with His finger He wrote on His palm the deeds of humans that are acts of disobedience and obedience and He became angry at the acts of disobedience. His sweat overflowed and two oceans gathered from His sweat, one brackish and dark, the other pure luminous. Then looking into the ocean, He saw His shadow, so He went forth to seize it. He plucked out its two eyes and created out of them two suns and He blotted out some light from the moon. Then, out of the physical forms of His shadow, He created the heavens and the stars. Next, from these two oceans, He created creation in its entirety: from the dark brackish water, He created the shadow of the unbelievers, from the pure luminous water, He created the shadow of the believers.
    The first among them that God created was Muhammad, may God bless him and his family, in accord with the statement of God, the glorious and the mighty, “Say: if the Most merciful had a son, I would be the first of the worshippers” (43:81). Next he sent Muhammad to the people altogether while they were yet shadows and He commanded him to have them bear witness on their own account of their recognition of the lordship of God, the apostleship of Muhammad, and the guardianship of Ali, on whom be peace, and that he recited His words, “When your Lord took from the tribe of Adam …” (7:172).
    Then He proposed to the heavens and the earth that they should prevent Ali b. Abi Talib from assuming the caliphate and the imamate, but they refused. Next He proposed it to the mountains but they refused also. Then He proposed it to the people, whereupon Umar went to Abu Bakr – both were at that moment still shadows -  and he ordered him to take upon himself the task of preventing Ali by them both betraying him. Thereafter Abu Bakr did exactly that. All this is in God’s statement, “We did indeed offer the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains but they refused to undertake it being afraid of it. But man undertook it; he was indeed unjust and foolish” (33:72) Then Umar said to Abu Bakr, “I will support you against Ali, on whom be peace, so that you can pass the caliphate to me after yourself”. That is in God’s statement, “Like Satan when he said to man, ‘disbelieve’ and when he renounced belief, he said, ‘I am free of you’” (59:16). Here the Satan is Umar and the man is Abu Bakr.
    In their view, the earth will disgorge the dead and they will return to this world. The Mahdi will appear at the end of time, they say, and Gabriel and Michael will aid him between the Ruqn and the Maqam. He will choose nineteen men and give each one of them a letter of the greatest name of God and by means of it they will defeat all armies and dominate the earth. 
  9. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Intellectual Resistance in Ghulu: The Case of Mughira the Sorcerer   
    This is an extract of the teachings of Mughira to his followers the Mughiriyya [Taken from Abu Tammam’s Bab al-Shaytan of the Kitab al-Shajara, translated by Wilferd Madelung and Paul E. Walker]:
     
    The tenth sect is the Mughiriyya related to al-Mughira b. Sa’id al-Ijli [sic. al-Bajali]. They make up one group of the anthropomorphists. The object of their worship according to them, is a [divine] man the light on whose head forms a crown and he wears garments. His loincloth is the Qur’an that was revealed to Muhammad, the messenger of God, may God bless him and his family; His robes are the Gospels that were revealed to Jesus, on whom be peace; His shirt is the Torah that was revealed to Moses, on whom be peace; and His pants are the Pslams that were revealed to David, on whom be peace. He possesses limbs and a physical constitution like that of a man and has a belly from which flows wisdom.
    They claim that the letters of the alphabet agree with the number of His limbs and that each letter in it resembles one of His limbs. The alif  is the position of His foot because of its curvature. The rest of the members they describe in accord with the description of these letters. They insist that al-Mughira said to his followers once when speaking of the letter ha’: if you were to see its place on Him, you would see something awesome. He was hinting at some genitalia of His and that he had seen Him [in a heavenly ascent].
    The Mughiriyya claim that these letters are all a part of one name which is the greatest name of God. In addition they insist that al-Mughira was a prophet and he knew that name. With it he used to revive the dead and perform other marvels. They report that once al-Mughira passed through a cemetery with some of his followers and there in that cemetery he revived the dead and fed them fruits in mid-winter. Moreover, he displayed to them a flash of light that ran from the crown of his head to his feet; he toyed thus with his followers and bewitched their eyes with tricks of magic.
    They also report that al-Mughira spoke about the beginning of creation. He said that God, the glorious and most high, was once alone and nothing was with Him. When He wished to create things, He spoke His own name. His word flew and landed over His head above the crown. Al-Mughira said that this was His statement, “Glorify the name of your Lord most high” (87:1). Then with His finger He wrote on His palm the deeds of humans that are acts of disobedience and obedience and He became angry at the acts of disobedience. His sweat overflowed and two oceans gathered from His sweat, one brackish and dark, the other pure luminous. Then looking into the ocean, He saw His shadow, so He went forth to seize it. He plucked out its two eyes and created out of them two suns and He blotted out some light from the moon. Then, out of the physical forms of His shadow, He created the heavens and the stars. Next, from these two oceans, He created creation in its entirety: from the dark brackish water, He created the shadow of the unbelievers, from the pure luminous water, He created the shadow of the believers.
    The first among them that God created was Muhammad, may God bless him and his family, in accord with the statement of God, the glorious and the mighty, “Say: if the Most merciful had a son, I would be the first of the worshippers” (43:81). Next he sent Muhammad to the people altogether while they were yet shadows and He commanded him to have them bear witness on their own account of their recognition of the lordship of God, the apostleship of Muhammad, and the guardianship of Ali, on whom be peace, and that he recited His words, “When your Lord took from the tribe of Adam …” (7:172).
    Then He proposed to the heavens and the earth that they should prevent Ali b. Abi Talib from assuming the caliphate and the imamate, but they refused. Next He proposed it to the mountains but they refused also. Then He proposed it to the people, whereupon Umar went to Abu Bakr – both were at that moment still shadows -  and he ordered him to take upon himself the task of preventing Ali by them both betraying him. Thereafter Abu Bakr did exactly that. All this is in God’s statement, “We did indeed offer the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains but they refused to undertake it being afraid of it. But man undertook it; he was indeed unjust and foolish” (33:72) Then Umar said to Abu Bakr, “I will support you against Ali, on whom be peace, so that you can pass the caliphate to me after yourself”. That is in God’s statement, “Like Satan when he said to man, ‘disbelieve’ and when he renounced belief, he said, ‘I am free of you’” (59:16). Here the Satan is Umar and the man is Abu Bakr.
    In their view, the earth will disgorge the dead and they will return to this world. The Mahdi will appear at the end of time, they say, and Gabriel and Michael will aid him between the Ruqn and the Maqam. He will choose nineteen men and give each one of them a letter of the greatest name of God and by means of it they will defeat all armies and dominate the earth. 
  10. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from The Straight Path in Ghulu: The Case of Mughira the Sorcerer   
    W. Salam.
    Indeed they were.
    However, these words are spoken by a proto-Sunni Hadith narrator called al-A’mash. This indicates that the `Aimma and their true followers were not doing La’n openly and that Mughira betrayed Taqiyya.
  11. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Abu Nur in Reliable Narrations: Intellect and Knowledge   
    Wa Alaykum Salam. 
    What you have quoted from Tafsir al-Safi goes back to Tafsir al-Askari [a Tafsir which claims to originate from the Eleventh Imam].
    This is the translation:
    قال رجل للصادق عليه السلام فإذا كان هؤلاء العوام من اليهود لا يعرفون الكتاب الا بما يسمعونه من علمائهم لا سبيل لهم إلى غيره فكيف ذمّهم بتقليدهم و القبول من علمائهم و هل عوام اليهود الا كعوامنا يقلّدون علمائهم فان لم يجز لأولئك القبول من علمائهم لم يجز لهؤلاء القبول من علمائهم فقال عليه السلام بين عوامنا و علمائنا و بين عوام اليهود و علمائهم فرق من جهة و تسوية من جهة أما من حيث استووا فان اللَّه قد ذمّ عوامنا بتقليدهم علماءهم كما قد ذمّ عوامهم و أمّا من حيث افترقوا فلا،
    A man said to al-Sadiq عليه السلام: If the common people among the Jews did not have any other way to obtain knowledge of the Book except through what they heard from their scholars - then why did He blame them for their following of the scholars and acceptance from them?
    Further, is it not the case that the common people among the Jews are like our common people for they [our common people] too follow their scholars, so if it is not permitted for them [the Jews] to accept from their scholars then is it not also impermissible for these [our common people] to accept what their scholars say?
    He عليه السلام said: Between our common people and our scholars and the laity among the Jews and their scholars there is a difference in one aspect and similarity in another aspect. As far as the similar aspect is concerned then just as Allah censured our common people for the blind following of their scholars He did the same in censuring their common people, but as for the divergent aspect then No [he did not censure it].
      قال بيّن لي ذلك يا بن رسول اللَّه قال إنّ عوام اليهود كانوا قد عرفوا علمائهم بالكذب الصريح و بأكل الحرام و الرّشا و بتغيير الأحكام عن واجبها بالشفاعات و العنايات و المصانعات و عرفوهم بالتعصب الشديد الذي يفارقون به أديانهم و إنهم إذا تعصبوا أزالوا حقوق من تعصبوا عليه و اعطوا ما لا يستحقه من تعصبوا له من اموال غيرهم و ظلموهم من أجلهم و عرفوهم يقارفون المحرّمات و اضطروا بمعارف قلوبهم إلى أن من فعل ما يفعلونه فهو فاسق لا يجوز ان يصدق على اللَّه و لا على الوسائط بين الخلق و بين اللَّه فلذلك ذمّهم لما قلّدوا من قد عرفوا و من قد علموا أنّه لا يجوز قبول خبره و لا تصديقه في حكايته و لا العمل بما يؤديه إليهم
    The Narrator said: Explain it for me O the son of the messenger of Allah.
    He عليه السلام said: the common people among the Jews knew that their scholars used to lie outright, eat the forbidden wealth, were corrupt, changed the laws from what they should be based on intercession, favours and bribes. They also knew that their scholars were excessively partisan, that they used to split up their religion because of this rivalry and used to trample the rights of those they were against and give those they are partial towards what they do not deserve of the wealth of others, they used to oppress them [the enemies of their allies] to please their biases. They knew them to perpetrate the forbidden. They [the common people] knew it in their hearts [had intrinsic knowledge] that the one who does what they used to do is a Fasiq, and it is not acceptable to consider them truthful in what they attribute to Allah or to the intermediaries between the creation and Allah. That is why He censured them when they followed those they knew for a fact it was forbidden to accept their reports or consider them truthful in what they say, or to act based on what they instruct.
      وكذلك عوام امتنا إذا عرفوا من فقهائهم الفسق الظاهر ، والعصبية الشديدة والتكالب على حطام الدنيا وحرامها ، وإهلاك من يتعصبون عليه إن كان لاصلاح أمره مستحقا ، وبالترفق بالبر والاحسان على من تعصبوا له ، وإن كان للاذلال والاهانة مستحقا فمن قلّد من عوامنا مثل هؤلاء الفقهاء، فهم مثل اليهود الذين ذمّهم الله تعالى بالتقليد لفسقة فقهائهم
    Likewise, the laity of our community, if they recognize signs of clear-cut Fisq from their scholars, extreme partisanship, their turning towards amassing the wealth of this world and its prohibited items, destroying the affair of the one they are biased against even though extending assistance to him is what is appropriate,  showing compassion, good-will and charity to the one they are biased towards even thought humiliating and chastising them is the appropriate response - then the one among our common people who follows such Fuqaha are like the Jews and those who are censured by Allah the Elevated because of their following of corrupt scholars.
    فأما من كان من الفقهاء صائناً لنفسه، حافظاً لدينه، مخالفاً لهواه، مطيعاً لأمر مولاه، فللعوام أن يقلدوه. وذلك لا يكون إلاّ بعض فقهاء الشيعة، لا جميعهم فان من يركب من القبائح و الفواحش مراكب فسقة فقهاء العامّة فلا تقبلوا منهم عنا شيئاً و لا كرامة لهم.
    As for the one among the Fuqaha who protects his soul, preserves his religion, opposes his caprice [desires], and obeys the command of his Master then it is upon the laity to follow him. There are only some of the Fuqaha of the Shia who are like this, not all. As for those who perpetrate the despicable and abominable acts the way the `Amma [proto-Sunni] scholars do then do not not accept from them about us anything and they are not to be honoured.
  12. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from hasanhh in Reliable Narrations: Intellect and Knowledge   
  13. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from hasanhh in Reliable Narrations: Intellect and Knowledge   
    Aisha
  14. Like
    Islamic Salvation reacted to Abu Nur in Reliable Narration: Wilaya and Thaqalayn   
    I was reading and came to similar hadith that was narrated by Umar ibn al-Khattab. I don't know about authenticity of the hadith:

     
  15. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Abu Nur in Reliable Narrations: Intellect and Knowledge   
    A perfect equivalence in English for the Islamic conception of Aql is difficult to find.
    The narrations that speak of Aql, notwithstanding the ones with a mystical bent which treat it as a ‘being’ in some cosmological sense, all indicate that it is above mere intellect in the sense of cleverness. Aql does not just mean mere function of ratiocination. These narrations expect every possessor of Aql to follow the way of Allah (i.e. Islam) which is the logical thing to do i.e. the one who disobeys Allah then his Aql has not been perfected. 
    Perhaps a better word would be ‘consciousness’ with its evocation of self-awareness of who we are and what Allah wants from us. In this context, it is easy to understand why the merit of one who performs Salat for example, with an understanding of what it is and why he is doing it, will have a greater reward than the one who is doing it out of mere habit and without such an understanding.
    That verse has to do with lightening the burden for those who were keeping the night vigil prayer. It asks them to recite, as much of the Qur'an as they could without over-taxing themselves. It does not have to do with those deficient in Aql.
    The Pen has been lifted for those who are mentally retarded. Each soul will be judged according to its capacity.
  16. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Abu Nur in Reliable Narrations: Intellect and Knowledge   
    Wa Alaykum Salam. Jazakalla for your Dua. 
    After listing the five groups of people whom the mill-stone will grind, the Commander of the Faithful speaks of a City in which will be the hands of oath-breakers.
    You know that the prophet had predicted that Ali will have to fight three groups of people after him, including the Nakithin [oath-breakers]. This was realized in the Battle of Basra against Aisha, Talha and Zubayr [the last two having given him the pledge of allegiance and then reneged on it]. This tallies with the hands of these individuals being found in that city [because Bay'a is given by the hand].
    This being the case, I think the primary meaning of oath-breakers in the Hadith should be those individuals who make a pact with someone [especially the pledge of allegiance to a leader] and then break it treachery.
  17. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Panzerwaffe in Uthman b. Madh`un - The Righteous Predecessor   
    Indeed Khabbab b. Aratt is Madhlum despite being so early in Islam even before the prophet began preaching at Dar al-Arqam and was persecuted for it. He could well be the sixth person to enter into it.
  18. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Aquib Rizvi in Reliable Narration: Wilaya and Thaqalayn   
    W. Salam.
    I don't think that they are qualified to speak about Shi'i Hadith. They likely limited themselves to popular works of Hadith like al-Kafi [which have accessible gradings] and did not conduct an exhaustive search. 
    In any case, the Hadith in the OP is enough to disprove their claim, seeing as though it is a reliable version of Hadith al-Ghadir apart from the one they quote. Even if you do not accept the Wathaqa of Abu Tufayl and Hudhayfa b. Asid [the only controversial narrators in the chain], it does not matter one bit because Abu Ja`far عليه السلام confirms it, making it authentic by our standards.
     قال معروف بن خربوذ: فعرضت هذا الكلام على أبي جعفر عليه السلام فقال: صدق أبوالطفيل رحمه الله هذا الكلام وجدناه في كتاب علي عليه السلام وعرفناه
    Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh said: I relayed these words to Abi Ja`far عليه السلام so he said: Abu Tufayl has spoken the truth - may Allah have mercy on him - we have found this speech in the book of Ali and do recognize it.
    The chain to Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh is undisputed.
    On top of this, the purport of the Hadith comes in so many alternative reports that it can be claimed to be Mutawatir in meaning, at which point individual chains lose over-riding significance.
  19. Like
    Islamic Salvation reacted to The Straight Path in Reliable Narration: Wilaya and Thaqalayn   
    Thank you brother for the explanation!
  20. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Abu Nur in Reliable Narration: Wilaya and Thaqalayn   
    W. Salam.
    I don't think that they are qualified to speak about Shi'i Hadith. They likely limited themselves to popular works of Hadith like al-Kafi [which have accessible gradings] and did not conduct an exhaustive search. 
    In any case, the Hadith in the OP is enough to disprove their claim, seeing as though it is a reliable version of Hadith al-Ghadir apart from the one they quote. Even if you do not accept the Wathaqa of Abu Tufayl and Hudhayfa b. Asid [the only controversial narrators in the chain], it does not matter one bit because Abu Ja`far عليه السلام confirms it, making it authentic by our standards.
     قال معروف بن خربوذ: فعرضت هذا الكلام على أبي جعفر عليه السلام فقال: صدق أبوالطفيل رحمه الله هذا الكلام وجدناه في كتاب علي عليه السلام وعرفناه
    Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh said: I relayed these words to Abi Ja`far عليه السلام so he said: Abu Tufayl has spoken the truth - may Allah have mercy on him - we have found this speech in the book of Ali and do recognize it.
    The chain to Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh is undisputed.
    On top of this, the purport of the Hadith comes in so many alternative reports that it can be claimed to be Mutawatir in meaning, at which point individual chains lose over-riding significance.
  21. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from The Straight Path in Reliable Narration: Wilaya and Thaqalayn   
    W. Salam.
    I don't think that they are qualified to speak about Shi'i Hadith. They likely limited themselves to popular works of Hadith like al-Kafi [which have accessible gradings] and did not conduct an exhaustive search. 
    In any case, the Hadith in the OP is enough to disprove their claim, seeing as though it is a reliable version of Hadith al-Ghadir apart from the one they quote. Even if you do not accept the Wathaqa of Abu Tufayl and Hudhayfa b. Asid [the only controversial narrators in the chain], it does not matter one bit because Abu Ja`far عليه السلام confirms it, making it authentic by our standards.
     قال معروف بن خربوذ: فعرضت هذا الكلام على أبي جعفر عليه السلام فقال: صدق أبوالطفيل رحمه الله هذا الكلام وجدناه في كتاب علي عليه السلام وعرفناه
    Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh said: I relayed these words to Abi Ja`far عليه السلام so he said: Abu Tufayl has spoken the truth - may Allah have mercy on him - we have found this speech in the book of Ali and do recognize it.
    The chain to Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh is undisputed.
    On top of this, the purport of the Hadith comes in so many alternative reports that it can be claimed to be Mutawatir in meaning, at which point individual chains lose over-riding significance.
  22. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Qa'im in Reliable Narration: Wilaya and Thaqalayn   
    W. Salam.
    I don't think that they are qualified to speak about Shi'i Hadith. They likely limited themselves to popular works of Hadith like al-Kafi [which have accessible gradings] and did not conduct an exhaustive search. 
    In any case, the Hadith in the OP is enough to disprove their claim, seeing as though it is a reliable version of Hadith al-Ghadir apart from the one they quote. Even if you do not accept the Wathaqa of Abu Tufayl and Hudhayfa b. Asid [the only controversial narrators in the chain], it does not matter one bit because Abu Ja`far عليه السلام confirms it, making it authentic by our standards.
     قال معروف بن خربوذ: فعرضت هذا الكلام على أبي جعفر عليه السلام فقال: صدق أبوالطفيل رحمه الله هذا الكلام وجدناه في كتاب علي عليه السلام وعرفناه
    Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh said: I relayed these words to Abi Ja`far عليه السلام so he said: Abu Tufayl has spoken the truth - may Allah have mercy on him - we have found this speech in the book of Ali and do recognize it.
    The chain to Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh is undisputed.
    On top of this, the purport of the Hadith comes in so many alternative reports that it can be claimed to be Mutawatir in meaning, at which point individual chains lose over-riding significance.
  23. Like
    Islamic Salvation reacted to Panzerwaffe in Spread by the Sword?   
    Most like 80  to 90 % of imam Ali's famous followers participated in these offensive wars as well
  24. Like
    Islamic Salvation reacted to Aquib Rizvi in Reliable Narration: Wilaya and Thaqalayn   
    Wa aleykumsalaam,
    Brother there is one more chain in the last part of the hadeeth, where Ma`ruf b. Kharrabudh narrates from Abi Ja`far (as). And he (as) attested that hadeeth narrated by Abu Tufayl is correct, this is very strong chain.
    Here are some scholar's comment on hadeeth authenticity.
    Sayyed al-Khoei said “Some chains of this ḥādīth are Ṣaḥīḥ” in his Mu’jam Rijal Al-Hadith, Vol. 10 Pg. 222-223. Shaykh Āṣif Muhsini said ḥādīth has “Mu’tabar Sanad” in his Mashra‘at Behar al-Anwaar, Vol 2, Pg 97. Shaykh Mohammad Mumin Al-Qummi said ḥādīth has "Mu'tabar Sanad" in his Al-Wilayah Al-Ilahiyya Al-Islamiyya, Pg 80. Shaykh Hasan Abdullah `Alī Al-Ajmi said ḥādīth is "Ṣaḥīḥ" in his Ar-Radd An-Nafees, Vol 1, Pg 176.
  25. Like
    Islamic Salvation got a reaction from Don'tMakeAس in Did the Sahaba become Kafir?   
    This is a reliable chain for it.
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