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In the Name of God بسم الله

Islamic Salvation

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  1. Six are cursed by me, and cursed by Allah, and every prophet that was: The one who adds to the book of Allah, the one who denies the Qadr of Allah, the one who rules (dominates) by brute force (tyranny) to honour the one disgraced by Allah and disgrace the one honoured by Allah, the one who deems permissible that which are forbidden by Allah, the one who deems permissible towards my descendants what is forbidden by Allah, the one who abandons my Sunna. Seven have been cursed by me, and every prophet whose supplication is answered. The one who adds to the book of Allah. The One who denies the Qadr of Allah. The One who deems permissible the forbidden of Allah, the one who deems permissible towards my descendants what has been forbidden by Allah, the one who abandons my Sunna, and the one who appropriates the booty, and the one who is tyrannical in power to honour the one disgraced by Allah and to disgrace the one honoured by Allah.
  2. This narration is also found in Sunni sources like Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Mu'jam al-Kabir of al-Tabarani, Mustadrak of al-Hakim and has been deemed Hasan by many of their scholars. سنن الترمذي (ج4 / ص26) : 2154- حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَبِي الْمَوَالِي الْمُزَنِيُّ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ مَوْهَبٍ، عَنْ عَمْرَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: سِتَّةٌ لَعَنْتُهُمْ وَلَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَكُلُّ نَبِيٍّ كَانَ: الزَّائِدُ فِي كِتَابِ اللهِ، وَالمُكَذِّبُ بِقَدَرِ اللهِ، وَالمُتَسَلِّطُ بِالجَبَرُوتِ لِيُعِزَّ بِذَلِكَ مَنْ أَذَلَّ اللَّهُ، وَيُذِلَّ مَنْ أَعَزَّ اللَّهُ، وَالمُسْتَحِلُّ لِحُرُمِ اللهِ، وَالمُسْتَحِلُّ مِنْ عِتْرَتِي مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ، وَالتَّارِكُ لِسُنَّتِي المعجم الكبير للطبراني (ج17 / ص43) : 89 – حدثنا أحمد بن رشدين المصري، ثنا أبو صالح الحراني، ثنا ابن لهيعة، عن عياش بن عباس العتباني، عن أبي معشر الحميري، عن عمرو بن سعواء اليافعي قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: سبعة لعنتهم، وكل نبي مجاب، الزائد في كتاب الله، والمكذب بقدر الله، والمستحل حرمة الله، والمستحل من عترتي ما حرم الله، والتارك لسنتي، والمستأثر بالفيء، والمتجبر بسلطانه ليعز من أذل الله ويذل من أعز الله al-Manawi comments: المناوي في التيسير بشرح الجامع الصغير (ج2 / ص56) : (والمستحل من عِتْرَتِي) أَي قَرَابَتي (مَا حرم الله) يَعْنِي من فعل بأقاربي مَا لَا يجوز فعله من إيذائهم أَو ترك تعظيمهم فَإِن اعْتقد حلّه فكافر وَإِلَّا فمذنب وخصهما باللعن لتأكد حق الْحرم والعترة وَعظم قدرهما بإضافتهما إِلَى الله وَإِلَى رَسُوله The one who does to my relations that which is not allowed to do, like annoying them, or not honoring them, so if he (the doer) deems that (what he has done to be) permissible (in the religion) then he is a Kafir, and if not (the doer does not deem it permissible in the religion) then he is a sinner. They have been singled out for curse to emphasize the rights of the Haram (sanctuary) and the Itra, and to magnify their status by attributing one (the Haram) to God and the other (Itra) to His Messenger. Abu Sai'd al-Khadimi al-Hanafi adds: أبو سعيد الخادمى الحنفي في بريقة محمودية في شرح طريقة محمدية (ج1 / ص84) : وقيل يدخل فيه القاذف لهم والشاتم والذي ظن بهم سوءا أو اغتابهم أو ظلمهم وغيرها فإثمه أبلغ من إثم من فعل بغيرهم حيث تأذى رسول الله – صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم – بأذاهم ولأن أهل بيته مرجع الحلال والحرام وأكثر الأحكام إنما تعرف من قبلهم It is said that this also includes the one who gives false witness about them, accuses them wrongly, thinks bad about them, back-bites them, oppresses them, and others like this. Its sin is greater than the sin of doing this to other than them, for the Messenger of Allah صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم is hurt because of their hurting, and also because the Ahl al-Bayt are the references for the Halal and the Haram and most of the Ahkam can be known through them. I would add the following: It naturally also encompasses disposing them of their rightful station as the ones who should possess authority after the prophet. There is also another potential Faida in this narration that all the past prophets knew about the Ahl al-Bayt of the Last prophet.
  3. Wa alaykum salam brother. I believe the historical setting of this narration and others like it (See 4/392) was the controversy surrounding the early Qadariyya theological school who believed in absolute free will for humans in opposition to the predestinarians. Qadr does appear in narrations with the meaning you suggest, but there was no Muslim group who denied that Allah "apportions" or "measures and distributes" Rizq etc. You will note the harsh language marshalled by the Aimma against them.
  4. كتاب المعارف The Book of General Knowledge 5.1. The Reasons Behind God’s Actions https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-general-knowledge/the-reasons-behind-gods-actions [390/1] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس بن عبدالرحمن، عن أبان، عن أبي بصير قال: قلت لابي عبد الله عليه السلام: شاء وأراد وقدر وقضى؟ قال: نعم، قلت: وأحب؟ قال: لا، قلت: وكيف شاء وأراد وقضى ولم يحب؟ قال: هكذا خرج إلينا [1/390] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman from Aban from Abi Basir who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: He (i.e. Allah) Willed (Mashia) and Intended (Irada) and Apportioned (Qadr) and Decreed (Qadha)? He (the Imam) said: Yes. I (Abi Basir) said: He Liked (it to happen)? He (the Imam) said: No. I said: How did He Will, Intend, Apportion and Decree and not Like? He said: This is how it came out to us. NOTES: The Imam limits himself to citing revelationary authority (Naqli), attributing the answer to what has come down to them from the prophet and his forefathers (the ‘Aimma), and avoids giving an intellectual answer (Aqli) based on his doubts about the capability of the narrator to understand the subtle nature of it. The creation of Human is an act of Allah, and all that a human goes on to act has a link to the ultimate cause which is Allah. There is for every human act the Mashia, Irada, Qadr and Qadha of Allah, but this does not mean that Allah compels that act or likes and approves it, for he has given free-will to a human who is a semi-independent agent. This is against the Jabriyya (believers in total pre-destination) who assert that all human acts are directly created by Allah and therefore approved by Him, even if it be sinful. In other words, the Irada of Allah to an act which He does not approve of is in His allowing Irada to a Slave to act in a way which he wants, even if the result is something that is reprehensible to Allah. This does not contradict with Allah being the only source of pure ‘good’ in his un-intermediated acts or only approving of ‘good’. [-/2] معاني الاخبار: أبي، عن سعد، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن أبيه، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن شعيب، عن أبي بصير قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: شاء وأراد، ولم يحب ولم يرض قلت: كيف؟ قال: شاء أن لا يكون شئ إلا بعلمه، وأراد مثل ذلك، ولم يحب أن يقال له: ثالث ثلاثة، ولم يرض لعباده الكفر [2/-] Ma’ani al-Akhbar: My father from Sa’d from Ahmad b. Muhammad from his father from Hammad b. Isa from Shuayb from Abi Basir who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: He (i.e. Allah) Willed (Mashia) and Intended (Irada) and did not Like and did not Approve. I said: How? He said: He Willed that there be nothing except with His knowledge, and Intended the same, He did not Like that it be said of Him ‘a third of the three’ and did not Approve for His slaves disbelief. NOTES: All these are allusions to verses from the Qur’an. The Imam is citing them together to indicate that there is no contradiction between them. We know that there exist those who believe that Allah is ‘a third of the three’ (are Trinitarians) even though Allah does not Like it. We also know that there are those who disbelieve even though Allah does not Approve of it. All this happens with the Knowledge of Allah and ultimately His allowance of it happen. But this knowledge of Allah about a human act is not the cause behind the act. In other words, Allah’s Mashia and Irada behind all acts do not contradict with His Displeasure and Disapproval over some human acts. As Allama Tabatabai explains (See his marginal notes to Bihar al-Anwar): Intention can be divided into two. One is a creative one that alters external reality i.e. translates into action. The other is a legislative one like prohibiting or commanding something. This latter will not translate into action unless the one commanded or prohibited has the Creative Intention to follow through. These two types of Intentions can co-exist in the same entity. Take the example of a habitual sinner who may prohibit himself from doing the sinful act by his tongue but still go on to do the same act since he is compelled by his lowly character which has taken hold of him. So he does not want to act out the sin by his Legislative Intention but wishes to act out the sin by his Creative Intention, and nothing occurs except that which is consistent with his Creative Intention. Thus we see that the two Intentions can oppose one another, and this stems from the fact that they are without correlation i.e. are non-causal (do not cause one another). Allah’s Creative Intention has to do with something in so far as it exists, and there is no existent except that it has a link with Him because of its Existence - in the way that befits His Exalted Status, on the other hand, His Legislative Intention has to do with an act in so far as it is ‘good’ and ‘righteous’ not ‘ugly’ and ‘corruptive’, so if an act that has occurred is proven to be reprehensible then it is attributed to Him in so far as there is a Creative Intention in one aspect, and If He had not Intended it then it would not exist, but it is not attributed to Him in terms of Legislative Intention, for Allah does not order the sins. [391/3] عقاب الاعمال: العطار، عن سعد، عن ابن عيسى، عن الاهوازي، عن صفوان، عن علي بن أبي حمزة، عن أبيه، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: يحشر المكذبون بقدر الله من قبورهم قد مسخوا قردة وخنازير [3/391] Iqab al-A’mal: al-Attar from Sa’d from Ibn Isa from al-Ahwazi from Safwan from Ali b. Abi Hamza from his father from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: The deniers of the Qadar of Allah (His power over human acts) will be resurrected from their graves having been transformed into monkeys and pigs. [392/4] عقاب الاعمال: ابن المتوكل، عن الحميري، عن ابن أبي الخطاب، عن ابن محبوب، عن هشام بن سالم، عن زرارة ومحمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: نزلت هذه الآية في القدرية: ذُوقُوا مَسَّ سَقَرَ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ [4/392] Iqab al-A’mal: Ibn al-Mutawakkil from al-Himyari from Ibn Abi al-Khattab from Ibn Mahbub from Hisham b. Salim from Zurara and Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: This verse was revealed about the Qadariyya: “Taste the touch of Saqqar! Verily everything have we created by Qadar” (54:48-49) . NOTES: The invective in [3/391] and [4/392] above are directed at the Qadariyya. This was an early theological school in Islam that believed in absolute free-will for humans and denied any role for Allah in bringing it about. The true position of the school of Ahl al-Bayt is the so-called ‘position between the true extremes’ which denies both total pre-determinism and absolute free-will. [393/5] التوحيد: أبي، عن سعد، عن ابن أبي الخطاب، عن جعفر بن بشير، عن العرزمي، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: كان لعلي عليه السلام غلام اسمه قنبر، وكان يحب عليا عليه السلام حبا شديدا، فإذا خرج علي عليه السلام خرج على أثره بالسيف، فرآه ذات ليلة فقال: يا قنبر مالك؟ قال: جئت لامشي خلفك فإن الناس كما تراهم يا أمير المومنين فخفت عليك! قال: ويحك أمن أهل السماء تحرسني أم من أهل الارض؟ قال: لا بل من أهل الارض، قال: إن أهل الارض لا يستطيعون بي شيئا إلا بإذن الله عزوجل من السماء، فارجع فرجع [5/393] al-Tawhid: My father from Sa’d from Ibn Abi al-Khattab from Ja’far b. Bashir from al-Urzumi from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: Ali عليه السلام had a servant called Qanbar who used to love Aliعليه السلام very much. So when Ali عليه السلام used to come out he used to come out on his trail with a sword. He (Ali) saw him one night and said: O Qanbar what are you up to? He said: I came to walk behind you, for the people are as you see them O Commander of the Faithful (in enmity to you), and I feared for you! He said: Woe on you! Are you guarding me (keeping watch on me) from the inmates of Heaven or from the people of the Earth? He said: No, rather from the people of Earth. He said: The people of the Earth cannot do anything to me except by the permission of Allah Mighty and Majestic from Heaven - So go back. And he returned. [394/6] العيون: عن امير المؤمنين عليه السلام في جواب من سأله عن مسيرهم الى الصفين أنه بقضاء من الله وقدره؟ فقال امير المؤمنين عليه السلام: أجل يا شيخ فوالله ما علوتم تلعة ولا هبطتم بطن واد إلا بقضاء من الله وقدر فقال الشيخ: عند الله أحتسب عنائي يا أمير المؤمنين، فقال: مهلا يا شيخ لعلك تظن قضاءا حتما وقدرا لازما، لو كان كذلك لبطل الثواب والعقاب، والامر والنهي والزجر، ولسقط معنى الوعد والوعيد، ولم تكن على مسئ لائمة، ولا لمحسن محمدة، ولكان المحسن أولى باللائمة من المذنب، والمذنب أولى بالاحسان من المحسن، تلك مقالة عبدة الاوثان و خصماء الرحمن، وقدرية هذه الامة ومجوسها، يا شيخ إن الله عزوجل كلف تخييرا، ونهى تحذيرا، وأعطى على القليل كثيرا، ولم يعص مغلوبا، ولم يطع مكرها، ولم يخلق السماوات والارض وما بينهما باطلا ذَٰلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ [6/394] al-Uyun: On the authority of the Commander of the Faithful عليه السلام in answer to the man who asked him whether their marching to Siffin was by the Decree of Allah (Qadha) and His Destiny (Qadr)? The Commander of the Faithful عليه السلام said: Yes O Shaykh, for by Allah you have not climbed a hill or descended a valley except by the Decree (Qadha) from Allah and His Destiny (Qadr)! The Shaykh said: From Allah do I expect (recompense) for my efforts (by his favour). He (the Imam) said: Just a moment O Shaykh, perhaps you thought that it is a Final Decree and an Inevitable Destiny. If it were that then the Reward and the Punishment, the Commandment, the Prohibition and the Threat would be void, and the meaning of Promise and Warning would be invalidated. And there would not be on a sinner any blame, nor any merit for the good-doer, and the good-doer would be more deserving of blame than the sinner, and the sinner would be more deserving of merit than the good-doer, this is the assertion of the worshippers of idols, and the opponents of the All-Merciful, and the Qadariyya of this Nation (Umma) and its Magians. O Shaykh, verily Allah Mighty and Majestic imposed by giving choice, and prohibited as a precaution, and gave for less (deeds) more (rewards), and He was not disobeyed by being vanquished, and He was not obeyed by compulsion, and He did not create the heavens and the earth and what is between them in vain, “that is the supposition of those who disbelieved, so woe be upon those who disbelieved - because of the Fire” (38:27). NOTES: Al-Muhsini accepts this report’s reliability because it has multiple chains which in their totality may lead to confidence. The report has important variants in some Sunni books. I combine the two from the Ibana of Ibn Butta and Ta’rikh Dimashq of Ibn Asakir (See also Nahj al-Balagha Saying No. 76) to get the most suitable flow. After the Imam had answered in the affirmative i.e. every act is by the Qadha and Qadr of Allah: قال الشيخ: عند الله أحتسب عنائي وإليه أشكو خيبة رجائي ما أجد لي من الأجر شيئا! قال: ولما؟ قد أعظم الله لكم الأجر على مسيركم وأنتم سائرون وعلى مقامكم وأنتم مقيمون وما وضعتم قدما ولا رفعتم أخرى إلا وقد كتب الله لكم أجرا عظيما The Shaykh said: From Allah do I expect (recompense) for my efforts (by his favour) and to Him do I complain the disappointment of my hopes, for I do not see that I have of reward anything! He (the Imam) said: And why is that? Allah has magnified for you your reward for your marching when you were marching, and for your setting camp when you were setting camp, and you did not place one foot nor raise another except that Allah has written for you a great reward. قال الشيخ: كيف يا أمير المؤمنين والقضاء والقدر ساقانا اليها؟ The Shaykh said: How is that O Commander of the Faithful when it is the Qadha and Qadr that pushed us to it? قال: ويحك لعلك ظننته قضاءً لازماً وقدراً حاتما ... He said: Woe be upon you! Perhaps you thought that it is a Final Decree and an Inevitable Destiny … [Then when the Imam had explained the truth of the matter to him, the Shaykh stood and composed a poem which begins with the following lines] أنت الامام الذى نرجو بطاعته * يوم النشور من الرحمن غفرانا أوضحت من ديننا ما كان ملتبسا * جزاك ربك عنا فيه إحسانا You are the Imam by whose obedience we hope * for forgiveness from the All-Merciful on the Day of Resurrection You have enlightened what was confusing in our religion * May your Lord recompense you on our behalf with good Commentary: The belief that Allah has predestined all human acts makes a mockery of Allah rewarding the good-doer and punishing the sinner, since both do not posess any agency. There would also be no need or meaning to sending the prophets to Command good and Prohibit evil, for the fate of every individual has been sealed and a human has no possibility for changing. The origin of belief in predestination lay in the fact that Muslims who ascribed infinite power to Allah could not square this with the reality that humans could disobey or act against such a Powerful Lord, thus the Imam makes clear that Allah is not vanquished when He is disobeyed (He granted humans a measure of free-will) in order to test them - which is the purpose of life (He did not create the heavens and the earth and what is between them in vain). [395/7] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الوشاء، عن عبدالله بن سنان، عن أبي حمزة، عن سعيد بن قيس الهمداني قال: نظرت يوما في الحرب إلى رجل عليه ثوبان فحركت فرسي فإذا هو أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام فقلت: يا أمير المؤمنين في مثل هذا الموضع؟ فقال: نعم ياسعيد بن قيس إنه ليس من عبد إلا وله من الله حافظ وواقية معه ملكان يحفظانه من أن يسقط من رأس جبل أو يقع في بئر، فإذا نزل القضاء خليا بينه وبين كل شئ [7/395] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Washsha from Abdallah b. Sinan from Abi Hamza from Sa’id b. Qays al-Hamdani who said: I happened to glance one day at a man in the midst of war who had only two pieces of cloth on him (not wearing armour). I quickened my horse (to ride to him) only to find that it was the Commander of the Faithful عليه السلام. I said: O Commander of the Faithful - in a place like this (without armour)!? He said: Yes O Sa’id b. Qays, there is no slave except that he has from Allah a protection and shield, with him are two angels who protect him from falling from the summit of a mountain or dropping into a well, so when the Decree descends they vacate between him and everything (allow him to face it himself).
  5. That is the end of كتاب التوحيد (Book of Divine Unity) --- Next is كتاب المعارف (Book of General Knowledge)
  6. God’s Names https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-divine-unity/gods-names [1/387] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن القاسم بن يحيى، عن جده الحسن بن راشد، عن عبدالله بن سنان قال: سألت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن تفسير [1/387] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid from al-Qasim b. Yahya from his grandfather al-Hasan b. Rashid from Abdallah b. Sinan who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the interpretation of Bismillahi-r-Rahmani-r-Rahim. He said: The Ba is the Baha (Splendor) of Allah, the Sin is the Sana (Exaltedness) of Allah, and the Mim is the Majd (Magnificence) of Allah. [2/388] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سأل أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن أسماء الله واشتقاقها: الله مما هو مشتق؟ قال: فقال لي: يا هشام الله مشتق من إله والاله يقتضي مألوها والاسم غير المسمى، فمن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر ولم يعبد شيئا، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد كفر وعبد اثنين، ومن عبد المعنى دون الاسم فذاك التوحيد أفهمت يا هشام؟ قال: فقلت: زدني قال: إن لله تسعة وتسعين اسما فلو كان الاسم هو المسمى لكان كل اسم منها إلها ولكن الله معنى يدل عليه بهذه الاسماء وكلها غيره، يا هشام الخبز اسم للمأكول والماء اسم للمشروب والثوب اسم للملبوس والنار اسم للمحرق أفهمت يا هشام فهما تدفع به وتناضل به أعداءنا والمتخذين مع الله عزوجل غيره؟ قلت: نعم، قال: فقال: نفعك الله به وثبتك يا هشام، قال هشام فوالله ما قهرني أحد في التوحيد حتى قمت مقامي هذا [2/388] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from al-Nadhr b. Suwayd from Hisham b. al-Hakam - that he asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the names of Allah and their derivation saying: What is Allah derived from? He (Hisham) said: So he (the Imam) said to me: O Hisham, ‘Allah’ is derived from ‘ilah’ and ‘al-ilah’ connotes the one who is worshipped. The name is other than the named. Whoever worships the name without the meaning then he has disbelieved and has not worshipped anything. Whoever worships the name and the meaning then he has disbelieved and worshipped two (distinct things). Whoever worships the meaning without the name then that is Tawhid. Have you understood O Hisham? He (Hisham) said: I said: increase for me. He said: Allah has ninety nine names, if the name was identical to what is named then every name among these (ninety-nine) would be a god, rather Allah is a meaning to which these names allude to, and each one of them is other than him. O Hisham, ‘bread’ is a name for what is eaten, ‘water’ is a name for what is drunk, ‘clothes’ is a name for what is worn, ‘fire’ is a name for what burns. Have you understood Hisham? an understanding through which you can repel and defeat our enemies and those who betake others apart from Allah Mighty and Majestic (alone). I said: Yes. He said: May Allah benefit you by it and make you firm O Hisham. Hisham said: By Allah no one has defeated me on the subject of Tawhid to this day when I stand in the position I do. [3/389] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد البرقي، عن القاسم بن يحيى، عن جده الحسن بن راشد، عن أبي الحسن موسى بن جعفر عليه السلام قال: سئل عن معنى الله فقال: استولى على ما دق وجل [3/389] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Barqi from al-Qasim b. Yahya from his grandfather al-Hasan b. Rashid from Abi al-Hasan Musa b. Ja’far عليه السلام. He (al-Hasan) said: He (the Imam) was asked about the meaning of Allah so he said: The one who rules over what is lowly and great. NOTES: There is no etymological connection between the word Allah and ‘rule’, thus it has been proposed that the Imam is not giving a linguistic meaning but defining a word by its logical preconditions i.e. God must rule. However, a more credible variant of this report is narrated by al-Barqi in al-Mahasin as follows: القاسم بن يحيى، عن جده الحسن، عن أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام وسئل عن معنى قول الله: عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَى فقال: استولى على ما دق وجل al-Qasim b. Yahya from his grandfather al-Hasan from Abi al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام and he (the Imam) had been asked about the meaning of the words of Allah: “upon the Throne Istawa” (20:5). He said: He rules over the small and big. This latter report would mean that the Imam was interpreting Istiwa (lit. rise over or ascend) as Istawla (rule over, have dominion over) and the Arsh would be all that which is created be it small or big. [-/4] التوحيد: الهمداني، عن علي، عن أبيه، عن الهروي، عن علي بن موسى الرضا، عن أبيه، عن آبائه، عن علي عليهم السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله: إن لله عزوجل تسعة و تسعين اسما، من دعا الله بها استجاب له، ومن أحصاها دخل الجنة [4/-] al-Tawhid: al-Hamdani from Ali from his father from al-Harawi from Ali b. Musa al-Ridha from his father from his forefathers from Ali عليهم السلام who said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله said: Allah Mighty and Majestic has ninety-nine names. Whoever asks Allah through them is answered. Whoever enumerates them enters paradise.
  7. You can use this link brother https://www.iqraonline.net/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Book-of-Intellect-and-Knowledge-Mujam-1.1.pdf
  8. 4.10. God’s Limitlessness https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-divine-unity/gods-limitlessness [1/386] الكافي: محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن ابن ابي عمير، عن إبراهيم ابن عبدالحميد، عن ابي حمزة قال: قال لي علي بن الحسين عليهما السلام: يا أبا حمزة إن الله لا يوصف بمحدودية، عظم ربنا عن الصفة فكيف يوصف بمحدودية من لا يحد ولَّا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ؟ [1/386] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibrahim b. Abd al-Hamid from Abi Hamza who said: Ali b. al-Husayn عليهما السلام said to me: O Aba Hamza - Verily Allah is not described with finiteness. Our Lord is above description so how can He be described with finiteness one who cannot be limited and (one whom) “eye-sight cannot overtake Him while He overtakes the eye-sights and He is the Subtle, the Aware” (6:103)? NOTES: The Imam is making a logical argument. Allah is infinite. What follows from this is that He is above human description. This is because any human description of Allah would inherently be finite being as it is the product of the finite human mind which is deficient. The very act of describing something involves limiting it in some way. To mentally form a picture of something necessarily introduces bounds (e.g. our though patterns are corporeal). [-/2] الكافي: محمد بن اسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن ربعي ابن عبدالله، عن الفضيل بن يسار قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: إن الله لا يوصف، وكيف يوصف وقد قال في كتابه: وَمَا قَدَرُوا اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ فلا يوصف بقدر إلا كان أعظم من ذلك [2/-] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Hammad b. Isa from Rib’i b. Abdallah from al-Fudhayl b. Yasar who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: Allah Mighty and Majestic cannot be described (as He truly is). And how can He be described when He says in His book: “they have not estimated Allah His true estimate” (39:67)? Thus He is not described with an estimate except that He is greater than that.
  9. As you said, in second part it covers both male and female, but in order to reconcile with first part it most likely refers back to female.
  10. You are right, but جارية in the Hadith can only refer to female
  11. It depends on how one reads لا بد (trans: 'has no option but' ...) This makes house and servant as necessities, but in what sense, since we know that life can go on without them, probably means - this is the basic standard of comfortable life. You are right in that this would be placing service of a servant (primarily of a sexual nature) and a house on the same level.
  12. It was a necessity because she provided sexual services which can keep someone from sin. However, the Imam is trying to set the basic limit of a decent life which should not be sacrificed in repayment of debt. Unless otherwise someone can even sell off the house and put up elsewhere or on the street. But that does not need happen.
  13. The translation of Sarwar (which fourshiabooks.com makes use of) suffers from many mistakes sometimes distorting the meaning completely. I would discourage using it wholesale. عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ الْبَخْتَرِيِّ قَالَ أَبْطَأْتُ عَنِ الْحَجِّ فَقَالَ لِي أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع مَا أَبْطَأَ بِكَ عَنِ الْحَجِّ فَقُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ تَكَفَّلْتُ بِرَجُلٍ فَخَفَرَ بِي فَقَالَ مَا لَكَ وَ الْكَفَالاتِ أَمَا عَلِمْتَ أَنَّهَا أَهْلَكَتِ الْقُرُونَ الْأُولَى ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ قَوْماً أَذْنَبُوا ذُنُوباً كَثِيرَةً فَأَشْفَقُوا مِنْهَا وَ خَافُوا خَوْفاً شَدِيداً وَ جَاءَ آخَرُونَ فَقَالُوا ذُنُوبُكُمْ عَلَيْنَا فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعَذَابَ ثُمَّ قَالَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى خَافُونِي وَ اجْتَرَأْتُمْ عَلَيَّ Hafs b. al-Bakhtari said: I was delayed from making the Hajj so Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: What delayed you from the Hajj? I said: May I be made your ransom, I served as guarantor for a man (who was owed money) but he betrayed me. He said: What do you have to do with Kafala ('guarantor-ship')?! Don't you know that it is what destroyed the earlier generations. Then he said: A people sinned a lot of sins then they were terrified because of them and became very fearful (due to them), then another people came and said: Your sins are on us, so Allah Mighty and Majestic brought down upon them (the second people) the punishment. Then He Blessed and Elevated said: They (the first people) were afraid of me while you (the second people) were daring with me! The Kafala system described here is one wherein the guarantor would pledge himself as security for the debtor. If it happens that the debtor disappears then he comes under the custody of the one who lent the money (to whom the money belongs) and is arrested until the money is repayed or the guarantor pays it himself. There is some evidence of the Karahiyya (dislike) of this because it puts the life and freedom of someone under peril. Better systems of debt recovery have been encouraged in the Sharia Otherwise, the general rule of helping out the believer in trouble is highly emphasized, such that there are few actions with more reward.
  14. al-Sadiq (as): A house and a female slave are not sold in recouping a debt, and that is because a man must have a shelter in which to live in and a servant to serve him. --> A creditor should not force a man who has defaulted in repaying his debt to sell off his house or servant to pay back the loan because both are considered necessities of life and not extras.
  15. 4.9. Innate Knowledge and the World of Particles https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-divine-unity/innate-knowledge-and-the-world-of-particles Introduction The Fitra is that Primordial Nature in the mould of which Allah created humans. Most narrations (see below) have the Imams defining this Fitra to be Tawhid (an innate acknowledgement of the Oneness of God) or Ma’rifa (predisposition to Recognize God) inclining one to a natural state of Islam (submission to God). This was established at the Mithaq (covenant) in a pre-earthly A’lam al-Dharr (World of particles). Modern science seems to back this notion in statistical studies conducted about new-born babies and their untaught belief in God. There are also other human universals like mother’s love towards her children, affinity to sweets, beauty, desire for perfection etc. [1/379] معاني الاخبار: أبي، عن علي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن اذينة، عن زرارة قال: سألت أبا جعفر عليه السلام عن قول الله عزوجل حُنَفَاءَ لِلَّهِ غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِينَ بِهِ فقلت: ما الحنيفية؟ قال: هي الفطرة [1/379] Ma’ani al-Akhbar: My father from Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Zurara who said: I asked Aba Ja’far عليه السلام about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “Hunafa for Allah, not associating with Him (anything)” (22:31). I said: What is the Hanifiyya? He said: The Fitra. NOTES: The Hanifiyya is the natural religion (instinct). When it is said that Ibrahim was not a Jew or a Christian but a Hanif, it means someone who was upon the original (pristine) state of submission to God i.e. in harmony with the Fitra. [2/380] التوحيد: ابن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن ابن هاشم، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قلت: فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا قال: التوحيد [2/380] al-Tawhid: Ibn al-Walid from al-Saffar from Ibn Hashim from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. Salim from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام. He (Hisham) said: I said: “The Fitra of Allah which He created the people upon” (30:30)? He (the Imam) said: (that is) Tawhid. [3/381] التوحيد: ابن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن ابن هاشم وابن يزيد معا، عن ابن فضال، عن ابن بكير، عن زرارة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في قول الله عزوجل فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا قال: فطرهم على التوحيد [3/381] al-Tawhid: Ibn al-Walid from al-Saffar from Ibn Hashim and Ibn Yazid from Ibn Fadhal from Ibn Bukayr from Zurara from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “The Fitra of Allah which He created the people upon” (30:30). He said: He created them upon Tawhid. [-/4] الكافي: على بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن إسماعيل الجعفي، عن أبى جعفر عليه السلام قال: كانت شريعة نوح عليه السلام أن يعبد الله بالتوحيد والإخلاص وخلع الأنداد وهي الفطرة التي فطر الناس عليها ... [4/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr from Aban b. Uthman from Ismail al-Ju’fi from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: The Sharia (Law-code) of Nuh عليه السلام was that Allah be worshipped by Tawhid and Ikhlas (sincerity) and to shun the idols - and it is the Fitra which He created the people upon … [5/382] التوحيد: ابن المتوكل، عن علي بن إبراهيم، عن اليقطيني، عن يونس، عن عبد الله بن سنان، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سألته عن قول الله عزوجل فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا ما تلك الفطرة؟ قال: هي الاسلام فطرهم الله حين أخذ ميثاقهم على التوحيد فقال أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ وفيهم المؤمن والكافر [5/382] al-Tawhid: Ibn al-Mutawakkil from Ali b. Ibrahim from al-Yaqtini from Yunus from Abdallah b. Sinan from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام. He (Abdallah) said: I asked him about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “The Fitra of Allah which He created the people upon” (30:30) - what is that Fitra? He said: It is Islam (submission). Allah created them (upon it) when He took their Covenant upon Tawhid - He said: “Am I not your Lord?” (7:172), and among them were believers and disbelievers. NOTES: This narration defines Fitra as Islam which must be interpreted literally to mean a state of submission to God, since it is clear that the revealed Islam (with a capital I) in all its depth is not something that is accessible to humans from birth. [6/383] التوحيد: أبي، عن سعد، عن أحمد وعبد الله ابني محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن محبوب، عن ابن رئاب، عن زرارة قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عزوجل فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا قال: فطرهم جميعا على التوحيد [6/383] al-Tawhid: My father from Sa’d from Ahmad and Abdallah the two sons of Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Mahbub from Ibn Riab from Zurara who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “The Fitra of Allah which He created the people upon” (30:30). He said: He created them all upon Tawhid. [7/384] التوحيد: أبي، عن سعد، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابيه، عن ابن المغيرة، عن ابن مسكان، عن زرارة قال: قلت لابي جعفر عليه السلام: أصلحك الله قول الله عزوجل في كتابه فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا قال: فطرهم على التوحيد عند الميثاق على معرفته أنه ربهم قلت: وخاطبوه؟ قال: فطأطأ رأسه ثم قال: لولا ذلك لم يعلموا من ربهم ولا من رازقهم [7/384] al-Tawhid: My father from Sa’d from Ahmad b. Muhammad from his father from Ibn al-Mughira from Ibn Muskan from Zurara who said: I said to Abi Ja’far عليه السلام: May Allah set you aright, the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic in His book: “The Fitra of Allah which He created the people upon” (30:30)? He (the Imam) said: He created them upon Tawhid, at the Covenant, upon His Ma’rifa (Recognition) that He is their Lord. I said: Did they address Him? He (Zurara) said: so he (the Imam) lowered his head and then said: If it were not for that they would not know who their Lord is nor who their Sustainer is. [8/385] التوحيد: أبي، عن سعد، عن ابن هاشم وابن أبي الخطاب وابن يزيد جميعا، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن اذينة، عن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سألته عن قول الله عزوجل حُنَفَاءَ لِلَّهِ غَيْرَ مُشْرِكِينَ بِهِ وعن الحنيفية فقال: هي الفطرة التي فطر الناس عليها، لا تبديل لخلق الله، قال: فطرهم الله على المعرفة قال زرارة: وسألته عن قول الله وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ الآية قال: أخرج من ظهر آدم ذريته إلى يوم القيامة فخرجوا كالذر فعرفهم وأراهم صنعه و لولا ذلك لم يعرف أحد ربه وقال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: كل مولود يولد على الفطرة، يعني على المعرفة بأن الله عزوجل خالقه، فذلك قوله وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ [8/385] al-Tawhid: My father from Sa’d from Ibn Hashim, Ibn Abi al-Khattab and Ibn Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Zurara from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام. He (Zurara) said: I asked him about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “Hunafa for Allah, not associating with Him (anything)” (22:31) and about the Hanifiyya (what is it)? He said: It is the Fitra which He created the people upon, there is no change in the creation of Allah. He (also) said: Allah created them upon the Ma’rifa (Recognition). Zurara said: and I asked him about the words of Allah: “and when your Lord took from the children of Adam from their backs …” (7:172). He said: He removed from the back of Adam his descendants up to the Day of Judgment, they came out like particles, then he made (Himself) known to them and showed them His creation, and if it were not for that no one would recognize his Lord. He (the Imam) also said: The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: “Every new born is born upon the Fitra”, that is, with the Ma’rifa (Recognition) that Allah Mighty and Majestic is his Creator. This then is His (Allah’s) words: “and if you were to ask them - who created the heavens and the earth - they will say Allah” (39:38). [-/9] علل الشرائع: أبي، عن سعد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن فضال، عن ابن بكير، عن زرارة قال: سألت أبا جعفر عليه السلام عن قول الله عزوجل: وَإِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَأَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ أَلَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قَالُوا بَلَى قال: ثبتت المعرفة ونسوا الوقت وسيذكرونه يوما، ولولا ذلك لم يدر أحد من خالقه ولا من رازقه [9/-] Ilal al-Sharai: My father from Sa’d from Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Fadhal from Ibn Bukayr from Zurara who said: I asked Aba Ja’far عليه السلام about the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “When your Lord took from the Children of Adam from their backs their descendants and made them bear witness against their own selves - am I not your Lord? They said: Indeed” (7:172). He said: The Ma’rifa (Recognition) was confirmed but they forgot the time (when this episode occurred) and they will come to remember it one day. If it were not for that no one would know who his Creator is nor who his Sustainer is.
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