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In the Name of God بسم الله

Son of Placid

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    Son of Placid reacted to Hameedeh for a blog entry, ♥ Marriage ♥   
    Marriage is not easy. You have to get to know each other. You are used to doing everything your own way. Now you need to compromise. Share with each other. Give and take. If you take more than you give, it won't be as sweet. Do not expect more from your spouse than your spouse will need from you. Life is good. It's better when you are together. If you both do your best. 
    ♥ May your days be sunny, your nights restful, and your heart satisfied with the blessings that Allah has given you. Think Positive. ♥
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    Son of Placid reacted to Haji 2003 for a blog entry, Self-control   
    In this 1991 paper by Stephen Hoch and George Loewenstein:
    http://www.cmu.edu/dietrich/sds/docs/loewenstein/TimeInconsistConSelf.pdf
    it’s argued that consumption decisions are the result of an inner fight and depend on which of two strengths prevails: self-control or desire. One definition of self-control in this context is “the self’s capacity to alter its own states and responses”, courtesy of Roy Baumeister at the University of Michigan:
    http://www-personal.umich.edu/~prestos/Downloads/DC/10-28_Baumeister2002.pdf
    Self-control can involve regulating impulses and resisting temptation. Referring again to the paper by Baumeister we have the idea that Impulsive behaviour is characterised by people acting in an unintended or spontaneous way that over-rides a more cognitive or thoughtful basis for actions.
    Sometimes the reasons why people act in an impulsive manner is because they prefer having smaller gains earlier in time than waiting for larger gains. Baumeister also points out that people can subsequently regret giving in to temptation. In contrast self-discipline involves a trade-off between short and long term happiness. This paper by Janet Metcalfe in the Psychological Review gives more details:
    http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/metcalfe/PDFs/Metcalfe Mischel 1999.pdf
    Baumeister refers to self-control having three components, principles, a monitoring process, and the capability of changing the self’s behaviour. The latter is crucial for effective self-control: even if someone knows his goals and is quite conscious of his comportment, he might not possess the ability to change his actions correspondingly.
    The breakdown of self-discipline is said to happen where someone is not sure of what they want. Emotional distress is also associated with failures of self-control. Mark Muraven has more information here:
    http://persweb.wabash.edu/facstaff/hortonr/articles for class/Muraven self-regulatoin.pdf
    Where people do not keep track of their behaviour, self-control also becomes more difficult to achieve. This paper by Janet Polivy considers the issue in terms of eating behaviour:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3723339
    The capability to change your behaviour can be thought of as willpower. The level of willpower can vary some studies, using experiments, have shown willpower to be something which can be depleted – ego depletion.
    As for the third, key, component, there are three main theories on how the self can steer its behaviour. Self-control is a cognitive process, similar to software that can be programmed so as to control a person’s behaviour (Baumeister 2002), the major distinction is in regarding self-control as a state or a trait, as is common practice for many psychological concepts (Ein-Gar, Goldenberg & Sagiv 2012). The former defines self-control as willpower, that is some sort of strength, which is used to match or exceed an impulse. The latter describes self-discipline as a skill.
    In contrast, to the above studies where self-control has also been considered as a state, it has also been studied as a trait. This paper  by Malte Friese, takes the trait approach:
    http://www.uni-saarland.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Professoren/fr53_ProfFriese/Publikationen_Malte/FH_2009_trait_self_control.pdf
    Different individuals possess different levels of relatively stable innate self-control. People with high degrees of self-control have been found fewer psychological and emotional problems, such as in this research by June Tangney:
    ‘Higher scores on self-control correlated with a higher grade point average, better adjustment (fewer reports of psychopathology, higher self-esteem), less binge eating and alcohol abuse, better relationships and interpersonal skills, secure attachment, and more optimal emotional responses’.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15016066
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    Son of Placid reacted to Haji 2003 for a blog entry, Look at me I'm rich   
    [Old entry, that was wiped, reworked from my notes]
    Although we often judge social class by observing the income levels of the people around us, another way of signaling status is by using certain products or brands, we can call that status consumption. Economists use the term ‘Veblen effects’ to describe behavior where people are using their consumption for its signaling benefits rather than intrinsic benefits from the goods themselves.
    The term Veblen owes its origins to the 19th century economist and sociology Thomas Veblen who identified such behavior. He further distinguished between between “invidious comparison” and “pecuniary emulation”. Invidious comparison is when an individual from high class consumes status goods in order to differentiate himself from those of the lower class. Pecuniary comparison on the other hand refers is when a member from a lower class engages in conspicuous consumption to portray an image of a member of the high class.
    I’ve previously written about the difference between hedonic and utilitarian consumption. It has been argued that when it comes to buying goods for hedonic purposes, it’s possible to distinguish between the ‘bandwagon effect’ and the ‘snob effect’.  Bandwagon effect refers to the extent to which demand for a product increases as more people start consuming it. This reflects the human need for conformity – where people wish to be like others around them. The snob effect works in the opposite direction and refers situations where demand for a product declines as more people start consuming it – you don’t want to be seen as being too common.
    An explanation for consumer preference in status goods is offered in the following paper by Young Jee Han and colleagues:
    Patricians. High in financial means, Patricians are “principally concerned with associating with other patricians rather than dissociating themselves from other classes of consumers. They use subtle signals because only other patricians can interpret them.” They pay a premium for understatement.
    Parvenus. “Parvenus are affluent—it is not that they cannot afford quieter goods—but they crave status. They are concerned first and foremost with separating or dissociating themselves from the havenots while associating themselves with other haves, both patricians and other parvenus.” Parvenus love the Louis Vuitton logo, the researchers say.
    Poseurs. Like Parvenus, Poseurs are “highly motivated to consume for the sake of status.” Poseurs “do not possess the financial means to readily afford authentic luxury goods. Yet they want to associate themselves with those they observe and recognize as having the financial means (the parvenus) and dissociate themselves from other less affluent people.” Poseurs like counterfeit luxury goods.
    Proletarians. These are less-affluent consumers who also are less-status conscious. “Proletarians are simply not driven to consume for the sake of status and either cannot or will not concern themselves with signaling by using status goods. They seek neither to associate with the upper crust nor to dissociate themselves from others of similarly humble means.” They tend to avoid luxury goods altogether.
    http://blogs.wsj.com/wealth/2010/07/27/the-four-species-of-wealthy-consumers/
    https://contemporaniablog.wordpress.com/2016/09/11/look-at-me-im-rich/
  4. Like
    Son of Placid reacted to Hameedeh for a blog entry, Thinking Positive   
    Stress is always there and everyone has it. I know you are stressed out, because that is how life is. It is always like that. It seems so intense when you are going through something stressful. Later when you look back, you will marvel at how you survived. Stay strong. Allah is always with you.
    ♥ May your days be sunny, your nights restful, and your heart satisfied with the blessings that Allah has given you. Think Positive. ♥
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