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In the Name of God بسم الله
As of late I have been trying to deep dive more into the religion. I was born as a Sunni muslim, but never really had deep knowledge regarding Islam outside of the basics. These past 2 years I have delevoped a close friendship with somebody who is a Shia muslim, and he has kept urging me to look more into Shi'ism. Out of curiousity and wanting to seek more knowledge I decided to look more into it, but it honestly has gotten me to have more questions than answers. I have asked my Shia friend regarding certain topics, but they expressed that they do not have the proper knowledge to answer my question and advised me to ask people on this website instead, who could help me with these questions. I will also be using certain statements from my friend as reference point for some of the questions. The questions: 1. According to my friend, ''Abu Bakr & Umar (رضي الله عنه) are in hell''. I have found this to be strange because isnt the Quran explicit in stating Abu Bakr & Omar (رضي الله عنه) are in heaven because Allah approves of them in Quran 48:18 & 9:100? Considering Allah is all knowing why would he say such things if they would steal the Caliphate, and lead the majority of muslims ''astray'' according to my friend. 2. From what I have read regarding Shi'ism, Ali (رضي الله عنه) hated the 3 Rashidun Caliphs. The argument that seems to be used for this is that the election happened without him (which to be fair to the Shia side, it was controversial since Ali (رضي الله عنه) was not present at that time). However, he named 3 of his sons after them. Hasan (رضي الله عنه) also named his son (Ali RA grandson) after Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه). Ali (رضي الله عنه) also married his daughter Um Kulthum (رضي الله عنه) (Fatima's daughter) to Omar (رضي الله عنه). Ali (رضي الله عنه) from what I have read appears to be an incredibly courageous, honest and just man (according to both the Shia & Sunni sources, so he seems like the last type of person who would not protect his daughter from marrying her mother's murderer? And Ali (رضي الله عنه) sent his sons Hassan & Husayn (رضي الله عنه) to protect Uthman (رضي الله عنه), why would he do this if he did not support Uthman (رضي الله عنه) who Shi'ism alleges was the false 3rd Caliph? Hasan (رضي الله عنه) also appeared to have gotten injured protecting Uthman (رضي الله عنه). 3. According to my friend, Aisha (رضي الله عنه) deserves to be cursed, and it is completely allowed to curse her in Shia islam according to him (although he did admit that not all Shi'ites do it). But would that not go against Quran 33:6? The verse states '''The Prophet is nearer to the believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers''', doesn't this mean that we have to view and treat all of the prophet's wives as our own mothers? And wouldn't Quran 24:10-26 prove that we are forbidden from slandering Aisha (رضي الله عنه)? 4. The Shahada that is being used within Shia Islam has me incredibly confused, because is this really how the Shahada was said by the Muslims before us? I can personally not imagine the Shahada that was said by prophet Muhammad ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)), the Sahaba (رضي الله عنه), Ali (رضي الله عنه), his sons Hasan & Husayn (رضي الله عنه) would mention Ali (رضي الله عنه). If somebody could please explain this I would be happy to learn 5. The use of the Turbah also has me confused, if you were going to use a Turbah why not one from Prophet Muhammad's ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) grave or where Ali (رضي الله عنه) was assassinated? Why instead use a Turbah from where Husayn (رضي الله عنه) was assassinated? 6. When it comes to Sunni Hadiths, the Prophet Muhammad ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) expressed to not build Mosques on graves when he was fatally ill. https://sunnah.com/muslim:529 https://sunnah.com/bukhari:1330 I understand that Shia Islam does not accept Sunni hadiths as authentic. But, when looking at prophet Muhammad ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)), Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه), & Omar (رضي الله عنه) graves, it appears that they are separate from the Masjid in Saudi Arabia. But all Shia Imam Graves have been turned into a Masjid and they pray facing the deceased, why so?