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In the Name of God بسم الله


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  1. In 711, when Mohammed's ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم).) second successor ascended the throne in Damascus, a twelve-thousand-strong Muslim army invaded Spain. The Ostrogoths who then ruled Spain could not resist the Arabs and capitulated. After the conquest, the Arabs left the local people their property, churches, and laws. The only demand they made was the payment of an annual tribute. These conditions seemed so easy to the population that they accepted them without resentment, and the Arabs had only to break the resistance of the aristocratic landowners. This struggle was short-lived, and within two years Spain had completely submitted to the conquerors. The Berbers who came with the Arabs taught the locals irrigation. Land that was considered unsuitable was plowed. The Arabs intensively developed science and architecture, they founded universities, which for a long time remained the only centers of intelligence in all of Europe. They translated the works of Greek and Latin authors. In 756, the Cordova Caliphate was created in Spain — an independent state separate from the Arab Caliphate. To separate themselves from Mecca, the Arabs built the famous mosque of Cordoba, which was considered one of the wonders of the world.
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