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About aaljibar

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    Level 2 Member
  • Birthday September 10

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    Shi'a Itha Ashari
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    Sending my salams to you
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    Islam and Medicine

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  1. The absolute best act of worship is service to other people. Salat is only the foundational act of worship. I really wish more people knew this. Jazakallah.
  2. Excellent course that helps you understand how you study and how you improve it. I really hope all of you get a chance to do this course during your work/university/college breaks. https://www.coursera.org/learn/learning-how-to-learn These are my comprehensive notes on it. The main point structure Week 1: What is Learning? Modes of thinking. Memory. Procrastination. Sleep. Week 2: Chunking. Chunking. Recall Illusion of competence. Overlearning Interleaving Week 3: Procrastination and Memory. Procrastination Habits Further into memory Week 4: Renaissance Learning and Unlocking Your Potential. I will leave this week 4 for you when you do the course ;) The main points information Week 1: What is Learning? Modes of thinking. Focused mode: A concentrated form of thinking where your thoughts are focused on concepts that are usually familiar. This means your neurones are focused on a certain part of a brain. An example solving a type of problem that you’ve done before or trying to remember the name of someone on the spot. An analogy is like a pinball is shot bouncing around in a certain area of the pinball machine. Diffused mode: A type of thinking where your thoughts and neural circuits are scattered from one part of your your brain to another in order to make connections between different concepts. An example of this is when you are mundane such as exercising, showering, driving or sleeping and then suddenly an idea pops up. An analogy is like a pinball is shot bouncing from one part of the pinball machine to another. Unconscious neural connections and associations take place in the diffused mode of thinking. Unconscious neural connections and associations are what build basic frameworks to allow new information to be added on in later study sessions. Memory. There is working memory and long term memory. Working memory (short term memory) is working with new chunks of information, for example, when you are trying to solve a problem with new chunks of information. The maximum number of of chunks you can use in working memory is four chunks. The one or more of the four chunks can be connected from long term memory (already ingrained chunks). This memory is accessed from the prefrontal cortex but there are connections to different parts of the brain in order to access long term memory into one of the memory slots of your prefrontal cortex in order to solve a problem. We have to constantly fire up the neurones which represent the chunks/parts of concepts in our working memory in order to reduce the natural dissipating processes that occur to our neurones. Long Term Memory is used when you are recalling chunks of information (synaptic connections of neurones that represent information) that are already ingrained in your mind. It accessed from any part of the brain. It has room for billions of items and can bury other times. So we need to strengthen those synaptic connections of a particular concept in order to recall them. In order to convert short term memory into long term memory, especially for abstract topic such as maths, physics, chemistry etc you need develop strong synaptic connections between our neurones. This process of called consolidation. The best wayof strengthening synaptic connections between neurones according to research to use Spaced repetitionto recall content. Strong synaptic connections between our neurones for medical concepts are needed so they can be recalled much quicker This is why procrastination is so important to prevent because we need to build the willpower to recall and practice relevant material in calculated time intervals in order to build strong synaptic connections in order to be able to recall content quicker. The concept of spaced repetition is analogous to building a brick wall. You need to wait for other parts of the brick wall to dry (connect) before you start adding the same sort of parts on top so the brick wall stays strong (retained) The concept of cramming, however, is analogous to building a brick wall completely at once. All the parts are still wet (unconnected) so it has a higher chance of falling apart (unretained) Procrastination. The discomfortof doing the project you are putting off lastsfor a few secondsbut then the project actively becomes your goal. and, in the long term, this will lead to satisfaction. An analogy is everything in your life. Sleep Just simply being awake creates metabolic toxic products in between the neurones of your brain that cause sub-optimal cognition. When you sleep, your neurones shrink in order to increase space in-between them to allow the toxins to leave the neurones. Sleep causes the conscious part of the brain to be shut off. When the conscious part of the brain is shut off, the unconscious processes allow the formation and strengthening of synaptic connections in differant areas of the brain. This unconscious formation and strengthening of synaptic connections is known as the diffuse mode. Week 2: Chunking. Chunking parts of a concept. When faced with a new concept, it can often seem confusing because it can have multiple parts that seem to be missing or don’t fit together.A chunk are pieces of information which is all bound together by use or often time meaning. A chunk can be large and complex but will still only take one slot of your working memory when you’re trying to learn new concepts. The best way to build a chunk of information is through focused attention, understanding the basic idea and doing practice problems so you can gain mastery and a sense of the big-picture context. All of this is done to strengthen the neural connections of the chunk of information. Scientifically speaking, a chunk is a circuit of neurones that are used to firing smoothly and effectively. The more the neurones are used, the more the circuit of neurones fire smoothly and effectively. Learning a concept chunk by chunk allows you to finally put it all together at the end to allow it to make sense. It is analogous to a puzzle having 100 pieces, all you need to do is just connect 10 pieces at a time. It is important to understand that a chunk of information can be as big or as small as you want to make it. You can combine small chunks together. A chunk can be as big as knowing a whole chapter or as small as knowing the meaning of a word in the chapter A chunk can be as big as knowing a whole lecture or as small as knowing a sentence spoken by the lecturer. A chunk can be as big as knowing how to put on a jacket or as small as knowing how to put your hand through the hole of a jacket. A chunk can be as big as knowing how to drive or knowing how to put the car in first gear. Examples of concepts you can chunk and then add the chunks together. Neurone firing. Intramembranous ossification. Putting on a jacket. Driving a car. Drinking water from a water bottle. Running. Doing a pull up. Making a burger. It is also important to at least know the larger context before deciding to chunk information. For example, you don’t want to try to chunk pieces of information together if you don’t even know what the whole picture is. Another example, you don’t want to learn how to pick up a jacket or put your hand through the jacket hole without knowing it is for putting a jacket. When using your working memory, each of the four slots in your pre-frontal cortex have connections to the whole part of your brain to help make connections. When you’re stressed, these connections become less clear so you make bad decisions when you’re stressed, angry, depressed or afraid. The best chunks are when you don’t have to think about the chunk anymore. This is when you start adding chunks together to build more complex chunks. Once seeing material for the first time, your entire 4 slots of working memory are involved. Once the material starts the process of becoming chunked, the material becomes smoother in your 4 slots of working memory. Once the material is finally chunked, the material then only takes a single a single slot in your working memory that has a link to long term memory. This will then leave 3 other slots free for you to learn new material which that chunk being a hook to allow quicker connections. Recall (retrieval practice) Recall is much more productive than rereading material. In a scientific study, students studied a scientific text and then recalled as much as they could, then they read the scientific text a second time and then recalled a second time. In this method, the students learned far more material and at a deeper level. The only time rereading would be useful is if you were to do it in spaced intervals so at least it would a task of spaced repetition. An extra tip for recall is that you should recall information at multiple locations. Recalling information repeatedly in the same location will allow you to pick up subliminal hints that will help you recall information. This is not helpful because tests are done in unfamiliar environments. Illusion of competence. The most common form of Illusion of competence is looking at the solutions and thinking “I know how they got that” without actually practicing the material yourself. When you practice the material, this means you are using your working memory to finally create a chunk that is linked in your long term memory. This chunk allows you to work creatively with the material to allow you to do well on tests. Over spending time on a concept can lead to an illusion of competence. A more effective way of knowing if you understand the material is if you can recall the material. You can apply it to new situations by doing practice problems. A student who decides to recall and apply the information will encounter inevitably encounter mistakes since not everyone is perfect. Mistakes are important because it allows us to correct our thinking to allow us to perform better. Einstellung Einstellung is when you have over learnt a concept or an idea and now you are suck in a mindset rut and are prevented from accessing an alternative idea in order to solve a problem. You will need to unlearn this idea in order to unlock the idea needed to solve the problem. Interweaving You must be able to understand the idea or technique and move onto another related ideaor technique. This is called interweaving and it prevents Einstellung. This is done to shift the focus from knowing howto use a technique to when use a technique be able to successfully a mixed variety of problems and questions, which is usually the format of an exam. Interleaving also allows the transfer of chunks from different disciplines in order to increase independent thinking and creativity which upgrades you from the initial steps of practice and repetition. Week 3: Procrastination and Memory. Procrastination Procrastination is similar to a disease. The more you allow yourself to be engaged in it. The more likely your procrastination habit will become worse and this will continue into a positive cycle until the end of the semester and you have low grades. Procrastination is a negative keystone habit as it prevents the habit of spaced repetition of the review of material which is the most important habit to learn. When having a project that we need to do. A person who focuses on the outcome of a session before the session has started by saying things such as “I must to 10 questions!” Or “I must read 5 sections!” will cause us to feel stressed that we might not complete the material in that time limit which will cause us to feel anxious. This will activate pain receptors in our brain which cause us to inherently to seek short term temporary pleasure. This pleasure comes from the release of dopamine from websites or activities such as youtube, facebook and reddit. However, once we focus on the process of an activity, it allows us to think about the flow of time and the actions in the flow of time, not the outcomes of the session. This will cause us to feel excited for the session and this is how you beat procrastination. EXTRA NOTE: It is not talking about the learning outcomes of the chapter you are learning, It’s important to read the outcomes of the chapter you are learning, what is meant by not focusing on the outcomes of the session is that we shouldn’t start the session with “I will get this particular actions done by the end of it”. As this adds unnecessary pressure on you which will activate pain signals which will make you procrastinate. :EXTRA NOTE For example: Brushing teeth: Outcome: Putting perfect amount of toothpaste and spending exactly 30 seconds on every quadrant resulting in perfectly clean teeth. Process: Putting tooth paste on toothbrush and just spending around 30 seconds on every quadrant resulting in sufficiently brushed teeth. If focusing on the process of an activity does not work, then just smile and put on a 25 minute timer and forget about how long it will take you. It is important to note that it is perfectly normal to feel like you don’t want to start your work when sitting down to do some work. Everyone has these thoughts one day or another. It’s just what you do about these thoughts that matter. EXTRA NOTE: The discomfortof doing the project you are putting off lastsfor a few secondsbut then the project actively becomes your goal. and, in the long term, this will lead to satisfaction. An analogy is everything in your life: EXTRA NOTE Habits Habits are important because they cause neurological cravings for rewards such as being able to reduce the energy we have to use to make decision to allow us to have energy for other things. Habits are composed of 4 parts; the cue, the routine, the reward. The Cue A cue is an event that serves as a signal for someone to do something. A way of changing your habits is to remove cues or add cues. There are 4 types of cues; location cues, time cues, feeling cues& reactions cues. You must remove cues that cause you do to unproductive routines. A cue can be an example of a location cue can be walking into a library A cue can be an example of a feeling cue can be feeling tired, A cue can be an example of a time cuecan the clock being 10:00 A cue can be an example of a reaction cuecan be hearing the ‘bling!’ of a text message. The Routine A routine is set of actions which is regularly followed for a cue. A way of changing your habits is to change your routines in response to a cue. An example of a routineis when you encounter a location cueof walking into a library You can either to sit down and studyor to sit on youtube for 30 minutes. If you decide to choose a beneficial routine, savour the moment that you chose that routine. You will activate reward centres in your brain which will make you want to do it again. The Reward A reward is something, usually pleasurable, given in recognition to service, effort or achievement. A way of changing your habits is making internal and external rewards for choosing correct routines or removing cues. An example of a reward is when you encounter a time cueof the clock being 10:00 so you choose a routinethat makes you get ready for bed and hence your reward is to be well rested and have productive time in the early hours of the day. Rewards are important for changing previous aspects of habits because they cause a neurological craving for rewards It takes a few days of drudgery before the reward of the habit starts to be expected by your brain. Once this happens, you start to enter flow states where you don’t have to force yourself to study. An extra tip, the better you become at something, the more enjoyable that action becomes. The Belief A belief is trust, faith or confidence in something. Belief is important for changing habits because before you need to have the confidence that you can live through productive habits and can avoid unproductive habits. A way of developing belief is to physically and/or virtually to spend time with people who are in the same position as you and also in higher positions because you will start to realise that everyone has to go through the same problems and that we are all together. This is comforting to know because nobody wants to feel like they are alone. EXTRA: Do not forget to spend time with people who are trying to get where you are, you will be able to help them and it will also inspire you to work harder :EXTRA Further into Memory The visuospatial area of the right hemisphere contributes greatly to retention of information. This means that creating vivid visualisations of the material you are learning helps you to learn and remember it. If this visualisation is visualised in spaced intervals then the visualisation becomes part of the long term memory. You could spend 15 minutes trying to think of a visualisation for a concept, but it will it will then take a minute or then even seconds to conjure it up for practical use. Reconsolidation is the concept that every time you access a long term memory, you change it according to what you have learnt about it since the last time you have accessed it.
  3. I like your thinking Jazakallah
  4. I would go for the lower side of that to be honest. Anything close to 20K is goodbye town
  5. That doesn't make sense, just because someone is paying more doesn't necessarily mean he will be a good husband. There are rich douchebags out there.
  6. Anyone who has a mahr higher than what Sayyida Zainab (s.a) has calculated for this day and age, is not worth my time and money.
  7. There is for the guy. Honestly I don't see myself paying more than 5K.
  8. aaljibar

    Marriage centers in the West

    We are planning to do one at a centre in Perth called Ahlulbayt Community of Western Australia Insha'Allah.
  9. aaljibar

    Where leather comes from

    I am relaxed now because I firmly believe that manufactures would import leather from muslims countries. Or at least there is a reasonable probability they would do so.
  10. $20,000-$40,000!!! I expected at max $2000
  11. aaljibar

    Where leather comes from

    Asalamu alaykum dear brothers and sisters. We all know of Sayyid Sistanis ruling that wearing leather bought in non-muslim countries in salat is permissible if we don't know whether they are islamic slaughter or not and that there is a possibility that it is islamically slaughtered. Provided it is not something that sensible people would ignore such as 2%. My question is, Can we justify wearing leather belts from non-muslim markets in prayer because the manufacturers of the non-muslim companies could import the leather from muslim countries due to the cheaper alternative? I suffer from this question and I would really appreciate an answer with this. My salat validity is on the line.
  12. aaljibar

    Understanding the Quran

    I love it, jazakallah
  13. aaljibar

    Purifying najis clothes

    His question is a legitimate concern though. Don't brush it under the carpet.
  14. aaljibar

    Is it haram to be a rapper and listen to music

    Aslamu alaykum, not everything is in the qur'an my friend. There is also narrations of the prophet (sawas) and the Imams (a.s)