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In the Name of God بسم الله

hashemi.mohammadali

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  1. we organized the process of research through the study of foundations and documents of different Islamic ideas in the field of women's political participation with an emphasis on Qur’anic verses . We have two general idea and Viewpoints: →Viewpoints of Permissibility: →Viewpoints of Prohibition: In first part we studied the documents of Viewpoints of Permissibility. so we We are going to examine the viewpoints of Prohibition. viewpoints of Prohibition: On the other hand, There are some Qur’anic verses which are support Viewpoints of of Prohibition: 1. Surat al-Ahzªb,33. « وَ قَرْنَ فىِ بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَ لَا تَبرَّجْنَ تَبرَّجَ الْجَهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولىَ ») احزاب ( 33 ): 33 ( (... O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women) .Stay in your houses and do not display your finery with the display of the former [days of ] ignorance. 2. Surat al-Zukhruf,18. «أَ وَ مَن يُنَشَّؤُاْ فىِ الْحِلْيَةِ وَ هُوَ فىِ الخْصَامِ غَيرْ مُبِينٍ» ( زخرف ( 43 ):18) What! One who is brought up amid ornaments and is inconspicuous in contests?’ 3. Surat al-Nisª’,34. اَلرِّجالُ قَوّامُونَ عَلَى اَلنِّساءِ بِما فَضَّلَ اَللّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلى بَعْضٍ وَ بِما أَنْفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوالِهِمْ فَالصّالِحاتُ ﴿النساء( 4 )، 34﴾ Men are the managers of women, because of the advantage Allah has granted some of them over others, and by virtue of their spending out of their wealth. In addition to these Qur’anic verses, here some Traditions Which cited In this regard. According to my study All of them Are faced with conflict in The chain of transmission, or The actual text.
  2. by: Seyed Mohammad Ali Hashemi* * Graduated from Qom seminary، PHD in Jurisprudence and Law, Qom University. Researcher of Al-Mustafa International Research Institute. hashemi.mohammadali@yahoo.co.uk The term political participation has a very wide meaning. Political participation means that a person is participating in the political process to influence the outcome of a political issue. Political participation can take many forms; such as voting, protest, jury duty and holding a public official position. Accordingly, women's political participation is participating in the political process to influence the outcome of a political issue by women. In these circumstances, » Muslim Women and Right to Political Participation «is so controversial issue. Today, in many Muslim-majority countries women are gaining greater positions in political office. In countries such as Pakistan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Senegal, Kosovo, and Turkey, Muslim women have risen to president or prime minister. Muslim women, also have a strong history of political leadership. They have taken on many roles in politics, leadership, and community advocacy. Despite the this strong history of political leadership, some argue that in Islam try to say: women cannot or should not hold positions of leadership. Muslim women still face significant challenges to Political Participation. Yes, Muslim Women and Right to Political Participation «is so controversial issue. some Islamic scholar Deeply believe that women's political participation is illegal And unacceptable. This argument is based primarily on the interpretation given to Some traditions and to Quranic verses. In contrast, a number of Muslim scholars Believe that according to the Qur’anic verses, not only women's political participation is not Ḥarām ( sinful ) but also we can say it is permissible. In addition to principle of Permissibility. There are some Qur’anic verses which are support Viewpoints of Permissibility: 1. Surat al-Naml,23. إِنِّي وَجَدْتُ اِمْرَأَةً تَمْلِكُهُمْ وَ أُوتِيَتْ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَ لَها عَرْشٌ عَظِيمٌ ﴿النمل‏، 23﴾ I found a woman ruling over them, and she has been given everything, and she has a great throne. 2. Surat al-Shurª,38. وَ اَلَّذِينَ اِسْتَجابُوا لِرَبِّهِمْ وَ أَقامُوا اَلصَّلاةَ وَ أَمْرُهُمْ شُورى بَيْنَهُمْ وَ مِمّا رَزَقْناهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ ﴿الشورى‏، 38﴾ those who answer their Lord, maintain the prayer, and their affairs are by counsel among themselves, and they spend out of what We have provided them with; 3. Surat ªl-i ‘Imrªn, 159 فَبِما رَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اَللّهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ وَ لَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ اَلْقَلْبِ لاَنْفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَ اِسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَ شاوِرْهُمْ فِي اَلْأَمْرِ ﴿آل‏عمران‏، 159﴾ It is by Allah’s mercy that you are gentle to them; and had you been harsh and hardhearted, surely they would have scattered from around you. So excuse them, and plead for forgiveness for them, and consult them in the affairs, 4.Surat ªl-i ‘Imrªn,61. فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ ما جاءَكَ مِنَ اَلْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْناءَنا وَ أَبْناءَكُمْ وَ نِساءَنا وَ نِساءَكُمْ وَ أَنْفُسَنا وَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَعْنَتَ اَللّهِ عَلَى اَلْكاذِبِينَ ﴿آل‏عمران‏، 61﴾ Should anyone argue with you concerning him, after the knowledge that has come to you, say, ‘Come! Let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, our souls and your souls, then let us pray earnestly and call down Allah’s curse upon the liars.’ 5. Surat al-Aqsas,23. وَ لَمّا وَرَدَ ماءَ مَدْيَنَ وَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ أُمَّةً مِنَ اَلنّاسِ يَسْقُونَ وَ وَجَدَ مِنْ دُونِهِمُ اِمْرَأَتَيْنِ تَذُودانِ قالَ ما خَطْبُكُما قالَتا لا نَسْقِي حَتّى يُصْدِرَ اَلرِّعاءُ وَ أَبُونا شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ ﴿القصص‏، 23﴾ When he arrived at the well of Midian, he found there a throng of people watering [their flocks], and he found, besides them, two women holding back [their flock]. He said, ‘What is your business?’ They said, ‘We do not water [our flock] until the shepherds have driven out [their flocks], and our father is an aged man.’ 6. Surat al-Mumtahanah يا أَيُّهَا اَلنَّبِيُّ إِذا جاءَكَ اَلْمُؤْمِناتُ يُبايِعْنَكَ … فَبايِعْهُنَّ وَ اِسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اَللّهَ إِنَّ اَللّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿الممتحنة، 12﴾ O Prophet! If faithful women come to you, to take the oath of allegiance to you, … then accept their allegiance, and plead for them to Allah for forgiveness. Indeed Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful 7. SURAT AL-ZUMAR فَبَشِّرْ عِبادِ ﴿الزمر، 17﴾ اَلَّذِينَ يَسْتَمِعُونَ اَلْقَوْلَ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ أَحْسَنَهُ أُولئِكَ اَلَّذِينَ هَداهُمُ اَللّهُ وَ أُولئِكَ هُمْ أُولُوا اَلْأَلْبابِ ﴿الزمر، 18﴾ So give good news to My servants who listen to the word and follow the best of it. They are the ones whom Allah has guided, and it is they who possess intellect. TO BE CONTINUED
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