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In the Name of God بسم الله

sharif110

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  1. Honesty is one of the great and valuable human moral virtues which is clearly emphasized in the fundamental Islamic sources. It is sufficient concerning the importance of this issue to mention that Allah ÓÈÍÇäå æÊÚÇáì has repeatedly promised reward to truthful people in the Holy Quran, for instance; When we refer to Hadiths, we see that lie is mentioned as a key of all evils. In this regard, Imam Hassan Al-askari (A.S) said, “جُعِلَت الخَبائِثُ كُلّها فى بَیتٍ و جُعِلَ مِفتاحُها الكذب”. All evils are placed in a house where lies is its key. [2] Although the effect of honesty is obvious, but more thinking and studying aim us to know at least its targets and influences in human life. What comes in the following is a part of these targets; 1- Attainment of people's trust. We know that man is a social creature in which collective actions are as the basis of his acts. What is important to express is that the collective actions would take place, when individuals have full confidence about each other. To have full confidence will not be ascertained without being honest to each other, no matter is in educational, cultural, political acts or etc. As a result, the foundation of any spiritual and material progress in society is a mutual trust which is derived from honesty. In this regard, Imam Ali (A.S) said, “«الکذاب و المیت سواء فان فضیلة الحى على المیت الثقة به، فاذا لم یوثق بکلامه فقد بطلت حیاته”. Liar and dead ones are the same, because the trustworthiness is the cause of superiority of an alive person over dead one, therefore, his being alive is void (ineffective) when there is no trust to his speech. 2- Attainment of prestige and good character. Honesty causes prestige and great personality for a human whereas lying is the cause of scandal and disgrace. Imam Ali (A.S) said, “علیک بالصدق، فمن صدق فى اقواله جل قدره”. Say always the truth, because an honest gains more magnitude and position in society. 3- Attainment of bravery and courage. Truth and honesty give man courage and bravery whereas lying swallows him in a deep fearing for fealty that reveal all of his untruth sayings. 4- Resolving of community problems Most of problems which occur in the communities are caused by lying. In societies where people and its politicians are honest, people are relaxed in which it cause less crime and less probes to detect lies. Therefore, those expenses which have been occurred by lying in society would be decreased. 5- Removing of objections and disputes Most disputes and conflicts among people refer to denial of truth and honesty. Honesty in speech and behavior are the most important factors to eliminate these issues. According to what mentioned, it can be concluded that honesty is essential in order to have a safe and calm life. 1- http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.qarai/33:24 2- Bihar Al-anvar, vol 72, p 262
  2. Alsalamu AlaykumDue to approve the significance of the issue of ‘honesty’ in Islam, I would rather start my answer with a verse of the holy Quran in this regard: Honesty is one of the good deeds of human being in which comprise specific position in religion and wisdom. Islam as an approved religion by Allah ÓÈÍÇäå æÊÚÇáì for servants, invites human to refer to his nature. Pure nature of human necessitates adaptability and coordination of apparent and conscience, so that he shall express by his tongue what he positively believes in his heart. Honesty and trustworthiness are the most distinctive features that act as excellent examples and directly relate to social relations. We can refer to Islamic narrations to know the influences of honesty in life. They have clearly expressed the effects of honesty in our life whether are in this world or in the eternal world. The following effects would be mentioned as examples; 5- It is a way to gain relaxation: Imam Ali (A.S.) said: “leave what lead you to be annihilated and refuge what does not lead you to that. Lying is the cause of annihilation and truthfulness is the cause of relaxation”. For more info, you can see; 1-http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.qarai/33:24 2-http://english.almaaref.org/essaydetails.php?eid=1358&cid=170 https://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?print=13333
  3. Alsalamu Alaikum I would rather start with a verse of the holy Quran as an example; This verse and many other verses which are relevant to the case explicitly express prohibition of drinking alcohol in Islam. These verses are absolute so that have not differentiated between genders in this regard. Therefore, drinking alcohol and all kinds of intoxicating liquids are forbidden in Islam no matter for males or females. http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.qarai/5:90
  4. Is a Muslim man allowed to force his wife to wear hijab? Alsalamu Alaikum According to Islamic jurisprudence, Man is not allowed to force his wife to wear hijab but can prevent her from going out of house although she has worn hijab. Therefore he can bet that if she wears hijab, she is allowed to go out. Although a man is not permitted to force his wife to wear hijab, but what a nice tradition, that shall be regarded and noticed, is reported from Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s) to have said: فَإِنَّ شِدَّةَ الْحِجَابِ أَبْقَى عَلَیْهِنَّ In this tradition, Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s) says a kind of recommendation concerning to the way of behaving with wife and women. Imam (a.s) says, "Severity in Hijab more maintain their chastity."
  5. Are Muslim women forbidden to cover their faces while performing Hajj rituals? Alsalamu alaykum من تروک الإحرام : تغطية المرأة وجهها بنقاب وبرقع ونحوهما حتى المروحة والأحوط عدم التغطية بما لا يتعارف كالحشيش والطين، وبعض الوجه في حكم تمامه، نعم يجوز وضع يديها على وجهها، ولا مانع من وضعه على المخدة ونحوها للنوم. يجب ستر الرأس عليها للصلاة ونجب ستر مقدار من أطراف الوجه مقدمة، لكن إذا فرغت من الصلاة يجب رفعه عن وجهها فورا. يجوز إسدال الثوب وإرساله من رأسها إلى وجهها إلى أنفها، بل إلى نحرها للستر عن الأجنبي، والأولى الأحوط أن يسد له بوجه لا يلصق بوجهها ولو بأخذه بيدها. لا كفارة على تغطية الوجه ولا على عدم الفصل بين الثوب والوجه وإن كانت أحوط في الصورتين. [1] Mousavi Khumeini, sayyed rouhollah, Tahrir Al-wasilah, vol. 1, p. 426
  6. If a person from an Islamic country committed Apostasy of Islam abroad, and returns as a non-Muslim citizen, would they still be committing a crime? Alsalamu Alaykum I would rather start my responding by a verse of the Quran in this regard; At the very beginning, we shall know about the kinds of apostasy or the differences between apostates, then Islamic rules in accordance with every one of them would be expressed.
  7. http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa14068
  8. Alsalamu Alaykum If I want to answer your question briefly, just I can say that you are allowed to do that. however for more explanation, I’d rather refer you to the following verse.Allah (SWT) says in the holy Quran: According to Islamic rules, a man is not permitted to marry those who are Mahram to him. Their names and relations are expressed in the verse. Therefore, a man is allowed to marry those whose names are not expressed in the verse. As a result,you are allowed to marry your father's uncle daughter. http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.qarai/4:23
  9. Alsalamu Alaykum In accordance with Islamic rules, a man is allowed to divorce his wife even though she is pregnant. Another case which is important to express in this regard refers to the matter of her 'Iddah. sheikh zein al-din ameli says:
  10. Alsalamu alaykum إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَاللَّـهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ. Zakah expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [zakah] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveler - an obligation [imposed] by Allah. And Allah is Knowing and Wise. [The Quran, 9:60] As for where Zakat money must be spent, the Grand Ayatullahs have said: “Zakat can be spent for the following eight purposes: a) It may be given to poor person, who does not possess actual or potential means to meet his own expenses, as well as that of his family for a period of one year. However, a person who has an industry or possesses property or capital to meet his expenses, is not classified as poor. b) It may be paid to a miskin (a destitute person) who leads a harder life than a Faqir (a poor person). c) It can be given to a person who is a Wakil of the Holy Imam (A.S.) or his representative to collect Zakat, to keep it in safe custody, to maintain its accounts and to deliver it to the Imam or his representative or to the poor. d) It can be given to those non-Muslims who may, as a result, be inclined to Islam, or may assist the Muslims with the Zakat for fighting against the enemies. e) It can be spent to purchase slaves to set them free. f) It can be given to an indebted person who is unable to repay his debt. g) It may be spent in the way of Allah for things which have common benefit to the Muslims in any way. h) It may be given to a stranded traveler.” On this basis, Islam has introduced those purposes for which the Zakat can be disposed for; the poor and the destitute being some of them. Another one of the groups that the money can be spent on are the non-Muslims who will find an incline towards Islam if they are granted from it. Regarding paying non-Muslims of this money, Islamic scholars have said: “Paying Zakat to non-Muslims who will be inclined towards Islam or will help the Muslims in the case of possible wars is permissible.” For more info visit: http://islamportal.net/node/29350 http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa6609
  11. Alsalamu alaykum « خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِم بِهَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ صَلَاتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ وَاللَّـهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ.» Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase, and invoke [Allah’s blessings] upon them. Indeed, your invocations are reassurance for them. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. Zakat is one of the five pillars on which Islam is built. It is among the obligations of faith. Because of this it has been described by a Prophetic hadith: Prayer may not be accepted from the worshipper who withholds zakat. Zakat is payable on the following kinds of property, each according to certain criteria: 1. Silver and gold coins. There are several conditions that should be present in silver and gold coins to render them taxable: I. The quantity of gold should not be less than mithqal sairafi (of coins and bullion - a unit of weight, equivalent to 4.608 gm). The percentage due is 2.5%. For every three mithqals increase thereafter, the same percentage must be paid. As for silver, the quantity should not be less than one hundred and five mithqals; the percentage due is 2.5%. For every twenty one mithqals thereafter, the same percentage should be paid. II. Eleven months should pass, leading to the twelfth month, while it is still in one’s ownership. III. Silver and gold should be of the minted type used as a means of monetary exchange. IV. The ability of the owner of these metals to use them freely all year round. Thus, no zakat is due on property over which you have no control, such as lost property, for a generally accepted length of time. V. Adulthood and soundness in mind of the owner, for no zakat shall be due on such coins owned by a minor or a mentally handicapped person. 2. Crops, such as wheat, barley, dates, and raisins. The minimum weight taxable of any of these crops, when it is dry, shall be three hundred sa’ (a cubic measure equivalent to approximately 847 kgs). The amount of zakat deductible is according to the following criteria: I. If the land cultivated with these crops is irrigated by either rain or river water that does not call for great effort, the zakat shall be 10%. II. If it is irrigated by hand, a pump, or the like, zakat payable shall be 5%. III. If the source of irrigation varies, i.e. using both the ways mentioned in (I) and (II), payment of zakat shall be at the rate of 7.5%, unless either way of irrigation was used sparingly. In this case, the rate shall be charged in line with the predominant way applied. 3. Camel, cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. The criteria for payment of zakat on these types of livestock are the following: I. When their respective numbers reach certain figures. Insofar as camels are concerned, a minimum number of five camels would warrant one sheep of zakat. As for sheep, the minimum, on which zakat is due, is forty. One sheep should be given away in zakat for that number of sheep. In respect of cattle and buffaloes, the minimum that is taxable is thirty of either. Zakat payable on that number is a calf that has just entered the second year of its life. II. Such livestock must be of the kind that graze in the fields. Should it need to be fed by supplements, even during part of the year, there shall be no zakat. III. The owner, or his guardian, should have the right of disposal over his livestock throughout the year. If any was stolen, for a considerable period of time then returned, no zakat shall be due. IV. A minimum of eleven months, leading to the twelfth month, should have elapsed under the ownership of the same person, before any zakat becomes due. 4. Revenue from trade. It is the capital used, for buying and selling, by a person with the aim of making a profit. The rate of zakat deductible is 2.5% when all the following conditions are met: I. The owner should have attained adulthood and be sound in mind. II. The property should attain the minimum outlined in silver and gold monetary means of exchange. III. The lapse of one (tax) year on it, in kind, from the date it was intended for trading and making profit. IV. The intention to make profit should remain constant during the entire year. In other words, if you appropriate some of the money you set aside for the purpose of trading, or spend part of it on buying provisions during that year, no zakat shall be due. V. The right of having free hand in the capital throughout the entire year. VI. The aim behind the working capital should be economic activity, i.e. not tying it up. For more info visit: http://www.sistani.org/english/book/49/2410/
  12. Alsalamu Alaykum Increasing of physical power refers to material and physical aspects of human being, so specific material ways are needed for a man to strengthen his body e.g. appropriate nourishment, bodily exercise and etc. However, duas are as spiritual wealth which have been expressed for moral tranquility and mental treatment of human being, because duas are the spiritual relationship of man to his Lord. By the way, Masumeen (a.s), in the meanwhile of their duas, have requested Allah (swt) to give them physical strength for applying that in the path of His obedience. For instance Imam Ali (a.s) in the Kumail’s supplication says; « قوّ علي خدمتك جوارحي...» O Allah (swt), strengthen my parts of body to be at your service…. Or it is expressed in the Wednesday’s supplication; « اللهم ارزقني في الاربعاء اربعا اجعل قوّتي في طاعتك...» O Allah (swt), bestow on me four things; put my bodily strength in the path of being obedient…. Therefore, we are allowed to beg Allah (swt) to bestow us physical power and protect our body against illnesses.
  13. Alsalamu Alaykum Firstly to reply this question, we shall know the cases which tayammum in accordance with them is obligatory to be performed. Perform Tayammum in place of Wudhu or Ghusl when: 1. Not enough water is available for Wudhu or Ghusl. 2. Obtaining water for Wudhu will endanger your life or property or you are unable to procure water by any means. 3. Using the available water will leave insufficient water for drinking and pose a risk of dying of thirst or illness, or difficulty for yourself or your dependents. 4. Washing your face and hands with water will endanger your health. 5. Water is available but you do not have permission to use it. 6. There is a risk that performing Wudhu or Ghusl will cause the time of the entire or a part of the prayer to end. 7. If the body or clothing is ritually impure (Najis) and the person possesses only as much water so that if he was to perform Wudhu or a Ghusl, no more water would be available for making his body or clothing pure for prayer. Tayammum can be done on earth, sand, and a lump of clay or stone. Earth is the first choice for tayammum. If there is no earth then either sand or a lump of clay can be used. If earth, sand or a lump of clay is not available then a stone can be used. However, one cannot perform tayammum on minerals e.g. agate, diamonds... If none of the above are available, then dust which may have settled on the carpet can be used. If dust cannot be found then tayammum can be done on wet earth. If snow or ice is available, then you should try and melt it to do wudhoo. If this is not possible then tayammum can be done on the snow or ice. The things on which tayammum is done should be clean [tahir], it should not be usurped [ghasbi] or done on a place that is usurped. Another case that can be expressed here refers to doubts of a man about cleanness of these things. ‘Taharat law’ is a jurisprudential law which is got from traditions. It says; کل شیء لک طاهر حتی تعلم أنه قذر. “All things are clean unless you become sure about their impurity.” According to this law, a man shall not take attention to his unacceptable doubt about purity & impurity of the thing that he wants to perform Tayammum on it. It means it is considered clean unless he is sure about its impurity. Read more about Tayammum in: http://www.islamic-laws.com/WudhuTayammumGhusl.htm http://islamportal.net/book/ritual-and-spiritual-purity
  14. Alsalamu Alaykum Salat is the best among all acts of worship. The rank of its importance in Islam is vivid, but the following tradition comes as an example to prove that; قَالَ رَسُولُ اللٌّهِ (ص): أَوَّلُ مَا افْتَرَضَ اللٌّهُ عَلى أُمَّتِي الصَّلَوَاتُ الْخَمْسُ وَ أَوَّلُ مَا يُرفَعُ مِنْ أَعْمَالِهِمْ الصَّلَوَاتُ الْخَمْسُ وَ أَوَّلُ مَا يُسْأَلُونَ عَـنْهُ الصَّلَوَاتُ الخمس. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “The first thing that Allah made obligatory upon my Ummah was the five prayers; and the first thing from their acts of worship that shall be taken up will be the five prayers; and the first thing that they will be questioned about will be the five prayers.” [Kanzul `Ummal, Volume 7, Tradition 18859] At the glance, it is clear to realize that the case of Salat, which includes special parts & conditions, as one of obligatory acts of worship is exclusively for Muslims. It means its performing is useless effort for those who do not believe to Allah (swt) and the comprehensive religion that He has chosen for servants. Because in this way they do not receive and comprehend Salat’s advantages & its positive effects in their life. As it is understandable from the holy Quran 29:45, to restrain from indecent and wrongful conduct are as the influences of performing Salat by all of its parts and conditions. Therefore, to believe Allah (swt) and Islam are as fundamental expedients to receive positive effects of Salat on man’s heart.
  15. Alsalamu Alaykum The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "For everything there is a face and the face of your religion is prayers. So see to it that none from amongst you damages and disfigures the face of his religion." (Source: Biharul Anwar, Volume 82, Page 209) & “If Your Salaat is accepted then all your other deeds /Aamal are accepted" Before responding this question, we shall know that Salat or Namaz is the most important and a complete system of worship in Islam. Literal meaning of salat is DUA. Considering salat as insignificant or taking it lightly (Istekhfaf-e-Salat) is a major sin. A person, who offers salat, but does not care about the masail (rules and laws) of salat, is like one who considers salat as insignificant. For some persons, the lack of knowledge of some masail of salat, wudu and ghusl, may be an acceptable excuse, but for many other persons, the lack of knowledge is no excuse, and the Islamic sharia may require such persons, in some cases, even to repeat the salat of whole life with the correct method. Hence it is necessary for every Muslim to know and understand the masail of salat carefully so that he gains full benefit of this act of worship and he is also not considered as one who is careless about salat. However, concerning to the above mentioned question, we shall know that according to Islamic rules in this regard, closing the eyes during prayer is permissible but it is Makrooh (undesirable), it means it is better to leave that during praying. Read more in; http://www.sistani.org/english/qa/01280/page/2/#14915 http://www.islamic-laws.com/salaat.htm
  16. Alsalamu Alaykum Islam is the religion of reasoning and logic, and advocates peace, cooperation, and sensible development of everything including greenery and agriculture for betterment of human life. Thus Islam achieves its objectives through reasoning, logic, and guiding people towards higher morals and loftier values. The main objective of Islam is that truth and righteousness should be upheld at all times, given their proper status, and that people should live freely and benefit from their “natural rights”. For over one thousand four hundred years now, Islam, the universal religion for all mankind for all times that reached its perfection with the mission of the Last and Greatest of Divine Messengers, Prophet Mohammad (SAWA), has like a spring of pure and fresh flowing water, quenched the thirst of the God-seeking and justice-seeking peoples of the world. Its message is against oppression, injustice and inequity, whilst providing a comforting shelter to all those who are poor and oppressed, showering mercy and forgiveness upon them. Islam is proud of the fact that Prophet Mohammad (SAWA) invited and attracted different peoples from all walks of life to Islam, through friendship, cordiality, and good manners and exemplary morals. The Holy Qur’an says if it was anything other than this, that is, if the Prophet would not have possessed these egalitarian qualities, then people would not have been attracted towards him. Islam has the distinction that as the most comprehensive and complete of all messages revealed by God, it puts a great deal of emphasis on respecting human dignity, respecting individual freedoms and respecting the “high status of human beings”. It is the religion which, even when faced with hostility, urges Muslims to perform good deeds and be kind, so that their sworn enemies become ashamed of receiving so much kindness, and turn into friends. How can such a religion condone or approve the vile a barbaric crimes of a group who pretend to be Muslims? Again, in the Holy Qur’an in ayah 94 of Surah Nisa, Almighty God tells us that even on the battlefield when you are offered peace do not dampen the hearts of such persons by saying: ‘You are not a believer.’ This ayah means to say that if someone claims to be a Muslim, his life and property should be respected, and no one has the right to cause a loss to someone, using an unjustified pretext or excuse. All the aforementioned examples tell us that Islam is the religion which is totally against violence and intimidation. But sadly, we see that deviant groups, such as Takfiris, Wahhabis, and Salafis, under the false slogan of following the Sunnah of the Prophet, commit the most heinous of murders -- murdering persons who far from being a non-believers or apostates, are true Muslims. Persons who have dedicated their life to Islam and to the Holy Qur’an are murdered in the most brutal manner. Where in the history of Islam do we come across the Prophet treating even apostates and non-believers in such a way? Sadly the actions of deviant groups such as the Wahhabbis, Salafis, and Takfiris, provide the perfect opportunity to the enemies of Islam to try to disfigure the face of Islam. The crimes and acts of violence committed by these groups are well-known. Members of these deviant groups, who are in no way Muslims, have committed acts of violence which have marred the image of Islam. This is why some naïve non-Muslims have begun to associate Islam with violence. Salafis have become tools in the hands of Zionists and the Americans. Perhaps we should be asking whether the Salafis, or for that matter members of other deviant groups such as Wahhabis and Takfiris, have read ayah 32 of Surah Ma’edah, where God Almighty says: “…whoever kills a soul, without [its being guilty of] manslaughter or corruption on the earth, is as though he had killed all mankind, and whoever saves a life is as though he had saved all mankind.” Almighty God in ayah 199 of Surah A’raaf tells Muslims: “Adopt [a policy of] excusing [the faults of people], bid what is right, and turn away from the ignorant.” Also in ayah 13 of Surah Mae’dah, the Lord says: “They pervert words from their meanings, and have forgotten a part of what they were reminded. You will not cease to learn of some of their treachery, excepting a few of them. Yet excuse them and forbear. Indeed Allah loves the virtuous.” As it is clear, each one of these ayahs proves the kindness, forgiveness and magnanimity of Islam, and is an indication of this basic truth: “Islam invites us towards righteousness based upon logic and reason, and Islam avoids violence of all kinds”. Therefore peace and friendship in Islam is strongly linked to the identity of Islam, and it is also linked to Islam’s view of the world and Islam’s view of human beings. Islam has a world mission, and the message of Islam is for all of humanity and for the entire world. In fact, Islam’s final objective is for divine values to be established and adhered to in the entire world. It is for this reason that an Islamic government should feel responsible for all the Muslims of the world, and for all the poor and underprivileged peoples of the world. Read more about peace in Islam into; http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=11356
  17. Alsalamu Alaykum How shall Allah guide a people who have disbelieved after their faith and [after] bearing witness that the Apostle is true, and [after] manifest proofs had come to them? Allah does not guide the wrongdoing lot. Their requital is that there shall be upon them the curse of Allah, the angels, and all mankind. They will remain in it [forever], and their punishment will not be lightened, nor will they be granted any respite, except such as repent after that and make amends, for Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful. Indeed those who turn faithless after their faith, and then advance in faithlessness, their repentance will never be accepted, and it is they who are the astray. Indeed those who turn faithless and die while they are faithless, a world of gold will not be accepted from any of them should he offer it for ransom. For such there will be a painful punishment, and they will have no helpers. [The Qur'ān 3:86-91] The issue of apostasy (irtidād) and the punishment that Islam has prescribed for an apostate is one of the least known and understood part of the shari`ah (Islamic laws). The most important reason to forbid “apostasy” in Islam refers to its concept. Actually, “apostasy” is equal to treason. This concept of “apostasy” and “treason” in many cultures, societies and countries are limited whereas they possess extensive meanings in Islam. For example, in England, treason is limited to include political and military aspects whereas in Islam, the concept of treason is not limited to them; it also has spiritual and cultural dimension to it. In the Islamic order of sacredness, Allah, then the Prophet, and then the Qur'ān occupy the highest positions. Tawhid, nubuwwa, and qiyāma form the constitution of Islam. Just as upholding and protecting the constitution of a country is sign of patriotism, and undermining it is a form of treason - in the same way open rejection of the fundamental beliefs of Islam by a Muslim is an act of treason. Apostasy, i.e., the public declaration of rejecting the fundamentals of Islam, has also negative influence on the Muslim society; it is indeed a major fitna. And that is why Islam has prescribed harsh punishment for irtidād. It must be emphasized that the irtidād involves open rejection, without any force and with full realization of what one's statements or actions imply. If a Muslim has a genuine doubt on an Islamic matter, that process of doubting does not automatically classify him as a murtad. As long as he is still in state of doubt, the punishment of irtidād is suspended. A murtad must fully realize the implications of his open rejection and what it means casting doubt on the truth and honesty of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) as the Messenger of God. The punishment prescribed by the shari`ah for apostasy is death. Even the terms used by the shari`ah for apostates give the idea of treason to this whole phenomenon. "Murtad" means apostate. Murtad can be of two types: fitri and milli. (1) "Murtad Fitri" means a person who is born of a Muslim parent and then he rejects Islam. "Fitrah" means creation. The term "murtad fitri" implies that the person has apostate from the faith in which he was born. (2) "Murtad Milli" means a person who converted to Islam and then later on he rejects Islam. Milli is from millat which means religion. The term "murtad milli" implies that the person has apostatized from his religion and the Muslim community. In the first case, the apostasy is like the treason against God; whereas in the second case, the apostasy is like the treason against the Muslim community. Probably, that is why the Sh`iah jurisprudence deals with these two kinds of murtads differently: • A former kāfir who became a Muslim and then apostates (murtad milli), he is given a second chance: if he repents, then he is not to be killed; but if he does not repent, then he is to be killed. • But one who is born as a Muslim and then apostates (murtad fitri), he is to be killed even if he repents. It is important to understand that in case a murtad fitri repents, Allāh may accept his repentance and he may be forgiven in the hereafter, but he still has to go through the punishment prescribed for his treason in this world. This punishment is only applicable in case of apostasy by men; in case of women, the punishment is not death but life imprisonment. And if such a woman repents, then her repentance is accepted and the punishment is lifted. Read more about “apostasy in Islam” in; https://www.al-islam.org/articles/apostacy-islam-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa4761
  18. Alsalamu alaykum Allah (swt) has created the universe in accordance with natural disposition (fitrah). Due to have inappropriate influence for human being and lead him to be astonished and perplexed, every action which is against of natural disposition (fitrah) is forbidden in Islam. Homosexuality, as one of acts which is against of natural disposition (fitrah), is prohibited in Islam. Homosexuality in men is called ‘Lavwāt’ and in women is called ‘Musāhaqah’. To know more about sharia laws concerning to these two immoral acts, some problems shall be expressed; 1- Sodomy (Lavwāt) is the sexual intercourse between two males by penetration etc. of the male organ. It is not established except by the confession made four times by the person committing sodomy or the person with whom it has been committed, or the evidence of four men, of ocular demonstration. If a man commits sodomy resulting in penetration, the punishment by death shall be established in his case as well as the person with whom sodomy is committed, when each of them is an adult, sane and having free will. As for the features of the doer person or the person with whom sodomy is committed, sharia laws in this regard are different. Being every one of them as a married person, minor boy, lunatic, dhimmi infidel and so on can be expressed as some of these features. The laws also are different in accordance with happening of penetration or not. Hadd, in some of them shall be established and Taʼzīr in some other one. 2- Lesbianism (Musāhaqah) means sexual act of a woman with another woman of her own sex. It is established with what establishes Lavwāt or sodomy. Its Hadd is one hundred lashes [to each of the women] provided they are adult, sane and have free will, no matter whether they are married or not. There is no difference between the active and passive, or an infidel and a Muslim.[1] As for it, Islam recognizes the sexual needs of human beings and believes that the natural instincts should be nurtured, not suppressed. Islam says that the biological parts of our body have a purpose; they have not been created uselessly. No text in Islam can be found to equate sex with inherent evil or sin; whatever has been taught by the Qur'an, Prophet Muhammad and his Ahlu'l-bayt points in the opposite direction. In this regard, Islam has blamed celibacy and highly recommended marriage as a good deed to resolve these immoral acts. Allah says, "Marry the spouseless among you...if they are poor, God will enrich them of His bounty." [2] The Prophet and the Imams of Ahlu'l Bayt also encouraged their followers to marry and to fulfill their sexual urges in lawful ways. The Prophet said, 'Whosoever likes to follow my tradition, then he should know that marriage is from my tradition. [3] Imam Riza said, "Three things are from the traditions of the messengers of God: using perfume, removing the [excessive] hair and frequently visiting one's wife. [4] Read more in; http://islamportal.net/book/marriage-and-morals-islam ----------------------------------------------- 1. Mousavi Khumeini, sayyed rouhollah, Tahrir Al-wasilah, vol. 2, p. 489 2. The Qur'an 24:32 3. Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Wasā'il al-Shīʿa, vol. 14, p. 3-4, 6. 4. Al-Hurr al-Aamili, Wasā'il al-Shīʿa, Vol. 14, p. 4.
  19. Alsalamu Alaykum Mahr (dower) is that amount which is paid by the husband to his wife at the time of Nikah (marriage) or agrees to pay afterwards. Everything that is capable of being owned by a Muslim is valid subject of dower, whether it is in substance, debt, usufruct of an owned property like a house, real estate or animal. It is valid to make the usufruct of a free person subject of dower as training of a trade, or similar lawful profession. Rather it can be any financial transferable right as the right of occupation of a barren land, or the like. Its amount is not limited. It can of any amount mutually agreed by the spouses big or small when it does not lose financial value due to smallness. [1] In ahadith, high amount of Mahr is considered evil and little Mahr and "Mahr al-Sunnah" (the Mahr of Lady Fatima (A)) has been advised which was about 1250 to 1500 grams of silver (equal to about 170 to 223 grams of gold). Concerning to the topic, two problems shall be clarified. One of them refers to amount of Mahr (dower) if divorce happens and another one is relevant to its date. 1. In case divorce has taken place after Nikah, and the husband has not touched the woman (wife) and (I) if mahr has not been fixed, then the husband has to pay as much as he can so that the damage thus caused to the woman’s name could be made good to some extent. This kind of treatment is necessary because it exhibits its worth (The Qurʼān 2:236; 33:49); (II) if the mahr was fixed but the man has not touched the woman (he has married) and divorce has taken place, then half of the value of mahr will be given to the woman unless she, by herself forgoes it or if the husband pays the entire mahr it is his righteous act (The Qurʼān 2:237). 2. In case of its date, it is allowed to make the whole dower prompt or [Mu’ajjal] or without later date of payment, or Mu’ajjal or deferred, or make part of it prompt and part of it deferred. The wife shall be entitled to demand the prompt dower at any time provided the husband is capable and affluent. Rather she can refuse herself to surrender to his embraces and place herself at his disposal until she receives her prompt dower, irrespective of the husband being affluent or indigent. Of course, she shall not be allowed to refuse to surrender herself in case the whole of part of the dower were deferred, and she has already receives part of it. [2] For more info visit; http://www.sistani.org/english/book/49/2414/ http://en.wikishia.net/view/Mahr http://en.rafed.net/women-world-mainmenu/family/married-life/12409-mahr-dower ------------------------------------------- 1. Mousavi Khumeini, sayyed rouhollah, Tahrir Al-wasilah, vol. 2, p. 297 2. Mousavi Khumeini, sayyed rouhollah, Tahrir Al-wasilah, vol. 2, p. 299
  20. Alsalamu Alaykum The concept of Zakat in the Qur’an and the Sunnah is considerably more expansive than the limited strictures of the law and may be understood at several levels. Arabic dictionaries offer two basic meanings for the tri-literal verb ‘z k y’ from which the noun ‘Zakat’ is derived. The first meaning is ‘to thrive, to grow and to increase’.[1] The other meaning offered is ‘to become pure, to be just and righteous’.[2] This meaning may be applied to material items in the Qur’an [3] where the word ‘tazakki’ is used synonymously with ‘tutahhir’ (to purify) and it can also be applied to the human self [4] Thereafter, the term ‘Zakat’ has been used in the Qur’an to mean both obligatory Zakat and general, recommended Zakat in the sense of charity (Sadaqah).[5] Thus Shi’a Muslims may decide to give out any amount from their wealth as charity, a practice that is highly recommended in Imami teachings and therefore they would be rightly considered as properly applying the Qur’anic teachings on Zakat. When Shi‘a jurists refer to the sunnah, after studying and analyzing all the authentic ahãdith on this subject, they reach to the following two conclusions: 1. Zakãt is wãjib (obligatory) on the following nine items: Coins: silver; gold Cattle: cows; sheep and goats; camels Crops: wheat; barley; dates; raisins 2. Zakãt is mustaab (recommended) on other items that can be weighed or other things that grow from the earth. In conclusion, the term “zakãt” as used in the Qur’ãn does not necessarily mean the same as the “zakãt” listed in the furu‘-e dín or the five pillars of Islamic teachings. Majority of our people read the Qur’ãnic term “zakãt” in the light of what they have been taught about “zakãt” as one of the wãjib taxes in Islam. The reality is otherwise. In many places, the Qur’ãn uses the term “sadaqa” for the wãjib zakãt, and conversely it uses the term “zakãt” for recommended charity. In this regard, the jurist (mujtahid) is bound to follow the sources; if the sources clearly confine the items of compulsory zakãt to nine, then they cannot go by their personal inclination and extend that list. In order to extend that list, they need clear proof in the religious sources to suggest that these items were only applicable to those days and may be increased in future. But there are no such indications in the ahãdíth. For more info visit: www.islamportal.net/book/forty-ahadith-zakat-40-ahadith-sublime-purification-zakat http://www.islamic-laws.com/pdf/... Raqib Esfahani, Al-Mufradat fi qarib al-quran, Beirut, 1991, pg 380 E.W.Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, Beirut, 1968, vol.3, pg 406 The Qur’an 9:103 The Qur’an 87:14, 3:163, 62:2 and 35:18 The Qur’an 5:55, 19:31, 19:55 and 21:73
  21. Alsalamu Alaykum Allah says: “وَلَن يَجْعَلَ اللَّـهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا…” …never will Allah give the disbelievers over the believers a way [to overcome them].[the Quran 4:141] The above mentioned verse denotes a rule which is expressed in Islamic jurisprudence. This rule is called قاعدة نفی السبیل (the rule of negation of way). Therefore, according to this rule, a Muslim man is allowed to marry a Christian or a Jewish woman in temporary marriage. Based on precaution, it is obligatory to refrain from marrying a non-Muslim woman in permanent marriage.A Muslim man is not allowed to marry, neither permanently nor temporarily a non-Muslim woman who is not amongAhlul Kitab. Based on obligatory precaution, a Muslim man must refrain from marrying a Zoroastrian woman, even temporarily. As for a Muslim woman, she is not allowed to marry a non-Muslim man in permanent or temporary marriage. for more info visit: Marriage » General Rules - A Code of Practice For Muslims in the West - The Official Website of the Office of His Eminence Al-Sayyid Ali Al-Husseini Al-Sistani Can a Muslim male marry a Christian female without his parents consent? Can a Muslim women marry a Christian?
  22. What are the four sources from which Muslim scholars extract religious law or rulings, called fatwa, and who authorizes it? Alsalamu Alaykum The four sources are: 1. The Holy Qur'an: revealed unto Muhammad (p.b.u.h) by Allah, the Exalted, and the Wise. 2. The Traditions of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) and his progeny (as): (these include their sayings, actions and tacit consent) 3. Consensus: as a strict condition the Shi’ite jurists must include at least one authentic narration of an Infallible Imam (as) for it to be considered as a basis from which a revealed ruling can be derived. This differs from the consensus of the other schools of thought in so far as their derived ruling through consensus does not have to be based on the condition mentioned above. 4. Intellect: There is no doubt that all our revealed rulings are derived and based on these four sources. However, as far as morality and human etiquette are concerned, and as far as our subject matter is concerned, what better source can there be than the noble life style of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) and that of his blessed family (as). The conclusion that one would reach, after having understood this, would be that the lay person would have to learn and fulfil the basic fundamental rulings of Islam. These rulings are categorized as obligatory (wajib), recommended (mustahab), prohibited (haram), disapproved (makruh) and permissible (mubah). A person who extract religious law or rulings from those above mentioned sources is called “Mujtahid”. Mujtahid is a jurist competent enough to deduce precise inferences regarding the commandments from the holy Qur'an and the Traditions of the holy Prophet (p.b.u.h) and his progeny (as) by the process of Ijtihad. There were not various opinions in laws and rulings in the age of Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) and infallible Imams, because people in such a case used to ask infallibles (masumin) to answer their questions and remove their ambiguities. But we live currently in the age of the absence of infallible Imam (as), so mujtahid is not able to obtain Imam’s opinion in a special matter. Therefore he must deduce laws and rulings from the holy Qur'an and the Traditions which are accessible to him. Therefore a mujtahid is faced to various difficulties to deduce and extract laws from Traditions. There are at least four fundamental aspects that leads mujtahid (jurist) to difficulties: 1. Document of Tradition: May a jurist count a person, whose name is mentioned among documents of a tradition, as a trustworthy and reliable man whereas another jurist does not believe that. 2. Ambiguity in the contexts of Traditions: Unlike to our age, sometimes the terms used in the texts of narrations were clear to understand at the age of infallibles (as). For instance, the exact meaning of the word ‘ghina’ (singing) was clear for people in the age of infallibles (masumin) whereas is an ambiguous concept now which has various meanings. 3. Ambiguity in issuing of Traditions: infallible Imams (as) lived at the age of oppressor governments of ‘bani-omayyah’ and ‘bani-abbas’. These governments were enemies of them, so they did not allow infallible Imams (as) to express freely their opinions. So sometimes they were enforced to say what not true rules were, in such a manner that they performed ‘Taqqiah’ or said their ideas implicitly. A mujtahid must know these specific conditions. 4. Difference in foundations of the Principles of Jurisprudence: The most important branch of learning in preparation for jurisprudence is the principles of jurisprudence, a delightful subject and one originated by Muslims. The Principles of Jurisprudence is, in reality, the "study of the rules to be used in deducing the Islamic laws" and it teaches us the correct and valid way of deducing from the relevant sources in jurisprudence. The idea of each mujtahid (jurist), according to sources, documents and foundations of his viewpoint in jurisprudence and principle, is likely to be different with another mujtahid, so it leads them to have different ideas (Fatwa). As a result, various ideas (Fatwa) are undeniable to be appeared according to these difficulties that mujtahid faces to them. For more info visit: https://www.al-islam.org/articles/islamic-perspective-of-the-beard http://islamportal.net/book/islamic-laws-ayatullah-khui-articles-islamic-acts
  23. Alsalamu Alaykum Allah says: “وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ” “I did not create the jinn and the humans except that they may worship Me”. [The Quran 51:56] According to the above mentioned verse, worshiping is the purpose of man’s creation, but in one hand, worshiping of Allah is not merely summarized to theoretical matters and spiritual actions but has physical and material aspects, in addition to them, like; praying, fasting, jihad, etc. On the other hand, man has both physical and mental structures in a way that Allah has appointed his body as steed and tools for his spirit. Spirit, without body, is not able to do fighting, sabering and so on, or even bowing down to his Lord. Body, due to be material, is in dire need to material affairs to be alive in such a manner that will be exhausted and died without them, some affairs like; water, food, air, etc. Spirit also, without tools and material causes, is not able to do acts of worship and spiritual works, then the purpose of man's creation will not be achieved, therefore sustenance and livelihood are vital for man’s body. So due to have capability to worship the Lord, it has been emphasized in Islam to do working to gain Halal property. Actually worship and earn livelihood are interdependent, because spirit of man without his body is not able to perform worship and his body without food is not stable. It is reported a Hadith from the prophet [peace be upon Him] to have said, ‘َالکادُّ لِعِیالِهِ کَالْمُجاهدِ فی سَبیلِ الله’ ‘Someone who tries to earn his family’s livelihood is as like as one who does jihad in Allah's way’. Hence Allah has expressed the case of man’s livelihood after the purpose of his creation, since He said, ‘Indeed it is Allah who is the All-provider, Powerful and All-strong’. [The Quran 51:58]
  24. Alsalamu Alaykum In Islamic jurisprudence, haram is used to refer to any act that is forbidden by Allah, and is one of five Islamic commandments (الأحكام الخمسة‎ (al-ahkam al-khamsah)) that define the morality of human action. Something forbidden is what Islam has prohibited and has forbidden being done absolutely. Acts that are haram are typically prohibited in the religious texts of the Quran and the Sunnah. The most remarkable reason to forbid something in Islam refers to its considerable harm, no matter is physical, mental, economical, social and so on. For example: gambling leads to loss of possessions, alcoholic drinks lead to illnesses, listening to songs can cause neurasthenia, adultery has the effect of confusing genealogy, sodomy is the source of venereal diseases and related ailments in both partners, interest brings about disorder in economic balance. Islamic prohibitions are numerous, some of which are as follows: Associating anything with Allah (SHIRK) Murder Practicing magic Disrespect to parents Abandoning relatives Fornication and Adultery Homosexuality (this includes sodomy in all forms) Interest (Riba or Usury) Wrongfully consuming the property of an orphan Lying about Allah and His Messenger Drinking Khamr (alcohol/wine) Gambling Stealing Highway Robbery Taking false oath Oppression illegal gain …etc. For more info visit; http://www.sibtayn.com/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2487:5-what-is-forbidden-in-islam&catid=289:what-is-islam&Itemid=414 http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=5592
  25. Alsalamu Alaykum An important aspect of Islam is that every human being has the free will to choose between right and wrong. God, The Giver, has honored humanity with this great gift. Like everything else in this world, every act that we intent to do is a phenomenon and for it to actually take place, it is in need of a cause. Knowing that man is only one factor amongst many others, other factors can also affect his actions.[1] For example, for one to eat a piece of bread, not only does he need to will such a thing and carry it out with his hands and mouth, but a piece of bread must also exist and be available at the intended time and place. Without these conditions being met, eating the bread would not take place. Also if all the conditions are met and the complete cause exists, then the result will necessarily take place.[2] (The complete cause of something means the existence of all the necessary factors and causes of something taking place or coming into existence) Allah Almighty has decreed that man’s will have effect in this world. If an incident has five conditions that need to be met to take place, one of those is man willing it to happen. For example, to turn on a light, all the required systems must be in place, including the switch, wires, lamp, the connection between the wires, the source of electricity and the electrical flow itself. If all the other conditions are met we can be effective in turning the light on by turning the switch. In this example, let us say that turning the switch represents our free will and God has willed that as long as one hasn't turned the switch of something, for its light not to turn on (in voluntary actions). Also, just because the existence of something becomes necessary upon the existence of its complete cause, doesn't mean that the relation between it and part of its complete cause isn't contingency. It is true that in the previous example, if all the different factors existed, then the light would have to turn on, but is it necessary for the person to turn the switch on? Or is it simply possible? The answer is clear. It is simply possible for the person to turn the switch on and if all of the incomplete causes gather to form the complete cause, the light will necessarily turn on. This possibility between man’s will and turning the switch on does not contradict the necessity of the light turning on when the complete cause exists. Our simple understanding of this issue also proves this opinion, because we see that even an uneducated person considers things like eating, drinking, coming and going different than feeling well or sick and being tall or short. The first group are considered actions that man’s will plays a role in and therefore, people praise or blame individuals for carrying them out, while the second group are considered inevitable matters that man has no responsibility in regard to them. Therefore, environment, inherent qualities, parents, society, etc are as incomplete causes whereas Allah as the complete cause and the creator of them has given free will to human. For more info visit: http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa287 ——————————————- [1] Either a cause necessitates the result by itself and does not need anything else to do so, or its existence is necessary for the result, but is not enough and also requires other causes to necessitate the result. In the first case, the cause is called illah tammah (complete cause), while in the second, the cause is referred to as illah naqisah (incomplete cause). [2] Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad Husayn, Shiah dar Eslam, p. 78.
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