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In the Name of God بسم الله

Ibn al-Hussain

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About Ibn al-Hussain

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  1. This is a transcript of a commentary on Surah al-Kafirun given by Shaykh Haider Hobbollah over five lessons. Due to their length, I have split them into two parts. Part 1: Contains a discussion on the names of the chapter, reasons for its revelation and its merits. The discussion then expands on the different opinions on the word "qul" as used in the Qur'an, followed by what the term kafir means when employed by the Qur'an. Read Part 1: https://www.iqraonline.net/commentary-on-surah-al-kafirun-part-1/ Part 2: Contains a discussion on what is 'Ibadah in light of this chapter and why is there repetition in the verses? Does the last verse of Surah al-Kafirun establish freedom of religion for everyone or does it not have anything to do with religious freedom? Read Part 2: https://www.iqraonline.net/commentary-on-surah-al-kafirun-part-2/ Wasalam
  2. I haven't looked at scholarly opinions, but just by reading them myself I can say one of the ways to interpret these would be by reading them as qadhiya fi al-waqi'ah where the Imam (a) is addressing not in general universal terms, but speaking specifically to the conditions of the person (something very common in hadith, but often overlooked by us since we are theologically programmed to think every word the Imams (a) said is meant to be universally applicable at all times and places). In other words, the hadith could mean that for those individuals asking the question, during their lifetime the Earth definitely did not remain empty without an apparent Imam (a) and that is what they should have been concerned with. Interestingly the last tradition of Abu Yusuf can be used to show the aspect of Lutf - since the existence of the Imam (a) is tied to worshiping Allah. Wasalam
  3. During my classes on 'Adalah al-Sahaba with Shaykh Haider Hobbollah in 2017, we covered a number of narrations from Shi'I books that can be cited to prove the 'adalah of the companions. One of those traditions cited was this. Although Shaykh concluded that this tradition does not prove the 'adalah of all companions as a principle employed by Sunni scholars and rather it is in line with Shaykh's own view on the companions (which I cannot explain in a short post like this), on the details of its content, he said the division of Makkah, Medina and Tulaqa does not need to be taken so strictly, similar to how we divide the Surahs of the Qur'an into Makki and Medani. There are verses that were revealed in Makkah after the hijrah yet they are considered Medani, or verses revealed in Taif or other cities, yet they are classified as Makki or Medani depending on whether it is before or after hijrah. Likewise, when it speaks of the Makki companions here, it could be speaking of those before migration or even those who joined the Muslim community after migration, and the Tulaqa are those who converted after the conquest. He on the other hand was more concerned with the numbers - while acknowledging these cannot be exact numbers and is referring to rounded figures - but still there is room for thought on whether these are accurate reflections of the population of the companions. Wasalam
  4. This surah mentions three qualities of Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى), but these qualities are annexed to the word al-nās (people, mankind or humans) as follows: Lord of the People Sovereign of People God of people The refuge (isti’ādha) being sought in this verse is connected to the Lordship of Allah and to the recognition that He is the Lord of people. This is because refuge is only taken with one who has lordship (rubūbīyyah), one who can manage your affairs and take care of you. A child takes refuge in his or her mother because she takes care of the baby’s affairs. Likewise, we take refuge in the Lord of people, because He is the one who manages our affairs. This is irrespective of whether we are depressed, sad, scared, vulnerable, weak, or ignorant – we take refuge in someone who can save us and take us out from our troubled conditions. Likewise, sovereignty (mulk) is a reference to authority and power. You take refuge with someone who has power and ownership of everything; everything is in their hands. You take refuge in someone who is stronger than you, who can do something for you. You do not take refuge in someone weaker than yourself because they cannot help you or do anything for you. Finally, you take refuge in God, someone who you can submit to, someone who you will listen to when they ask you to do something. You trust them, worship them and have faith in them hence you take refuge in them. Continue Reading: http://www.iqraonline.net/commentary-on-surah-al-nas/
  5. Salam, Inshallah will try - although can't promise how soon as it's the end of term soon and I'm also travelling. I'm also working on editing Surah al-Nas, al-Kafirun and al-Falaq - editing them just takes a lot of time. Surah al-Inshirah is also complete (by another brother) and just waiting for it to be edited. Wasalam
  6. Names & Merits of the Chapter Sūrah al-Takāthur is the 102nd chapter of the Qurān and it has been referred to by five different names: Al-Takāthur Sūrah allatī dhukira fīhā al-takāthur – this is how Sharīf al-Raḍī has referred to it Sūrah Alhākum as mentioned in Bukhārī, or Alhākumu al-Takāthur as mentioned in some traditions Orientalists use its number (102) to refer to it Ālūsi reports from Ibn Abī Hātim that the companions of the Prophet (p) would call it al-Maqbarah(or al-Muqbirah) A number of traditions also speak about the merits of this chapter. Shu’aib al-‘Aqrqūfī narrates from Imam al-Ṣādiq (a) who said: Whoever reads Alhākum al-Takāthur in the obligatory prayers, then the reward of one-hundred martyrs is written for him. One who reads it in a supererogatory prayer, then the reward of fifty martyrs is written for him. Forty rows of angels pray along with him in his obligatory prayer.2 It is definitely very difficult to comprehend these type of traditions – how could one receive such a great reward by merely reciting it in prayers. Perhaps this is why Shaykh Makārim Shīrāzī in his Tafsīr Nemūnehsays that this reward is only given when one also acts on it. Though the tradition itself does not say anything about acting on it and simply says this reward is given to anyone who reads it in the obligatory or supererogatory prayers. In another tradition, Durust narrates from Imam al-Ṣādiq (a) who cites the Prophet (p) saying: Whoever reads Alhākum al-Takāthur before sleeping, they will be protected from the punishment from grave. Reasons for Revelation We do not have any early reliable records of when and why this chapter was revealed. In the second century hijrī we have some reports that suggest this chapter was revealed in the context of a conflict taking place between two tribes from the Anṣar, namely Banū Haritha and Banū Ḥarith. This conflict was such that it led each tribe to show-off in front of one another, claiming and demonstrating which of them was better than the other. In another report, it says it was revealed for two clans of the Quraysh – Banū ‘Abd Munāf and Banū Sahm b. ‘Amr, who were arguing over petty issues. Other than these two reports, we do not have anything else reliable to which we can resort to in order to give this chapter further historical context. Continue Reading Full Post: https://www.iqraonline.net/brief-commentary-on-surah-al-takathur/ Wasalam
  7. You can access the articles after signing up (there should be a registration panel visible on the right side of the website). Wasalam
  8. In order to ask our questions properly, sometimes we need to look at the history of the problem and the history of the question. This question can be traced back to the time soon after Ghaybah - particularly in Baghdad with the rise of Shi'I scholarship there. One of the major principles used by Mu'tazli and Shi'I scholars to derive many theological conclusions was the principle of grace (qa'idah al-lutf). This principle, alongside the principle of al-husn wa al-qubh al-aqli (intelligibility of good and evil), are the cornerstone of much of Shi'I theology (I am not addressing later Sadrian reinterpretations that were made to these theological conclusions, because those even impacted the idea of the Mahdi and the notion of the Perfect Man becomes an important element in those interpretations). Classical Shi'a theologians proved the necessity of Imamah and also the concept of infallibility through the principle of Lutf. The principle of Lutf essentially dictates that God must do all which would allow us humans to get closer to obeying Him and farther away from disobeying Him. This was the gist of it, although there are different divisions of Lutf and the books of theology have extensive discussions on them and what are their examples. For example, Lutf can be divided into Muhassal and Muqarrab. Muhassal are those instance of Lutf which give human life purpose and meaning in light of allowing them to obey and staying away from disobeying God, so for example legislating Divine Law, sending a Prophet (p), physically creating us in a way that we can carry out these responsibilities. Muqarrab are those instances which God does to motivate humans in obeying Him and staying away from disobeying Him - for example, promising us hell and heaven, reiterating that life is a test, allowing for a Prophet/Imam to physically rule and govern etc. It was in this context, that this question was then posed against the Shi'as: You who believe in the principle of Lutf and had claimed that it is according to this principle that there must be an Imam at all times, accessible, how do you reconcile this principle with the idea of the Ghaybah? The likes of Sayyid Murtadha, Shaykh Tusi, Khwaja Nasir al-Din Tusi and others have all addressed this topic at length. Unfortunately, these writings are only available in Arabic or Farsi, and not much exists in English. They would take too long to translate as well, but I can give a brief summary of the arguments. We need to first acknowledge that the principle of Lutf does not negate human free-will. Meaning, Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) could do Lutf on His part, but we out of our free-will may choose to not benefit from it or take it seriously. That being said, let us see how the Imam is a Lutf to begin with: a) His mere existence while he is accessible; b) His mere existence while he is inaccessible; c) His physical ability to govern and rule. We need to see what the traditions say about the reasons for the Ghaybah and then see whether anything is in conflict with the principle of grace and to what extent. The reasons mentioned in traditions are usually: 1) Fear and threat of enemies; 2) Trial for believers; 3) Opportunity to prepare for the end of times. The first reason is directly tied to human free-will. It is like when other Imams were imprisoned, Allah had done Lutf and sent forth an Imam, but people did not benefit from them and in fact, some decided to imprison them. Likewise, the Prophet (p) when he was in Makkah, he was unable to rule and govern, and at times may have been inaccessible (for example, when He was sanctioned for 3 years). However, one would need to realize, in all these cases, one cannot say that the Prophet or Imam were not an instance of Lutf (even if they are inaccessible), rather even their mere existence can be argued to be an instance of Lutf (as the Shi'as will argue, especially with traditions that say there always needs to be a Hujjah on Earth). The second reason says it is a trial for the believers - this itself is Lutf (Muqarrab), and the third reason is also a Lutf Muqarrab, because knowing that an Imam exists and that there will be a just government established in the future and that this Imam will need pious followers, is motivation for the believers to work harder and be committed to their religion. So the Ghaybah itself results in two further instances of Lutf. However, we can admit that lack of accessibility is definitely a deficiency in Lutf (even if its cause is from us), but Lutf is of different degrees and just because one degree of it is missing, it does not mean it is completely absent. As such, we argue that even the mere existence of the Imam - even if they are absent and physically inaccessible, they are Lutf as far as they are a Hujjah on Earth. In fact, Sadra and post-Sadrian Shi'a philosophers have utilized these traditions and other understandings to expand on this even more and have claimed that the mere existence of the Imam is a mediating entity through which all types of blessings and grace of Allah are bestowed upon us. Consider reading: Mullā Ṣadrā's philosophical arguments for the necessity of the imamate, by Sayeh Meisami for a brief overview of this interpretation. On a side note, many contemporary scholars have questioned the applicability of the principle of Lutf, saying even if the principle is true, we can never understand its instance and applications. If one believes in this, then they can no longer use the principle of grace to build up many aspects of their theology and they would need to take another approach, but at the same time, this question may also not directly concern them. Wasalam
  9. I became familiar with the brittle bones condition when I saw a few videos of Sparsh Shah, especially his appearance on TEDx. Though it seems like a challenging condition to live with, however, it also looks like people with these type of conditions often learn to adapt to their disabilities and are more comfortable with their lives than what others may think. I have a cousin who lost both of his arms above the elbow when he was a teenager, and he is one of the most athletic and talented persons I know in all of our family. That being said, marriage is a very different ball game - it is a commitment and lifetime relationship. You yourself, first of all, would need to acknowledge the limitations you would have to face in a marriage, and your potential husband would also need to come to terms with these limitations and be sacrificial enough to commit to it. There are people with brittle bones who have married, perhaps you should read up on their experiences and see the types of challenges they have had to deal with, how they managed to do it - usually, people's stories & experiences are inspiring and motivating. Given you are most likely from a Pakistani - Punjabi background, you also need to take certain other expectations into consideration. Your role will be that of a homemaker, a mother and wife - other than religious expectations from a wife, there are also cultural expectations that may be imposed upon you that you would need to be aware of. For example, can you cook and clean or will the husband be expected to do all that, are you capable of having children, etc. and most importantly, how limited will your bedroom life be (as that will have a huge impact on the possibility and as well as the success of your marriage). You don't need to address these on a public forum, but it is something you would need to be honest about with yourself and your potential husband. PS - Coming from a similar cultural and ethnic background as you, the biggest mistake you can do is limit yourself to your own ethnicity and even worse, limiting it to a Sayyid.
  10. Salam, This ruling is a popular ruling amongst Shi'a jurists and whether you knew about it or not, it makes no difference and it will be applicable to you. Not sure why you decided to get into an adulterous relationship with the person, one of its consequences is this. Some have alluded that the only way out is if the man did not know you are married and mistakenly thought you were divorced or single. However, Ayatullah Muhammad Jawad Fazel Lankarani (son of famous deceased Marja' Ayt. Fazel Lankerani) does not agree with this ruling and says it is only ihtiyat mustahabb for the man and woman to not marry [source] - if you refer to his ruling (I don't know who you do taqleed of and how you do taqleed) you can marry this man temporarily or permanently. Wasalam
  11. We cannot do it on a specific day with the belief that on this specific day there is a law of Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى) which has been conveyed to us by the Imams (a) that it is mustahabb to invite people and feed them. That would be a clear example of tashri' (legislation), and a bid'ah (innovation) - which is haram according to all scholars, Sunni or Shi'a.
  12. It is a general act which is loved by Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى). There are a number of traditions on the subject of guests and specifically feeding the guests, for example from Imam Ali (a): حُبِّبَ إِلَيَّ مِنْ دُنْيَاكُمْ ثَلَاثٌ إِطْعَامُ الضَّيْفِ وَ الصَّوْمُ بِالصَّيْفِ وَ الضَّرْبُ بِالسَّيْفِ There are three things from your world that I love: 1) Feeding a guest, 2) Fasting in the summer, and 3) Fighting (I.e. Jihad) Especially if one is rich and can afford it, then in a tradition from Imam Ali (a) it is said that it is preferred for them to invite guests and be hospitable. Anyways, the number of traditions on the subject and reward for it are too many for me to post here. Wasalam
  13. Amongst some subcontinent Shī’ī and as well as some Sunnī Muslims, the custom of Kūnḍay takes place on the 22nd of Rajab. The research papers I have looked into discussing the historicity of this tradition agree that the practice began around 1906. The son of the famous poet Amīr Mīnāī (d. 1900 CE), Khurshīd Aḥmad Mīnāī wrote and distributed a book titled Dastān-e ‘Ajīb, which first spread in the city of Rāmpūr, Uttar Pradesh and slowly crept into the city of Lucknow. By 1911 it had spread to villages and cities around Lucknow such as the village of Udh and region of Rohilkhand and subsequently much of the subcontinent. Continue reading: http://www.iqraonline.net/22nd-of-rajab-and-kunday/
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