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In the Name of God بسم الله

amirhosein_88

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  1. knowledge as a sign for the Imam As mentioned explicitly in various narrations, one of the signs to recognize the Imam is his knowledge. The infallible Imams have used different terms including: A. Knowledge in an absolute form In some narrations, knowledge in an unconditional way, has been introduced as a sign for the Imam, such as: 1. «عَنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ النَّضْرِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع بِمَا يُعْرَفُ صَاحِبُ هَذَا الْأَمْر؟ قَالَ بِالسَّكِينَةِ وَ الْوَقَارِ وَ الْعِلْمِ وَ الْوَصِيَّةِ»[1] “Harith ibn al-Mughayra al-Nazri says: I asked Imam al-Ṣādiq (عليه السلام) that how the owner of this status (I.e. Imamate) is recognized. He said: with calmness and gravity and knowledge and will”. 2. «عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْجَهْمِ قَالَ حَضَرْتُ مَجْلِسَ الْمَأْمُونِ يَوْماً وَ عِنْدَهُ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى الرِّضَا ع وَ قَدِ اجْتَمَعَ الْفُقَهَاءُ وَ أَهْلُ الْكَلَامِ مِنَ الْفِرَقِ الْمُخْتَلِفَةِ فَسَأَلَهُ بَعْضُهُمْ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا ابْنَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ بِأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ تَصِحُّ الْإِمَامَةُ لِمُدَّعِيهَا قَالَ بِالنَّصِّ وَ الدَّلَائِل‏. قَالَ لَهُ فَدَلَالَةُ الْإِمَامِ فِيمَا هِيَ قَالَ فِي الْعِلْمِ وَ اسْتِجَابَةِ الدَّعْوَةِ.»[2] “Al-Ḥasan ibn Al-Jahm says: “One day I attended a meeting with al-Ma’mun and ‘Ali ibn Mūsā Al-Riḍā (عليه السلام) was also present there. The theologians and rhetoricians from various sects had gathered there. One of them asked the Imam (عليه السلام), “O son of the Prophet of God! What is the proof of Divine Leadership which proves the validity of one who claims it?” The Imam (عليه السلام) replied, “(Divine Leadership of one who claims it is proved) by what has been written and by the proofs. The man asked, “What is the proof of a Divine Leader?” The Imam (عليه السلام) replied, “It is knowledge and the fulfilment of the prayers.”” B. The ability to answer questions According to some narrations, the sign of Imamate is that the Imam is able to answer all the questions, such as: 1. «عَنْ أَبِي الْجَارُودِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِذَا مَضَى عَالِمُكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ فَبِأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ يَعْرِفُونَ مَنْ يَجِي‏ءُ بَعْدَه‏؟ ُ قَالَ ... وَ لَا يُسْأَلُ عَنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِمَّا بَيْنَ صَدَفَيْهَا إِلَّا أَجَابَ فِيهِ»[3] “Abi al-Jarud narrates that: I asked Imam al-Bāqir (AS): May I be ransom for you! When the knowledgeable of you, the people of the household, (I.e. the Imam) passes away, how the next one is known? He said: … and that he will not be asked about anything in the east or in the west unless he will give the right answer.” 2. «عن أبي الجارود قال سألت أبا جعفر الباقر ع بم يعرف الإمام قال بخصال ... و أن يسأل فيجيب و أن يسكت عنه فيبتدئ‏.» “Abi al-Jarud says: “I asked Imam al-Bāqir, ‘by what proofs can one know the Imam?’ He said, ‘Through several qualities. …That when asked he would answer, and if one remained silent he would begin to speak on the issue.” 3. «عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي الْحَسَنِ ع جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ بِمَ يُعْرَفُ الْإِمَامُ قَالَ فَقَالَ بِخِصَالٍ ... وَ يُسْأَلُ فَيُجِيبُ وَ إِنْ سُكِتَ عَنْهُ ابْتَدَأَ.»[4] “Abu Basir has said the following: “I asked Abu al-Ḥasan, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, by what proofs can one know the Imam?’ He said, ‘Through several qualities. ... That when asked he would answer, and if one remained silent he would begin to speak on the issue.” In the last 2 narrations, the second of which has been quoted from al-Kāfi, the Imam states: “he answers when he is asked” (يُسْأَلُ فَيُجِيبُ). The letter ف before "َيُجِيبُ" implies immediacy. Therefore, this expression involves that the knowledge that is the sign of Imamate is the one needless of thinking and contemplating. So the Imam is the one that when asked, answers immediately without requiring time to think; thus, the knowledge which is not free from contemplation is not the sign of Imamate. [1] Ibid. [2] ‘Uyum Akhbar al-Riza, vol. 2, p. 200. [3] Al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 200 [4] Al-Kāfi, vol. 1, p. 285.
  2. Introduction “Imamate” enjoys a great and unique status in the eyes of Muslims, especially the Shi’a and that is why, during the history, some fake claimants have tried to, through claiming to be the Imam, attract the attention of some ignorant lay men and gain some wealth and positions. For this reason, on one hand, the infallible Imams (عليه السلام) always tried to guide their followers by clarifying the criteria and signs through which a true Imam can be distinguished from the fake claimants. On the other hand, the Shi’a, by asking about the signs of an Imam and the ways to recognize the false claimants, asked the infallible leaders for help and guidance. Therefore, in Shi’a collections of Hadith, there are many narrations in this regard: sometimes, the infallible Imams (عليه السلام) began to explain the issue and sometimes, they answered the questions of their companions about the ways to know the Imam. The first category of narrations include: «لِلْإِمَامِ عَشْرُ عَلَامَاتٍ ...[1]» “There are 10 signs for the Imam …” «عَنِ الصَّادِقِ ع قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع وَ الْإِمَامُ الْمُسْتَحِقُّ لِلْإِمَامَةِ لَهُ عَلَامَات‏ ...»[2] “Imam al-Ṣādiq (عليه السلام) quotes Imam ̔Ali (عليه السلام) as saying: the Imam who deserves the Imamate has some signs …” «أبي الحسن علي بن موسى الرضا ع قال للإمام علامات‏ ...»[3] “Imam al-Riḍā (SA) said: Imam has some signs …” Among the narrations of the second category, mention can be made of the following: «عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع مَا عَلَامَةُ الْإِمَامِ الَّذِي بَعْدَ الْإِمَامِ؟»[4] “Mu’awiya ibn Wahb says: I asked Imam al-Bāqir (AS): what is the sign of the Imam who succeeds the previous Imam?” «عَنْ أَبِي الْجَارُودِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِذَا مَضَى عَالِمُكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ فَبِأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ يَعْرِفُونَ مَنْ يَجِي‏ءُ بَعْدَه‏؟...»[5] “Abi al-Jarud narrates that: I asked Imam al-Bāqir (AS): May I be ransom for you! When the knowledgeable of you, the people of the household, (I.e. the Imam) passes away, how the next one is known? …” «عَنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ النَّضْرِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع بِمَا يُعْرَفُ صَاحِبُ هَذَا الْأَمْر؟ ...»[6] “Harith ibn al-Mughayra al-Nazri says: I asked Imam al-Ṣādiq (عليه السلام) that how the owner of this status (I.e. Imamate) is recognized. …” «عَبْدِ الْأَعْلَى قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع الْمُتَوَثِّبُ عَلَى هَذَا الْأَمْرِ الْمُدَّعِي لَهُ مَا الْحُجَّةُ عَلَيْهِ؟ ...»[7] “Abd al-A‘la has said the following: I asked Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘In the case of those who rush to hold control of this matter (leadership) and who claim to be for it, how can one verify their possessing Divine Authority?’ «عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي الْحَسَنِ ع جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ بِمَ يُعْرَفُ الْإِمَامُ؟ ...»[8] “abu Basir said the following: “I asked Abu al-Ḥasan, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, by what proofs can one know the Imam?’” «عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ وَ حَفْصِ بْنِ الْبَخْتَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع قَالَ قِيلَ لَهُ بِأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ يُعْرَفُ الْإِمَام‏؟ ...»[9] “Hisham ibn Salim and Hafs ibn al-Bakhtari have said the following: “Once a certain person asked Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘By what means is the Imam recognized?’” « عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع إِذَا مَاتَ الْإِمَامُ بِمَ يُعْرَفُ الَّذِي بَعْدَه‏؟ ...»[10] “Ibn Abu Nasr has said the following: “Once I asked Abu al-Ḥasan al-Riḍā, ‘When the Imam dies, through what means can one know the succeeding Imam?’” «عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ عُمَرَ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا ع قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الدَّلَالَةِ عَلَى صَاحِبِ هَذَا الْأَمْر ...»[11] “Ahmad ibn ‘Umar has said the following: “I asked Abu al-Ḥasan al-Riḍā, ‘What is the proof that establishes one’s possessing Divine Authority or being the person in charge of leadership?’” The great number of such narrations, especially the ones reporting various questions of the Imams’ companions about the ways to recognize an Imam, may well prove the great number the claimants who tried to deceive the simple-minded people by establishing themselves as the Imams. That is why the Shi’a were in serious need for such knowledge and used to remove their concerns by asking the Imams. For the importance of this issue, Shaykh Kulayni, the prominent scholar of Hadith, has dedicated a chapter of his Al-Kāfi to this matter, titled “the reasons verifying the Divine authority of the Imam” and gathered the related narrations. [1] Al-Kāfi, vol. 1. P. 388 [2] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 48, p. 164. [3] Al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 527 [4] Al-Kāfi, vol. 1, p. 284. [5] Al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 200 [6] Ibid. [7] Al-Kāfi, vol. 1, p. 284. [8] Al-Kāfi, vol. 1, p. 285. [9] Al-Kāfi, vol. 1, p. 284. [10] Ibid. [11] Al-Kāfi, vol. 1, p. 285.
  3. Salamun Alaykum. During the history of Islam, some have falsely claimed to be Imam. In our era, still there are fake Imams; one claims to be Mahdi while another claims to be the 13th Imam! In out narrations, the Imams (عليه السلام) have introduced different ways to recognize true Imam. Here in this thread, I will have a discussion on this very important topic, taking benefit from the book Rah va Birahe by Nusrat Ayati in Persian.
  4. Book launch ceremony on Milad al-Nabi in Al -i- Muhammad mosque in Harare Translation of Dua Kumayl into Shona language which is the local language in Zimbabwe.
  5. Salamun alaykum. Many! He has mistakes in reciting the Qur'an and reading the narrations. He has mistakes in interpretation of some Verses and even in writing some Verses. He has mistakes in quoting and commenting on some narrations. He gas serious mistakes in historical accounts.He has various mistakes in Arabic grammar in his books and of course, many theological mistakes,
  6. Salamun alaykum. I would appreciate if you can translate the following narration into English: اجتمعت العصابة بنيسابور في أيّام أبي عبد اللّه - عليه السلام - فتذاكروا ما هم فيه من الانتظار للفرج، و قالوا: نحن نحمل في كلّ سنة إلى مولانا ما يجب علينا، و قد كثرت الكاذبة و من يدّعي هذا الأمر، فينبغي لنا أن نختار رجلا ثقة نبعثه إلى الامام ليتعرّف لنا الأمر، فاختاروا رجلا يعرف بأبي جعفر محمد بن إبراهيم النيسابوري، و دفعوا إليه ما وجب عليهم في السنة من مال و ثياب ... و جاءت الشيعة بالجزء الذي فيه المسائل [و كان] سبعين ورقة، و كلّ مسألة فيها بياض، و قد أخذوا كلّ ورقتين فحزموهما بحزائم ثلاثة، و ختموا على كلّ حزام بخاتم، و قالوا: تحمل هذا الجزء الذي معك، و تمضي إلى الامام و تدفع الجزء إليه و تبيت عنده ليلة، و عد عليه و خذه منه، فإن وجدت الخاتم بحاله لم يكسر و لم يتشعّب فاكسر عنها ختمه و انظر الجواب، فإن أجاب و لم يكسر الخواتيم فهو الامام، فادفعه إليه، و إلاّ فردّ أموالنا علينا. ... ثمّ خرجت و سألت أهل المدينة إلى من أوصى جعفر بن محمد؟ فقالوا: [إلى] ابنه الأفطح عبد اللّه. فقلت: هل يفتي؟ قالوا: نعم، فقصدته و جئت إلى باب داره، فوجدت عليها من الغلمان ما لم يوجد على باب دار أمير البلد، فأنكرت ... فدخلت ... ثمّ قال: في أيّ شيء جئت؟ قلت: في مسائل أسأل عنها و اريد الحجّ. فقال [لي] : سل عمّا تريد. فقلت: كم في المائتين من الزكاة؟ قال: خمسة دراهم. فقلت: كم في المائة؟ قال: درهمان و نصف. فقلت: حسن يا مولاي، اعيذك باللّه ما تقول في رجل قال لامرأته: أنت طالق عدد نجوم السماء؟ قال: يكفيه من رأس الجوزاء ثلاثة. فقلت: الرجل لا يحسن شيئا، فقمت و قلت: أنا أعود إلى سيّدي غدا Thank you so much in anticipation.
  7. Salamun alaykum. There are many, I mean many reasons to prove him wrong. He has various kinds of mistakes regarding the Qur'an, Hadith, theology, history, jurisprudence etc.
  8. Salamun alaykum. I've decided to translate into English one of the Persian books criticizing Ahmad al-Hasan al-Basri. I'd like to know: Firstly, if he and his views are that famous in the West, so that to publish a book against him is necessary. Sometimes, to criticize leads to preaching! Secondly, if there are already such books in English. If yes, what are their names. Any comment is appreciated.
  9. Salamun alaykum. There is no وَ (wa: and) or فَ (fa: then) between the Verses. So the sequence is not based on time; rather, it is based on the importance. Therefore, the Holy Qur'an is mentioned first as it is more significant than human being. It is interesting to know that عَلّمَ has been mentioned in Chapter Al-'Alaq as well but in that Chapter, the creation of human being is mentioned first: اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذي خَلَقَ (1) Read in the Name of your Lord who created خَلَقَ الْإِنْسانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ (2) created man from a clinging mass. اقْرَأْ وَ رَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ (3) Read, and your Lord is the most generous, الَّذي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ (4) who taught by the pen, عَلَّمَ الْإِنْسانَ ما لَمْ يَعْلَمْ (5) taught man what he did not know. The reason might be the fact that in this Chapter, there is no mention of the Holy Qur'an; rather, it is about any kind of knowledge which is obtained by the pen. In this case, the creation of human being is more important. Commenting on Chapter Al-Rahman, Allamah Tabataba'i writes: و لما كان القرآن أعظم النعم قدرا و شأنا و أرفعها مكانا- لأنه كلام الله الذي يخط صراطه المستقيم و يتضمن بيان نهج السعادة التي هي غاية ما يأمله آمل و نهاية ما يسأله سائل- قدم ذكر تعليمه على سائر النعم حتى على خلق الإنس و الجن اللذين نزل القرآن لأجل تعليمهما. Al-Mizan, vol. 19 p. 94 "Since the Quran is the most important and significant blessing of Allah ... its teaching has been mentioned before other blessings even the creation of human and Jinn for whom the Qur'an was revealed".
  10. With due respect, I prefer to avoid "what if" questions! Imaginations and nothing more.
  11. Salamun alaykum. This is the content of a narration from Imam Sadiq: عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع أَنَّهُ قَالَ مَنْ قَرَأَ إِذَا أَوَى إِلَى فِرَاشِهِ قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ وَ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لَهُ بَرَاءَةً مِنَ الشِّرْكِ Al-Kafi, vol. 2 p. 626 Usually the narrations which talk about the virtues of the recitation of certain Chapters are explained by the scholars as referring to both reciting and acting upon the Verses. Now when the main message of this Chapter is to be away from disbelief and polytheism the effect of its recitation with contemplation is to be immune from Shirk.
  12. Salamun alaykum. Welcome to SC and congratulations for your decision. The following thread is about the same question. i hope it would help:
  13. If what we mean by seeing God is seeing Him through the outer physical eye, it something totally ruled out both by the intellect and Islamic sources. The intellect: the action of seeing takes place only when things are exposed to light beams and their reflection is captured by the eye. This means that there should firstly be an external thing present and secondly it should be captured by the eye in the field of vision. Based on this we cannot see things which are behind us, whereas God is not a physical entity and He does not have the physical features of a physical being. Therefore He can not be seen with the naked eye. Islamic sources: There are verses in the Holy Quran and traditions which stipulate the impossibility of seeing God. a) The Holy Quran says: 1 - O Moses you can never see me.[1] 2 – The eyes cannot see Him.[2] b) Traditions: "God never appears before the eyes"[3] "The eyes have never seen you"[4] and “The eyes will never see him openly”[5] But if what we mean by seeing God is seeing Him through an inner witnessing and witnessing the light of the names and attributes of God in the heart, within the limits that human beings have then it is possible. Imam Ali Úáíå ÇáÓáÇã says: "Hearts can perceive Him".[6] In another tradition he says to Za'lab: "Shame on you! Eyes cannot see Him but the hearts can."[7] [1] Surah Aaraaf, Verse 143 [2] Surah Anaam, Verse 103 [3] Nahjul Balagha sermon: 49 [4] Nahjul Balagha sermon: 109 [5] Nahjul Balagha sermon: 179 [6] Nahjul Balagha sermon: 179 [7] Mizan Al Hekmat, Vol. 6, P. 190, Hadith: 12095 Source: http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa1748
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