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narsis

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  1. Bismillah. Salaam. Why do the Shia consider temporary marriage (sighah/mut’ah) permissible? Temporary marriage is an accepted system of marriage by the Qur'an and Shīʻī jurisprudence. Through learning and studying Islamic traditions and knowing the philosophy behind every rules, we will admit the precise and accurate system of jurisprudential issues. Please read this article accurately and refer to the references I've provided at the end; Before beginning this debate, two points need to be mentioned: 1) This issue is a fiqhi one, therefore it originally needs to be analyzed in the right place by Sunni and Shia fiqh experts (fuqaha’) along with Quranic and hadithic reasoning and without any negative propaganda and making noise or insult by any of the two sides. 2) Analyzing this issue along with propaganda and insult (as seen in some websites and opposing books) is not the right way to analyze it and is far from proper Islamic behavior. In order to be able to reach a conclusion, the following points need to be mentioned and analyzed: 1) The definition of temporary marriage 2) The Quranic and hadithic reasoning behind it being permissible 3) Has its ruling been nullified? 4) What the sahaba and tabe’in’s viewpoints were on it. 5) Some of the doubts and questions regarding this issue 1) Its definition: Mut’ah means for a free woman (who isn’t a slave) to willingly get married to a man for a limited and specified time, along with the mahr (dowry) they have agreed on, given that there aren’t any sababi (restrictions that are caused by certain causes eg. when one gets married to a woman, he can no longer get married to her mother even if he divorces her and in other words, marrying her mother is haram forever), nasabi (restrictions that are a result of certain family relationships eg. one cannot get married to his sister, mother or aunts), and rezai (restrictions caused by a woman breast feeding a child of course only certain breastfeeding with the necessary conditions) restrictions to getting married, that the woman isn’t married to another man, that she isn’t in her Iddah (the waiting period in which a woman must observe after divorce before being able to get married to another man) or any other restrictions. In this marriage contract, there is no divorce, and whenever the specified time of the marriage ends, the couples are no longer “husband” and “wife”. If they have had any intercourse and at the same time she isn’t ya’esah (referring to a woman in menopause) she has to the observe the divorce Iddah after their separation. If she doesn’t have a menstrual period, but is in the age that she is supposed to see blood, she has to observe Iddah for forty-five days.[1] The child of such a marriage, regardless of whether it is a girl or boy, is the father’s and is called by his name and inherits from both his mother and father. All of the general rulings pertaining to fathers, mothers, their children, and the child’s aunts and uncles go here too. 2) The reason behind its permissibility: All Muslims agree and no one argues the fact that the permissibility of such a marriage has been legislated by Islam such that all Islamic scholars of all sects (with all of their differences) have no objection here. Of course, Sunnis believe that its permissibility has been nullified. We will analyze this claim as we go on. As for its Quranic reasoning: Allah (swt) says: فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَریضَةً [2] Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Ibn Abbas, Sa’id ibn Jubayr, Ibn Mas’ud, and Al-Sadi all would recite the mentioned verse in the following manner: فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ إِلى‏ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى (In other words, they would add the underlined phrase). Agreed, the writer of Tafsir Al-Minar (Rashid Rhidha) insists that this verse was revealed concerning permanent marriage, but this theory is incorrect because: a) A large number of the sahabah believe that this verse was revealed concerning temporary marriage, not permanent marriage. The reason for such a claim is that they would always add this phrase «إِلى‏ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى» to the end of the verse. Back then, this phrase was used and added to a marriage contract to indicate its temporariness (showing that when they would add it to the abovementioned verse, they believed that it is talking about temporary marriage). This phrase literally means until a certain mentioned time. b) Although the word mut’ah (and its derivatives, like the one in the previous verse) can also be used for permanent marriage, its frequent usage is for temporary marriage, therefore if it is used, it is apparently pointing to temporary marriage. On the other hand, the word “nikah” can be used for temporary marriage, although its usage for permanent marriage is stronger. Therefore, this verse is most probably and apparently speaking of temporary marriage.[3] [4] Even if one doesn't accept that mut’ahs apparent meaning isn't temporary marriage, the least is that it denotes temporary marriage and as a result, will be one of the cases in which a word is used in a sentence for more than one meaning. c) Using mut’ah in the verse to convey permanent marriage entails an unnecessary repetition in the verse. That is because in the beginning of surah Nisa' (which has expressed most of the rights and decrees pertaining to women) all of the different types of marriage have been mentioned in a special order. As for permanent marriage, it says: "If you fear that you may not deal justly with the orphan (girls), then marry (other) women that you like, two, three, or four. But if you fear that you may not treat them fairly, then (marry only) one…"[5] Regarding the mahr (dowry) of a marriage, it says: "Give women their marriage-portion freely, (without any restraint), but if they themselves (voluntarily) remit to you anything thereof, then you may consume it with pleasure."[6] Concerning female slaves (Ima'): "And whosoever of you who has not the means to marry free-believing men, may marry believing girls from among those (captives and slaves) whom you own; and Allah is The Knower of your Faith; you are Fellow-creatures; then, wed them with the permission of their masters and give them their marriage-portion according to what is reasonable, provided that they are chaste, not adulterous nor taking secret lovers…"[7] Here, when Allah (swt) says " ما مَلَکَتْ أَیْمانُهُمْ " (those whom you own), He is pointing to the marriage between a person and his female slave. This issue has also been mentioned in this verse: "Except from their spouses or their slave women, for then they are not blameworthy. "[8] Finally this statement that says: " فَانْکِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ " (then marry them with the permission of their masters) indicates the marriage between a man and the female slave of a third person. Till this verse, all of the different types of marriage have been counted. The only one left is temporary marriage, which has been also been stated in the previous verse. As a result, interpreting this phrase " فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ " as something pertaining to permanent marriage and the phrase " فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُن" (so grant them their dowries) as its mahr and dowry both entail repetition that is not needed at all, because both have already been mentioned in the previous verses. Anyways, by taking a look at this surah, one can conclude that it is trying to list all of the different types of marriage in a specific order and this list doesn't come out to be complete unless temporary marriage is meant by the abovementioned verse (as the verse's apparent meaning also shows). d) If permanent marriage is meant, then why has it been claimed that temporary marriage has been nullified? In this case there is no meaning in temporary marriage being nullified, because when the Quran hasn’t legislated it in the first place, how it can be nullified? e) In this verse, paying the mahr or dowry has been announced as subject to estemta' (sexual pleasure) when it says: "For the enjoyment you have had from them (sexual intercourse) thereby give them their dowries…"[9] and this matter suits temporary marriage, not permanent marriage because in the latter, the woman becomes owner of the dowry as soon as the marriage contract is performed, although paying all of it depends on the marriage being consummated (while in the former, she only becomes owner after the contract being consummated). Of course, how and when it is paid all depend on the society where the couple live in and the traditions there. Some might even give it before the contract is performed, while others might delay it until after the husband's death for the wife to inherit it. These were a few of the many Quranic reasons for temporary marriage. Now the reasons for it from the tradition of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh): The followers of the Prophet's tradition all know that there are many genuine and authentic hadiths on the permissibility of temporary marriage during his time, here are a few: a) Jaber ibn Abdillah al-Ansari reports: "We would perform temporary marriage during the time of Rasulullah (pbuh) and it was also allowed during Abu Bakr’s time until Umar banned it.[10] b) It has been quoted from Ibn Abbas that: "The verse of mut'ah (that says that mut'ah is halal) is of the muhkam verses of the holy Quran (verses that are clear statements accepting no interpretation) which hasn't been nullified."[11] c) Both Hakim and Ibn Jarih report that Imam Ali (as) said: "If Umar hadn't banned mut'ah, no one would ever commit adultery other than shaqiyy (wretched) individuals."[12] d) It has been quoted that 'Imran ibn Hasin said: "The Quran contains the mut'ah verse and there is no other verse that (has come after it that) nullifies it. The Prophet (pbuh) ordered us to it and never banned it during his lifetime. After his demise, someone came and banned it on his own behalf and according to his own opinion."[13] This hadith shows that mut'ah was halal until the second khalifah's time which this hadith refers to as "someone who banned it on his own behalf and according to his own opinion".[14] Till here, one can conclude that the argument over mut'ah's permissibility doesn't go back to whether or not the Prophet (pbuh) legislated its permissibility or not, or whether or not any of the Sahaba performed it or not, or whether or not they believed in its permissibility after the Prophet's demise or not (before the second khalifa's reign). On the contrary, the root of this argument is whether this action, which was allowed during the Prophet's time and was acted upon by his companions, was nullified or not. Also, a part of this argument goes back to the fact that some have considered its permissibilitng the Prophet's time and will punish anyone who performs them; the mut'ah of women (getting married temporarily to them) and the mut'ah of Hajj."[23] 4) The sahabas’ position and viewpoint regarding temporary marriage: A large number of sahabis and tabe'in (those who followed the Prophet's time but never saw him) see mut'ah as permissible and not nullified. They are as follows: 1) Imran ibn Hussain 2) Abdullah ibn Umar 3) Salamah ibn Umayyah 4) Ma’bad ibn Umayyah 5) Zubair ibn 'Awamm 6) Khaled ibn Muhajir 7) Ubayy ibn Ka'b 8) Rabi'ah ibn Umayyah 9) al-Sadi 10) Mujahid 11) Ibn Aws Madani 12) Anas ibn Malek 13) Mu'awiyyah ibn abi-Sufyan 14) Ibn Juraih 15) Nafe' 16) Sabib ibn abi-Thabit 17) Hakam ibn Utaybah 18) Jabir ibn Yazid 19) al-Bara' ibn 'Azeb 20) Sahl ibn Sa'd 21) Mughairah ibn Shu'bah 22) Salamah ibn Akwa' 23) Zayd ibn Thabet 24) Khaled ibn Abdillah al-Ansari 25) Ya'la ibn Umayyah 26) Safwan ibn Umayyah 27) Amr ibn Hawshab 28) Amr ibn Dinar 29) Ibn Jurair 30) Sa'eed ibn Habib 31) Ibrahim al-Nakha'i 32) Hasan Basri 33) Ibn Musayyab 34) A'mash 35) Rabi' ibn Meysarah 36) Abi Zuhari Mutraf 37) Malek ibn Anas (in one of his two viewpoints) 38) Ahmad ibn Hanbal in some conditions 39) Abu Hanifah according to some cases[24] 5) Doubts and questions on mut'ah: a) The whole purpose of legislating the permissibility of marriage is for the establishment of a family and the continuation of generations, while temporary marriage defeats this purpose because the only reason for such a marriage is sexual satisfaction. Answer: This question comes up because one mixes up the benefits of a specific ruling and its “subject” (In order to see what is meant by the subject of a ruling , pay attention to the following example: “Prayer is wajib” ; This ruling has a ruling and a subject; its ruling is wujub, or in other words, being mandatory. The subject of this ruling is the act that has been made mandatory, which in this case is prayer.). What was mentioned was one of the benefits of marriage, but its ruling doesn't solely depend on that particular benefit, thus, getting married to a barren or ya'esah woman (one who has reached menopause), or a girl who is still a child is also acceptable (although the abovementioned benefit isn't possible with them). Many young couples get married only for fulfilling reproductive desires in an Islamically legitimate way and don’t even think of bringing a child (although it might accidentally happen), yet their marriage is right and no one says that such intentions are problematic. What is strange is that sexual desires are counted as its only benefit, while in many cases like in permanent marriage, one gets temporarily married for other reasons such as bringing a child, managing and taking care of the home, or nursing and growing children etc. The question we have from those who oppose mut'ah is that if its purpose contradicts that of permanent marriage, then what do you have to say about couples who get married with the intention of getting divorced after two months? Is their marriage correct or not? Clearly, no faqih and alem (scholar) says such a marriage is incorrect unless he wants to say something completely illogical. So what is the difference between the two, other than one being timely and the other, permanent? The author of al-Minar says: "The strictness of past and present ulema (scholars) and them prohibiting mut'ah, necessitates the prohibition of permanent marriage with the intention of getting separated by divorce afterwards. Yet, they say that if one has this intention at the time of marriage but doesn't mention it when performing the contract as one of the contract’s conditions, the contract is correct (and the two become husband and wife, although if it is mentioned, it will surely make the contract void), nevertheless, hiding this intention is considered deceit, thus, such a contract deserves to be void (although it isn't) more than a contract in which such intentions have been mentioned in (because when it isn’t mentioned, it is considered deceit)."[25] We the Shia believe that if the couple themselves are content (in order for it not to become a form of deceit), and make a time limit one of the contract's conditions, it is still correct and they are husband and wife. b) The permissibility of mut'ah contradicts the verse that says: "And those who guard their private parts; except from their spouses or their slave women, for then they are not blameworthy; but whoever seeks (anything) beyond that it is they who are transgressors."[26] This verse is saying that anyone who goes after anything other than the mentioned instances has crossed Allah's red line and entered the domain of haram acts. Mut'ah doesn't cause any legitimate relationship between two people, so one who has intercourse with his mut'ah "wife" has commited a haram act. Answer: This is merely a claim that has no backup. Such a woman is the man's wife and has her own rulings. Just because her sustenance (nafaqah) isn't the man's responsibility and the fact that she doesn't bear the qismah right (which says the different wives of one man equally share his sleeping with them, each "owning" the same number of nights), doesn't make her not be his wife. The nashizah woman (one who doesn't do tamkin) is considered one's wife although she lacks the nafaqah and qismah rights, and the same goes with a girl who has become one's wife while merely being a child. It is completely wrong to say that since there is no ruling, there is no subject of the ruling. Sometimes the subject is there, but its ruling isn’t. Being husband and wife is a relationship between a couple that is followed by numerous rulings and decrees, if some of them cease to exist, it doesn't mean that the relationship in its entirety doesn’t exist either. There are chances that some of these rulings exclusively belong to some types of marriage, not all of them. c) One who performs temporary marriage, isn’t after companionship and a life free of adultery and sin, on the contrary, his/her sole intention is adultery. And although there is a responsibility of the man taking care of his spouse and therefore somewhat causing an obstacle for him committing adultery, there is no obstacle for the woman to commit it and she is able to offer and present herself to other men anytime she desires, becoming one of the instances of the poem that speaks of a ball that is struck back and forth by polo-sticks.[27] Answer: Who says that being protected only belongs to men? If this marriage is right, both men and women can protect themselves from adultery. Three things prevent young women from wrongdoing: 1- Permanent marriage 2- Temporary marriage with the conditions that were mentioned earlier 3- Controlling and dominating one's sexual drive The first choice isn't a practical one for young girls and boys because of the low salaries that they receive from their families or the government or anywhere else. Taming the sexual drive is also impractical and almost impossible except for a few exceptional individuals. The only option that remains for youth in order not to fall into sin and corruption is temporary marriage. Islam is Allah's final religion and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is His final messenger, his book being the final book and his decrees being the final ones. Such characteristics call for this religion to have a solution for every social problem that might occur in order to keep the respect and greatness of Muslims. Sexual problems aren't an exception and Islam surely needs to provide a solution. Imam Ali's (as) voice can still be heard, warning mankind of the negative consequences of not taking this solution serious: "If it wasn't for him (Umar banning mut'a) no one would ever commit adultery other than the shaqiyy (wretched)."[28] As for linking mut'ah to the poem mentioned above, it is a sign of this person's ignorance regarding its essence and its borders and limits. The mut'ah that this person is thinking of, is one of the wrong statements that the Shia have always been accused of[29], while the Shia find this accusation false. They don’t believe that the temporary wife is one who other men can have turns with, how is that so, while they say that after every temporary marriage she has to observe an Iddah?! If she has to observe an Iddah, offering herself to others will no longer have any meaning. Subhanallah! How can they lie so much about the Shia?! This poem is an insult to divine revelation and heavenly legislation, while all interpreters of the Quran and narrators of tradition all agree that such a decree was indeed legislated, even though they claim that it was eventually nullified. So what this person is actually saying is that during the time this marriage was allowed by the Prophet (pbuh), it was an illegitimate act! [1] See index: Remarrying after temporary marriage (question 1099). [2] Nisa:24. [3] See: Tabari, Tafsir Kabir; Zamakhshari, Kashaf; and the sharh (explanation) of Sahih Muslim by Nawawi in the beginning of the chapter on marriage, and other great scholars have all considered this recitation as one that no one can doubt about. In this case, the phrase " الی اجل مسمی" will only be an explanation added to the verse, not part of the verse. [4] Ezdevaje Movaqqat (temporary marriage), pg. 14-15, The Ahlul-Bayt World Assembly. [5] Nisa':3. [6] Nisa':4. [7] Nisa':25. [8] Mu'minoon:6. [9] Nisa':25, ... فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُن [10] Sahih Muslim, v.4, pg. 131, Musnad Ahmad, v.6, Fathul-Bari, v.9, pg.149. [11] Kashaf, v.1, pg. 498, printed in Beirut. [12] Tafsir Tabari, v.5, pg. 9, Fakhr Razi's Tafsir, v.10, pg. 5, al-Durrul-Manthur, v.2, pg. 140. [13]Sahih Bukhari, v.2, pg. 168 and v.6, pg. 33; Sahih Muslim, v.4, pg. 48, Sunan Nisa'i, v.5, pg.155; Musnad Ahmad, v.4, pg. 426 with an authentic chain of narrators. [14]See: Neylul-Atwar, v.6, pg. 271; Fathul-Bari, v.9, pg. 150. [15] Muminoon:6-7, إِلاَّ عَلى‏ أَزْواجِهِمْ أَوْ ما مَلَکَتْ أَیْمانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَیْرُ مَلُومینَ فَمَنِ ابْتَغَى‏ وَرَاءَ ذَالِکَ فَأُوْلَئکَ هُمُ الْعَادُون‏ " [16] Talaq:1 "فطلقون لعدتهن" [17]Ahkamul-Quran, 290, pg. 184-195, chapter of mut'a, Darul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah; Sahih Muslim along with the explanation of Nawawi, v.9, pg. 179, the chapter on mut'a Irshadus-Sari. [18]See: Sahih Muslim, v.2, pg. 130, Darul-Fikr Press, Beirut. [19]The tafsir of Qurtobi, v.5, pg.130-131. [20] Zadul-Ma'ad, v.2, pg. 204. [21] See: Ezdevaje Movaqqat (temporary marriage), pg. 17-21, The Ahlul-Bayt World Assembly. [22]Al-Insaf fi Masa'ela Dama fihil-Khilaf, pg. 534. [23] Sharh Ma'anil-Athar, v.2, pg. 146. [24] Al-Ghadir, v.6, pg. 220, and Ezdevaje Movaqqat dar Islam, pg. 133, and Mut'a az Fakiki, and Ahkamul-Shar'iyyah fi Ahwalal-Shakhsiyyah. [25] Tafsir Al-Minar, v.3, pg. 17. [26] Mu'minoon:5-7. [27] Tafsir Al-Minar, v.5, pg. 13. [28] Mustadrakul-Wasa'el, v.14, pg. 478. " فَلَوْلَاهُ مَا زَنَى إِلَّا شَقِیٌّ أَوْ شَقِیَّة" [29] See: Kitabul-Sunnah wal-Shia, pg. 65-66. With Duas. Narsis. http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa915
  2. narsis

    How much Qur'an a day?

    Bismillah. Salaam. To recite the Qur'an is, itself, light and brings you light. So the Qur'an says: فَاقْرَؤُا ما تَيَسَّرَ مِنَ الْقُرْآن‏ "Recite from the Quran as much as possible!" (73:20) As it has been mentioned in Ahādīth, the minimum is 50 verses but it doesn't mean that if you only can recite 10 verses every day, you are not allowed. We have to do our best to recite it everyday -10 verses or 50 or more -. The second light that has been emphasized upon a lot by the Qur'an and Ahādīth is pondering on the verses. Therefore try to balance between these two lights. With Duas. Narsis.
  3. Bismillah. Salaam. Their conduct, based on their knowledge and inerrancy, was the best conduct and they have never done any mistreatment to their parents. Here you can be informed of some of their words and deeds in this regard: Imam Sadiq (a.s.) stated: بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ مِنْ حُسْنِ مَعْرِفَةِ الْعَبْدِ بِاللَّهِ تَعَالَى إِذْ لَا عِبَادَةَ أَسْرَعُ بُلُوغاً لِصَاحِبِهَا إِلَى رِضَاءِ اللَّهِ مِنْ بِرِّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ الْمُؤْمِنَيْنِ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَی "Goodness towards the parents is an indication of a person’s excellent cognizance of Allah. This is because there is no worship that can take a person towards the happiness of Allah faster than exhibiting respect towards his Muslim parents for the sake of Allah." (Misbāh al-shariʻah, p.70) And Imam Baqir (a.s.) said: ثَلَاثٌ لَمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِأَحَدٍ فِيهِنَّ رُخْصَةً أَدَاءُ الْأَمَانَةِ إِلَى الْبَرِّ وَ الْفَاجِرِ وَ الْوَفَاءُ بِالْعَهْدِ لِلْبَرِّ وَ الْفَاجِرِ وَ بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ بَرَّيْنِ كَانَا أَوْ فَاجِرَيْنِ "There are three things which Allah, the Mighty and the Glorious has not permitted anyone to forsake: returning a trust to its owner, irrespective of whether he is a good person or an evil one; fulfilling one’s promises and covenants, irrespective of whether it has been made to a good person or an evil one; being good and kind towards one’s parents, irrespective of whether they are good or evil." (al-Kāfī, vol.2, p.162) And also the historical record says that Imam Sajjad (a.s.) have always refused to eat with his mother. Someone asked him: though you have utmost attempt to do Silatul Rahim and you are the most merciful towards your relatives than other people, so why do you refuse to eat with your mother? He answered: because I fear to grab the piece of food that she was going to get. (al-Khisāl, vol.2, p.518). With Duas. Narsis.
  4. Of course good deeds have to be done towards all people but the Hadith is going to emphasize on parents and their priority for our good treatment.
  5. But the text of Hadith stands for mother ... this could be a good topic for research.
  6. This is a historical event that includes different records; even in the personality of his mother.
  7. narsis

    How to know a Foolish

    Bismillah. Salaam. There are definitions for ignorance; according to some Mufassīrīn "Jahl" or ignorance is used more to indicates foolishness and being reckless in regard with truth. For example Allah (s.w.t.) says in the Qur'an: prophet Yūsuf said: قالَ رَبِّ السِّجْنُ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّا يَدْعُونَني‏ إِلَيْهِ وَ إِلاَّ تَصْرِفْ عَنِّي كَيْدَهُنَّ أَصْبُ‏ إِلَيْهِنَّ وَ أَكُنْ مِنَ الْجاهِلين‏ "He said," My Lord! The prison is dearer to me than to what they invite me. If You do not turn away their schemes from me, then I will incline towards them and become one of the senseless." (12:33) Ignorance in this verse means paying attention and inclining to those women. This term (Jahl) is also used in the Qur'an to mean: "lack of knowledge"; the Qur'an says: لِلْفُقَراءِ الَّذينَ أُحْصِرُوا في‏ سَبيلِ اللَّهِ لا يَسْتَطيعُونَ ضَرْباً فِي الْأَرْضِ يَحْسَبُهُمُ‏ الْجاهِلُ أَغْنِياءَ مِنَ التَّعَفُّفِ تَعْرِفُهُمْ بِسيماهُمْ لا يَسْئَلُونَ النَّاسَ إِلْحافاً وَ ما تُنْفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَليم‏ "(Alms are) for the poor who are confined in the Way of Allah they cannot go about in the land;" the ignorant man thinks them to be rich on account of (their) abstaining (from begging) you can recognize them by their mark they do not beg from men importunately And whatever good thing you spend, sure Allah knows it." (2:273) With Duas. Narsis.
  8. Of course the second one is meant ... to heal someone that Doctors have failed to cure is not impossible as experience has shown during history due to many reasons among which I can mention imperfection of medical sciences.
  9. Bismillah. Salaam. Some points regarding the concept of "Dua" in Islam; There are plenty of Qur'anic verses and Ahādīth encouraging people to pray and stick to Dua as much as they can. The Qur'an states: وَ قالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُوني‏ أَسْتَجِبْ‏ لَكُمْ إِنَّ الَّذينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبادَتي‏ سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ داخِرين‏ "Our Lord has said," Pray to Me for I shall answer your prayers. Those who are too proud to worship Me will soon go to hell in disgrace". (40:60) Question: Whom should we ask from? Answer: the answer is in the Qur'an as well. There is no one worthy to be asked from except Allah (s.w.t.) Who is all-Powerful and all-Wise; أَمَّنْ يُجيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذا دَعاهُ وَ يَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ وَ يَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفاءَ الْأَرْضِ أَ إِلهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ قَليلاً ما تَذَكَّرُون‏ "(Are the idols worthier or) the One who answers the prayers of the distressed ones, removes their hardship, and makes you the successors in the land? Is there any lord besides God? In fact, you take very little heed. (27:62) وَ إِذا سَأَلَكَ عِبادي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَريبٌ أُجيبُ‏ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذا دَعانِ فَلْيَسْتَجيبُوا لي‏ وَ لْيُؤْمِنُوا بي‏ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُون‏ "(Muhammad), if any of My servants ask you about Me, tell them that the Lord says,"I am near; I accept the prayers of those who pray." Let My servants answer My call and believe in Me so that perhaps they may know the right direction." (2:186) What are the benefits of Dua: There are many benefits mentioned by the Qur'an and Ahādīth for making Dua. Here I mention some of those: Enjoyment of worshiping. To be detached from other than Allah and attached to Him. To remove solicitude, worriment and fear from himself through connecting to Merciful Allah. Dua is compensation for the failure of man; the Qur'an says: قَالَ رَ‌بِّ اشْرَ‌حْ لِي صَدْرِ‌ي – وَيَسِّرْ‌ لِي أَمْرِ‌ي – وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِّن لِّسَانِي – يَفْقَهُوا قَوْلِي – وَاجْعَل لِّي وَزِيرً‌ا مِّنْ أَهْلِي He said," My Lord! Open my breast for me – Make my affair easy for me. – Remove the hitch from my tongue – [so that] they may understand my discourse. – Appoint for me a minister from my family. (20:25-29) Dua is the weapon of Prophets. (al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 468, H.5) Dua protects us from calamities and fate. (al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 469) Dua is heal for pains. (Makārim al-akhlāq, p. 271) Dua is the key of granting. (2:186) The person who is asking Allah (s.w.t.) has to know two things: Allah (s.w.t.), Who is the source of everything. Himself who is at the highest level of need. Etiquette of doing Dua: 1. To begin it with "Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Rahim"; Allah (s.w.t.) says in a Divine Hadīth: کل أمرٍ ذی بالٍ لم يُبدَأ ببسم الله فهو ابتر "Any important work which is not started with Bismillah remains incomplete." (Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 73, p. 305) 2. To glorify and exalt Allah (s.w.t.) before asking. 3. To recite Salawāt before asking. 4. To ask Allah (s.w.t.) through intercession of sacred ones. 5. To confess sins before Allah (s.w.t.). 6. To pray two Rakʻats. 7. Not to underestimate any request. 8. To include others in his Duas. 9. To do Dua in private. 10. To do public Dua. 11. To be hopeful for answering. 12. To choose the proper time for making Dua; When the winds blow. At noon and afternoon. When it begins to rain. After morning Salāt at dawn. After Maqrīb. There are three points that person has to be always reminded of: Not to ask for impossible and impermissible things. Not to hurry for being answered and letting Allah (s.w.t.) to decide when is the time of acceptance due to His wisdom. Not to teach Allah (s.w.t.) what is his benefit. He knows better. Barriers of acceptance of Dua: Sins. Injustice. Incompatibility of Dua with Allah's wisdom. With Duas. Narsis.
  10. Insha'Allah ... if man always listens to Allah (s.w.t.), he can reach to the level that Allah (s.w.t.) will always listen to him.
  11. According to some Ahaadith when man finds out in hereafter the reward of Duas that have not been answered, he will wish that no Dua of him get answered in Dunya.
  12. narsis

    Hermeneutics & Tafseer

    Bismillah. Salaam. Hermeneutic is defined as "theory or philosophy of interpretation of meaning" and it is in fact a kind of research methodology that specifies to humanities and social sciences. Therefore it speaks about this question: "how is the process of understanding?" or "how does a meaning transfer from a person's mind to the other's" and questions like these. There are great differences between Hermanutical way and interpretational way that is used by religious scholars. Among the main differences is that religious interpreters attempt to deduce the meanings of the Divine Legislator (Allah) from the scriptures while based on Hermanutical way, scholars approach the scripture apart from its writer and they do not care about its writer's implications and study the scripture qua scripture. So according to Hermanutical way every word and sentence of scripture could have different meaning in different periods and indeed this is history that gives meaning to the scripture. With Duas. Narsis.
  13. Bismillah. Salaam. The only way is increasing knowledge regarding your religion (theologically and jurisprudentially) and then acting upon your knowledge based on following Imams and pious experts. With Duas. Narsis.
  14. narsis

    Some Rights of Children

    Bismillah. Rights of children should be approached form two aspects: 1) His/her rights as Human. 2) His/her rights as a child. With Duas. Narsis.
  15. Bismillah. Salaam. When referring to historical documents we find that after the martyrdom of Fatimah Al-Zahra, Amir al Muminin (A.S.) had three children that had the same names as the Khulafa. One of them was Abu Bakr bin Ali bin Abi Talib the son of Laila, the daughter of Masoud Thaqafi [1]. The other child was Usman, whose mother was Ummul Banin (which both of them were martyred in Karbala alongside their brother Imam Hussein (A.S.). [2] The third child was named Umar, the son of Imam Ali. [3] There are a few points that must be noted regarding the naming of these children: 1. Basically naming your children with same names as somebody else doesn’t prove your affection for them and doesn’t mean you share the same beliefs and fiqhi and political stances, the same way not using those names doesn’t necessarily suggest any sort of friction and enmity, although undoubtedly, love and hate sometimes might play a role in this issue. In addition, the public mindset at that time was that using those names wasn’t a significant thing and was not conceived as a sign of approval or disapproval. As a matter of fact these names would not remind anyone of the Khulafa and it was actually through the passing of time and history that the name of these three individuals were bolded, but back then these names were so common that if Ali (A.S.) or anybody else chose the name Abu Bakr for their child it wasn’t reminiscent of the First Khalifa. One must know that the names of the three khalifas were not confined to them, but actually frequently used before and after Islam, among Arabs. This naming could not be a reason for friendship and liking. For example, the last king of Iran, named Muhammad Reza, was the most despised person in the country, but at the same time this didn’t change the fact that this name was commonly used among people. There were others among the great Sahabah (The Companions) of the Prophet (A.S.) that had the same name as the Khulafa too such as Usman bin Maznun and others so how can someone claim that these names weren’t for the remembrance of these great companions. You can check the names of the Sahaba that were named Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman in Al-Isti’aab by Ibn Abdul Birr and Asad Al-Ghabah by Ibn Athir. Now we will take a brief look at the book <<Asad Al-Gabah Fi Maarifah Al-Sahaba>> and list those who had the name Umar. 1. Umar Al-Aslami, 2. Umar Al-Jami’I, 3. Umar bin Al-Hukm, 4. Umar bin Salim Al-Khazai’i, 5. Umar bin Siraqah, 6. Umar bin Sa’ad Al-Anmari, 7. Umar bin Sa’ad Al-Salma, 8. Umar bin Sufyan, 9. Umar bin Abi Salmah, 10. Umar bin Amir Al-Salma, 11. Umar bin Ubaidullah, 12. Umar bin Akramah, 13. Umar bin Amr Al-Laisi, 14. Umar bin Umair, 15. Umar bin Auf, 16. Umar bin Azyah, 17. Umar bin Laheq, 18. Umar bin Malik bin Uqbah, 19. Umar bin Malik Al-Ansari, 20. Umar bin Muawiyah Al-Qazeri, 21. Umar bin Yazid, 22. Umar bin Al-Yamani. These are just the people whom Ibn Asir has mentioned in his book. We can clearly deduce that these names have been commonly used throughout history, both before and after Islam and frequently heard in all groups and classes. Also, there are many of the Tabi’in (The Followers) that had the name Umar, the book Mu'jam Al-Thiqat has listed nearly 60 pages of narrators that had the name Umar. These names were very common at the time of the infallibles such as Abu Bakr bin Abdullah Sa’d Ash’ari and Abu Bakr Hadhrami who were narrators of Imam Sadiq’s (A.S.) hadith, and Usman bin Saied which was one of the four special representatives of Imam Zaman (A.S.) in the time of the minor occultation. All of these facts prove that using names like Abu Bakr, Umar and Usman would not remind anyone of anybody except the owner of the name himself. It isn't as if there was only one Ali and one Abu Bakr (Umar or Usman) and despite this scenario, Imam Ali still went ahead and named his children Abu Bakr, Umar or Usman; these names were commonly used by different people at various times. (Of course, if naming a certain name is ever ordered by God or His Prophet it will carry with itself a sacredness, as is the case with the names of the children of Ali (A.S.) and Fatimah (S.A.) children; Hassan and Hussein (A.S.). [4]) Therefore, you will agree that the names of the other Khulafa were famous and common names before and after Islam and no one would ever remember the Khulafa when hearing them. Therefore we cannot overlook all of what has been written in history regarding the enmity Imam Ali had with the other Khulafa because of a simple similarity in name. [5] 2. The Imam, with his high wisdom and insight, would hide his pains and discontent and would take part in helping the Khulafa for the sake and interest of the newly emerged Islam, to the point where Umar stated on several occasions: «لو لا علی لهلک عمر» [6] (If it wasn’t for Ali, Umar would have certainly perished). Some have the theory that these names were used to compromise with the Khulafa, for this would reduce the friction and tension in the Muslim society, not that it was an approval and sign of truce and friendship with the mentioned individuals. In any case, if we consider the suppression and pressure imposed on Shiites at that time, we will conclude that in order to protect the Shiites the infallibles were sometimes compelled to act (taqiyah) in a different and maybe controversial, but, still, Islamically permissible way, like: naming their children with the names of the Khulafa and creating ties through marriage with the great Sahabah so that the oppressive government of the Bani Umayyah and Bani Abbas would not persecute Shiites even more by stimulating ignorant people to ravage and kill them with the excuse that they are against the three Khalifas. [7]” It is useful to note that nowhere in our historical books (that have been studied) has it been mentioned that Imam Ali directly chose these names, hence there is a possibility that these names were picked by his respected spouses or others which the Imam respected and wouldn’t argue with their decisions. Some specific points regarding every name: Abu Bakr: 1) This name is not original name but agnomen and if Imam was going to name his son by the name of Abu Bakr, he would chose Abu Bakr's name not agnomen and also to choose an agnomen for a child was not completely done by father and the child would have done that according to what is going on in his life. 2) According to some historical records, the name of that son was Abdullah (which is a popular name) and according to Abu-l-Faraj Isfahānī he got martyred while he was 25 in Karbala. Umar: 1- According to historical records, Umar ibn Khattāb was used to change the names of children and he, himself, named the son of Imam (a.s.) as Umar. In Ansāb al-Ashrāf (Genealogies of the Nobles) Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri wrote: "Umar ibn Khattāb named Umar ibn Ali as his name." (vol.1, p.297) and also Zahabī said: "he was born in Umar's time so he gave him his name" (Siyar Aʻlām al-Nubalāʼ, vol. 4, p. 134). Umar also changed others' names like: A) "Abd al-Rahmān ibn Hārith" whose original name was Ibrāhīm (alʼIsābah fi Tamyīz al-Sahābah written by ʻAsqalānī, vol. 5, p. 29). B) "Al-Ajdaʻ Abi Masrūq ibn Abd al-Rahmān"; Umar changed his name and named him as Abd al-Rahmān. (AlʼIsābah fi Tamyīz al-Sahābah, vol. 1, p. 186, number: 425). C) "Thaʻlabah ibn Saʻd ibn Muʻallā" whose name was changed to Muʻallā by Umar. (al-Ansāb, vol. 1, p. 250) 2- The name of "Umar" was a common name; in the book "AlʼIsābah", ibn Hajar made a list including 21 companions of the Prophet (p) whose names were Umar. (vol. 4, p. 587-597). Uthmān: 1. To name his son as Uthmān, was not based on Imam's enthusiasm for the third caliph, rather it was due to Imam's enthusiasm for Uthmān ibn Mazʻūn (one of the companions of the Prophet); Al-Saqafi in his Tareek stated, from Habeerah bin Maryam who said: "We were seated with Ali (as) when he called His son Usman and said, "O' Usman". Then He said, "I did not name him after Usman the chief of the disbelievers, verily I named him after Uthmān ibn Mazʻūn." (Maqātil al-Tālibiyyīn, vol. 1, p. 23 and Bihār al-Anwār, vol. 31, p. 307). 2. The name of "Uthmān" was also a common name; in the book "AlʼIsābah", ibn Hajar made a list including 26 companions of the Prophet (p) whose names were Uthmān. (vol. 4, p. 463-447). More information: http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa2472 http://www.valiasr-aj.com/fa/page.php?id=437&bank=question&startrec=4 [1] Mu’jam al-Thuqat, vol. 21, pg. 66. [2] Al-Irshad, pg. 484. [3] Mu’jam al-Thuqat, vol. 13, pg. 45. [4] Muntahal-Amal, vol. 1, pg. 220. [5] Tabari, Muhammad, Pasokhe Javane Shi’i, pp. 55-56. [6] فَرَأَیْتُ أَنَّ الصَّبْرَ عَلَى هَاتَا أَحْجَى فَصَبَرْتُ وَ فِی الْعَیْنِ قَذًى وَ فِی الْحَلْقِ شَجًا أَرَى تُرَاثِی نَهْباNahjul-Balaghah (Sobhi Saleh), pg. 48, sermon 3. [7] Tabari, Muhammad, Pasokhe Javane Shi’i, pp. 56-57. With Duas. Narsis.
  16. narsis

    Question on Missed Fasts & Kaffarah

    Ayatullah Sistani: you have to pay according to Wajib precaution Ayatullah Khamenei: you should pay according to Mustahab precaution
  17. Bismillah. Salaam. This short article is good: http://www.islamportal.net/forum/duties-and-responsibilities-real-waiting-shia-must-observe-during-time-occultation With Duas. Narsis.
  18. Al-Mizan [MOD NOTE: Tafsir for Holy Qur'an 65:4]
  19. It means those who have not menstruated while they are in the age of menstruation.
  20. narsis

    Anyone know this hadith?

    O Abadhar! a rational man has to divide the time of his day into four times: a time for worshiping his Lord (a.w.j.), and a time for calculating his deeds, and a time for pondering on Allah's creatures and a time for enjoying from Halaal pleasures. this (forth) time is an aid for other (three) times.
  21. and the first Hadith is also about them.
  22. Bismillah. Salaam. Regarding leaving home recite this Dua: بِسْمِ اللَّهِ آمَنْتُ بِاللَّهِ‏ تَوَكَّلْتُ‏ عَلَى‏ اللَّهِ‏ ما شاءَ اللَّهُ‏ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ The Hadīth says: مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْجَهْمِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ ع قَالَ: إِذَا خَرَجْتَ مِنْ مَنْزِلِكَ فِي سَفَرٍ أَوْ حَضَرٍ فَقُلْ- بِسْمِ اللَّهِ آمَنْتُ بِاللَّهِ‏ تَوَكَّلْتُ‏ عَلَى‏ اللَّهِ‏ ما شاءَ اللَّهُ‏ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ فَتَلَقَّاهُ الشَّيَاطِينُ‏ فَتَنْصَرِفُ‏ وَ تَضْرِبُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وُجُوهَهَا وَ تَقُولُ مَا سَبِيلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ- وَ قَدْ سَمَّى اللَّهَ وَ آمَنَ بِهِ وَ تَوَكَّلَ عَلَيْهِ وَ قَالَ‏ ما شاءَ اللَّهُ‏ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ. Reference: al-Kāfī, vol.2, p.543-544. dīth:āBut regarding uninvited you have to keep this point in mind that guest is Allah's present to you and His guide towards heaven; please read these Ah The Prophet (p) said: الضَّيْفُ‏ دَلِيلُ‏ الْجَنَّة "Guest is the guide toward heaven." (Jamiʻ al-Akhbār, p.136) And he also said: إِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ خَيْراً أَهْدَى إِلَيْهِمْ هَدِيَّةً قَالُوا وَ مَا تِلْكَ‏ الْهَدِيَّةُ قَالَ الضَّيْفُ‏ يَنْزِلُ بِرِزْقِهِ وَ يَرْتَحِلُ بِذُنُوبِ أَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ "If Allah decides good for a nation, He will give them a present (gift). "what is that present?", They asked. He answered: guest, he bring his sustenance with himself and take the sins of the house out." (Bihār al-Anwār, vol.72, p.461). With Duas. Narsis.
  23. narsis

    Anyone know this hadith?

    Bismillah. Salaam. Here is the Arabic text of the Hadīth: یا اَباذر، عَلَى الْعاقِلِ مالَمْ یَکُنْ مَغْلُوباً عَلى عَقْلِه اَنْ یَکُون لَهُ [اَرْبَعُ] ساعات ساعَةٌ یُناجى فیها رَبَّهُ عَزَّوَجلَّ؛ وَ ساعَةٌ یُحاسِبُ فیها نَفْسَهُ; وَ ساعَةٌ یَتَفَکَّرُ فیما صَنَعَ اللهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ اِلَیْهِ وَ ساعَةٌ یَخْلُو فیها بِحَظِّ نَفْسِه مِنَ الْحَلالِ؛ فَاِنَّ هذِهِ السّاعَةَ عَوْنٌ لِتْلِکَ السّاعاتِ Reference: Bihār al-Anwār, vol.74, p.71. With Duas. Narsis.
  24. narsis

    Question on Missed Fasts & Kaffarah

    Bismillah. Salaam. According to Ayatullah Khamenei: Q 807: A person did not perform prayers or fast for about 10 years due to ignorance. Now he has repented, turning to Allah, the Exalted, and has decided to compensate for his past. But he cannot perform the qaḍā’ of all the days he did not fast, nor has he the means to pay for the kaffārah. Is it enough for him to ask for forgiveness alone? A: He is not relieved from the duty of performing the qaḍā’ of the missed fasts by any means. As to the kaffārah for each day that he did not fast, if he is not able to fast for 60 days or to feed 60 needy persons, he must give food to the poor as much as he can and also, according to caution, ask Allah for forgiveness. If he cannot do that at all, it suffices to ask Allah for forgiveness. Q 808: Due to a lack of financial and physical power, I failed to perform obligatory kaffārah, i.e. to fast or to feed the poor. As a result, I asked Allah for forgiveness. Due to Allah’s grace, now I am able to fast and feed the poor. What should I do? A: In the given case, it is not necessary to perform kaffārah, although it is a mustaḥabb caution. Q 810: A person did not fast for 120 days. What must he do? Does he have to fast for 60 days for every missed fast, and does he have to pay kaffārah? A: He has to perform qaḍā’ for the Ramadan fasts he missed. If he broke the fast intentionally and not for some shar‘ī reason, then he has, in addition to performing their qaḍā’ , to pay the kaffārah, which is fasting for sixty days or feeding 60 needy persons, or giving one mudd (750 grams) of food to each of the sixty. http://www.leader.ir/en/book/23 According to Ayatullah Sistani: 1669. The Kaffarah of leaving out a fast of Ramadhan is to: (a) free a slave, or (b) fast for two months or (c) feed sixty poor to their fill or give one mudd (= 3/4 kg.) of food-stuff, like, wheat or barley or bread etc. to each of them. And if it is not possible for him to fulfil any of these, he should give Sadaqa according to his means and seek Divine forgiveness. And the obligatory precaution is that he should give Kaffarah as and when he is capable to do so. http://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2276/ With Duas. Narsis.
  25. narsis

    What is the Shia view of Satan and demons?

    Bismillah. Salaam. Please read these articles: http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa883 http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa1709 http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa1752 http://www.askthesheikh.com/how-does-satan-suggest-ideas-to-us/ http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa1052 http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa1863 http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa3294 With Duas. Narsis.
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