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In the Name of God بسم الله

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  1. Salam Alaikum There are several Shia mosques/centers in Montreal You may visit the Imam Hussain Foundation @ 8270 Mountain Sights Avenue, Montreal, QC, H4P 2B7, Canada Programs are mainly offered in Arabic and English in this mosque.
  2. حوزة الامام الحسين (ع) في وندزر كندا Imam Hussain (A.S.) Hawza in Windsor, Canada *Message is in English and Arabic* بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم تعلن حوزة الإمام الحسين (عليه السلام) عن قبولها لطلاب جدد للعام الدراسي 2017-2018. تدرس في الحوزة مواد مرحلة المقدمات ومرحلة السطوح. تستغرق هاتان المرحلتان ما يقارب عشر سنين. Imam Hussain Hawza would like to inform of its acceptance of new students for the year 2017-2018. The Hawza provides its students with the first two stages of Hawza: Muqadimat (introductory stage) and Sutooh (intermediate stage). Both of these stages require about 10 years to complete. ------------------- مقدمة بالنظر الى ازدياد عدد المسلمين في أمريكا الشمالية وغيرها من البلاد وتكاثر عدد المؤسسات الإسلامية فيها، فقد نشأت حاجة ماسة الى تهيئة العلماء والمبلغين الذين يحسنون التحدث باللغة الانجليزية وغيرها، ولهم معرفة بالخصوصيات الثقافية والحضارية والإجتماعية لبلادهم، مما يؤهلهم للقيام بدورهم في سد الحاجات الدينية والإجتماعية على نحو أفضل. وبالنظر الى وجود رغبة عند الكثيرين بطلب العلوم الدينية، وعدم تمكنهم من الالتحاق بالحوزات العلمية الكبرى في النجف الأشرف وقم المقدسة وغيرها، فقد نشأت الحاجة الى تأسيس حوزة علمية في أمريكا الشمالية توفر لهم فرصة الدراسة وتحقيق رغبتهم في هذه البلاد. INTRODUCTION Due to the increase of Muslims in North America, there is an urgent demand for Islamic scholars. Hundreds of Islamic centers and mosques are in need of clergymen (ulama) to teach and preach them. The demand is more for ulama who speak the language of the country i.e. English and French. All these needs necessitated the establishment of a Hawza in North America to help meet the needs of individuals interested in studying Islam instead of them having to be forced to migrate to Iraq or Iran for their higher religious educational needs. حوزة الإمام الحسين (ع) تأسست حوزة الإمام الحسين (ع) للدراسات الإسلامية عام 2006م وقد تم افتتاحها بمناسبة عيد الغدير الأغر من عام 1426 وهي حوزة علمية تهدف الى تربية وتعليم الراغبين في دراسة العلوم الإسلامية، وهي مع التزامها بالنهج الحوزوي الأصيل المعتمد في الحوزات العلمية في النجف الأشرف وقم المقدسة، تراعي ظروف المكان والزمان وخصوصيات المنتسبين اليها في البلاد الغربية. Imam Hussain Hawza For Islamic & Arabic Studies Imam Hussain Hawza was established in January 2006 and had its opening ceremony on the occasion of Eid al-Ghadeer1426H. I.H.H. provides various Islamic subjects in the Arabic language with the aim of producing graduates (clergymen; ulama) who can provide proper religious education to the North American Muslim community. The subjects taught are similar to the curriculum of Hawza of Najaf and Qum. In addition there are other subjects taught which provide specific knowledge beneficial to scholars living in North America المنهجية الدراسية النظام الدراسي المعتمد في حوزة الإمام الحسين (ع) هو دراسة مرحلة المقدمات وتحتاج الى حوالي أربعة سنوات، ثم مرحلة السطوح لمدة ستة سنوات وبعدها يؤهل الطالب الى مرحلة البحث الخارج التي تمتد من خمس الى عشر سنوات. ويلاحظ النظام الأكاديمي في تقسيم أوقات الدراسة بما يتناسب مع أوضاع الطالب في هذه البلاد. ساعات الدراسة الدراسة دوام كامل 5 أيام في الاسبوع من يوم الإثنين إلى يوم الجمعة بمعدل ثلاث ساعات يوميّاً قد تزيد في بعض الأيام وترتيب الساعات يختلف بحسب المراحل كما أن في السنة التمهيدية الاولى تتراوح ساعات الدراسة بين 5 و 7 ساعات يومياً. PROGRAM OF STUDIES The study of Hawza is traditionally divided into 3 stages *The introductory stage (Muqaddimat) which usually takes 4 years. *The intermediate stage (Sutouh) which takes about 6 years. *The higher study stage (AL- Bahth AL- Kharij) where the students are prepared to reach Ijtihad takes approximately 5-10 years or more. The studies will be full-time, 5 days a week; 6 hrs (approx) for the 1st year Arabic, 3 hrs (approx) for the regular Hawza. لغة الدراسة يدرس الطالب كامل دروسه باللغة العربية، وبالنسبة الى الطلاب الذين لا يحسنون اللغة العربية فإن الحوزة توفر لهم دراستها في السنة التمهيدية الأولى ومن ثم يلتحقون بالدروس الحوزوية. Medium of Study All subjects are taught in the Arabic language. The students who do not know Arabic will be taught the Arabic language in order to prepare them for admission in Hawza programs. المواد الدراسية يدرس الطالب في مرحلتي المقدمات والسطوح، العلوم التالية: 1- العلوم العربية: وهي النحو والصرف والبلاغة. 2- علم الفقه. 3- علم اصول الفقه. 4- العلوم العقلية: وهي المنطق والكلام والفلسفة. 5- علوم القرآن و تفسير القرآن الكريم. 6- علم الحديث والرجال. 7- علم الأخلاق. 8- السيرة والتاريخ. 9- الأديان المقارنة. 10- الاقتصاد الأسلامي. 11- مفاهيم اسلامية معاصرة. 12- قانون الأحوال الشخصية. 13- تربية واجتماع. 14- فن الخطابة والحوار. 15- علوم أخرى ضرورية للطلاب. للاطلاع على القائمة بأهم الكتب المدرسة في حوزة الامام الحسين (عليه السلام) في وندزر، كندا، اضغط الرابط ادناه: https://www.facebook.com/ihf.windsor/posts/1874860339445924:0 SUBJECTS During the introductory and intermediate stages the student will be enrolled in the following subjects: 1-Arabic grammar and eloquence (Nahw, Sarf and Balagha) 2-Islamic jurisprudence(Fiqh) 3-principles of jurisprudence (Usul al-Fiqh) 4-Philosophical studies such as logic, philosophy (Islamic& western), principles of faith (Ilm al-kalaam) 5-Quranic studies( sciences of the holy Quran and exegesis of the holy Quran) 6-Traditions& narrators of the traditions (Hadith and Rijal) 7-Morals and ethics (Akhlaq) 8-Islamic economy 9-Contemporary Islamic issues 10-Personal laws in Islam 11-History (Islamic& western) 12-Comparative religions 13-Dialogue and preaching (Khetabah) 14- Manners and sociology (Tarbeyah& Ijtema3) To view the list of the main books that are studied in Imam Hussain Hawza - Windsor, Canada - click on the link below: https://www.facebook.com/ihf.windsor/posts/1874860339445924:0 الخدمات *تتحمل المؤسسة تكاليف الدراسة عن الطلاب الجديين في الاستمرار بطلب العلم والملتزمين بضوابط الحوزة. * تأمين السكن لخصوص الطلاب الغير المتزوجين أو من لا ترافقه زوجته وذلك في سكن داخلي(غرف سكنية ،لوازم السكن: مطبخ وحمامات ووسائل غسل الثياب) يرجى من المضطر للسكن الداخلي ان يذكر ذلك في طلب الانتساب ويبين وضعه وذلك لمحدودية غرف السكن). * إعطاء شهادات علمية حوزوية تأخذ قيمتها من إرتباط جامعة الامام الحسين والقيِّمين عليها بالحوزات الكبرى في النجف الاشرف وقم المقدسة. وبالارتباط بالمراجع العظام مد ظلُّهم بواسطة الوكالات. كما تسعى لاخذ الرخصة من الجهات الرسمية لاعطاء شهادات جامعية في اختصاص العلوم الاسلامية معترف بها رسميا وفي الجامعات الاكاديمية. I.H.H Services 1. Tuition fees are covered by the foundation for students who are serious in continuing their studies and follow the rules and regulations of the Hawza 2. Residential accommodation is available for a limited number of single male students. Female students& married couples are expected to arrange their own accommodations. 3. Kitchen facility available (students are supposed to take care of their own food). I.H.H Degree Hawzas usually do not provide a degree like the academic universities. The students will be given a certificate of recognition showing the level of their education. This certificate is similar to the certificates given to students of Najaf and Qum seminaries (Hawzas). However I.H.H is planning to give its students an academic degree like B.A., M.A. and Ph.D. by affiliation and collaboration with other recognized universities giving these degrees in Islamic studies. شروط الانتساب 1- العمر: 16-26 سنة للدوام الكامل. 16 سنة فما فوق للدوام الجزئي. 2- حصول الطالب على شهادة تعريف بحسن السيرة والسلوك من اثنين من العلماء أو من الأشخاص المعروفين لدى الجامعة. 3- تعبئة استمارة الانتساب المعتمدة وتقديمها للحوزة. 4- صورتين فوتوغرافية حديثة. 5- التعهد بالالتزام بضوابط الجامعة والأخلاق الإسلامية والسلوك المناسب لطلبة العلوم الدينية. 6- النجاح في المقابلة وامتحان الدخول. 7- مقابلة مع سماحة الشيخ عبد المنعم شرارة، عميد الحوزة، قبل الإبتداء بالدروس. Admission Requirements The students should provide the following requirements: 1. Age must be 16-26 yrs of age for full-time studies. 2. Age must be 16 yrs and above for part-time studies. 3. Recommendation letter from two scholars who know the student. 4. Two recent photographs 5. Sign agreement of abiding rules& regulation of I.H.H. 6. Pass the interview. كيفية الانتساب 1- تقديم الطلب الى الحوزة شخصيا أو ارساله بالبريد على العنوان التالي 1485 JANETTE AVE,WINDSOR, ON, N8X 1Z2 CANADA TEL: (519) 256-7171 ext. 11 FAX: (519) 256-2727 2- تقديم الطلب بالبريد الالكتروني التالي hawzawindsor@gmail.com الصفحة الرسمية على الفيس بوك: Http://facebook.com/ihf.windsor Submission of Applications The students can submit their application in person, by mail or by e-mail. Address: 1485 Janette Ave. Windsor. Ontario (Canada) N8X 1Z2. Contact information Phone # 519-256-7171 ext 10 (for receptionist) Ext 11 (for Sheikh Abdul Menhem Charara) Ext 17 (for Sheikh Charara’s assistant) E-mail: hawzawindsor@gmail.com Official Facebook Page: http://facebook.com/ihf.windsor May Allah shower us all with his infinite blessings. And all Praise be to the Lord of the worlds, and may He send his blessings upon his perfect creations, Muhammed and his Holy progeny
  3. Salam Alaikum Here are a few videos of the Imam Hussain Annual Arbaeen Procession 1437/2015 - Windsor, Canada فيديو مسيرة اربعين الامام الحسين (ع) ١٤٣٧ في وندزر، كندا Imam Hussain Annual Arbaeen Procession 1437 in Windsor, Canada http://youtu.be/Q9Zbjc5phDg مسيرة اربعين الامام الحسين (ع) ١٤٣٧ في وندزر، كندا - تقرير خبري باللغة الانجليزية Arbaeen Procession 1437 - Windsor, Canada - English News report http://youtu.be/lgnCh3DGIgM مسيرة اربعين الامام الحسين (ع) ١٤٣٧ في وندزر، كندا - تقرير خبري باللغة العربية Arbaeen Procession 1437 - Windsor, Canada - Arabic News report http://youtu.be/Qjvw3czHuy0 كلمة باللغة الانجليزية للاخ احمد بزي في مسيرة الاربعين ١٤٣٧ في وندزر، كندا English speech by brother Ahmed Bazzi in the Arbaeen Procession 1437 - Windsor, Canada http://youtu.be/L0tLiH_xWYE كلمة باللغة العربية للشيخ علي عيديبي في مسيرة الاربعين ١٤٣٧ في ونذزر، كندا Arabic speech by Shaikh Ali Aideebi in the Arbaeen Procession 1437- Windsor, Canada http://youtu.be/NVO__6S54iI
  4. The Last Holy Prophet and Universal Man Direct Link: http://alhassanain.org/english/?com=content&id=458 By: Professor Sayyid Husayn Nasr "Extract" The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) and Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) traditions — from Ideals & Realities of Islam written by Professor S. Hossein Nasr, and published by George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 2nd edition London 1975. The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) as the founder of Islam and the messenger of God's revelation to mankind is the interpreter par excellence of the Book of God; and his Hadith and Sunnah, his sayings and actions, are after the Quran, the most important sources of the Islamic tradition. In order to understand the significance of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) it is not sufficient to study, from the outside historical texts pertaining to his life. One must view him also from within the Islamic point of view and try to discover the position he occupies in the religious consciousness of Muslims. When in any Islamic language one says the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), it means Muhammad(S.A.W.)—whose name as such is never iterated except that as a courtesy it be followed by the formula 'Sall' Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam', that is, 'may God's blessing and salutation be upon him'. It is even legitimate to say that, in general, when one says the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) it means the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) of Islam; for although in every religion the founder who is an aspect of the Universal Intellect, becomes the Aspect, the Word the Incarnation, nevertheless each founder emphasizes a certain aspect of the Truth and even typifies that aspect universally. Although there is belief in incarnation in many religions, when one says the Incarnation it refers to Christ who personifies this aspect. And although every Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) and saint has experienced 'enlightenment', the Enlightenment refers to the experience of the Buddha which is the most outstanding and universal embodiment of this experience. In the same manner the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) of Islam is the prototype and perfect embodiment of prophecy and so in a profound sense is the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.). In fact in Islam every form of revelation is envisaged as a prophecy whose complete and total realization is to be seen in Muhammad(S.A.W.)—Upon whom be peace. As the Sufi poet Mahmud Shabistari writes in h is incomparable Gulshan-i raz (the Secret Rose Garden): The first appearance of Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.)hood was in Adam, And its perfection was in the 'Seal of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.)s'. (Whinfield translation) It is difficult for a non-Muslim to understand the spiritual significance of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) and his role as the prototype of the religious and spiritual life, especially if one comes from a Christian background. Compared to Christ, or to the Buddha for that matter, the earthly career of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) seems often too human and too engrossed in the vicissitudes of social, economic and political activity to serve as a model for the spiritual life. That is why so many people who write today of the great spiritual guides of humanity are not able to understand and interpret him sympathetically. It is easier to see the spiritual radiance of Christ or even medieval saints, Christian or Muslim, than that of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.); although the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is the supreme saint in Islam without whom there would have been no sanctity whatsoever. The reason for this difficulty is that the spiritual nature of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is veiled in his human one and his purely spiritual function is hidden in his duties as the guide of men and the leader of a community. It was the function of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) to be, not only a spiritual guide, but also the organizer of a new social order with all that such a function implies. And it is precisely this aspect of his being that veils his purely spiritual dimension from foreign eyes. Outsiders have understood his political genius, his power of oratory, his great statesmanship, but few have understood how he could be the religious and spiritual guide of men and how his life could be emulated by those who aspire to sanctity. This is particularly true in the modern world in which religion is separated from other domains of life and most modern men can hardly imagine how a spiritual being could also be immersed in the most intense political and social activity. Actually if the contour of the personality of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is to be under- stood he should not be compared to Christ or the Buddha whose message was meant primarily for saintly men and who founded a community based on monastic life which later became the norm of a whole society. Rather, because of his dual function as 'king' and 'Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.)', as the guide of men in this world and the hereafter, the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) should be compared to the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.)-kings of the Old Testament, to David and Solomon, and especially to Abraham himself. Or to cite once again an example outside the Abrahamic tradition, the spiritual type of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) should be compared in Hinduism, to Rama and Krishna, who although in a completely different traditional climate, were avataras and at the same time kings and house- holders who participated in social life with all that such activity implies as recorded in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. This type of figure who is at once a spiritual being and a leader of men has always been, relatively speaking, rare in the Christian West, especially in modern times. Political life has become so divorced from spiritual principles that to many people such a function itself appears as an impossibility in proof of which Westerners often point to the purely spiritual life of Christ who said, 'My Kingdom is not of this world.' And even historically the Occident has not witnessed many figures of this type unless one considers the Templars and in another context such devout kings as Charlemagne and St. Louis. The figure of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is thus difficult for many Occidentals to understand and this misconception to which often bad intention has been added is responsible for the nearly total ignorance of his spiritual nature in most works written about him in Western languages of which the number is legion. One could in fact say that of the major elements of Islam the real significance of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is the least understood to non Muslims and especially to Occidentals. The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) did participate in social life in its fullest sense. He married, had a household, was a father and moreover he was ruler and judge and had also to fight many wars in which he underwent painful ordeals. He had to undergo many hardships and experience all the difficulties which human life especially that of the founder of a new state and society, implies. But with- in all these activities his heart rested in contentment with the Divine, and he continued inwardly to repose in the Divine Peace. In fact his participation in social and political life was precisely to integrate this domain into a spiritual centre. The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) entertained no political or worldly ambition whatsoever. He was by nature a contemplative. Before being chosen as Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) he did not like to frequent social gatherings and activities. He led a caravan from Mecca to Syria passing through the majestic silence of the desert whose very 'infinity' induces man towards contemplation. He often spent long periods in the cave of Hira' in solitude and meditation. He did not believe himself to be by nature a man of the world or one who was naturally inclined to seek political power among the Quraysh or social eminence in Meccan society although he came from the noblest family. It was in fact very painful and difficult for him to accept the burden of prophecy which implied the founding of not only a new religion but also a new social and political order. All the traditional sources, which alone matter in this case testify to the great hardship the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) underwent by being chosen to participate in the active life in its most acute form. Modern studies on the life of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) which depict him as a man who enjoyed fighting wars are totally untrue and in fact a reversal of the real personality of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.). Immediately after the reception of the first revelation the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) confessed to his wife, Khadijah, how difficult it was for him to accept the burden of prophecy and how fearful he was of all that such a mission implied. Likewise, with the marriages of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), they are not at all signs of his lenience vis-à-vis the flesh. During the period of youth when the passions are most strong the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) lived with only one wife who was much older than he and also underwent long periods of abstinence. And as a Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) many of his marriages were political ones which, in the prevalent social structure of Arabia, guaranteed the consolidation of the newly founded Muslim community.Multiple marriage, for him, as is true of Islam in general, was not so much enjoyment as responsibility and a means of integration of the newly founded society. Besides, in Islam the whole problem of sexuality appears in a different light from that in Christianity and should not be judged by the same standards. The multiple marriages of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), far from pointing to his weakness towards 'the flesh' symbolize his patriarchal nature and his function, not as a saint who withdraws from the world, but as one who sanctifies the very life of the world by living in it and accepting it with the aim of integrating it into a higher order of reality. The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) has also often been criticized by modern Western authors for being cruel and for having treated men harshly. Such a charge is again absurd because critics of this kind have forgotten that either a religion leaves the world aside, as Christ did, or integrates the world, in which case it must deal with such questions as war, retribution, justice, etc. When Charlemagne or some other Christian king thrust a sword into the breast of a heathen soldier he was, from the individual point of view, being cruel to that soldier. But on the universal plane this was a necessity for the preservation of a Christian civilization which had to defend its borders or perish. The same holds true for a Buddhist king or ruler, or for that matter any religious authority which seeks to integrate human society. The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) exercised the utmost kindness possible and was harsh only with traitors. Now, a traitor against a newly founded religious community, which God has willed and whose existence is a mercy from heaven for mankind, is a traitor against the Truth itself. The harshness of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) in such cases is an expression of Divine Justice. One cannot accuse God of being cruel because men die, or because there is illness and ugliness in the world. Every construction implies a previous destruction, a clearing of grounds for the appearance of a new form. This holds true not only in case of a physical structure but also in case of a new revelation which must clear the ground if it is to be a new social and political order as well as a purely religious one. What appears to some as the cruelty of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) towards men is precisely this aspect of his function as the instrument of God for the establishment of a new world order whose homeland in Arabia was to be pure of any paganism and polytheism which if present would pollute the very source of this new fountain of life. As to what concerned his own person, the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) was always the epitome of kindness and generosity. Nowhere is the nobility and generosity of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) better exemplified than in his triumphant entry into Mecca, which in a sense highlights his earthly career. There, at a moment when the very people who had caused untold hardships and trials for the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) were completely subdued by him, instead of thinking of vengeance, which was certainly his due, he forgave them. One must study closely the almost unimaginable obstacles placed before the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) by these same people, of the immense suffering he had undergone because of them, to realize what degree of generosity this act of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) implies. It is not actually necessary to give an apologetic account of the life of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), but these matters need to be answered because the false and often malicious accusations of this kind made against the founder of Islam in so many modern studies make the understanding of him by those who rely upon such studies well nigh impossible. Also the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) was not certainly without love and compassion. Many incidents in his life and sayings recorded in Hadith literature point to his depth of love for God which, in conformity with the general perspective of Islam, was never divorced from the knowledge of Him. For example in a well known Hadith, he said, 'O Lord, grant to me the love of thee. Grant that I love those that love thee. Grant that I may do the deed that wins thy love. Make thy love dear to me more than self, family and wealth.' Such sayings clearly demonstrate the fact that although the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) was in a sense a king or ruler of a community and a judge and had to deal according to Justice in both capacities, he was at the same time one whose being was anchored in the love for God. Otherwise, he could not have been a Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.). From the Muslim point of view, the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is the symbol of perfection of both the human person and human society. He is the prototype of the human individual and the human collectivity. As such he bears certain characteristics in the eye of traditional Muslims which can only be discovered by studying the traditional accounts of him. The many Western works on the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), with very few exceptions, are useless from this point of view no matter how much historical data they provide for the reader. The same holds true in fact for the new type of biographies of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) written by modernized Muslims who would like at all cost to make the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) an ordinary man and neglect systematically any aspect of his being that does not conform to a humanistic and rationalistic framework they have adopted a priori, mostly as a result of either influence from or reaction to the modern Western point of view. The profound characteristics of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) which have guided the Islamic community over the centuries and have left an indelible mark on the consciousness of the Muslim cannot be discerned save through the traditional sources and the Hadith, and, of course, the Quran itself which bears the perfume of the soul of the person through whom it was revealed. The universal characteristics of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) are not the same as his daily actions and day to day life, which can be read about in standard biography of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), and with which we cannot deal here. They are, rather characteristics which issue forth from his personality as a particular spiritual prototype. Seen in this light there are essentially three qualities that characterize the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.). First of all the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) possessed the quality of piety in its most universal sense, that quality which attaches man to God The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) was in that sense pious. He had a profound piety which inwardly attached him to God, that made him place the interest of God before everything else including himself. Secondly he had a quality of combativeness, of always being actively engaged in combat against all that negated the Truth and disrupted harmony. Externally it meant fighting wars, either military, political or social ones, the war which the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) named the 'little holy war' (al-jihad al-asghar). Inwardly this combativeness meant a continuous war against the carnal soul (nafs), against all that in man tends towards the negation of God and His Will, the 'great holy war' (al-jihad al-akbar). It is difficult for modern men to understand the positive symbolism of war thanks to modern technology which has made war total and its instruments the very embodiment of what is ugly and evil. Men therefore think that the role of religion is only in preserving some kind of precarious peace. This, of course, is true, but not in the superficial sense that is usually meant. If religion is to be an integral part of life it must try to establish peace in the most profound sense, namely to establish equilibrium between all the existing forces that surround man and to overcome all the forces that tend to destroy this equilibrium. No religion has sought to establish peace in this sense more than Islam. It is precisely in such a context that war can have a positive meaning as the activity to establish harmony both inwardly and outwardly and it is in this sense that Islam has stressed the positive aspect of combativeness. The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) embodies to an eminent degree this perfection of combative virtue. If one thinks of the Buddha as sitting in a state of contemplation under the Bo-tree, the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) can be imagined as a rider sitting on a steed with the sword of justice and discrimination drawn in his hand and galloping at full speed, yet ready to come to an immediate halt before the mountain of Truth. The Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) was faced from the beginning of his Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.)ic mission with the task of wielding the sword of Truth, of establishing equilibrium and in this arduous task he had no rest. His rest and repose was in the heart of the holy war (jihad) itself and he represents this aspect of spirituality in which peace comes not in passivity but in true activity. Peace belongs to one who is inwardly at peace with the Will of Heaven and outwardly at war with the forces of disruption and disequilibrium. Finally, the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) possessed the quality of magnanimity in its fullness. His soul displayed a grandeur which every devout Muslim feels. He is for the Muslim nobility and magnanimity personified. This aspect of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is fully displayed in his treatment of his companions which, in fact, has been the model for later ages and which all generations of Muslims have sought to emulate. To put it another way, which focuses more sharply the personality of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), the qualities can be enumerated as strength, nobility and serenity or inner calm. Strength is outwardly manifested in the little holy war and inwardly in the great holy war according to the saying of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) who, returning from one of the early wars, said, 'We have returned from the small jihad to the great jihad.' It is this great jihad which is of particular spiritual significance as a war against all those tendencies which pull the soul of man away from the Centre and Origin and bar him from the grace of heaven. The nobility or generosity of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) shows itself most of all in charity towards all men and more generally towards all beings. Of course this virtue is not central as in Christianity which can be called the religion of charity. But it is important on the human level and as it concerns the person of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.). It points to the fact that there was no narrowness or pettiness in the soul of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), no limitation in giving of himself to others. A spiritual man is one who always gives to those around him and does not receive, according to the saying, 'It is more blessed to give than to receive'. It was characteristic of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) to have always given till the last moment of his life. He never asked anything for himself and never sought to receive. The aspect of serenity, which also characterizes all true expressions of Islam is essentially the love of truth. It is to put the Truth before everything else. It is to be impartial, to be logical on the level of discourse, not to let one's emotions colour and prejudice one's intellectual judgment. It is not to be a rationalist, but to see the truth of things and to love the Truth above all else. To love the Truth is to love God who is the Truth, one of His Names being the Truth (al-haqq). If one were to compare these qualities of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), namely, strength, nobility and serenity, with those of the founders of the other great religions one would see that they are not necessarily the same because firstly, the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) was not himself the Divine Incarnation and secondly, because each religion emphasizes a certain aspect of the Truth. One cannot follow and emulate Christ in the same manner as the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) because in Christianity Christ is the God-man, the Divine Incarnation. One can be absorbed into his nature but he cannot be copied as the perfection of the human state. One can neither walk on water nor raise the dead to life. Still, when one thinks of Christianity and Christ another set of characteristics come to mind, such as divinity, incarnation, and on another level love, charity and sacrifice. Or when one thinks of the Buddha and Buddhism it is most of all the ideas of pity for the whole of creation, enlightenment and illumination and extinction in Nirvana that stand out. In Islam, when one thinks of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) who is to be emulated, it is the image of a strong personality that comes to mind, who is severe with himself and with the false and the unjust, and charitable towards the world that surrounds him. On the basis of these two virtues of strength and sobriety on the one hand and charity and generosity on the other, he is serene extinguished in the Truth. He is that warrior on horseback who halts before the mountain of Truth, passive towards the Divine Will, active towards the world, hard and sober towards himself and kind and generous towards the creatures about him. These qualities characteristic of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) are contained virtually in the sound of the second Shahadah, Muhammad(S.A.W.)un rasul Allah, that is Muhammad(S.A.W.) is the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) of God, in its Arabic pronunciation, not in its translation into another language. Here again the symbolism is inextricably connected to the sounds and forms of the sacred language and cannot be translated. The very sound of the name Muhammad(S.A.W.) implies force, a sudden breaking forth of a power which is from God and is not just human. The word rasul with its elongated second syllable symbolizes this 'expansion of the chest' {inshirah al-sadr), and a generosity that flows from the being of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) and which ultimately comes from God. As for Allah it is, of course, the Truth itself which terminates the formula. The second Shahadah thus implies by its sound the power, generosity and serenity of reposing in the Truth characteristic of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.). But this repose in the Truth is not based on a flight from the world but on a penetration into it in order to inte- grate and organize it. The spiritual castle in Islam is based on the firm foundations of harmony within human society and in individual human life. In the traditional prayers on the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) which all Muslims recite on certain occasions, God's blessing and salutation are asked for the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) who is God's servant ('abd), His messenger (rasul), and the unlettered Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) (al-nabi al-ummi). For example, one well-known version of the formula of benediction upon the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is as follows: 'Oh, God, bless our Lord Muhammad(S.A.W.), Thy servant and Thy Messenger, the unlettered Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.), and his family and his companions, and salute them.' Here again the three epithets with which his name is qualified symbolize his three basic characteristics which stand out most in the eyes of devout Muslims. He is first of all an 'abd; but who is an 'abd except one whose will is surrendered to the will of his master, who is himself poor (faqir) but rich on account of what his master bestows upon him. As the 'abd of God the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) exemplified in its fullness this spiritual poverty and sobriety which is so characteristic of Islam. He loved fasting, vigilance, prayer, all of which have become essential elements in Islamic religious life. As an 'abd the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) put everything in the hands of God and realized a poverty which is, in reality, the most perfect and enduring wealth. The rasul in this formula again symbolizes his aspect of charity and generosity and metaphysically the rasul himself is sent because of God's charity for the world and men whom He loves so that He sends His Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.)s to guide them. That is why the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) is 'God's mercy to the worlds.' For the Muslim the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.) himself displays mercy and generosity, a generosity which flows from the nobility of character. Islam has always emphasized this quality and sought to inculcate nobility in the souls of men. A good Muslim must have some nobility and generosity which always reflect this aspect of the personality of the Holy Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W.). Direct Link: http://alhassanain.org/english/?com=content&id=458
  5. For Imam Hussain Hawza, a high school degree is much better to have but it is not a requirement, as long as the student in 16 or older and fulfills the other requirements mentioned above
  6. Arabic language is key for one to be able to attend these classes since all classes are taught in Arabic language. For those who are not fluent in Arabic or Non-Arabic speakers, there is a 1 year full-time Arabic program offered at the Hawza as a prerequisite for Hawza courses. Once one finishes this program, then he/she should be able to start the Hawza classes at Imam Hussain Hawza. You may contact the Hawza administration by e-mail or phone for details.
  7. حوزة الامام الحسين (ع) في ويندزور كندا Imam Hussain (A.S.) Hawza in Windsor, Canada بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Imam Hussain Hawza would like to inform of its acceptance of new students for the year 2015-2016. The Hawza provides its students with the first two stages of Hawza: Muqadimat (introductory stage) and Sutooh (intermediate stage). Both of these stages require about 10 years to complete. During these 10 years, one learns several subjects such as 1-Islamic Beliefs 2-Islamic Jurisprudence 3-Islamic Morals 4-Logic 5-Arabic Grammar 6-Usool al-Fiqh 7- Other crucial subjects that a Hawza student is in need of. For most subjects, the student will study several books (from beginning to end), in order to have a good understanding and grasp of the subject. تعلن حوزة الإمام الحسين (عليه السلام) عن قبولها لطلاب جدد للعام الدراسي 2015-2016. تدرس في الحوزة مواد مرحلة المقدمات ومرحلة السطوح. تستغرق هاتان المرحلتان ما يقارب عشر سنين. في تلك المدة، يدرس الطالب موادا كثيرة، من ضمنها... 1- العقائد 2- الفقه 3- الأخلاق 4- المنطق 5- النحو 6-أصول الفقه 7- غيرها من المواد الهامة للطالب في أغلب المواد، يدرس الطالب كتبا عديدة (من بداية الكتاب الى نهايته) من أجل أن تصبح عنده المادة مفهومة،و يكون عنده استيعاب قوي لها. Requirements: -Every student who wishes to study part time or full time in Hawza has to be between 16& 26 years old. For those older than 26, they need to have previous Hawza education or a post-secondary degree in order to be enrolled in the Hawza. Otherwise, they might be permitted to attend classes just for the benefit of learning (this will need to be decided by the main office). - One must present two reference letters from people that are recognized by the Hawza. -Application must be filled out. -An interview with Sheikh Abdul-Menhem Charara, Dean of the Hawza, will be carried out before enrolling in classes. الشروط - كل من يريد الإنتساب الى الحوزة، لا بد أن يكون عمره بين 16- 26 سنة. من كان عمره يفوق 26 سنة، لا بد أن تكون عنده دراسة سابقة في \بعض المواد الحوزوية، أو شهادة دراسة آكاديمية. من لم يكن هذا الشرط متوفرا فيه، قد يسمح له بحضور الدروس من دون الإنتساب. - تقديم راسليتي تعريف من قبل أشخاص تعرفهم الحوزة. - ملأ إستمارة التسجيل. - مقابلة مع سماحة الشيخ عبد المنعم شرارة، عميد الحوزة، قبل الإبتداء بالدروس. Full-time studies: -Enrolling in fulltime studies means that the student will be studying all subjects taught in Hawza. The student will be taking classes 5 days a week, from Monday to Friday, 3-4 courses per day. *Each course is approx. 50 minutes long. * We might be in need of changing the schedule based on the administration's decision Part-time studies: Part-time students must meet with the administration to arrange and finalize their schedule تعطى الدروس في الحوزة كل يوم من الإثنين الى الجمعة، وتدرس 3-4 دروس يوميا. كل درس يستغرق 50 دقيقة. * قد يقتضي الحال بعض التغييرات حسب تقدير الادارة من لا يمكنه الإلتزام بهكذا دوام، يمكنه أن يدرس دراسة جزئية، بالتنسيق مع ادارة الحوزة Location- مكان الحوزة Imam Hussain Hawza is located @ 1485 Janette Ave. Windsor. Ontario (Canada) N8X 1X5. Phone # 519-256-7171 ext 10 (for receptionist) Ext 11 (for Sheikh Abdul Menhem Charara) Ext 17 (for Sheikh Charara’s assistant) You can email us at wiseman_02@hotmail.com Official Facebook Page: http://facebook.com/ihf.windsor May Allah shower us all with his infinite blessings. And all Praise be to the Lord of the worlds, and may He send his blessings upon his perfect creations, Muhammed and his Holy progeny
  8. Salam Alaikum http://musavilari.org/ Contact them with the titles of the books available on their site and your address and they will send it to you free of charge. The site is in many languages
  9. May Allah accept this little from us. Thanks a lot for your kind comment
  10. Salam Alaikum Imam Hussain Annual Arbaeen Procession 1436/2014 - Windsor, Canada
  11. Salam Alaikum http://winislam.com/freebooks.html also offers free books.
  12. Assalamu Alaykum Brothers and Sisters in Islam This is an announcement from Imam Hussain Hawza in Windsor, Ontario, Canada to all those who dream of becoming Shia Muslim scholars or would like to learn different Islamic sciences. Imam Hussain Foundation holds an official Hawza in North America. The Hawza teaches the first two stages known in Hawzas, Al-Muqadimaat (the introductory stage, which takes about 4-5 years) and Al-Sutooh (the intermediate stage, which takes about 6-7 years to finish). During these two stages, one studies several books dealing with different sciences, such as beliefs, jurisprudence (Fiqh), Arabic grammar, Balagha (eloquence), Logic, Islamic Morals and Ethics, Quran (memorization and basic explanation of the verses), Principles of jurisprudence (Usool Al-Fiqh), etc... Imam Hussain Hawza (IHH) has opened since March 2006 and it continues to accept new students every year. For those who would like to admit, now is the right time to do so as the Hawza is accepting students for year 2011-2012. All of the courses in the hawza are taught in arabic; the students that don't know arabic are taught arabic for one full year before starting Hawza. In the mean time they are given Islamic courses in english. Anyone who would like to admit to the Hawza, is required to do the following: 1-Fill the application form in the following link http://www.imam-hussain.com/admission.html 2.Provide a recommendation letter from two scholars who know the student. 3.Provide two recent photographs. 4.Sign agreement of abiding rules & regulations of I.H.F. 5.Pass the interview. Both brothers and sisters are welcome to become students in the Hawza, however the only residence that is provided from the Hawza is for single males who do not live in Windsor. Married people, or sisters who would like to enroll in the Hawza, have to find their own residence. To contact the Hawza, call us on 519 256-7171 ext 10 or e-mailing infoimamhf@gmail.com (I suggest calling as it is faster to process and easier to communicate). Imam Hussain Hawza Address: 1485 Janette Ave. Windsor, Ontario N8X 1Z4 *Please if you have any questions regarding the Hawza send them to the email above or call them on the telephone mentioned above. Salam
  13. Salam Alaikum Thanks for the reply and comments. Would you please send me the link of the article about stoning? Because I couldn't find it and it would be great to see it to discuss it with the team. Remember us in your prayers
  14. Ali The Voice of Human Justice Direct Link: http://www.almujtaba.com/en/index.php/left-menu-articles/35-imam-ali-voice-of-human-justice/417-ali-the-voice-of-human-justice'>http://www.almujtaba.com/en/index.php/left-menu-articles/35-imam-ali-voice-of-human-justice/417-ali-the-voice-of-human-justice Out of the persons who have narrated the attributes of Imam Ali son of Abu Talib the author of Zakhair al-Uqba writes thus: "His stature was moderate and slightly short. His skin was of wheaten colour and his beard was white and long. His eyes were large and black. He had a cheerful face and was good-natured. His neck was long like a goblet made of silver. His shoulders were broad. The joints of his hands were like those of a roaring lion, because his hands and wrists were completely joined with each other and distinction could hardly be made between them. His hands and fingers were strong, moderately fat and fleshy. His arms were also fleshy in a similar manner. He walked calmly like the prophet. However, as and when he proceeded to give a fight he walked briskly and did not turn his head to see anything else. His bodily strength was unimaginable. He usually picked up the fighters whom he laid his hands on and threw them on the ground without any difficulty or effort, as if they were small children. And if he held the arm of any warrior in his hand the latter could not even breathe. It is well-known that he did not fight with anyone whom he did not vanquish, even though he might have been very strong and a renowned champion. At times he picked up a big gate, which a number of strong persons could not even close, or open, and used it as a shield to defend himself. On some occasions he threw away with one hand, a stone, which could not even be shaken by a number of men. At times he roared in the battlefield so loudly that the bravest men got frightened although their number might be quite large. He possessed such a great power to bear hardships that he did not fear any harm from heat or coldness. Once a man lodged a complaint against Ali with Umar who was then the caliph. Umar summoned both of them and said: "O Abul Hasan! Stand side by side with the other party. Signs of displeasure appeared on the face of Ali. Thereupon Umar asked him whether he did not wish to stand by the side of the other person. Ali replied: "No. That is not so. However, I have observed that you have not maintained equality between me and my opponent. You have addressed me with my Kuniyah and thus shown me respect whereas you have not meted out the same treatment to him. (1) It is very difficult to explain fully the nature and habits of human beings and especially of great personalities because personal qualities of men are related with one another and every one of them influences others. Every quality is related with another quality and every habit is the cause of another habit and the result of a third one, or two of them are effect of another and so on and so forth. Hence, I propose to study a few of the personal qualities of Ali from different angles and to compare them within one and the same personality so as to arrive at some conclusions by means of this intellectual analysis. In the first instance I shall briefly present the various qualities of Ali by deducing them from his simple dealings and well-known actions so that his nature, habits and disposition are known and our detailed discussion in the following chapters may be limited to those qualities and characteristics. We now commence the discussion with reference to his acts of worship. Ali was well-known for his piety and continence. He did many things for his own self as well as for his own people and others, as he was extremely pious. I believe that Ali's piety was not the outcome of circumstances like that of other pious persons, who engage themselves in worship on account of the weakness of their souls, or to escape the vicissitudes of life and to keep aloof from the people, or in imitation of their ancestors, and the effects of the events of life confirm it, because as a rule people accord respect to ancestral customs and traditions. (2) The fact is that the piety of the Imam Ali was based on a firm footing and was linked with the mutual tie that exists in all parts of the creation and has bound the sky and the earth with each other. His worship was in fact a continuous effort and a campaign against mischief for the sake of human life and prosperity. He fought against all aspects of evil and wickedness. On the one hand he fought against hypocrisy and selfishness and on the other hand against dastardliness, abjectness meanness, helplessness and other bad qualities that the people had acquired during those evil days. According to Ali the essence of piety is to sacrifice one's life for the sake of truth and justice. He has said: "Your faith should be at such a level that you should prefer truth to falsehood even though it may cause you loss and falsehood may bring you gained". His piety was of the same type as defined by him. He was martyred on account of this very truthfulness, and if it be possible to give the title of "Martyr to living persons it may be said that even while alive he was a martyr in the path of truth and righteousness. If a person studies the piety of the Imam carefully it will become known to him that even in politics and governments he had a special method in the matter of worship which he pursued firmly. When he stood before the Almighty God he made his supplications with full attention, just as a poet is lost in the beauties of nature. The following remark of Ali is very instructive for those who worship God and observe piety: "One group worships God to be favoured with His blessings. This is the worship of the tradesmen. Another group worships Him on account of His fear. This is the worship of the slaves. A third group worships Him by way of thanksgiving. This is the worship of the free man". Unlike many persons the Imam's worship was not on account of fear, and it was also not a tradesman-like worship with the hope of acquiring Paradise. On the other hand when great men stand before the Almighty God they find themselves meek and obliged to consider themselves His worst slaves. The basis of this worship is reason, conscience, and spiritual perfection. One who accords the same position to worship as was accorded by Ali will certainly view life in the same manner in which it was viewed by Ali. Such a person does not seek life for worldly gains and transient pleasures. On the other hand he seeks it to attain high morals and to achieve the ends which are compatible with his nature. It was for this reason that Ali chose piety in the world and did not seek fame and ostentation. He was true in the matter of piety in the same way in which he was true in the matter of his actions, words and intentions. He was disinclined towards the pleasures of life in the same way in which he was disinterested in rulership, and other things, which were so much coveted by others. He lived with the members of his family in a hut which was also his seat of government. His rulership was not in the form of kingship but in the form of caliphate. He ate barley bread prepared from the flour ground by his wife. Of course his governors and officials availed of the luxuries which became available from Syria, Egypt and Iraq. Often he did not make his wife take the trouble of grinding the mill and did this job himself. Although he was the Commander of the Faithful he ate bread which was so dry and' hard that it could be broken by pressing it with the knee. When it was very cold during winter he did not have any clothes for that season and contented himself with thin summer clothes. Harun son of Antara relates thus from his father: "I went in the presence of Ali in Khurnaq Palace in winter season and saw that he was wearing an old cloak and was trembling with cold. I said to him: "O Commander of the Faithful! God has fixed a share for you also in the public treasury and in spite of that you are living in this condition". He replied: "I swear by God that I do not take anything out of your (i.e. public) property and this cloak is the same which I brought from Madina". He spent his days in the small house with perfect contentment till he was martyred at the hands of Ibn Muljim. Although he was the caliph there was none amongst the Muslims who lived as simple and contented a life as he did. In fact this lack of interest on his part in worldly comforts was related with his valour. Some persons think that these two qualities are apart from each other, but this view is not correct. Really speaking his valour consisted of the greatness of his soul and his efforts to achieve great objects and to help the poor and the needy without caring for his own benefit. The fact is that he was not prepared to enjoy the pleasure of life while living in a city in which many helpless and indigent persons were also residing. Umar son of Abdul Aziz was a caliph of the family of Bani Umayyah. This family was inimical towards Ali, slandered him and abused him from the pulpit. In spite of this he was obliged to remark thus keeping in view the sublime conduct of Ali: "The most chaste and pious person in the world was Ali son of Abu Talib. It is said that Ali did not place either a stone on a stone or a brick on a brick and did not also join a reed with a reed. In other words he did not construct for himself even a house made of reeds. Although the White Palace had been constructed for him he did not occupy it because he did not wish to live in a house which was better than the huts made of wood occupied by the poor people. The manner in which Ali led his life is reflected in his well-known remark: "Should I content myself with this that the people call me the Commander of the Faithful and I should not share the vicissitudes of life with them? Ibn Athir has narrated that when Ali married the Prophet's daughter Fatima their bed consisted only of the hide of a sheep. They used it as a mattress during night and placed fodder on it during the daytime to feed their camel. They did not have more than one servant. During the caliphate of Ali some property was received from Isfahan. It was divided by him into seven parts. It also included a loaf of bread and he broke that also into seven pieces. Manliness was incarnated in Ali in all respects and included every quality necessary for it. Broad mindedness and forgiveness are the necessary concomitants of manliness and they were ingrained in the Imam s nature. It was on this account that he did not even think of harming any person although he might have harmed him, and did not oppress a person about whom he knew that he wanted to kill him. Bani Umayyah abused and slandered him hut he did not retaliate in the same manner because magnanimous persons do not abuse a person who abuses them. Imam Ali prohibited his own companions from abusing Bani Umayyah. At the time of the Battle of Siffin he was informed that some of his companions were abusing Bani Umayyah, upon this he said: "I do not like that you should be one of those who use abusive language. However, if you mention their misdeeds and their behaviour you will be justified in doing so and will be pronouncing an ultimatum. In reply to their abuses you should say: "O Lord! Protect our blood as well as theirs. Relieve our and their hearts of deviation, and guide us so that he who has not recognized the truth should recognize it, and he who is involved in injustice and deviation should forsake it". He has no peer in history in the matter of forgiveness and connivance, and there are innumerable incidents which throw light on these qualities of his. It is said in this connection that on the occasion of a battle he gave inter alia the following instructions to his soldiers: "Don't kill an enemy who runs away. Don't withhold assistance from one who is helpless and wounded. Don't strip any one. Don't take the property of anyone by force". At the conclusion of the Battle of the Camel he offered funeral prayers for the enemies who had been killed and prayed to God for their forgiveness. When he gained control over his fell enemies like Abdullah son of Zubayr, Marwan son of Hakam, and Sa'id son of Aas, he forgave them, behaved with them kindly and prohibited his companions from punishing them although he was in a position to give them a harsh treatment, and they too did not hope that they would be set free. Another example of his connivance is this that when he gained the upper hand on Amr Aas he turned his face aside and let him go, although he was by no means a lesser danger for Ali than Mu awiya and remained inimical towards him even after this kindness. When he saw Zulfiqar (Ali's sword) on his head he committed a particular act and hoped that if he did so Ali would shut his eyes and leave him (3). If Ali had killed Amr bin Aas at that time fraud would have been eliminated and Mu'awiya's army, too, would have been destroyed. In the Battle of Siffin Mu'awiya and his supporters decided to overcome Ali by subjecting him and his companions to thirst. For some days, therefore, they blocked his way to the Euphrates and threatened that they would not allow his army to utilize the water and would make them die of thirst. However, Ali's army launched an attack and gained control of the bank of the river. But Ali behaved with Mu'awiya in a different manner. Notwithstanding the fact that he could stop supply of water to the Syrian army as a measure of retaliation he allowed them to utilize water in the same way in which his own men were utilizing it. Once he was given to understand that two persons were accusing Ayesha of having started the Battle of the Camel and of plotting to kill him. He ordered that each of them might be administered one hundred lashes by way of punishment. After achieving victory in the Battle of the Camel he sent Ayesha back to Madina with due honour and respect. He accompanied her up to a few miles distance and also sent some persons with her so that they might serve her on the way, and she might reach Madina comfortably. In spite of his being so brave Ali avoided being oppressive. The narrators and historians are agreed that he hated warfare and did not resort to it except when no other alternative was left. He always tried that matters might be settled with the enemies without bloodshed and fighting. He used to advise his son Hasan not to invite anyone to fighting. He was always sincere in what he said and followed the policy which he recommended to his son till he was obliged to act otherwise. For example when Kharijites were equipping themselves for warfare the companions of Ali suggested to him that he should attack them (i.e. Kharijites) before they became ready to wage a war. Ali, however, replied: "I shall not start fighting till they begin the battle themselves". His faith and human attributes compelled him to keep the people from deviation by means of advice. One day he was delivering a sermon to a gathering and many Kharijites who considered him to be an infidel were also present and were hearing him. One of them who was wondering at his sweet language and eloquence said: "May God kill this infidel! How wise and intelligent he is! The followers of Ali wished to kill that man. He, however, said to them: "He has done something wrong with his tongue. You should, therefore, either take revenge from him with the tongue or forgive him". We have already mentioned above that Mu'awiya's army blacked the path of Ali's army to the Euphrates so that they might surrender on account of thirst but when Ali gained control of the bark of the river he did not stop Mu'awiya's army from utilizing the water. Many other similar incidents took place so far as Mu'awiya was concerned, but it is not possible to give their details here. All these events show that as demanded by his angelic soul he was kind even to his enemies and was just and magnanimous to all. A historian narrates thus with reference to the Battle of Siffin: "A man named Kareez son of Sabah Humeri came out of Mu'awiya's army into the battlefield and said standing between the armies. Is there anyone who may come and fight with me? one of the soldiers of Ali's army went to combat with him and was killed. He again asked for an adversary. Another man went but he too was killed and still another person also met death at the hands of Kareez. When he demanded an adversary for the fourth time none went to oppose him. The men in the first row stepped hack. Ali felt that there was a danger of his army becoming demoralized. He, therefore, went himself to give a fight to Kareez and killed him. Then he killed another man and thereafter a third man also met the same fate. After having killed three warriors Ali said loudly these words which were heard by all: "If you had not started the battle we would not have fought with you". Having said this he returned to his place". It is also related in connection with the Battle of the Camel that when the enemies gathered for an attack, Ali also arrayed his troops hut said to them: "Don't throw an arrow nor make an attack with a spear or a sword until we have first invited them to peace". He did not wish that a battle should take place resulting in blood shed and loss of life. After a moment some one belonging to the opposite army shot an arrow which struck a companion of Ali and killed him. Ali said: "O Lord! Bear witness". Then another arrow came and killed another man. He said again: "O Lord! Bear witness". Then an arrow struck Abdullah son of Badil and his brother brought him before Ali. Ali again said "O Lord! Bear witness". And then the battle started. To shun cruelty and oppression was a moral principle of Ali and formed part of his nature and disposition. He never broke covenants and was not inimical towards his former friends unless they themselves broke the covenants and showed enmity in reply to kindness. The best form of friendship and the meaning of fidelity is that a warrior, while standing in the battlefield should look at the former friends who may have come to fight in the capacity of enemies, with the same brotherly eye, should invite them to peace and remind them of former love and friendship, so that they may possibly refrain from breach of covenant and treachery, or should take away the arms from their hands and solve the difficult problems by negotiations and peace talks. Fighting with a former friend should not he started all at once, because it is possible that he may be reminded of former relations and may refrain from fighting and opposition. If keeping promises and regard for former friendship had not dominated the spirit of Ali he would not have depended on them for warding off the enemies. The Imam's firmness in keeping the promises is evident from the treatment which he meted out to Zubayr son of Awam and Talha son of Ubaidullah. These two persons separated the Imam s friends and helpers from him and took them to his enemies. They also misguided Ayesha and made her come up as opponent of Ali. Those who were present on the spot whether they were friends or enemies, have reported that when Talha and Zubayr decided to fight against Ali, broke the oath of allegiance and displayed their evil intentions in the Battle of the Camel, Ali went to them bare-headed and without wearing any armour or coat of mail, meaning thereby that he had come with peaceful intentions. He then called Zubayr saying: "O Zubayr! come to me . Zubayr came fully armed. When Ayesha heard about it she cried: "What a pity it is that there should be a combat"! She said this because she knew that whoever went to fight against Ali would be killed, however brave and strong he might be. And it may be said with certainty that Zubayr could not have saved himself if he had fought with Ali. However Ali embraced Zubayr. Ayesha and her supporters were very much upset to see this. Ali said in a tone of love: "O Zubayr! Why have you come to fight against me? Zubayr replied: "To avenge the murder of Uthman". Ali said: "May God kill that person who has been responsible for the murder of Uthman". Then Ali reminded Zubayr of past companionship and brotherhood and wept a number of times while talking. However, Zubayr was bent upon fighting and opposed the Imam till he (i.e. Zubayr) was killed. Ali, who attached great importance to the tie of friendship, was very much grieved when Zubayr met his death. Ali did not withhold his suggestions from the former caliphs and assisted them in their words and actions. (4) Although this magnanimous person was steadfast in his friendship, his friends did not accord due respect to his friendship, because they did not expect that he would act contrary to his nature and let their hands loose to usurp the rights of others. Imam Ali has been reported to have said: "Even if all the seven regions of the world and whatever is under the sky is offered to me so that I may disobey God and take away unjustly the husk of barley from an ant I shall not do so. In my eyes this entire world is inferior to a leaf which may be pressed in the mouth of a locust". In this matter Ali's words and actions conformed with each other. He was not like others who indulge in tall talk which their actions belie. He was prompted to say these words by his nature which formed the basis of his character. Ali was more kind to the people than anyone else and refrained from harming any person. He became obvious of his own self in order to assist others and considered this self-abnegation to be a part and parcel of his life. His entire life was dedicated to the support of the oppressed and the helpless so that he might realize their rights from the tyrants who considered themselves entitled to usurp the rights of others on account of noble descent and racial discrimination. Ali opposed the Quraysh and fought with them, because they coveted the caliphate for the sake of personal gain and in order to acquire position, wealth and rulership. He renounced the caliphate and even the worldly life and forsook everything because he could not act like worldly persons and could not agree to allow them to exploit the weak and the helpless. Ali was so kind to the common man that when his brother Aqeel requested him to give him something more from the public treasury' than, his due share, he turned down his request and as a consequence thereof Aqeel went away to Mu'awiya. Ali tolerated separation from his brother but did not agree to give him anything from the public treasury of the Muslims without entitlement. Ali was like a kind father for all human beings. He gave directions to the officers and governors to behave with the people gently. He behaved harshly with those who oppressed the people and warned them severe consequences. The following directions given by him reached the ears of the governors continuously: "Redress the grievances of the people and meet their needs because you derive our capital from them. Do not deprive anyone of what he needs, and do not obstruct him from attaining his object. Do not sell the summer or winter dress of anyone to realize revenue. Do not take away from any person a quadruped which is required by him for his buisness and do not whip a person for even a penny. Alii was the person who wrote an excellent testament tor Malik Ashtar Nakha'i at the time of appointing him the governor of Egypt and the adjoining areas. He wrote: "Do not live with people like ferocious animals, and do not treat their sustenance to be war booty, because the Egyptians fall under one of the two categories: either they are your brethren-in-faith from the point of view of religion or your equals because of their being human beings. Ignore their shortcomings and forgive their mistakes, just as you hope that God wi1l forgive your crimes and sins. Do not regret your forgiving a person and do not insist upon awarding punishment He added: "Prohibit hoarding". Ali strictly forbade hoarding, which was the main reason for Mu'awiya and his party opposing him, because they wanted the country, the wealth and the war booty for themselves whereas Mi wanted them for all human beings. Ali was so kind to' human beings that, as we shall mention in detail later, he ordered that his murderer, the wicked Ibn Muljim might be treated kindly. In the recommendations made by him to his sons Hasan and Husayn he said: "Be enemies of the oppressors and supporters of the oppressed". He also said: "Be enemies of the oppressor even though he may be your near relative and support the oppressed person even though he may not be related to you and may be a stranger". He always endeavoured to punish the oppressors and relieve the people of their wickedness. To achieve this purpose he used his heart, tongue, sword and blood. He always remained a helper of the oppressed and an enemy of the oppressors. Following this path he never relaxed till the end of his life. One should not be surprised that Ali was just. It would have been a matter of surprise if he had not been just. The instances of his justice, which have been narrated, are the most valuable assets in human history and man should be proud of them. His brother Aqeel asked him to grant him a special pension out of the public treasury, but he refused to accede to his request saying: "It is not my personal property that I may give it to anyone I like. There are also other helpless and needy persons, who are more deserving than you are, and I must be mindful of them". Aqeel said: "If you do not allow me a pension out of this property I shall go to Mu'awiya". However, Ali did not care for what he said, and did not revise his decision. His brother went away and joined Mu'awiya and used to say: "Mu'awiya is better for my world", Mu'awiya's treatment satisfied him, because the public treasury was a tool in his hands with which he strengthened his kingdom, achieved his objects and wanted to revive the past politics and importance of Bani Umayyah. The Imam did not claim any privileges vis-à-vis his subjects and appeared in the courts as their equal. This was so because the spirit of justice had penetrated into the depth of his heart. Once Ali saw his coat of mail in the possession of a Christian. He took him in the court of a judge named Shurayh so that he might give a decision regarding its ownership. When both of them appeared before the judge Ali said: "This coat of mail is mine. I have neither sold nor gifted it to anyone". The judge asked the other person: "What have you to say about the claim made by the Commander of the Faithful? The Christian said: This coat of mail is mine. In spite of this, however, I do not consider the Commander of the Faithful to be a liar then the judge Shurayh turned to Ali and said: "Can you produce any witness who should depose that this coat of mail is yours? Ali smiled and said: "Shurayh is right. I cannot produce any such witness". The judge gave a judgment in favour of the Christian who took the coat of mail and departed. The Commander of the Faithful kept looking at him from behind. After having gone a few steps, however, he returned and said: "I testify that such an order resembles the order of the prophets, because one who is the Commander of the Faithful has appeared along with a person like myself in the court of the judge who is also his subordinate and the judge has given a judgment against him". (5) Then he added: "O Commander of the Faithful! I swear by God that this coat of mail is yours and my claim was false". Later the people saw that Christian serving in the army of Ali as a faithful soldier and he fought most enthusiastically against Kharijites in the Battle of Nahrawan. Ibn Abi Rafe' has narrated thus: "I was the administrator of the public treasury during the period of the caliphate of Ali and was also his scribe. The property received from Basra for the public treasury included a pearl necklace. The daughter of Ali sent word to me saying: "I understand that there is a pearl necklace in the public treasury which is controlled by you. Send that necklace to me on loan so that I may wear it on Eid al-Azha day. Thereafter I shall return it". I sent the necklace to her on the conditions that she would be responsible if it was lost or damaged, and that she would return it within three days. She accepted these conditions. By chance the eyes of the Commander of the Faithful fell on the necklace and he recognized it. He asked his daughter as to where she had obtained it from. She replied: "I have taken it on loan from Ibn Abi Rafe' the in charge of the public treasury to wear it on Eid al-Azha day and have promised to return it to him within three days". The Commander of the Faithful summoned me and said; "Do you consider it lawful to commit breach of trust with the Muslims"? I replied: "May God forbid that I may commit treachery with the Muslims". Thereupon he said: "Then why did you lend such and such necklace to my daughter without obtaining my permission and without the concurrence of the Muslims"? I replied: "O Commander of the Faithful! She is your daughter. She borrowed it to adorn herself and guaranteed its safe return so that 1 might restore it to its proper place". Ali said: "Take it back today and do not do so in future otherwise I shall punish you". When Ali's daughter came to know about it she said to him: "O father! I am your dear daughter. Who else is more entitled to wear this necklace"? Ali replied: "O daughter of Abu Talib! Don't deviate from the right path. Can you tell me how many Muhajir and Ansar women adorn themselves with such necklaces"? Eventually I took back the necklace from the daughter of the Commander of the Faithful and restored it to its proper place. Ali observed justice even in small and insignificant matters. If it became necessary for him to divide something with others he gave the right of selection to the other party so that people might not think that discrimination was being made in the matter of division between the persons in authority and the subordinates. One day he went to the shop of a draper named Abu al-Nawar accompanied by his slave and purchased two dresses. Then he asked his slave to choose one out of the two dresses. The slave picked up one of them and Ali retained the other. (6) All the orders and letters that he sent to the governors and other officials rotate on the pivot of justice. Ali's near ones as well as others joined hands in opposing him. It was on account of the fact that he did not give them preference from the point of view of equity and justice, and did not grant any concession to his relatives. He was not influenced by anyone and accepted only the right things from others. When Uthman son of Affan became caliph, he gave full freedom to his relatives, friends and associates to accumulate wealth, and he followed those who gave him wrong advice. Marwan had the greatest influence on him. He did not benefit from the wise recommendation which Ahu Bakr had made to Umar. Abu Bakr had said: "Don't be in proximity to those persons who are eager to fill their bellies and acquire position and wealth. Don't be enamoured of the fact that they have associated with the prophet and served him. Assess the nature of every person and find out what sort of man he is". Ali hated such greedy persons. Hence when he became the caliph he decided to deal with them justly. He therefore dismissed some of them and checked the greed of others for position and wealth. There was a group of persons who wanted to give the principles of Islam a new form and make them a means of acquisition of position and wealth and to treat the Islamic territories a hereditary property of their family. Ali fought against them and said to them in loud words: "I know what can keep you from rebellion and mischief, but the thing which is a source of happiness for you is the means of evil for me". The stage at which Ali's dealing with such people reached is well-known. When the oppressors were defeated they resorted to deceit and the spirit of justice succeeded in the hearts of Ali and his followers, although apparently they were the sufferers. When Ali met martyrdom at the hands of Ibn Muljim, a Nakh'ii woman named Ummul Haisham wrote an elegy for him. A verse of that elegy goes to show the opinion of the people about his character and justice: "He established truth and entertained no doubt about it. He behaved justly with his kinsmen as well as strangers". Sincerity and intrepidity are the qualities of great men and they were possessed by Ali par excellence. Sincerity, truthfulness, intrepidity and manliness and all other similar qualities are inter-connected. Hence he did not express anything which was opposed to his real intention and determination. He did not practice deceit, although he knew very well that by doing so he could get rid of the mischief of the enemies. What has been said above about the truthfulness and character of the Imam fully proves his sincerity and intrepidity. One of his principles and morals consisted of simplicity in everything. He hated formality very much and used to say: "The worst brother is he for whom one has to involve oneself in trouble". He also used to say: "If a believer observes formality with his brother it means that he has separated himself from him. If he expressed an opinion or tendered an advice or gave some present, then this act of his was not tainted with ostentation. This habit was so much ingrained in his nature that the selfish people could not make him act according to their wishes, and the flatterers should not hope to attract his attention. These people used to say that the Imam was hard-hearted, ill natured and proud. However, the Imam was neither hard-hearted nor ill natured nor proud. On the contrary, as demanded by his nature, he said whatever he had to say without any formality or deceit. A large number of persons who gathered around him coveted personal gains. Ali became suspicious about them and did not conceal his misgiving. Expression of his views about them cannot be called pride or rudeness. Ali hated pride and was absolutely free from egotism. He also forbade his children, companions and officials to show pride and practice egotism. While giving them advice he used to say: "Shun egotism. You should know that egotism is a bad quality and a calamity for reason He hated formality. He also restrained the people from going to the extreme while praising him and told them: "I am lesser than what you say". At times it so happened that he considered the person concerned to be his enemy. On such occasion he did not refrain from mentioning the mental condition of that person of which he was aware and told him: "I am better than what you believe about me in your heart". Ali disliked some of his friends exalting him too much in the same manner in which he disliked his being belittled by his enemies. He has said: "Persons of two types have been destroyed on account of their attitude towards me - The friends who have exaggerated my qualities and the spiteful enemies". He neither showed pride nor humiliated himself unnecessarily; he presented himself as he was. He was free from affectation and hypocrisy. It is difficult to find a straightforward man like him. He purchased a bagful of palm-dates and was carrying them home. Some persons observed this and volunteered to carry the bag for him. He, however, told them frankly that the head of the family was more responsible to carry it. It is said erroneously that artificial humility and meekness constitute good qualities. In fact it is falsehood and mere affectation that one should pose to he inferior to what one actually is. Ali was not humble in that sense and he was also not proud. He displayed himself as he actually was without any meekness or pride, because these two things are not the qualities of manly persons. The writer of 'Abqari'atul Imam' says: "Ali entered the battlefield bare-headed to fight against the enemies where as they were completely covered with steel and iron. How can it be said that this action of his was based on hypocrisy"? Another attribute of Ali was his noble disposition. He did not entertain grudge in his heart against anybody, even though he might be his fell enemy. As we have already mentioned he directed his Sons and friends not to kill his murderer (Ibn Muljim). Although Talha had come as an enemy to kill him, he wept on his dead body and recited a heart-felt elegy for him. Although the Kharijites were his deadly enemies and had fought against him, and his murderer was also one of them, and in fact they had not given him lesser trouble as compared with Mu'awiya and Amr bin Aas, but he advised his friends and followers not to fight against them. He gave this direction because he knew that those people had fallen prey to misunderstanding and had been misguided. [hey were seekers of truth but had been mistaken in the matter of its assessment as opposed to Mu'awiya and his companions who were seekers of falsehood and succeeded in acquiring it. Nothing can be seen in the biography of Ali which may go to show that he was revengeful. In all circumstances he showed truthfulness, honesty', straightforwardness and swordsmanship. Magnanimous persons are not revengeful and do not also tolerate injustice and oppression. They get annoyed with one who oppresses others. Although Ali did not entertain any' grudge in his heart against anyone, he had to face a spiteful group. His meaningful words show how grieved he was. His grief was such as arose from sympathy and kindness. He was grieved to see that people harmed themselves. Another quality which distinguished him from others and was complementary to his other attributes was his perfect faith in his actions and beliefs, and whenever he did anything he believed in its correctness and in his being on the right path. When he decided to fight against Amr son of Abd-awudd, the famous champion of Arabia he was warned by the prophet and his companions about the consequences. He however, decided to fight because besides being brave he possessed enthusiasm to support Islam. We repeat that when the enemies had encircled Ali from all sides he busied himself in offering prayers without there being any guard to protect him from the mischief of those enemies, and consequently Ibn Muljim succeeded in wounding him with his poisoned sword. This very thing is a great proof of the fact that he was certain of the correctness of what he did, because a righteous person does not fear anything. All the words and acts of Ali go to prove that he had perfect and firm faith in his actions. This was so because all his actions emanated from wisdom and capability. (7) When the people were divided into two groups in their attitude towards him (i.e. friends and enemies) he did not become afraid of the enemies and did not lay down arms before them, because he had perfect faith in his own truthfulness and justice and correctness of his actions. It was in this context that he said: "Even if I strike on the nose of a believer so that he may become my enemy he will not become my enemy and even if I shower all the bounties of the earth on him so that he may become friendly towards me he will not become my friend". He has also said in this behalf. "I am not afraid of fighting against these people alone even though the entire world may join their army". When he came to know that a group of the people of Madina had joined Mu'a-wiya he wrote to Sehl son of Hanif the governor of Madina: "I understand that a group of the inhabitants of your city has secretly joined Mu'awiya. However, you should not be worried on this account that some persons will leave you and will not assist you. I swear by God that these persons have not forsaken injustice and oppression and have not stuck to equity and justice". Notes: 1- The Arabs did not consider it proper to address the respectable persons with their real names. In case, therefore, they wished to accord respect to someone they addressed him with his Kuniyah. 2- According to the Christians worship' consists of sequestered and monastic life. However, monasticism is not permissible in Islam. It was for this reason that the pious Muslims neither avoided effort in life nor kept aloof from other human beings. On the other hand at times they heroically staked their very lives even when it was expedient to remain silent (and they do so even in these times). 3- It is said that when Amr b. Aas came to fight against Ali in the Battle of Siffin he was very much afraid. He could think of no other alternative except that he should lie on the ground and uncover his private parts so that Ali might shut his eyes, and he himself might escape. He, therefore, did so and thus saved his life. 4- Ali assisted the caliphs because every action of his was for the sake of the benefit of Islam and he did not let the interests of the religion suffer in order to acquire his own right. 5- In the free countries of the modern world the court and judges have been made permanent and none can remove them from their office. This has been done, so that they may take decision without any fear or favour, and may give judgment against influential persons and even against the members of government. 6- Such incidents show that the leaders of the faith were very mindful of the rights of their subordinates. Those who make a show of supporting the helpless persons, and accuse religion of being an impediment in the matter of weak persons getting their due rights have not done as much for their subordinates as Imam Ali did. 7- Its reason was that Imam Ali was infallible and he said and did everything in accordance with the inspiration and traditions of the prophet of Islam. Hence, he did not entertain any doubt about his views and actions. The Voice of Human Justice, by George Jordac Source: http://www.tebyan.net Direct Link: http://www.almujtaba.com/en/index.php/left-menu-articles/35-imam-ali-voice-of-human-justice/417-ali-the-voice-of-human-justice'>http://www.almujtaba.com/en/index.php/left-menu-articles/35-imam-ali-voice-of-human-justice/417-ali-the-voice-of-human-justice You can find more articles categorized in 50 different sections by visiting http://www.almujtaba.com
  15. Ali The Voice of Human Justice Direct Link: http://www.almujtaba.com/en/index.php/left-menu-articles/35-imam-ali-voice-of-human-justice/417-ali-the-voice-of-human-justice'>http://www.almujtaba.com/en/index.php/left-menu-articles/35-imam-ali-voice-of-human-justice/417-ali-the-voice-of-human-justice Out of the persons who have narrated the attributes of Imam Ali son of Abu Talib the author of Zakhair al-Uqba writes thus: "His stature was moderate and slightly short. His skin was of wheaten colour and his beard was white and long. His eyes were large and black. He had a cheerful face and was good-natured. His neck was long like a goblet made of silver. His shoulders were broad. The joints of his hands were like those of a roaring lion, because his hands and wrists were completely joined with each other and distinction could hardly be made between them. His hands and fingers were strong, moderately fat and fleshy. His arms were also fleshy in a similar manner. He walked calmly like the prophet. However, as and when he proceeded to give a fight he walked briskly and did not turn his head to see anything else. His bodily strength was unimaginable. He usually picked up the fighters whom he laid his hands on and threw them on the ground without any difficulty or effort, as if they were small children. And if he held the arm of any warrior in his hand the latter could not even breathe. It is well-known that he did not fight with anyone whom he did not vanquish, even though he might have been very strong and a renowned champion. At times he picked up a big gate, which a number of strong persons could not even close, or open, and used it as a shield to defend himself. On some occasions he threw away with one hand, a stone, which could not even be shaken by a number of men. At times he roared in the battlefield so loudly that the bravest men got frightened although their number might be quite large. He possessed such a great power to bear hardships that he did not fear any harm from heat or coldness. Once a man lodged a complaint against Ali with Umar who was then the caliph. Umar summoned both of them and said: "O Abul Hasan! Stand side by side with the other party. Signs of displeasure appeared on the face of Ali. Thereupon Umar asked him whether he did not wish to stand by the side of the other person. Ali replied: "No. That is not so. However, I have observed that you have not maintained equality between me and my opponent. You have addressed me with my Kuniyah and thus shown me respect whereas you have not meted out the same treatment to him. (1) It is very difficult to explain fully the nature and habits of human beings and especially of great personalities because personal qualities of men are related with one another and every one of them influences others. Every quality is related with another quality and every habit is the cause of another habit and the result of a third one, or two of them are effect of another and so on and so forth. Hence, I propose to study a few of the personal qualities of Ali from different angles and to compare them within one and the same personality so as to arrive at some conclusions by means of this intellectual analysis. In the first instance I shall briefly present the various qualities of Ali by deducing them from his simple dealings and well-known actions so that his nature, habits and disposition are known and our detailed discussion in the following chapters may be limited to those qualities and characteristics. We now commence the discussion with reference to his acts of worship. Ali was well-known for his piety and continence. He did many things for his own self as well as for his own people and others, as he was extremely pious. I believe that Ali's piety was not the outcome of circumstances like that of other pious persons, who engage themselves in worship on account of the weakness of their souls, or to escape the vicissitudes of life and to keep aloof from the people, or in imitation of their ancestors, and the effects of the events of life confirm it, because as a rule people accord respect to ancestral customs and traditions. (2) The fact is that the piety of the Imam Ali was based on a firm footing and was linked with the mutual tie that exists in all parts of the creation and has bound the sky and the earth with each other. His worship was in fact a continuous effort and a campaign against mischief for the sake of human life and prosperity. He fought against all aspects of evil and wickedness. On the one hand he fought against hypocrisy and selfishness and on the other hand against dastardliness, abjectness meanness, helplessness and other bad qualities that the people had acquired during those evil days. According to Ali the essence of piety is to sacrifice one's life for the sake of truth and justice. He has said: "Your faith should be at such a level that you should prefer truth to falsehood even though it may cause you loss and falsehood may bring you gained". His piety was of the same type as defined by him. He was martyred on account of this very truthfulness, and if it be possible to give the title of "Martyr to living persons it may be said that even while alive he was a martyr in the path of truth and righteousness. If a person studies the piety of the Imam carefully it will become known to him that even in politics and governments he had a special method in the matter of worship which he pursued firmly. When he stood before the Almighty God he made his supplications with full attention, just as a poet is lost in the beauties of nature. The following remark of Ali is very instructive for those who worship God and observe piety: "One group worships God to be favoured with His blessings. This is the worship of the tradesmen. Another group worships Him on account of His fear. This is the worship of the slaves. A third group worships Him by way of thanksgiving. This is the worship of the free man". Unlike many persons the Imam's worship was not on account of fear, and it was also not a tradesman-like worship with the hope of acquiring Paradise. On the other hand when great men stand before the Almighty God they find themselves meek and obliged to consider themselves His worst slaves. The basis of this worship is reason, conscience, and spiritual perfection. One who accords the same position to worship as was accorded by Ali will certainly view life in the same manner in which it was viewed by Ali. Such a person does not seek life for worldly gains and transient pleasures. On the other hand he seeks it to attain high morals and to achieve the ends which are compatible with his nature. It was for this reason that Ali chose piety in the world and did not seek fame and ostentation. He was true in the matter of piety in the same way in which he was true in the matter of his actions, words and intentions. He was disinclined towards the pleasures of life in the same way in which he was disinterested in rulership, and other things, which were so much coveted by others. He lived with the members of his family in a hut which was also his seat of government. His rulership was not in the form of kingship but in the form of caliphate. He ate barley bread prepared from the flour ground by his wife. Of course his governors and officials availed of the luxuries which became available from Syria, Egypt and Iraq. Often he did not make his wife take the trouble of grinding the mill and did this job himself. Although he was the Commander of the Faithful he ate bread which was so dry and' hard that it could be broken by pressing it with the knee. When it was very cold during winter he did not have any clothes for that season and contented himself with thin summer clothes. Harun son of Antara relates thus from his father: "I went in the presence of Ali in Khurnaq Palace in winter season and saw that he was wearing an old cloak and was trembling with cold. I said to him: "O Commander of the Faithful! God has fixed a share for you also in the public treasury and in spite of that you are living in this condition". He replied: "I swear by God that I do not take anything out of your (i.e. public) property and this cloak is the same which I brought from Madina". He spent his days in the small house with perfect contentment till he was martyred at the hands of Ibn Muljim. Although he was the caliph there was none amongst the Muslims who lived as simple and contented a life as he did. In fact this lack of interest on his part in worldly comforts was related with his valour. Some persons think that these two qualities are apart from each other, but this view is not correct. Really speaking his valour consisted of the greatness of his soul and his efforts to achieve great objects and to help the poor and the needy without caring for his own benefit. The fact is that he was not prepared to enjoy the pleasure of life while living in a city in which many helpless and indigent persons were also residing. Umar son of Abdul Aziz was a caliph of the family of Bani Umayyah. This family was inimical towards Ali, slandered him and abused him from the pulpit. In spite of this he was obliged to remark thus keeping in view the sublime conduct of Ali: "The most chaste and pious person in the world was Ali son of Abu Talib. It is said that Ali did not place either a stone on a stone or a brick on a brick and did not also join a reed with a reed. In other words he did not construct for himself even a house made of reeds. Although the White Palace had been constructed for him he did not occupy it because he did not wish to live in a house which was better than the huts made of wood occupied by the poor people. The manner in which Ali led his life is reflected in his well-known remark: "Should I content myself with this that the people call me the Commander of the Faithful and I should not share the vicissitudes of life with them? Ibn Athir has narrated that when Ali married the Prophet's daughter Fatima their bed consisted only of the hide of a sheep. They used it as a mattress during night and placed fodder on it during the daytime to feed their camel. They did not have more than one servant. During the caliphate of Ali some property was received from Isfahan. It was divided by him into seven parts. It also included a loaf of bread and he broke that also into seven pieces. Manliness was incarnated in Ali in all respects and included every quality necessary for it. Broad mindedness and forgiveness are the necessary concomitants of manliness and they were ingrained in the Imam s nature. It was on this account that he did not even think of harming any person although he might have harmed him, and did not oppress a person about whom he knew that he wanted to kill him. Bani Umayyah abused and slandered him hut he did not retaliate in the same manner because magnanimous persons do not abuse a person who abuses them. Imam Ali prohibited his own companions from abusing Bani Umayyah. At the time of the Battle of Siffin he was informed that some of his companions were abusing Bani Umayyah, upon this he said: "I do not like that you should be one of those who use abusive language. However, if you mention their misdeeds and their behaviour you will be justified in doing so and will be pronouncing an ultimatum. In reply to their abuses you should say: "O Lord! Protect our blood as well as theirs. Relieve our and their hearts of deviation, and guide us so that he who has not recognized the truth should recognize it, and he who is involved in injustice and deviation should forsake it". He has no peer in history in the matter of forgiveness and connivance, and there are innumerable incidents which throw light on these qualities of his. It is said in this connection that on the occasion of a battle he gave inter alia the following instructions to his soldiers: "Don't kill an enemy who runs away. Don't withhold assistance from one who is helpless and wounded. Don't strip any one. Don't take the property of anyone by force". At the conclusion of the Battle of the Camel he offered funeral prayers for the enemies who had been killed and prayed to God for their forgiveness. When he gained control over his fell enemies like Abdullah son of Zubayr, Marwan son of Hakam, and Sa'id son of Aas, he forgave them, behaved with them kindly and prohibited his companions from punishing them although he was in a position to give them a harsh treatment, and they too did not hope that they would be set free. Another example of his connivance is this that when he gained the upper hand on Amr Aas he turned his face aside and let him go, although he was by no means a lesser danger for Ali than Mu awiya and remained inimical towards him even after this kindness. When he saw Zulfiqar (Ali's sword) on his head he committed a particular act and hoped that if he did so Ali would shut his eyes and leave him (3). If Ali had killed Amr bin Aas at that time fraud would have been eliminated and Mu'awiya's army, too, would have been destroyed. In the Battle of Siffin Mu'awiya and his supporters decided to overcome Ali by subjecting him and his companions to thirst. For some days, therefore, they blocked his way to the Euphrates and threatened that they would not allow his army to utilize the water and would make them die of thirst. However, Ali's army launched an attack and gained control of the bank of the river. But Ali behaved with Mu'awiya in a different manner. Notwithstanding the fact that he could stop supply of water to the Syrian army as a measure of retaliation he allowed them to utilize water in the same way in which his own men were utilizing it. Once he was given to understand that two persons were accusing Ayesha of having started the Battle of the Camel and of plotting to kill him. He ordered that each of them might be administered one hundred lashes by way of punishment. After achieving victory in the Battle of the Camel he sent Ayesha back to Madina with due honour and respect. He accompanied her up to a few miles distance and also sent some persons with her so that they might serve her on the way, and she might reach Madina comfortably. In spite of his being so brave Ali avoided being oppressive. The narrators and historians are agreed that he hated warfare and did not resort to it except when no other alternative was left. He always tried that matters might be settled with the enemies without bloodshed and fighting. He used to advise his son Hasan not to invite anyone to fighting. He was always sincere in what he said and followed the policy which he recommended to his son till he was obliged to act otherwise. For example when Kharijites were equipping themselves for warfare the companions of Ali suggested to him that he should attack them (i.e. Kharijites) before they became ready to wage a war. Ali, however, replied: "I shall not start fighting till they begin the battle themselves". His faith and human attributes compelled him to keep the people from deviation by means of advice. One day he was delivering a sermon to a gathering and many Kharijites who considered him to be an infidel were also present and were hearing him. One of them who was wondering at his sweet language and eloquence said: "May God kill this infidel! How wise and intelligent he is! The followers of Ali wished to kill that man. He, however, said to them: "He has done something wrong with his tongue. You should, therefore, either take revenge from him with the tongue or forgive him". We have already mentioned above that Mu'awiya's army blacked the path of Ali's army to the Euphrates so that they might surrender on account of thirst but when Ali gained control of the bark of the river he did not stop Mu'awiya's army from utilizing the water. Many other similar incidents took place so far as Mu'awiya was concerned, but it is not possible to give their details here. All these events show that as demanded by his angelic soul he was kind even to his enemies and was just and magnanimous to all. A historian narrates thus with reference to the Battle of Siffin: "A man named Kareez son of Sabah Humeri came out of Mu'awiya's army into the battlefield and said standing between the armies. Is there anyone who may come and fight with me? one of the soldiers of Ali's army went to combat with him and was killed. He again asked for an adversary. Another man went but he too was killed and still another person also met death at the hands of Kareez. When he demanded an adversary for the fourth time none went to oppose him. The men in the first row stepped hack. Ali felt that there was a danger of his army becoming demoralized. He, therefore, went himself to give a fight to Kareez and killed him. Then he killed another man and thereafter a third man also met the same fate. After having killed three warriors Ali said loudly these words which were heard by all: "If you had not started the battle we would not have fought with you". Having said this he returned to his place". It is also related in connection with the Battle of the Camel that when the enemies gathered for an attack, Ali also arrayed his troops hut said to them: "Don't throw an arrow nor make an attack with a spear or a sword until we have first invited them to peace". He did not wish that a battle should take place resulting in blood shed and loss of life. After a moment some one belonging to the opposite army shot an arrow which struck a companion of Ali and killed him. Ali said: "O Lord! Bear witness". Then another arrow came and killed another man. He said again: "O Lord! Bear witness". Then an arrow struck Abdullah son of Badil and his brother brought him before Ali. Ali again said "O Lord! Bear witness". And then the battle started. To shun cruelty and oppression was a moral principle of Ali and formed part of his nature and disposition. He never broke covenants and was not inimical towards his former friends unless they themselves broke the covenants and showed enmity in reply to kindness. The best form of friendship and the meaning of fidelity is that a warrior, while standing in the battlefield should look at the former friends who may have come to fight in the capacity of enemies, with the same brotherly eye, should invite them to peace and remind them of former love and friendship, so that they may possibly refrain from breach of covenant and treachery, or should take away the arms from their hands and solve the difficult problems by negotiations and peace talks. Fighting with a former friend should not he started all at once, because it is possible that he may be reminded of former relations and may refrain from fighting and opposition. If keeping promises and regard for former friendship had not dominated the spirit of Ali he would not have depended on them for warding off the enemies. The Imam's firmness in keeping the promises is evident from the treatment which he meted out to Zubayr son of Awam and Talha son of Ubaidullah. These two persons separated the Imam s friends and helpers from him and took them to his enemies. They also misguided Ayesha and made her come up as opponent of Ali. Those who were present on the spot whether they were friends or enemies, have reported that when Talha and Zubayr decided to fight against Ali, broke the oath of allegiance and displayed their evil intentions in the Battle of the Camel, Ali went to them bare-headed and without wearing any armour or coat of mail, meaning thereby that he had come with peaceful intentions. He then called Zubayr saying: "O Zubayr! come to me . Zubayr came fully armed. When Ayesha heard about it she cried: "What a pity it is that there should be a combat"! She said this because she knew that whoever went to fight against Ali would be killed, however brave and strong he might be. And it may be said with certainty that Zubayr could not have saved himself if he had fought with Ali. However Ali embraced Zubayr. Ayesha and her supporters were very much upset to see this. Ali said in a tone of love: "O Zubayr! Why have you come to fight against me? Zubayr replied: "To avenge the murder of Uthman". Ali said: "May God kill that person who has been responsible for the murder of Uthman". Then Ali reminded Zubayr of past companionship and brotherhood and wept a number of times while talking. However, Zubayr was bent upon fighting and opposed the Imam till he (i.e. Zubayr) was killed. Ali, who attached great importance to the tie of friendship, was very much grieved when Zubayr met his death. Ali did not withhold his suggestions from the former caliphs and assisted them in their words and actions. (4) Although this magnanimous person was steadfast in his friendship, his friends did not accord due respect to his friendship, because they did not expect that he would act contrary to his nature and let their hands loose to usurp the rights of others. Imam Ali has been reported to have said: "Even if all the seven regions of the world and whatever is under the sky is offered to me so that I may disobey God and take away unjustly the husk of barley from an ant I shall not do so. In my eyes this entire world is inferior to a leaf which may be pressed in the mouth of a locust". In this matter Ali's words and actions conformed with each other. He was not like others who indulge in tall talk which their actions belie. He was prompted to say these words by his nature which formed the basis of his character. Ali was more kind to the people than anyone else and refrained from harming any person. He became obvious of his own self in order to assist others and considered this self-abnegation to be a part and parcel of his life. His entire life was dedicated to the support of the oppressed and the helpless so that he might realize their rights from the tyrants who considered themselves entitled to usurp the rights of others on account of noble descent and racial discrimination. Ali opposed the Quraysh and fought with them, because they coveted the caliphate for the sake of personal gain and in order to acquire position, wealth and rulership. He renounced the caliphate and even the worldly life and forsook everything because he could not act like worldly persons and could not agree to allow them to exploit the weak and the helpless. Ali was so kind to the common man that when his brother Aqeel requested him to give him something more from the public treasury' than, his due share, he turned down his request and as a consequence thereof Aqeel went away to Mu'awiya. Ali tolerated separation from his brother but did not agree to give him anything from the public treasury of the Muslims without entitlement. Ali was like a kind father for all human beings. He gave directions to the officers and governors to behave with the people gently. He behaved harshly with those who oppressed the people and warned them severe consequences. The following directions given by him reached the ears of the governors continuously: "Redress the grievances of the people and meet their needs because you derive our capital from them. Do not deprive anyone of what he needs, and do not obstruct him from attaining his object. Do not sell the summer or winter dress of anyone to realize revenue. Do not take away from any person a quadruped which is required by him for his buisness and do not whip a person for even a penny. Alii was the person who wrote an excellent testament tor Malik Ashtar Nakha'i at the time of appointing him the governor of Egypt and the adjoining areas. He wrote: "Do not live with people like ferocious animals, and do not treat their sustenance to be war booty, because the Egyptians fall under one of the two categories: either they are your brethren-in-faith from the point of view of religion or your equals because of their being human beings. Ignore their shortcomings and forgive their mistakes, just as you hope that God wi1l forgive your crimes and sins. Do not regret your forgiving a person and do not insist upon awarding punishment He added: "Prohibit hoarding". Ali strictly forbade hoarding, which was the main reason for Mu'awiya and his party opposing him, because they wanted the country, the wealth and the war booty for themselves whereas Mi wanted them for all human beings. Ali was so kind to' human beings that, as we shall mention in detail later, he ordered that his murderer, the wicked Ibn Muljim might be treated kindly. In the recommendations made by him to his sons Hasan and Husayn he said: "Be enemies of the oppressors and supporters of the oppressed". He also said: "Be enemies of the oppressor even though he may be your near relative and support the oppressed person even though he may not be related to you and may be a stranger". He always endeavoured to punish the oppressors and relieve the people of their wickedness. To achieve this purpose he used his heart, tongue, sword and blood. He always remained a helper of the oppressed and an enemy of the oppressors. Following this path he never relaxed till the end of his life. One should not be surprised that Ali was just. It would have been a matter of surprise if he had not been just. The instances of his justice, which have been narrated, are the most valuable assets in human history and man should be proud of them. His brother Aqeel asked him to grant him a special pension out of the public treasury, but he refused to accede to his request saying: "It is not my personal property that I may give it to anyone I like. There are also other helpless and needy persons, who are more deserving than you are, and I must be mindful of them". Aqeel said: "If you do not allow me a pension out of this property I shall go to Mu'awiya". However, Ali did not care for what he said, and did not revise his decision. His brother went away and joined Mu'awiya and used to say: "Mu'awiya is better for my world", Mu'awiya's treatment satisfied him, because the public treasury was a tool in his hands with which he strengthened his kingdom, achieved his objects and wanted to revive the past politics and importance of Bani Umayyah. The Imam did not claim any privileges vis-à-vis his subjects and appeared in the courts as their equal. This was so because the spirit of justice had penetrated into the depth of his heart. Once Ali saw his coat of mail in the possession of a Christian. He took him in the court of a judge named Shurayh so that he might give a decision regarding its ownership. When both of them appeared before the judge Ali said: "This coat of mail is mine. I have neither sold nor gifted it to anyone". The judge asked the other person: "What have you to say about the claim made by the Commander of the Faithful? The Christian said: This coat of mail is mine. In spite of this, however, I do not consider the Commander of the Faithful to be a liar then the judge Shurayh turned to Ali and said: "Can you produce any witness who should depose that this coat of mail is yours? Ali smiled and said: "Shurayh is right. I cannot produce any such witness". The judge gave a judgment in favour of the Christian who took the coat of mail and departed. The Commander of the Faithful kept looking at him from behind. After having gone a few steps, however, he returned and said: "I testify that such an order resembles the order of the prophets, because one who is the Commander of the Faithful has appeared along with a person like myself in the court of the judge who is also his subordinate and the judge has given a judgment against him". (5) Then he added: "O Commander of the Faithful! I swear by God that this coat of mail is yours and my claim was false". Later the people saw that Christian serving in the army of Ali as a faithful soldier and he fought most enthusiastically against Kharijites in the Battle of Nahrawan. Ibn Abi Rafe' has narrated thus: "I was the administrator of the public treasury during the period of the caliphate of Ali and was also his scribe. The property received from Basra for the public treasury included a pearl necklace. The daughter of Ali sent word to me saying: "I understand that there is a pearl necklace in the public treasury which is controlled by you. Send that necklace to me on loan so that I may wear it on Eid al-Azha day. Thereafter I shall return it". I sent the necklace to her on the conditions that she would be responsible if it was lost or damaged, and that she would return it within three days. She accepted these conditions. By chance the eyes of the Commander of the Faithful fell on the necklace and he recognized it. He asked his daughter as to where she had obtained it from. She replied: "I have taken it on loan from Ibn Abi Rafe' the in charge of the public treasury to wear it on Eid al-Azha day and have promised to return it to him within three days". The Commander of the Faithful summoned me and said; "Do you consider it lawful to commit breach of trust with the Muslims"? I replied: "May God forbid that I may commit treachery with the Muslims". Thereupon he said: "Then why did you lend such and such necklace to my daughter without obtaining my permission and without the concurrence of the Muslims"? I replied: "O Commander of the Faithful! She is your daughter. She borrowed it to adorn herself and guaranteed its safe return so that 1 might restore it to its proper place". Ali said: "Take it back today and do not do so in future otherwise I shall punish you". When Ali's daughter came to know about it she said to him: "O father! I am your dear daughter. Who else is more entitled to wear this necklace"? Ali replied: "O daughter of Abu Talib! Don't deviate from the right path. Can you tell me how many Muhajir and Ansar women adorn themselves with such necklaces"? Eventually I took back the necklace from the daughter of the Commander of the Faithful and restored it to its proper place. Ali observed justice even in small and insignificant matters. If it became necessary for him to divide something with others he gave the right of selection to the other party so that people might not think that discrimination was being made in the matter of division between the persons in authority and the subordinates. One day he went to the shop of a draper named Abu al-Nawar accompanied by his slave and purchased two dresses. Then he asked his slave to choose one out of the two dresses. The slave picked up one of them and Ali retained the other. (6) All the orders and letters that he sent to the governors and other officials rotate on the pivot of justice. Ali's near ones as well as others joined hands in opposing him. It was on account of the fact that he did not give them preference from the point of view of equity and justice, and did not grant any concession to his relatives. He was not influenced by anyone and accepted only the right things from others. When Uthman son of Affan became caliph, he gave full freedom to his relatives, friends and associates to accumulate wealth, and he followed those who gave him wrong advice. Marwan had the greatest influence on him. He did not benefit from the wise recommendation which Ahu Bakr had made to Umar. Abu Bakr had said: "Don't be in proximity to those persons who are eager to fill their bellies and acquire position and wealth. Don't be enamoured of the fact that they have associated with the prophet and served him. Assess the nature of every person and find out what sort of man he is". Ali hated such greedy persons. Hence when he became the caliph he decided to deal with them justly. He therefore dismissed some of them and checked the greed of others for position and wealth. There was a group of persons who wanted to give the principles of Islam a new form and make them a means of acquisition of position and wealth and to treat the Islamic territories a hereditary property of their family. Ali fought against them and said to them in loud words: "I know what can keep you from rebellion and mischief, but the thing which is a source of happiness for you is the means of evil for me". The stage at which Ali's dealing with such people reached is well-known. When the oppressors were defeated they resorted to deceit and the spirit of justice succeeded in the hearts of Ali and his followers, although apparently they were the sufferers. When Ali met martyrdom at the hands of Ibn Muljim, a Nakh'ii woman named Ummul Haisham wrote an elegy for him. A verse of that elegy goes to show the opinion of the people about his character and justice: "He established truth and entertained no doubt about it. He behaved justly with his kinsmen as well as strangers". Sincerity and intrepidity are the qualities of great men and they were possessed by Ali par excellence. Sincerity, truthfulness, intrepidity and manliness and all other similar qualities are inter-connected. Hence he did not express anything which was opposed to his real intention and determination. He did not practice deceit, although he knew very well that by doing so he could get rid of the mischief of the enemies. What has been said above about the truthfulness and character of the Imam fully proves his sincerity and intrepidity. One of his principles and morals consisted of simplicity in everything. He hated formality very much and used to say: "The worst brother is he for whom one has to involve oneself in trouble". He also used to say: "If a believer observes formality with his brother it means that he has separated himself from him. If he expressed an opinion or tendered an advice or gave some present, then this act of his was not tainted with ostentation. This habit was so much ingrained in his nature that the selfish people could not make him act according to their wishes, and the flatterers should not hope to attract his attention. These people used to say that the Imam was hard-hearted, ill natured and proud. However, the Imam was neither hard-hearted nor ill natured nor proud. On the contrary, as demanded by his nature, he said whatever he had to say without any formality or deceit. A large number of persons who gathered around him coveted personal gains. Ali became suspicious about them and did not conceal his misgiving. Expression of his views about them cannot be called pride or rudeness. Ali hated pride and was absolutely free from egotism. He also forbade his children, companions and officials to show pride and practice egotism. While giving them advice he used to say: "Shun egotism. You should know that egotism is a bad quality and a calamity for reason He hated formality. He also restrained the people from going to the extreme while praising him and told them: "I am lesser than what you say". At times it so happened that he considered the person concerned to be his enemy. On such occasion he did not refrain from mentioning the mental condition of that person of which he was aware and told him: "I am better than what you believe about me in your heart". Ali disliked some of his friends exalting him too much in the same manner in which he disliked his being belittled by his enemies. He has said: "Persons of two types have been destroyed on account of their attitude towards me - The friends who have exaggerated my qualities and the spiteful enemies". He neither showed pride nor humiliated himself unnecessarily; he presented himself as he was. He was free from affectation and hypocrisy. It is difficult to find a straightforward man like him. He purchased a bagful of palm-dates and was carrying them home. Some persons observed this and volunteered to carry the bag for him. He, however, told them frankly that the head of the family was more responsible to carry it. It is said erroneously that artificial humility and meekness constitute good qualities. In fact it is falsehood and mere affectation that one should pose to he inferior to what one actually is. Ali was not humble in that sense and he was also not proud. He displayed himself as he actually was without any meekness or pride, because these two things are not the qualities of manly persons. The writer of 'Abqari'atul Imam' says: "Ali entered the battlefield bare-headed to fight against the enemies where as they were completely covered with steel and iron. How can it be said that this action of his was based on hypocrisy"? Another attribute of Ali was his noble disposition. He did not entertain grudge in his heart against anybody, even though he might be his fell enemy. As we have already mentioned he directed his Sons and friends not to kill his murderer (Ibn Muljim). Although Talha had come as an enemy to kill him, he wept on his dead body and recited a heart-felt elegy for him. Although the Kharijites were his deadly enemies and had fought against him, and his murderer was also one of them, and in fact they had not given him lesser trouble as compared with Mu'awiya and Amr bin Aas, but he advised his friends and followers not to fight against them. He gave this direction because he knew that those people had fallen prey to misunderstanding and had been misguided. [hey were seekers of truth but had been mistaken in the matter of its assessment as opposed to Mu'awiya and his companions who were seekers of falsehood and succeeded in acquiring it. Nothing can be seen in the biography of Ali which may go to show that he was revengeful. In all circumstances he showed truthfulness, honesty', straightforwardness and swordsmanship. Magnanimous persons are not revengeful and do not also tolerate injustice and oppression. They get annoyed with one who oppresses others. Although Ali did not entertain any' grudge in his heart against anyone, he had to face a spiteful group. His meaningful words show how grieved he was. His grief was such as arose from sympathy and kindness. He was grieved to see that people harmed themselves. Another quality which distinguished him from others and was complementary to his other attributes was his perfect faith in his actions and beliefs, and whenever he did anything he believed in its correctness and in his being on the right path. When he decided to fight against Amr son of Abd-awudd, the famous champion of Arabia he was warned by the prophet and his companions about the consequences. He however, decided to fight because besides being brave he possessed enthusiasm to support Islam. We repeat that when the enemies had encircled Ali from all sides he busied himself in offering prayers without there being any guard to protect him from the mischief of those enemies, and consequently Ibn Muljim succeeded in wounding him with his poisoned sword. This very thing is a great proof of the fact that he was certain of the correctness of what he did, because a righteous person does not fear anything. All the words and acts of Ali go to prove that he had perfect and firm faith in his actions. This was so because all his actions emanated from wisdom and capability. (7) When the people were divided into two groups in their attitude towards him (i.e. friends and enemies) he did not become afraid of the enemies and did not lay down arms before them, because he had perfect faith in his own truthfulness and justice and correctness of his actions. It was in this context that he said: "Even if I strike on the nose of a believer so that he may become my enemy he will not become my enemy and even if I shower all the bounties of the earth on him so that he may become friendly towards me he will not become my friend". He has also said in this behalf. "I am not afraid of fighting against these people alone even though the entire world may join their army". When he came to know that a group of the people of Madina had joined Mu'a-wiya he wrote to Sehl son of Hanif the governor of Madina: "I understand that a group of the inhabitants of your city has secretly joined Mu'awiya. However, you should not be worried on this account that some persons will leave you and will not assist you. I swear by God that these persons have not forsaken injustice and oppression and have not stuck to equity and justice". Notes: 1- The Arabs did not consider it proper to address the respectable persons with their real names. In case, therefore, they wished to accord respect to someone they addressed him with his Kuniyah. 2- According to the Christians worship' consists of sequestered and monastic life. However, monasticism is not permissible in Islam. It was for this reason that the pious Muslims neither avoided effort in life nor kept aloof from other human beings. On the other hand at times they heroically staked their very lives even when it was expedient to remain silent (and they do so even in these times). 3- It is said that when Amr b. Aas came to fight against Ali in the Battle of Siffin he was very much afraid. He could think of no other alternative except that he should lie on the ground and uncover his private parts so that Ali might shut his eyes, and he himself might escape. He, therefore, did so and thus saved his life. 4- Ali assisted the caliphs because every action of his was for the sake of the benefit of Islam and he did not let the interests of the religion suffer in order to acquire his own right. 5- In the free countries of the modern world the court and judges have been made permanent and none can remove them from their office. This has been done, so that they may take decision without any fear or favour, and may give judgment against influential persons and even against the members of government. 6- Such incidents show that the leaders of the faith were very mindful of the rights of their subordinates. Those who make a show of supporting the helpless persons, and accuse religion of being an impediment in the matter of weak persons getting their due rights have not done as much for their subordinates as Imam Ali did. 7- Its reason was that Imam Ali was infallible and he said and did everything in accordance with the inspiration and traditions of the prophet of Islam. Hence, he did not entertain any doubt about his views and actions. The Voice of Human Justice, by George Jordac Source: http://www.tebyan.net Direct Link: http://www.almujtaba.com/en/index.php/left-menu-articles/35-imam-ali-voice-of-human-justice/417-ali-the-voice-of-human-justice'>http://www.almujtaba.com/en/index.php/left-menu-articles/35-imam-ali-voice-of-human-justice/417-ali-the-voice-of-human-justice You can find more articles categorized in 50 different sections by visiting http://www.almujtaba.com
  16. Complete Al-Ghadeer Sermon Direct Link: http://www.almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/66-eid-al-ghadeer/1543-complete-al-ghadeer-sermon'>http://www.almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/66-eid-al-ghadeer/1543-complete-al-ghadeer-sermon In the Name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful INTRODUCTION This is the first English book published by the newly-born Darul Islam Center, Inc., and we hope and pray that it will herald many, many more. It is the Center's gift to the Muslim Ummah in general and to the Muslims of the greater Washington, D.C., areain particular presented to them on the anniversary of Eid al-Ghadir , 1419A.H./1999 A.D. We owe special thanks to Muhammed Baqir al-Ansari whose Arabic book Altogether in Ghadlr (published by Ansariyan Publications, Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran) is this book's main reference.May the Almighty accept our efforts to serve His religion, andmay He guide our steps to what He loves and prefers, Allahomma Ameen. Darul Islam Center, Inc. Thul-Hijjah 1419/March 1999 PROPHET MUHAMMED NAMES HIS SUCCESSOR(10 A.H./632 A.D.) Non-Muslims who like to attack Islam accuse the Prophet of Islam of having neglected to name his successor, not knowing that he actually did exactly so in accordance with the Divine order which he had received on Thul-Hijja 17, 10 A.H./March 18, 632 A.D., announcing the name of his successor the very next day, and here are the details: In 10 A.H./632 A.D., immediately following Hijjatul-Wada' (the Farewell Pilgrimage, the last pilgrimage performed by Prophet Muhammed), a divine order was revealed to the Prophet to convey the remaining Islamic tenets: the annual pilgrimage to Mecca and the Imamate of the Twelve Infallible Imams. The Prophet called upon the faithful to accompany him on his last pilgrimage; he knew that it would be his last and that he would soon have to leave this temporary abode for the eternal one. More than one hundred and twenty thousand Muslims responded to his call. The Prophet and his company put on the ihram garbs at the appropriate time at Masjid al-Shajara, a short distance from Mecca, his birthplace, which he entered on Thul-Hijja 5, 10 A.H./March 6, 632 A.D. The Prophet's call reached Yemen where' Ali ibn Abu Talib was acting as his representative. Twelve thousand Yemenite pilgrims came out headed by' Ali in response to the Prophet's call to accompany him on his historic Pilgrimage, bringing the total number of those early pilgrims to more than one hundred and thirty-two thousand. The Islamic pilgrimage starts in the month of Thul-Hijja (month of the pilgrimage), the last Islamic lunar calendar month, and continues for at least ten days. First, each pilgrim dons a special garb called ihram; males' ihram consists of two white sheets or towels covering the upper and lower parts of the body, whereas females wear a full white cotton outfit, simple and modest. This ihram reminds the pilgrim of his/her death and of the equality of all before God. All pilgrims perform the same rituals; none receives any favourable treatment or distinction on account of his status, power, or wealth. The pilgrimage starts by the tawaf the circling of the Ka'ba seven times. The Ka'bais identified in Islamic literature as an earthly counterpart to the Almighty's Throne (' Arsh) in heaven where the angels circle it in adoration. Likewise, in imitation of those angels, Muslim pilgrims circle the Ka'ba in adoration of their Lord. The tawaf is followed by the sa'i: the pilgrims run back and forth seven times between the -Safa and the Marwa in commemoration of Hagar (Hajar), mother of Ishmael, frantically searching for water for her newborn son Ishmael. After that, the pilgrims drink of the well of Zamzam which had appeared miraculously for Hagar and Ishmael, wash with it or use it to make ablution for prayers at the Ka'ba but never to use it in the toilet; Zamzam is too sacred for such an application. Then the pilgrims leave Mecca for Muzdalifa, 'Arafa, and finally Mina to perform certain rites which fall outside the scope of this book which is intended to be a historical account of the Prophet of Islam, not one of fiqh. The author is a writer, a researcher, someone who, according to a friend of mine, "insists on finding out who the foundling's father is!" But he is not a faqih. Now let us go back to our original story after having cast a glimpse at the rite of the pilgrimage in Islam. It was at' Arafa that the divine command was received by Prophet Muhammad to appoint 'Ali as "Ameerul-Mo'mineen," the Commander of the Faithful, title of the bearer of the highest temporal and religious powers in the Islamic State, one reserved solely for caliphs, those who are supposed to be the most knowledgeable of all people of secular and religious problems and of how to solve them. Muhammad was also ordered to convey to' Ali the knowledge which the Almighty had bestowed upon him so that it would not be lost once he is dead. In Mina, the Prophet delivered two sermons in preparation of the great announcement to come. In the first, he referred to' Ali's caliphate and reminded the audience of one particular hadith which he had conveyed to them on various occasions and which is identified in books of hadith as " hadith al-thaqa- Linguistically, the meaning of" Arneerul- Mo'mineen " is: the one who bestows knowledge on the believers, the one who "meers" (pours knowledge upon) them. lain," tradition of the two weighty things (the first being the Holy Quran and the second being the Prophet's Progeny, the" Ahl al-Bayt" mentioned in verse 33 of Chapter 33 [al-Ahzab] of the Holy Qur'an). He delivered his second sermon at Masjid al-Khaif, also located in Mina in the Meccan valley. In it, the Prophet reminded his audience of' Ali's Imamate, emphasizing the necessity of disseminating the contents of his sermon, announcing that those present were duty-bound to convey it to those who were absent. In both of these sermons, the Prophet publicly vested upon' Ali both powers referred to above. As soon as the rituals of the pilgrimage were completed, and to be exact on Thul-Hijja 17, 10 A.H./March 18, 632 A.D., the divine order came to the Prophet embedded in verse 67 of Chapter 5 (a1-Ma'ida) quoted in the text of the Prophet's sermon to follow. The Prophet immediately ordered Bilal ibn Rabah, his caller to prayers and one of his faithful sahaba, to convey the following order to the faithful: "Tomorrow, nobody should lag behind but should go to Ghadir Khumm." The word "ghadir" means "swamp," an area where rain water gathers to form a shallow lake. Ghadir Khumm is located near the crossroads of trade and pilgrimage caravans coming from Medina, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Nejd on their way to Mecca. The presence of water and a few old trees there served as a resting place for trade caravans for centuries. A mosque, called Masjid al-Ghadir, was later built on the same spot where the great gathering took place to commemorate that momentous event, an event which has unfortunately been forgotten by the vast majority of the Muslims who, by thus forgetting, forgot the most important part of their creed, one without which their faith is not complete at all according to the Prophet's sermon to follow and according to the text of the Holy Qur'an... The announcement conveyed by Bilal was transmitted by one person to another till it reached as far as Mecca proper, and people were wondering about what it could be. They had expected the Prophet to linger a little bit longer at Mecca where the pilgrims could meet him and ask him whatever questions they had about this new institution called "hajj" and about other religious matters. In the morning of the next day, Thul-1:1ijja 18, 10 A.H./March 19, 632A.D., the Prophet and his 120,000 companions went to Ghadir Khumm, and so did' Ali with his 12,000 Yemenite pilgrims who had to change their route to the north instead of to the south where they would be home-bound. The Prophet also issued an order to four of his closest sahaba, namely Selman-al-Farisi, Abu Tharr al-Ghifari, Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi and' Ammar ibn yasir, with whom the reader is already familiar, to clear the area where the old trees stood, to uproot the thorn bushes, collect the rocks and stones, and to clean the place and sprinkle it with water. Then these men took a piece of cloth which they tied between two of those trees, thus providing some shade. The Prophet told those Sahaba that a ceremony that would last for three continuous days would be held in that area. Then the same men piled the rocks on top of each other and made a makeshift pulpit over them of camel litters as high as the Prophet's own length. They put another piece of cloth on the pulpit which was installed in the middle of the crowd, giving the Prophet an overview of the whole gathering. A man was selected to repeat loudly what the Prophet was saying so that those who stood the furthermost would not miss a word. The athan for the noon prayers was recited, and the congregational (jama 'a) prayers were led by the Prophet. After that, the Prophet ascended the pulpit and signaled to' Ali ibn Abu Talib to stand on his right. ' Ali did so, standing one pulpit step below the Prophet. Before saying anything, the Prophet looked right and left to make sure that people were prepared to listen to every word of his. The sun was so hot that people had to pull some of their outer mantles over their heads and under their feet in order to be able to somehow tolerate the heat. Finally the Prophet delivered his historic sermon which he intended, as the reader will see, to be not only for the assembled crowd but for all those who were not present at that gathering and for all their offspring, one generation after another, till the Day of Judgment. Here is the text of the Prophet's sermon. We hope it will bring the reader guidance in the life of this world and happiness and success in the life to come through the intercession of Muhammad, the one loved most by Allah, peace and blessings of the Almighty be upon him, his progeny, and true companions who obeyed him during his lifetime and after his demise and who did not forget or pretend to forget his following khutba: Eid Al-Ghadeer Sermon There is a humble translation of the Prophet's historic Ghadir Khumm sermon. The reader can review the original Arabic text included in this book. Praising Allah All Praise is due to Allah Who is Exalted in His Unity, Near in His Uniqueness, Sublime in His Authority, Magnanimous in His Dominance. He knows everything; He subdues all creation through His might and evidence. He is Praised always and forever, Glorified and has no end. He begins and He repeats, and to Him every matter is referred. Allah is the Creator of everything; He dominates with His power the earth and the heavens. Holy, He is, and Praised, the Lord of the angels and of the spirits. His favours overwhelm whatever He creates, and He is the Mighty over whatever He initiates. He observes all eyes while no eye can observe Him. He is Generous, Clement, Patient. His mercy encompasses everything, and so is His giving. He never rushes His revenge, nor does He hasten the retribution they deserve. He comprehends what the breast conceals and what the conscience hides. No inner I thought can be concealed from Him, nor does He confuse one with another. He encompasses everything, dominates everything, and subdues everything. Nothing is like Him. He initiates the creation from nothing; He is everlasting, living, sustaining in the truth; there is no god but He, the Omnipotent, the Wise One. He is greater than can be conceived by visions, while He conceives all visions, the Eternal, the Knowing. None can describe Him by seeing Him, nor can anyone find out how He is, be it by his intellect or by a spoken word except through what leads to Him, the Sublime, the Mighty that He is. I testify that He is Allah, the One Who has filled time with His Holiness, the One Whose Light overwhelms eternity, Who effects His will without consulting anyone; there is no partner with Him in His decisions, nor is He assisted in running His affairs. He shaped what He made without following a preexisting model, and He created whatever He created without receiving help from anyone, nor did doing so exhaust Him nor frustrated His designs. He created, and so it was, and He initiated, and it became visible. So He is Allah, the One and Only God, the One Who does whatever He does extremely well. He is the Just One Who never oppresses, the most Holy to Whom all affairs are referred. I further testify that He is Allah before Whom everything is humbled, to Whose Greatness everything is humiliated, and to Whose Dignity everything submits. He is the King of every domain and the One Who places planets in their orbits. He controls the movements of the sun and of the moon, each circles till a certain time. He makes the night follow the day and the day follow the night, seeking it incessantly. He splits the spine of every stubborn tyrant and annihilates every mighty devil. Never has there been any opponent opposing Him nor a peer assisting Him. He is Independent; He never begets nor is He begotten, and none can ever be His equal. He is One God, the Glorified Lord. His will is done; His word is the law. He knows, so He takes account. He causes death and gives life. He makes some poor and others rich. He causes some to smile and others to cry .He brings some nearer to Him while distancing others from Him. He withholds and He gives. The domain belongs to Him and so is all the Praise. In His hand is all goodness, and He can do anything at all. He lets the night cover the day and the day cover the night; there is no god but He, the Sublime, the oft-Forgiving One. He responds to the supplication; He gives generously; He computes the breath; He is the Lord of the jinns and of mankind, the One Whom nothing confuses, nor is He annoyed by those who cry for His help, nor is He fed-up by those who persist. He safeguards the righteous against sinning, and He enables the winners to win. He is the Master of the faithful, the Lord of the Worlds Who deserves the appreciation of all those whom He created and is praised no matter what. Conveying the Divine Order I praise Him and always thank Him for the ease He brings me and for the constriction, in hardship and in prosperity, and I believe in Him, in His angels, in His Books and messengers. I listen to His Command and I obey, and I initiate the doing of whatever pleases Him, and I submit to His decree hoping to acquire obedience to Him and fear of His penalty, for He is Allah against Whose designs nobody should feel secure, nor should anyone ever fear His "oppression." I testify, even against my own soul, that I am His servant, and I bear witness that he is my Lord. I convey what He reveals to me, being cautious lest I should not do it, so a catastrophe from Him would befall upon me, one which none can keep away, no matter how great his design may be and how sincere his friendship. There is no god but He, for He has informed me that if I do not convey what He has just revealed to me in honor of' Ali in truth, I will not have conveyed His Message at all, and He, the Praised and the Exalted One, has guaranteed for me to protect me from the (evil) people, and He is Allah, the One Who suffices, the Sublime. He has just revealed to me the following (verse): In The Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. O Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to 'Ali), and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people. (Qur'an, 5:67) O people! I have not committed any shortcoming in conveying what Allah Almighty revealed to me, and I am now going to explain to you the reason behind the revelation of this verse: Three times did Gabriel command me on behalf of the Peace, my Lord, Who is the source of all peace, to thus make a stand in order to inform everyone, black and white, that: ' Ali ibn Abu Talib is my Brother, Wasi, and successor over my nation and the Imam after me, the one whose status to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except there will be no prophet after me, and he is your master next only to Allah and to His Messenger, and Allah has already revealed to me the same in one of the fixed verses Fixed verses are those which are never abrogated; the injunction(s) they contain remain valid forever.) of His Book saying, "Your Master is Allah and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay zakat even as they bow down" (Qur'an, 5:55), and, Ali ibn Abu Talib the one who keeps up prayers, who pays zakat even as he bows down, seeking to please Allah, the Sublime, the Almighty, on each and every occasion. I asked Gabriel to plead to the Peace to excuse me from having to convey such a message to you, O people, due to my knowledge that the pious are few while the hypocrites are many, and due to those who will blame me, and due to the trickery of those who ridicule Islam and whom Allah described in His Book as saying with their tongues contrarily to what their hearts conceal, thinking lightly of it, while it is with Allah magnanimous, and due to the abundance of their harm to me, so much so that they called me "ears" and claimed that I am so because of being so much in his (' Ali's) company, always welcoming him, loving him and being so much pleased with him till Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, revealed in this regard the verse saying: " And there are some of them who harm the (feelings of the) Prophet and say: He is an ear (uthun; i.e. he always listens to' Ali). Say: One who listens (to' Ali) is good for you; He believes in Allah and testifies to the conviction of the believers and a mercy for those of you who believe; and those who (thus ) harm the Messenger of Allah shall have a painful punishment" (Qur'an, 9:61). Had I wished to name those who have called me so, I would have called them by their names, and I would have pointed them out. I would have singled them out and called them by what they really are, but I, by Allah, am fully aware of their affairs. Yet despite all of that, Allah insisted that I should convey what He has just revealed to me in honor of' Ali. Then the Prophet recited the following verse:) O Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to 'Ali), and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people. (Qur'an, 5:67) O people! Comprehend (the implications of) what I have just said, and again do comprehend it, and be (further) informed that Allah has installed him (' Ali) as your Master and Imam, obligating the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who follow them in goodness to obey him, and so must everyone who lives in the desert or in the city, who is a non-Arab or an Arab, who is a free man or a slave, who is young or old, white or black, and so should everyone who believes in His Unity. His decree shall be carried out. His (' Ali's) word is binding; his command is obligating; cursed is whoever opposes him, blessed with mercy is whoever follows him and believes in him, for Allah has already forgiven him and forgiven whoever listens to him and obeys him. Imamate of the progeny of Imam Ali O people! This is the last stand I make in such a situation; so, listen and obey, and submit to the Command of Allah, your Lord, for Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, is your Master and Lord, then next to Him is His Messenger and Prophet who is now addressing you, then after me 'Ali is your Master and Imam according to the Command of Allah, your Lord, then the Imams from among my progeny, his offspring, till the Day you meet Allah and His Messenger. Nothing is permissible except what is deemed so by Allah, His Messenger, and they (the Imams), and nothing is prohibitive except what is deemed so by Allah and His Messenger and they (the Imams). Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, has made me acquainted with what is permissible and what is prohibitive, and I have conveyed to you what my Lord has taught me of His Book, of what it decrees as permissible or as prohibitive. O people! Prefer him (' Ali) over all others! There is no knowledge except that Allah has divulged it to me, and all the knowledge I have learned I have divulged to Imam al-Muttaqin (leader of the righteous), and there is no knowledge (that I know) except that I divulged it to' Ali, and he is al-Imam al-Mubin (the evident Imam) whom Allah mentions in Surat ya-Sin: "... and everything We have computed is in (the knowledge of) an evident Imam" (Qur'an, 36:12). O people! Do not abandon him, nor should you flee away from him, nor should you be too arrogant to accept his authority, for he is the one who guides to righteousness and who acts according to it. He defeats falsehood and prohibits others from acting according to it, accepting no blame from anyone while seeking to please Allah. He is the first to believe in Allah and in His Messenger; none preceded him as such. And he is the one who offered his life as a sacrifice for the Messenger of Allah and who was in the company of the Messenger of Allah while no other man was. He is the first of all people to offer prayers and the first to worship Allah with me. I ordered him, on behalf of Allah, to sleep in my bed, and he did, offering his life as a sacrifice for my sake. O people! Prefer him (over all others), for Allah has preferred him, and accept him, for Allah has appointed him (as your leader). The Prophet Cursed Those Who Reject The Wilayah of Imam Ali O people! He is an Imam appointed by Allah, and Allah shall never accept the repentance of anyone who denies his authority, nor shall He forgive him; this is a must decree from Allah never to do so to anyone who opposes him, and that He shall torment him with a most painful torment for all time to come, for eternity; so, beware lest you should oppose him and thus enter the fire the fuel of which is the people and the stones prepared for the unbelievers. O people! By Allah! All past prophets and messengers conveyed the glad tiding of my advent, and I, by Allah, am the seal of the prophets and of the messengers and the argument against all beings in the heavens and on earth. Anyone who doubts this commits apostasy similar to that of the early jahiliyya, and anyone who doubts anything of what I have just said doubts everything which has been revealed to me, and anyone who doubts any of the Imams doubts all of them, and anyone who doubts us shall be lodged in the fire. O people! Allah, the most Exalted and the Almighty, has bestowed this virtue upon me out of His kindness towards' Ali and as a boon to' Ali and there is no god but He; to Him all praise belongs in all times, for eternity, and in all circumstances. O people! Prefer' Ali (over all others), for he is the very best of all people after me, be they males or females, so long as Allah sends down His sustenance, so long as there are beings. Cursed and again cursed, condemned and again condemned, is anyone who does not accept this statement of mine and who does not agree to it. Gabriel himself has informed me of the same on behalf of Allah Almighty Who he said (in Gabriel's words): " Anyone who antagonizes Ali and refuses to accept his wilayat shall incur My curse upon him and My wrath." "... and let every soul consider what it has sent forth for the morrow, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah" (Qur'an, 59:18), "And do not make your oaths a means of deceit between you lest a foot should slip after its stability" (Qur'an, 16:94), " Allah is fully aware of all what you do" (Qur'an, 58: 13). O people! He (' Ali) is janb-Allah mentioned in the Book of Allah, the Sublime One: The Almighty, forewarning his (' Ali's) adversaries, says, "Lest a soul should say: O woe unto me for what I fell short of my duty to Allah, and most surely I was of those who laughed to scorn" (Qur'an, 39:56). O people! Study the Qur'an and comprehend its verses, look into its decisive verses and do not follow what is similar thereof, for by Allah, none shall explain to you what it forbids you from doing, nor clarify its exegesis, other than the one whose hand I am taking and whom I am lifting to me, the one whose arm I am taking and whom I am lifting, so that I may enable you to understand that: Whoever among you takes me as his master, this, Ali is his master, and he is' Ali ibn Abu Talib, my Brother and wasi, and his appointment as your wali is from Allah, the Sublime, the Exalted One, a commandment which He revealed to me. The Word Ameer Al-Momineen is prohibited to anyone except Ali O people! ' Ali and the good ones from among my offspring from his loins are the Lesser Weight, while the Qur'an is the Greater One: each one of them informs you of and agrees with the other. They shall never part till they meet me at the Pool (of Kawthar). They are the Trustees of Allah over His creation, the rulers on His earth. Indeed now I have performed my duty and conveyed the Message. Indeed you have heard what I have said and explained. Indeed Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, has said, and so have Ion behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, that there is no Ameerul-Mo'mineen (Commander of the Faithful) save this Brother of mine; no authority over a believer is permissible after me except to him. Then the Prophet patted ' Ali's arm, lifting him up. Since the time when the Messenger of Allah ascended the pulpit, Ameerul-Mo'mineen was one pulpit step below where the Messenger of Allah had seated himself on his pulpit, while' Ali was on his (Prophet's) right side, one pulpit step lower, now they both appeared to the gathering to be on the same level; the Prophet lifted him up. The Prophet then raised his hands to the heavens in supplication while' Ali's leg was touching the knee of the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet continued his sermon thus: O people! This is' Ali, my Brother, Wasi, the one who comprehends my knowledge, and my successor over my nation, over everyone who believes in me. He is the one entrusted with explaining the Book of Allah, the most Exalted One, the Sublime, and the one who invites people to His path. He is the one who does whatever pleases Him, fighting His enemies, befriending His friends who obey Him, prohibiting disobedience to Him. He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah and Ameerul-Mo'mineen, the man assigned by Allah to guide others, killer of the renegades and of those who believe in equals to Allah, those who violate the Commandments of Allah. Allah says, "My Word shall not be changed, nor am I in the least unjust to the servants" (Qur'an, 50.29), and by Your Command, O Lord, do I (submit and) say, O Allah! Befriend whoever befriends him (Ali) and be the enemy of whoever antagonizes him; support whoever supports him and abandon whoever abandons him; curse whoever disavows him, and let Your Wrath descend on whoever usurps his right. O Lord! You revealed a verse in honor of' Ali, Your wali, in its explanation and to effect Your own appointment of him this very day did You say, "This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour on you, and chosen for you Islam as a religion" (Qur'an, 5.3); "And whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers" (Qur'an, 3:85). Lord! I implore You to testify that I have conveyed (Your Message). O people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has perfected your religion through his (' Ali's) Imamate; so, whoever rejects him as his Imam or rejects those of my offspring from his loins who assume the same status (as lmams) till the Day of Judgment when they shall all be displayed before Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, these are the ones whose (good) deeds shall be nil and void in the life of this world and in the hereafter, and in the fire shall they be lodged forever, " ...their torture shall not be decreased, nor shall they be given a respite" (Qur'an,2:162). O people! Here is' Ali, the one who has supported me more than anyone else among you, the one who most deserves my gratitude, the one who is closest of all of you to me and the one who is the very dearest to me. Both Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, and I are pleased with him, and no verse of the Holy Qur'an expressing Allah's Pleasure except that he is implied therein, nor has any verse of praise been revealed in the Qur'an except that he is implied therein, nor has the Lord testified to Paradise in the (Qur'anic) Chapter starting with "Has there not come over man a long period of time when he was nothing (not even) mentioned?" (Qur'an, 76:1) nor was this Chapter revealed except in his praise. O people! He is the one who supports the religion of Allah, who argues on behalf of the Messenger of Allah. He is the pious, the pure, the guide, the one rightly guided. Your Prophet is the best of all prophets, and your successor is the best of all successors, and his offspring are the best of successors. O people! Each prophet's progeny is from his own loins whereas mine is from the loins of Ameerul-Mo'mineen ' Ali. O people! Iblis caused Adam to be dismissed from the garden through envy; so, do not envy him lest your deeds should be voided and lest your feet should slip away, for Adam was sent down to earth after having committed only one sin, and he was among the elite of Allah's creation. How, then, will be your case, and you being who you are, and among you are enemies of Allah? Indeed, none hates' Ali except a wretch, and none accepts ' Ali's wilayat except a pious person. None believes in him except a sincere mu'min, and in honor of, Ali was the Chapter of 'Asr (Ch. 103) revealed, I swear to it by Allah: "In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. I swear by time that most surely man is in loss" (Qur'an, 103:1-2) except' Ali who believed and was pleased with the truth and with perseverance. O people! I have sought Allah to be my Witness and have conveyed my Message to you, and the Messenger is obligated only to clearly convey (his Message). O people! " Fear Allah as Re ought to be feared, and do not die except as Muslims" (Qur'an, 3:102). O people! " ...Believe in what We have revealed, verifying what you have, before We alter faces then turn them on their backs or curse them as We cursed the violators of the Sabbath" (Qur'an, 4:47). By Allah! Redid not imply anyone in this verse except a certain band of my Sahaba whom I know by name and by lineage, and I have been ordered (by my Lord) to pardon them; so, let each person deal with ' Ali according to what he finds in his heart of love or of hatred. O people! The noor from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, flows through me then through ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib then in the progeny that descends from him till al-Qa'imal-Mehdi, who shall effect the justice of Allah, and who will take back any right belonging to us because Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, made us Hujjat over those who take us lightly, the stubborn ones, those who act contrarily to our word, who are treacherous, who are sinners, who are oppressors, who are usurpers, from the entire world. O people! I warn you that I am the Messenger of Allah; messengers before me have already passed away; so, should I die or should I be killed, are you going to turn upon your heels? And whoever turns upon his heels shall not harm Allah in the least, and Allah shall reward those who are grateful, those who persevere. 'Ali is surely the one described with perseverance and gratitude, then after him are my offspring from his loins. O people! Do not think that you are doing me a favour by your accepting Islam. Nay! Do not think that you are doing Allah such a favour lest He should void your deeds, lest His wrath should descend upon you, lest He should try you with a flame of fire and brass; surely your Lord is ever-watchful. The Prophet Warns from the Imams of Kufr and that the Khilafa will be usurped from Imam Ali. O people! There shall be Imams after me who shall invite people to the fire, and they shall not be helped on the Day of Judgment. O people! Allah and I are both clear of them. O people! They and their supporters and followers shall be in the lowest rung of the fire; miserable, indeed, is the resort of the arrogant ones. Indeed, these are the folks of the sahifa; so, let each one of you look into his sahifa! This reference to the sahifa has been overlooked by most people with the exception of a small band, and we will, Insha-Allah, shed a light on this sahifa later on. The Prophet continued his historic sermon thus: O people! I am calling for it to be an Imamate and a succession confined to my offspring till the Day of Judgment, and I have conveyed only what I have been commanded (by my Lord) to convey to drive the argument home against everyone present or absent and on everyone who has witnessed or who has not, who is already born or he is yet to be born; therefore, let those present here convey it to those who are absent, and let the father convey it to his son, and so on till the Day of Judgment. And they shall make the Imamate after me a property, usurpation; may Allah curse the usurpers who usurp, and it is then that you, O jinns and mankind, will get the full attention of the One Who shall cause a flame of fire and brass to be hurled upon you, and you shall not achieve any victory! O people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, is not to let you be whatever you want to be except so that He may distinguish the bad ones from among you from the good, and Allah is not to make you acquainted with the unknown. O people! There shall be no town that falsifies except that Allah shall annihilate it on account of its falsehood before the Day of Judgment, and He shall give al-lmam al-Mehdi authority over it, and surely Allah's promise is true. O people! Most of the early generations before you have strayed, and by Allah, He surely annihilated the early generations, and He shall annihilate the later ones. Allah Almighty has said, "Did We not destroy the former generations? Then did We follow them up with later ones. Even thus shall We deal with the guilty. Woe on that Day to the rejecters!" (Qur'an, 77: 16-19). O people! Allah has ordered me to do and not to do, and I have ordered 'Ali to do and not to do, so he learned what should be done and what should not; therefore. you should listen to his orders so that you may be safe, and you should obey him so that you may be rightly guided. Do not do what he forbids you from doing so that you may acquire wisdom. Agree with him, and do not let your paths be different from his. The Prophet, Imam Ali, and The Imams are the Straight Path O people! I am al-Sirat al-Mustaqeem (the Straight Path) of Allah whom He commanded you to follow, and it is after me 'Ali then my offspring from his loins, the Imams of Guidance: they guide to the truth and act accordingly. Then the Prophet recited the entire text of Surat al-Fatiha and commented by saying: It is in my honor that this (Sura) was revealed, including them (the Imams) specifically; they are the friends of Allah for whom there shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve; truly the Party of Allah are the winners. Indeed, it is their enemies who are the impudent ones, the deviators, the brethren of Satan; they inspire each other with embellished speech out of their haughtiness. Indeed, their (Imams') friends are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One, the Great, mentions in His Book saying, "You shall not find a people who believe in Allah and in the latter Day befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and to His Prophet, even though they may be their own fathers or sons or brothers or kinsfolk; these are they into whose hearts He has impressed conviction" (Qur'an, 58:22). Indeed, their (Imams') friends are the mu'mins (believers) whom Allah, the Exalted One, the Sublime, describes as: "Those who believe and do not mix up their faith with iniquity, those are the ones who shall have the security, and they are the rightly guided" (Qur'an, 6:82). Indeed, their friends are those who believed and never doubted. Indeed, their friends are the ones who shall enter Paradise in peace and security; the angels shall receive them with welcome saying, "Peace be upon you! Enter it and reside in it forever!" Indeed, their friends shall be rewarded with Paradise where they shall be sustained without having to account for anything. Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall be hurled into the fire. Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall hear the exhalation of hell as it increases in intensity, and they shall see it sigh. Indeed, their enemies are the ones thus described by Allah: "Whenever a nation enters, it shall curse its sister..." (Qur'an, 7:38). Indeed, their enemies are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, describes thus: "Whenever a group is cast into it, its keepers shall ask them: Did any warner not come to you? They shall say: Yea! Indeed, there came to us a warner but we rejected (him) and said: Allah has not revealed anything; you are only in a great error. And they shall say: Had we but listened or pondered, we would not have been among the inmates of the burning fire. So they shall acknowledge their sins, but far will be forgiveness) from the inmates of the burning fire" (Qur'an, 67:8-11). Indeed, their friends are the ones who fear their Lord in the unseen; forgiveness shall be theirs and a great reward. O people! What a difference it is between the fire and the great reward! . O people! Our enemy is the one whom Allah censures and curses, whereas our friend is everyone praised and loved by Allah. O people! I am the Warner (nathir) and' Ali is the one who brings glad tidings (bashir). O people! I am the one who warns (munthir) while 'Ali is the guide (hadi). Prophet Muhammed Informed People About Imam Al-Mahdi O people! I am a Prophet (nabi) and' Ali is the successor (wasi). O people! I am a Messenger (rasul) and' Ali is the Imam and the Wasi after me, and so are the Imams after him from among his offspring. Indeed, I am their father, and they shall descend from his loins. Indeed, the seal of the lmams from among us is al-Qa'im al-Mehdi. He, indeed, is the one who shall come out so that the creed may prevail. He, indeed, is the one who shall seek revenge against the oppressor. He, indeed, is the one who conquers the forts and demolishes them. He, indeed, is the one who subdues every tribe from among the people of polytheism and the one to guide it. He is the one who shall seek redress for all friends of Allah. He is the one who supports the religion of Allah. He ever derives (his knowledge) from a very deep ocean. He shall identify each man of distinction by his distinction and every man of ignorance by his ignorance. He shall be the choicest of Allah's beings and the chosen one. He is the heir of all (branches of) knowledge, the one who encompasses every perception. He conveys on behalf of his Lord, the Exalted and the Sublime, who points out His miracles. He is the wise, the one endowed with wisdom, the one upon whom (Divine) authority is vested. Glad tidings of him have been conveyed by past generations, yet he is the one who shall remain as a Hujja, and there shall be no Hujja after him nor any right except with him, nor any noor except with him. None, indeed, shall subdue him, nor shall he ever be vanquished. He is the friend of Allah on His earth, the judge over His creatures, the custodian of what is evident and what is hidden of His. O people! I have explained (everything) for you and enabled you to comprehend it, and this 'Ali shall after me explain everything to you. At the conclusion of my khutba, I shall call upon you to shake hands with me to swear your allegiance to him and to recognize his authority, then to shake hands with him after you have shaken hands with me. I had, indeed, sworn allegiance to Allah, and ‘Ali had sworn allegiance to me, and I on behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, I require you to swear the oath of allegiance to him: "Surely those who swear (the oath of) allegiance to you do but swear allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands; therefore, whoever reneges (from his oath), he reneges only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward" (Qur'an,48:10). The Importance of Hajj O people! The pilgrimage (hajj) and the 'umra are among Allah's rituals; "So whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no blame on him if he goes round them [safa and Marwa] both" (Qur'an, 2:158). O people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House, for no members of a family went there except that they became wealthy, and receive glad tidings! None failed to do so except that their lineage was cut-off and were impoverished. O people! No believer stands at the standing place [at 'Arafa] except that Allah forgives his past sins till then; so, once his pilgrimage is over, he resumes his deeds. O people! Pilgrims are assisted, and their expenses shall be replenished, and Allah never suffers the rewards of the doers of good to be lost. O people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House by perfecting your religion and by delving into fiqh, and do not leave the sacred places except after having repented and abandoned (the doing of anything prohibited). O people! Uphold prayers and pay the zakat as Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, commanded you; so, if time lapses and you were short of doing so or you forgot, ' Ali is your wali and he will explain for you. He is the one whom Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, appointed for you after me as the custodian of Hiscreation. He is from me and I am from him, and he and those who will succeed him from my progeny shall inform you of anything you ask them about, and they shall clarify whatever you do not know. Halal and haram things are more than I can count for you now or explain, for a commandment to enjoin what is permissible and a prohibition from what is not permissible are both on the same level, so I was ordered (by my Lord) to take your oath of allegiance and to make a covenant with you to accept what I brought you from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, with regards to' Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen and to the wasis after him who are from me and from him, a standing Imamate whose seal is al-Mehdi till the Day he meets Allah Who decrees and Who judges. O people! I never refrained from informing you of everything permissible or prohibitive; so, do remember this and safeguard it and advise each other to do likewise; do not alter it; do not substitute it with something else. I am now repeating what I have already said: Uphold the prayers and pay the zakat and enjoin righteousness and forbid abomination. The peak of enjoining righteousness is to resort to my speech and to convey it to whoever did not attend it and to order him on my behalf to accept it and to (likewise) order him not to violate it, for it is an order from Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, and there is no knowledge of enjoining righteousness nor prohibiting abomination except that it is with a ma'soom Imam. O people! The Qur'an informs you that the Imams after him are his (' Ali's) descendants, and I have already informed you that they are from me and from him, for Allah says in His Book, " And he made it a word to continue in his posterity so that they may return " (Qur'an, 43:28) while I have said: "You shall not stray as long as you uphold both of them (simultaneously)." O people! (Uphold) piety, (uphold) piety, and be forewarned of the Hour as Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has said, "0 people! Guard (yourselves) against (punishment from) your Lord; surely the violence of the Hour is a grievous thing" (Qur'an, 22:1). Remember death, resurrection, the judgment, the scales, and the account before the Lord of the Worlds, and (remember) the rewards and the penalty. So whoever does a good deed shall be rewarded for it, and whoever commits a sin shall have no place in the Gardens. The Order of the Prophet to Shake Hands With Imam Ali (as) and Pledge Allegiance O people! You are more numerous than (it is practical) to shake hands with me all at the same time, and Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, commanded me to require you to confirm what authority I have vested upon 'Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen and to whoever succeeds him of the Imams from me and from him, since I have just informed you that my offspring are from his loins. You, therefore, should say in one voice: "We hear, and we obey; we accept and we are bound by what you have conveyed to us from our Lord and yours with regard to our Imam' Ali, and to the Imams, your sons from his loins. We swear the oath of allegiance to you in this regard with our hearts, with our souls, with our tongues, with our hands. According to it shall we live, and according to it shall we die, and according to it shall we be resurrected. We shall not alter anything or substitute anything with another, nor shall we doubt nor deny nor suspect, nor shall we violate our covenant nor abrogate the pledge. You admonished us on behalf of Allah with regard to' Ali, and to the Imams whom you mentioned to be from your offspring from among his descendants after him: al-Hasan and al-Husain and to whoever is appointed (as such) by Allah after them. The covenant and the pledge are taken from us, from our hearts, from our souls, from our tongues, from our conscience, from our hands. Whoever does so by his handshake, it shall be so or otherwise testified to it by his tongue, and we do not seek any substitute for it, nor shall Allah see our souls deviating from there. We shall convey the same on your behalf to anyone near and far of our offspring and families, and we implore Allah to testify to it, and surely Allah suffices as the Witness and you, too, shall testify for us." O people! What are you going to say?! Allah knows every sound and the innermost of every soul; "Whoever chooses the right guidance, it is for his own soul that he is rightly guided, and whoever strays, it is only to its detriment that he goes astray" (Qur'an, 17:15). O people! Swear the oath of allegiance to Allah, and swear it to me, and swear it to' Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to al-Hasan and al-Husain and to the Imams from their offspring in the life of this world and in the hereafter, a word that shall always remain so. Allah shall annihilate anyone guilty of treachery and be merciful upon everyone who remains true to his word: "Whoever reneges (from his oath), he reneges only to the harm of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward" (Qur'an, 48:10). O people! Repeat what I have just told you to, and greet' Ali with the title of authority of "Ameerul-Mo'mineen" and say: "We hear, and we obey, O Lord! Your forgiveness (do we seek), and to You is the eventual course" (Qur'an, 2:285), and you should say: "All praise is due to Allah Who guided us to this, and we would not have found the way had it not been for Allah Who guided us" (Qur'an, 7:43). O people! The merits of' Ali ibn Abu Talib with Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, the merits which are revealed in the Qur'an, are more numerous than I can recount in one speech; so, whoever informs you of them and defines them for you, you should believe him. O people! Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger and' Ali (U and the Imams to whom I have already referred shall attain a great victory. O people! Those foremost from among you who swear allegiance to him and who pledge to obey him and who greet him with the greeting of being the Commander of the Faithful are the ones who shall win the Gardens of Felicity. O people! Say what brings you the Pleasure of Allah, for if you and all the people of the earth disbelieve, it will not harm Allah in the least. O Lord! Forgive the believers through what I have conveyed, and let Your Wrath descend upon those who renege, the apostates, and all Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. CONCLUSION: Thus did the Prophet of Allah speak on behalf of the Almighty Who sent him as the beacon of guidance not only for the Muslims but for all mankind. But the question that forces itself here is: "What happened after that historic event? Why did the Muslims forget, or pretend to have forgotten, their Prophet's instructions with regards to' Ali and "elected" someone else in his stead? To answer this question requires another book, and indeed many such books have been written. May the Almighty grant all of us guidance, and may He count us among His true servants who recognize the truth when they see it, who abide by His tenets, Who revere His Prophet and follow his instructions in all times, in all climes, Allahomma Ameen. REFERENCES: KHUTBA OF AL-GHADEER The following constitutes only major references of the components of Khutba of Ghadeer. In these references the reader can deliberate on the various portions of this historic sermon as quoted in bits and pieces in those references. Most of these references are considered reliable by the majority of Muslims (of the Shi'a or Sunni persuation): 1. Jalaal ad-Deen al-Sayyuti, Kitaab Al-Itqaan, Vol. 1, p. 31. 2. al-Majlisi, Bihaar.al-Anwaar, Vol. 21, pp. 360-90, Vol. 37, pp. 111-235, and Vol. 41, p. 228.He Quotes book al-Ih'tijaj by al-Tibrisi (vol.2) 3. Al-Bldaaya wal Nihaaya, Vol. 5, p. 208. 4. Badee' al-Ma'aani, p. 75 5. Tareekh Baghdad, V01. 1, p. 411 and V01. 8, p. 290. 6. Tareekh Dimashq, Vol. 5, p. 210. 7. Ibn al-Jawziyya, Tadh'kirat al-Khawaas, pp. 18-20. 8. Ibn al-Sa'ud's Tafseer, Vol. 8, p. 292. 9. Al-Tibari, Tafseer al-Qur'an, Vol. 3, p. 428 and Vol. 6, p. 46. 10. al-Fakhr al-Razi, Al-Tafseer al-Kabeer, Vol. 3, p. 636. 11. Al-Tamhid fi USool al-Deen, p. 171. 12. Tayseer al-Wusul, Vol. 1, p. 122. 13. Ghiyaath ad-Din ibn Hammaam, Tareekh Habib al-Siyar, V01. 1, p. 144. 14. al-Maqrizi, Khutat, p. 223. 15. al-Sayyuti, Al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. 2, pp. 259, 298. 16. Thakhaa'ir al-'Uqba, p. 68. 17. Ruh al-Ma'aani, Vol. 2, p. 348. 18. Mohibb al-Tabal-;, AI.Riyadh al-r:adhirah, Vol. 2, p.169. 19. Al-Siraaj al-Munir, Vol. 4, p. 364. 20. al-Hakim, Al-Seera al-Halabiyya, Vol. 3, p. 302. 21. Shar'h al-Mawaahib, V01. 7, p. 13. 22. Ibn Hajar al-' Asqalaani, Al-Sawaa'iq al-Muhriqa, p. 26. 23. Ibn al-Badriq, Al-'Umda, p. 52. 24. Badr ad-Deen, 'Umdat al-Qari fi Shar'h al-Bukhari, V01. 8, p. 584. 25. al-Ghadeer, V01. 2, p. 57. 26. Sharafud-Deen al-Musawi, AI-Fusul al-Muhimma, pp. 25-27. 27. Fadha 'il al-Sahaaba, p. 272. 28. Faydh al-Ghadeer, V01. 6, p. 218. 29. Kashf al-Ghumma, p. 94. 30. Kifaayat al- Taalib, pp. 17, 28. 31. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummaal, Vol. 6, p. 397. 32. Imam Ibn Hanbal, Mus'nad, V01. 4, p. 281. 33. Mishkaat al-Masabeeh, p. 272. 34. Mushkil al-aathaar, Vol. 3, p. 196. 35. Mataalib al-Su'ul, p. 16. 36. Muftah al-Najaat, p. 216. 37. al-Shahristaani, AI-Milal wal Nihal, V 01. 1, p. 220. 38. al-Khawarizmi, Manaaqib, pp. 80, 94. 39. Ibn al-Maghaazli, Manaaqib, p. 232. 40. al-Qastalani, Al-Mawaahib, Vol. 2, p. 13. 41. al-Samhudi, Wafaa' al-Wafaa', Vol. 2, p. 173. 42. al-Qanduzi, Yanabi al-Mawadda, p. 120 Source: http://www.duas.org (with minor changes by AlMujtaba.Com Team) Direct Link: http://www.almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/66-eid-al-ghadeer/1543-complete-al-ghadeer-sermon'>http://www.almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/66-eid-al-ghadeer/1543-complete-al-ghadeer-sermon More articles on http://www.almujtaba.com
  17. The Declaration of Ghadeer Khum Direct Link: http://almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/66-eid-al-ghadeer/630-the-declaration-of-ghadeer-khum It was in the month of Zilhajj 10 A.H. when the Holy Prophet becoming intuitively aware of his approaching end, decided to make a farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca. As the time for the Pilgrimage approached, he started to make preparations for the journey. Hazrat Ali who was in Yemen was asked to complete his work and join the Prophet in Mecca. The Prophet reached Mecca on Sunday the 4th of Zilhajj 10 A.H. Soon after his arrival, Ali, who hastened back from Yemen ahead of his men, joined the Prophet, who was very glad to see him and affectionately embracing him asked what vow he had taken for the pilgrimage. Ali replied, “I have taken upon me a vow to perform the same pilgrimage as the Prophet, whatever that might be, and I have brought thirty-four camels for the sacrifice”. The Prophet joyfully exclaimed, ‘Allah-o-Akbar’, (Great is the Lord), and said he had brought sixty-six. He added, that in all the rites of the Pilgrimage, as well as in the sacrifice, he (Ali) would be his partner. Thus Ali also performed the Greater Pilgrimage along with the Prophet. Before completing the rites of the Pilgrimage, the Holy Prophet addressed the assembled multitude from the top of the Jabal-ul-Arafat in words, which yet live in the hearts of Muslims. As the various ceremonies were to be treated as models for future guidance, the Prophet observed rigorously each rite, whether in compliance with reve lations or in accordance with the patriarchal usage. Thus, when the hundred camels were to be sacrificed, he and Ali offered them conjointly. A repast, prepared from the meat of the sacrificed camels was served; the Prophet sat down with no other but Ali to partake of it. The ceremonies of the pilgrimage ended with shaving of the heads and paring of the nails after the sacrifice of animals. The pilgrim’s garb was then removed and Ali, who rode on the Prophet’s Duldul, proclaimed that the restrictions of Pilgrimage were over. THE SERMON AT GHADIR-E-KHUM AND THE LAST DECLARATION Bidding farewell to his native city of Mecca, the Prophet set out for Medina on the 14th Zilhajj, 10 A.H., accom panied by the same congregation of Muslims. Now as his swift camel sped on with its long swinging strides, a life of tireless toil was nearing its end, a mission of mercy and devotion was approaching its culmination and the seeds of Divine dispensation were about to begin to bear fruit. His mien and bearing showed the signs of sublime peace, coupled with an overwhelming sense of gratitude and an insatiable yearning for his Creator and Cherisher. Yet on close scrutiny, his serene features could not have failed to disclose the signs of deep contemplation as if he was weighing the pros and cons of some momentous decision. What could be the cause of this restlessness? Had he not accomplished all that he had set his mind to do? The Unity and Justice of God had been convincingly in stilled into the hearts of men; the belief in the angels, the Scriptures, the Prophets, the resurrection of the dead, and the Day of Judgment had all been authoritatively expounded. But with the meticulous thoroughness of his genius, Prophet Muhammad realized that the most important part of his task still remained unfulfilled, and it was this, which made him restless at the moment of his greatest triumph. He saw that the sands of time were running out and the cup of his life was filled almost to the brim. ‘This being so, the most Important task was to ensure the continuity of his life’s work by someone endowed with all the moral values which he had upheld or else. He has miraculous achievements during the twenty-three years of his apostolic ministry stood In danger of being Irretrievably undone. It was a matter of prime Importance that Divine guidance should continue after him and that the Divine sovereignty should be exercised by the chosen ones of God, to be appointed by the Prophet. He had already designated his Ahl-ul-Bait on several oc casions, as the Ark of Noah, the strong rope of God, the door of forgiveness, the purified ones, and made the love of these holy ones incumbent upon his followers. He had similarly, on many occasions, pointed out Ali as “My brother and Successor”, “The door of the city of knowledge”, “The most equitable judge”, “Th. embodiment of faith”, and having the position in relation to himself as “Aaron was to Moses”. Were these pronouncements in the course of time going to be forgotten, misinterpreted or ignored by his followers after him? Could the Prophet allow thorn to be set aside by power-seekers? He knew that he had to make a final and unchallengeable declaration regarding his successor. The choice of the appropriate moment, however, depended not on him but on Divine Inspiration. With these thoughts in his mind he marched on towards Medina. As he arrived at Ghadir-E-Khum, suddenly the signs of a revelation appeared. The voice of Archangel Gabriel was heard saying “O thou esteemed Messenger, impart the guidance that has been revealed unto thee”, * and in order to impress the urgency of the command, Gabriel went on to say: “For if thou doeth it not, thou has not imparted His Message at all”; and again in the same breath to allay his fears and misgi vings the angel added: “God will protect thee from the evil designs of men”. (Ch. 5 ‘verse 67) It is held that the Prophet had already been commanded to proclaim Ali as his successor, but he had postponed the announcement for some suitable occasion to avoid misin terpretation.1 * It refers to the Commandment contained in Sura XCIV of the Quran, which says Have We not opened thy breast for thee? And put off thy burden from thee, Which galled thy back? And have We not raised thy name for thee? Then verily, with trouble cometh ease, Verily, along with trouble cometh case; And when thou art eased, set up (thy successor), And turn to thy Lord with fervor. In the 7th verse God has commanded the Prophet to appoint his successor. On hearing this imperious command, the Prophet made up his mind instantly. He motioned the muezzin Bilal to stop and recite the Azan with the words, “Hayya’ ala Khair il’amal” (hasten towards the best of deeds), for surely the acceptance thereof was to be a crucial event upon which the perpetuity of the Prophet’s Mission depended. As the Prophet pulled up his reins, the whole entourage came to a halt. Those who had gone ahead were sum moned back and those who followed gathered round casting inquiring glances at each other. The Prophet soon dis mounted and ordered his followers to clear the ground. The pebbles and thorns that lay scattered about were promptly brushed aside. Others, on receiving his ex press directions, began to untie the saddles from the backs of their camels, and to pile them one on top of another so as to make a pulpit. The arrangements thus completed, the throng squatted upon the bare ground, some spreading their cloaks below to protect themselves from the burning sand, others holding up their handkerchiefs to shield their eyes from the sun’s glare, for it was nearly midday. The people having clustered round the pulpit, the Pro phet stepped forward and on his right was Ali, whose turban, black in color, with its ends hanging over both of his shoulders, was arranged by the Prophet himself. Then obeying the Divine Injunction to the letter, he addressed the multitude in the following memorable words.2 “All praise belongs to God. In Him do I put my faith and from Him do I crave support. Him do I trust and His protection seek against the malice of our souls and evils of our deeds. The misguided have no guide save Him, and those who are guided by Him can never go astray. I bear witness that there is no one worthy of worship save Him and that I, Muhammad, am His slave and Messenger.” “O ye folk, behold, the All-knowing God bath informed me that the days of my life are coming to an end and the time is fast approaching when I shall be called away from your midst towards the eternal abode. But you and I, each one of us is answerable unto God for all things arc duc unto Him from us. What then do you say?” And the listeners answered, “we bear witness that thou hast done thy duty and never stinted to guide and advise us according to the Divine Will.” “Then do ye bear witness”, asked the Prophet, “to the Unity of God and the Apostleship of this servant of God, who now speaks to you by His command, and do ye not bear witness that the resurrection and judgment, heaven and hell and the life hereafter are certainties?” And they all answered, “Yea, verily Yea.” “Now then”, continued the Prophet, “Listen to me care fully; I have been commanded to tell you that I will soon be taken away from your midst, but I leave unto you my Legacy of two grand precepts, each of which surpasses the other in its grandeur-God’s Holy Book (The Quran) and my Ahl-ul-Bait (my irrevocable Progeny, consisting of Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain). Never shall they separate from one another until they reach me in Heaven at the Fountain of Kausar, and so long as you will adhere unto both my legacies, you will never be led astray after me. Therefore, O ye folk, it is my last Will and Testament unto you that you should always remain faithful to the Holy Quran and my Ahl-ul-Bait as true Muslims until death.” By these portentous words all those who loved their teacher and benefactor were moved to tears. And he continued, “Do not lag too far behind them and do not walk ahead of them, for in either event you will go astray. But follow them and walk in their footsteps and they will guide you along the Straight Path.” Then he asked, “Who do you think is more worthy of obedience than your souls?” And they answered, “God and His messenger know best.” And he continued, “Lo! God is my Master, and am I not worthy of obedience from you?” And they all said, “Yea, verily Yea.” Then the Prophet bent down and lifted up Ali in his hands, showing him to the crowds on all sides of the pulpit, aid proclaimed, “Mun Kunto Maulaho fe haaza Ali-yun Maulah” “Of whomsoever I am the Master (Mauls), this Ali is his Master (Mania)”. So saying the Prophet raised up his hands heavenwards and prayed, “O our God, love those who will love Ali, despise those who will despise him; support those who will support him; sad reject those who will reject him. 3” Announcing this thrice, he got down from the raised platform, and seated Ali in a tent, where the people did him homage. Omar bin Al-Khatab was the first to cong ratulate Ali and to acknowledge him ‘Guardian of all Believers’ 4 Saying “Bakhin bakhin laka ibne Abi Talih Asbahta Maul ayee Wa Maula kulla Momineen wa Mominaatin.” “Greetings be to thee O son of Abu Talib! Thou hast dawned as my Leader and the Leader of all faithful men and women.” After the men, came all the women to congratulate Ali. At the conclusion of this installation ceremony, the Holy Prophet asked the congregation, ‘Have I not truly and faithfully delivered unto you the Message?’ And they answered, “Yea, verily Yea.” Then the Prophet said, “Go now, and let those who have been present here today repeat and convey to those who are absent all that they have seen and heard.” At this moment the Divine Inspiration again descended upon our Holy Prophet with the memorable words that read, “This day have I perfected unto you your religion and completed upon you My Blessings, and I am well-pleased with Islam as your religion.” (Ch. 5, Verse 3). The tone and purpose of these two religious revelations, firstly, the verse commanding the Prophet to deliver the Message with the warning that any omission on his part would be a complete failure of his mission, and secondly, this last revelation, declaring the Lord’s pleasure at the fulfillment of the task, clearly indicate that they relate to some matter of prime importance and not merely to some abstruse detail of ritual. It is only in the light of the Hadith-e-Ghadir that these two passages of the Holy Quran can be properly understood in their true importance and full significance. By consensus of the exegesis these two verses were revealed after the Prophet’s last pilgrimage. AUTHENTIC PROOFS In Mishkat, a tradition of Bara’s Bin Azib and Zaid is quoted here for further clarification from the Musnad of Ahmed ibn Hanbal The Companions state, “We were accompanying the Apostle on his journey. When we reached the oasis of Ghadir-E-Khum, the announcer called ‘Assalato Jamia’, (come to congregational prayer). The earth under the trees was swept for the Apostle. Then after the Zohar prayer was over, the Apostle held the hand of Ali Ibn Abi Talib and said, “O people! Do you know that according to every believer I am superior to his soul?” All of them replied, ‘It is a fact, O Messenger of Allah! To every believer you are superior to his soul’. Then the Apostle said, ‘Ali is also the Lord of him whose Lord I am. O Allah! Befriend him who befriends Ali and be alien to him who is alien to Ali.’ Thereafter Omar met Ali and said, “Hail to thee! O son of Abu Talib, today you become the Lord of all believing men and women.” Wahidee in Asbab-un-Nuzool; Suyuti in Tafseer-e- Durr-i-Mansoor; Shaukani in Tafseer Fathul Qadir and Sideeq Hasan Khan in Fathul Bayan mention a tradition noted by Ibn Abi Hatim and other scholars from Abu Saeed Khudri in which it is stated that the verse “O Mes senger! Make known what has been revealed unto you by your Lord and if you do not do so you have not made known your message.” The Quran Ch. 5, verse 67-was revealed on the occasion of the event at Ghadir-E-Khum in honor of Ali. Moreover in another tradition which has been quoted by Aini in his annotation of Saheeh Bukharee, this verse is paraphrased as “O Messenger! Proclaim the order which your Lord has passed and revealed unto you in honor of Ali Ibn Abu Talib.” So when this verse was revealed the Apostle held Ali by his hand and said, “Ali is also Lord of him who has taken me as his Lord.” Many similar quotations are given by historians and the names of a few are mentioned below:- Abul Fida, Ibn Khallakan in Wafiyat-ul-A’ yaan; Hakini in his Mustadrak; Nasaee in Kitabul Khasais; lbn Hajar Makki in Sawaiq-i-Muhriqa; Rawdzat-ul~Ahbab; Naisha puri in Tafseer Gharaibul Quran, Hafiz Ibn Mardwaih and Hafiz Abu Naeem from Abu Saeed Khudri. Muhammad Ibn Saalim Hanafi remarks in his marginal note on Sirajul Muneer-i-Azeezee, an annotation of Jam’i Sagheer of Suyuti, that when the Apostle delivered his speech “Ali is also the Lord of him who has me for his Lord, and some of the people inquired of the Holy Pro phet, “Was it not sufficient for us to profess the ‘Creed of evidence, say our prayers and give alms with strict regularity, that the superiority and Lordship of Abu Talib’s son is now being imposed upon us? Do you commission us in this matter of your own accord, or is it ordered by Allah?” The Apostle replied, “By Him other than whom there is no one to be worshipped, this is the order of Allah”. Tafseer-o-Sa’labi, Noor-ul-Absar, Seerat-ul-Halabiyah and Mustadrak relate that when on that day a man named Haris, son of No’man Fihri refused to acknowledge Ali as his leader and disputed with the Holy Prophet on this matter and said, “O Allah! If this be truly Thy Command then either rain down stones from heaven upon Muhammad or punish us.” A large stone fell upon him from heaven so that he was killed, just as the army of Abraha and their elephants had been killed before. The following verse was revealed on that occasion: - “A questioner asked for the inevitable punishment to befall the disbelievers which no one can avert”. (Chapter 70 Verse 1-2.) The great research scholar, Allama Sayed Hamid Hus ain Kintoori, has written a book in two volumes called Abaqatul-Anwar on the investigation of the innumerable sources through which the Hadith-e-Ghadir has come down to us. In recent years the eminent Alim, Ayat-Ullah Shaikh Abdal Husain-al-Ameeni of Najaf has listed the names of one hundred and ten companions of the Holy Prophet who have reported this tradition as eye-witnesses and eighty-three Tabe’in who heard it from their elders and three hundred and fifty-nine Ulema of all sects, arranged chronologically through each of the centuries since the time of the Prophet up to the present -day, who have recorded the sermon of Ghadir-E-Khum in their books and acknowledged its authenticity. Ayatullah-al-Aminis major opus ‘Al-Ghadir’, is a classic of erudition and painstaking research. The book establishes beyond doubt, whatever the criterion of verification adopted, the over whelming incontrovertibility of the event of Ghadir i.e. the nomination of Ali. It also firmly prescribes the injunction that if ever any tradition is to be believed, the Hadith-e -Ghadir holds the first claim to acceptance. It will be readily vouched by every scholar of the Arabic language that the word ‘Maula’ in its meaning is far superior to the word Caliph. A Caliph is only a successor to one in any office, but a ‘Maula’ means the Lord and Master of everything. In using the word ‘Maula’ for Ali, the Apostle of God intended to convey the Divine Will that after him Ali should be held in the same position as he himself was for the people. The Holy Quran says: “And neither doth he speak of (his own) inclination; it (the wording) is naught but a revelation revealed (unto him).” (Chapter 53, Verse 3 and 4). Ali was undoubtedly the chosen and declared successor of the Holy Prophet from the beginning of his Prophetic Career. Now he had the distinction of being to the Muslims what the Holy Prophet was to them; which meant that Ali was to be treated in place of (Successor to) the Prophet after his death.5 Shah Ali Hasan Jaisi, a great-celebrated Sunni Sufi, has made the meaning of the word ‘MAULA’ as implied in the declaration, very clear in his couplet in Persian: “Abus dar maanee-ay mun kunto Maula mee ravce hersoo, Ali Maula ba-on manee keh Paigamber boo-cod Maula”. TRANSLATION “In vain doth thou wander in all directions in interpreting the word Maula (Master), Ali is in the same sense Maula (Master) as was the Holy Prophet Maula (Master).” Philosophers, commentators of the Quran, poets, histo rians and seekers of truth all unanimously acknowledge this vital tradition as an established fact. The valley of Ghadir-E-Khum owes its fame to this single, unique and unforgettable event, on it the survival of the guidance of Islam depends, and so long as there remains a single grain of sand from that parched and arid wilderness, it will rise and proudly describe how the Prophet of Mercy once trod upon that ground, how he lifted up the worthiest of his disciples and proclaimed him as the Amir-uI-Mominin, for there was no one worthier than him and his descen dants the eleven Imams, to defend, expound and propagate Islam’s immortal teachings to the world. The Holy Prophet has said: “I am the last of time Apostles of Allah (Khatam-un -Nabeeyeen) O Ali, whilst you are the last of the successors to the Prophets.” (Khatam-ul-Waseeyeen). 1. Tafsir Kabir; Tafsir Durr.aI-Manthur Tafsir Neshapuri; Sirat-aI-Halabia. 2. Sayid Safdar Husain. 3. Suyuti has reported thus “O God! Befriend him who is a friend of Ali, and be an enemy to him who is an enemy to Ali.” 4 Mishkat; Khasais Nasai; Rawdzat.al-Ahbab; Rawdzat-aI-Safa. 5 Tabari; lbne Athir; Abul Fida, AmirAIi Source: http://www.shiarightpath.com Direct Link: http://almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/66-eid-al-ghadeer/630-the-declaration-of-ghadeer-khum More articles on: http://www.almujtaba.com
  18. Salam Alaikum Eid Ghadeer Mubarak - Praise be to Allah, who blessed us to be among those who cling and hold to the "Wilayaat" (love, friendship and authority) of Ameer Al Momineen Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib (as) and all the Imams (as), peace be on them all.
  19. Protection from any Alteration Written By Allamah Tabatabai Direct Link: http://almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/37-quran/116-protection-from-any-alteration The transmission of the Qur'an, from the day of its revelation up to the present day, is flawless. The chapters and verses have been in constant use amongst Muslims and have been passed on perfectly intact from one generation to the other. The Qur'an we know today is the same Qur'an which was revealed to the Prophet some fourteen centuries ago. The Qur'an does not stand in need of historical proof for its identity or authenticity, (although history too confirms its validity). Since a book which claims to be the actual unalterable word of God and attests to this in its own text, does not need to resort to others to prove its authenticity. The clearest proof that the Qur'an we have with us today is the same that was revealed to the Prophet and that no alteration has taken place in its text is that very superiority which the Qur'an claimed for itself at the time of its revelation and which still exists. The Qur'an says that it is a book of light and guidance, a book which shows man the truth and reality of existence; it says that it explains all things, that is, everything necessary for man to live in accordance with his own natural character; it says that it is the word of God and challenges man and jinn to produce similar words; -it invites them to find someone like the Prophet, who could neither read nor write and grew up in an age of ignorance as an orphan without instruction; the Qur'an challenges them to find any inconsistency in its method, Sciences, or laws, such as one might find in any ordinary book. They obviously cannot for the superiority of the Qur'an remains after its revelation. Likewise, the guidance for man contained in the Qur'an is still valid; it still expounds a complete world view which is in accord with the purest of intellectual proofs and is the source of man's well being in this world and in the next. By the benevolence and care shown by the Creator for His creation in the Book, it still invites man to belief. The Qur'an cares for the needs of man by giving him a vision of reality based on Divine Unity. All knowledge and belief spring from this view of reality. At no point does the Qur'an fail to explain in the most comprehensive fashion the reality of this oneness. It devotes much attention to explaining the behavior and transactions expected of the individual in society and shows how correct action is that which accords with the natural character and capability (fitrah) of man. The Qur'an leaves the detailed description of man's behavior to the Prophet whose daily life was an example of how man was to apply what was contained in the Qur'an. Together the Book of God and the example (or Sunnah) of the Prophet delineated an astoundingly comprehensive life-pattern for man, namely, the way of living in tune with the reality which is Islam. The Qur'an deals precisely with all aspects of individual and social life and, despite having been revealed in another age, does not contain the slightest inconsistency or in- compatibility even today. It describes a din, a comprehensive way of life, whose program of living is beyond the imagination of the world's most capable lawyers and sociologists. The miracle of the Qur'an has in it clarity and eloquence, rooted, as it is, in the language of a nation famed for the purity and power of its language. The Qur'an is a miraculous sun whose light shines far brighter than the finest poetry of the time, indeed of any age. During the Islamic conquests of the first century after Hijra, the resulting admixing of non-Arabic words with the Arabic lessened the purity of Arabic language used in the Qur'an causing it to disappear from the every-day speech of the people. The Qur'an does not merely challenge man by the use of its language but also by the depth of its meaning. Those familiar with the Arabic language (both prose and verse writings) are reduced to silence and astonishment when they attempt to describe it. The Qur'an is neither poetry nor prose but rather seems to draw qualities from both; it is more attractive and dazzling than poetry and clearer and more flowing than prose. A single verse or phrase from the Qur'an is more illuminating, more penetrating, and more profound than the complete speech of most eloquent speakers. The profundity of meaning in the Qur'an remains as miraculous as ever; its complex structure of beliefs, morals and laws stands as proof that the Qur'an is the word of God. Man, and in particular someone who was born and raised in circumstances similar to those of the Prophet, could never have created such a system; the Qur'an is a harmonious whole despite having been revealed during twenty-three years in greatly varying circumstances. God Himself confirms that the Qur'an has been preserved from change; in chapter XV:9 He says: "Indeed We, even We, reveal the Reminder and indeed We are truly its guardian," and in chapter (XLI:41-42) He says: "For indeed it is an unassailable Book. Falsehood cannot come to it from before or behind it. (It is) a revelation from the Wise, the Praise one." Only a divine Book could remain preserved for fourteen centuries in a world where the enemies of truth and of Islam are numerous. Source: http://www.shiasource.com Direct Link: http://almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/37-quran/116-protection-from-any-alteration
  20. Salam Alaikum @14infallibles - Thanks @PeaceLoving - Thanks a lot for your feedback, this will help us advance and make the site better and if you have more, please don't hesitate to share it. Do you mean, the main page of the English section? If it is the mainpage then it is just the latest articles added and it will change everyday inshallah. The articles are put into over 50 different categories and can be found in the Islamic Articles tab under the Main Menu Thanks a lot for the feedback, don't hesitate to post more comments. Remember us in your prayers
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  23. Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.)- Life History Written by Maulana Ali Naqi Naqvi Direct Link: http://www.almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/48-imam-ali-al-hadi-as/1223-imam-ali-naqi-as-life-history Name and Lineage His blessed name was Ali, kunniyat Abul Hasan and appellative Naqi. Since prior to him, Abul Hasan had also been the kunniyat of Hazrat All Murtaza AS and Imam Ali Riza (A.S.) hence he is called Abul Hasan ‘the third'. His esteemed mother was Samana Khatoon. Birth and Rearing He was born in Madinah-e-Munawwarah on 5 th of Rajab 214 A.H. He passed only six years of life under the benign shadow of his father. Thereafter, at this very tender age he was separated from his esteemed father. Imam Muhammad Taqi (A.S.) had to undertake the journey to Iraq where he embraced martyrdom on 29” Dhil Qadah 220 A.H. Thereafter, the responsibilities of Imamate devolved on Imam Ali Naqi AS. In the absence of his father, there was no other centre left that could be deemed to be the means of his ascendancy to the heights of profound knowledge and scholastic accomplishments except the cradle of the divine bosom wherein he was nourished and nurtured. Changes of Regimes The tenure of Imamate of Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.) commenced during the regime of Motasim Abbasi. Motasim died in 228 A.H. and Wathiq Billah ascended the throne. In the year 236 A.H. Wathiq Billah left the world. He was succeeded Mutawakkil, the infamous diehard tyrant and bloodthirsty enemy of Ahle Bait. Mutawakkil died in 250 A.H. and Muntasir Billah assumed the charge of the caliphate. He died just after six months and Mustaeen became the ruler. In 253 A.H. Mustaeen had to abdicate the kingdom and also lose his life and Motaz Billah became the king. He was the last king during the life span of Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.). Sufferings and Afflictions Motasim did not meddle with the activities of Imam AH Naqi (A.S.). This was either because of the political worries he was facing owing to the ongoing war with the Romans and the internal disturbances that were rocking the capital city of Baghdad as a result of the disruptive activities of the Abbasides, or because of the young age of the Imam*-8-. Imam (A.S.), therefore, continued to discharge his obligations in Madinah calmly and peacefully. After Motasim. Wathin also did not take any hostile step against him. But no sooner had Mutawakkil assumed charge of the Kingdom than a flood of travails and sufferings surged forth to engulf Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.). Mutawakkil was Wathiq's brother and the son of Motasim. He surpassed all his forefathers in his I animosity towards the Prophet' (SAW) progeny. During the span of sixteen years since the assumption of the charge of Imamate, Imam All Naqi's (A.S.) reputation had spread throughout the Islamic domain and ardent lovers of the teachings of Ahle Bait were continuously heading towards this guiding light. Mutawakkil had been in the saddle just for four years when the governor of Madinah, Abdullah bin Hakim commenced his hostile activities against Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.). First of all he himself started inflicting various kinds of hardships on the Imam*-8-. Thereafter, he wrote letters of complaints against him to Mutawakkil of the same pattern as were sent in the past their adversaries. For example, it was complained that he had been accumulating around him resources with the intention to capture power and that the number of his followers had increased to such an extent that he could take up arms against the government any time. The Imam (A.S.) came to know of his communications in time. For argument's sake, almost simultaneously, he himself wrote to Mutawakkil giving an account of the hostile stance of the governor of Madinah towards v,;™ ™H HAW he was misrepresenting the facts. For, political considerations Mutawakkil gave due honour to the letter of Imam *s and dismissed the said governor of Madinah. But, simultaneously, he dispatched a contingent of army under the command of Yahya bin Harthma and apparently in a friendly way, insisted that the Imam AS should come and stay in the capital city o1 Samarra for some time and then go back to Madinah. The Imam was fully aware of the real intent behind this request. He knew that this seemingly supplicatory invitation to Samarra was in fact an order of banishment from his hometown. But he also knew that refusing to comply would be of no avail because it was certain that in that case the mode of the invitation would assume a different shape after which departure would become unavoidable. No doubt leaving Madinah for ever was as agonising for him as it had been earlier for his pious and august forefathers, Hazrat Imam Husain (A.S.), Imam Musa Kazim (A.S.) Imam All Riza (A.S.) and Imam Muhammad Taqi (A.S.). It was virtually a legacy for him. Still, eyewitnesses say that at the time of his departure from Madinah his emotions were so intense that it moved everybody and there was great wailing and weeping amongst his friends and companions. Mutawakkil's letter to the Imam (A.S.) showed sincere attachment towards him and exhibited an intense desire to pay homage to him. The army contingent that was sent to accompany him was ostensibly meant for ensuring a safe as well as a dignified journey for him and, also, to serve as his retinue. But when the Imam (A.S.) reached Samarra and Mutawakkil was informed of his arrival, his initial and regrettable attitude was that instead of welcoming the Imam*s or, at least, receiving him in his court, he ordered him to be lodged in Khan-us-Salik (which means a place for housing beggars). This gives an idea of the nature of the place where he was made to stay. It was a dilapidated structure in a desolate place far from the city where the Imam (A.S.) was forced to stay. Although, these pious souls themselves never considered it humiliating to sit by the side of the poor and indigent persons and always shunned outward formalities but in any case Mutwakkils intention behind his stayed there for three days. Thereafter, Mutawakkil kept him under detention in the custody of his chamberlain, Razzaqi, and forbade people in general from visiting him. As in the case of Imam Musa Kazim (A.S.) during the period of his incarceration, even the most cruel of his custodians were so much impressed by his innocence and righteous bearing that they were compelled to adopt a lenient attitude towards him The same thing happened in respect of Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.). It was as a result of the manifestation of the identical attributes by him that only after a short period Razzaqi was so deeply impressed by the loftiness of his virtuous life style that instead of tyrannizing the Imam (A.S.) he began giving him relief and providing comfort to him. But this change in his behaviour could not escape Mutawakkil's notice for long. When he came to know of it, he transferred the Imam (A.S.) from the confinement under Razzaqi, to the custody of another man, named Saeed. This man was very cruel hearted and used to torment the Imam (A.S.) relentlessly. No further transfer of charge was considered necessary after this. The Imam (A.S.) remained under his custody for full twelve years. In spite of all the sufferings he had to bear, the Imam (A.S.) continued to pass his days and nights that in the worship of God. Fasting in the day and offering prayers throughout the night was his routine. Though kept secluded and in captivity, it was not possible for the regime to restrain people from talking about him outside the four walls of the prison. The result was that although he remained confined within a narrow and dark room people were talking about him all over Samarra and perhaps in every house in Iraq . Consequently, for keeping a person of such a nature and character in captivity, a feeling of aversion against the tyrannical attitude of Mutawakkil was fast spreading among the people all around. After a while a time came when Fateh bin Khaaan. In spite his affectionate leanings towards the progeny of the Prophet became Mutawakkil's minister solely by virtue of his ability, his acumen and mental capabilities. As a result of his intercession Mutawakkil changed the Imam (A.S.) imprisonment into house arrest. He also granted him a plot of land and allowed him to build a house and reside therein on the condition that he would not leave Samarra and that Saeed would continue to keep a watch on his movements, his correspondence and his contacts and associations. During this period also his contented bearing and spirit of renunciation were note-worthy. In spite of his continued stay in the capital he never made any request to Mutawakkil, nor show any sort of favour or mercy from him. He continued to lead the same life of abstinence and devotion to God during this period as he used to when in prison. Whatever change there was it was in the attitude of the oppressor. The life pattern of the oppressed remained unchanged. But even this period was not altogether that of rest and peace. During this phase also he had to face sufferings of various nature that were more mental than corporal. For example. A search was conducted in his house to find out if there were arms and letters that could provide proof of his opposition to the government. Although nothing of this sort was found but for a man of sublime status and innocence the very act of carrying out such a search must have been very agonizing. Far more distressing was the occasion when he was called to the royal court when a wine drinking spree was on. Mutawakkil and all the courtiers were immersed in merry-making and joyous exultation. On top of all this was the insolent behaviour of the haughty, shameless and ill-mannered monarch who had the temerity to offer to the Imam (A.S.) a bowl of wine. The annoyance caused to the infallible guardian of the Islamic Shariat was much more painful than an injury inflicted by arrows and daggers. But ImamAS, with utmost patience, solemnity and composure, declined the offer in the following words: “Please excuse me from it. My flesh and blood as well as those of my forefathers have never been polluted with this.' Had any life been left in the sensibilities of Mutawakkil, he would have felt the impact of this simple but dignified reply But he showed his imperviousness by another atrocious request. He said to the ImamAS to at least sing a song. The Imam (A.S.) replied that he was not conversant with that art also. Lastly, he pressed the Imam (A.S.) to recite some verses in whatever manner he wished to. Had there been a sentimental person he would have probably lost his balance of mind at this insolent and derisive behaviour of the frivolous ruler. But he was a man of dignified personality, a mountain of forbearance and loftiness, with a responsibility to attain the perfection of character strictly in conformity with his obligations. Coming out of the sphere of things forbidden by Shariat, now when it came to the demand for recitation of verses only, the Imam (A.S.) ,considering this an opportune occasion for propagation and preaching of the matters of faith, started reciting the following verses in a deep emotional voice that transformed the assembly of merry-making into one of preaching. The following verses were recited by the Imam (A.S.)' They stayed on mountaintops strictly guarded, But could not save themselves even when protected by the . valiant ones, The grandeur of high bastions had to come down, Then, what ultimate baneful dwelling they got in the corner of grave, The voice from Heaven called out to them after burial: Where are the throne, the crown and the clothing of the body? Where are the fnrt>v //»/»* ramnlnpd concealed under the veils, Protected from dust by these coverings, The voice of the grave seemed to say in reply. Those faces are now the dwelling abode of worms, The food they had eaten and the wine they had drunk beyond measure. Have resulted in making them today the food (of worms). The verses were recited by the ImamAS with such a feeling that the conviviality in which Mutawakkil and his courtiers were engrossed went topsy turvy and goblets of wine dropped from their hands. The entire congregation burst into tears; so much so that even Mutawakkil himself started crying loudly and uncontrollably. When crying ceased, Mutawakkil let the ImamAS depart, whereupon he returned to his house. Another extreme mental agony which the Imam A.S. had to bear during this period was caused by the excessively oppressive orders issued by Mutawakkil in respect of the pilgrims visiting Najaf and Karbala . He issued general orders throughout the Kingdom to the effect that no body should visit the shrines of Ameerul Momineen Hazrat All ibne Abi Talib (A.S.) and of Imam Husain*-8-, and that it would be lawful to shed the blood of any person who violated this order. Not only this but he also ordered that the buildings of the shrines at Najaf and Karbala should be razed to the ground; all the mausoleums should be dug up and the entire land surrounding the grave of Imam Husain (A.S.) should be utilised for cultivation. It was impossible for the devotees of the Prophet's progeny to easily abide by the prohibitory orders. The result was that thousands of innocent persons were massacred and their corpses were left wallowing in blood. Can there be any doubt that the killing of every single individual was as shocking for the Imam (A.S.) as the slaying of any innocent relative of his own would have been. He was besieged in such an environment of tyranny and persecution that it was not possible for him to communicate with his followers and give them special instructions in respect of the rightful performance of their obligations according to the Shariat in the prevailing circumstances. This sorrowful state of affairs continued to persist not for one or two years but till the last moment of Mutawakkil's life. Moreover, it was customary to make derisive references by way of mimicry in respect of Ameerul Momineen Hazrat Ali ibne Abi Talib (A.S.) in the court of Mutawakkil whereupon Mutawakkil himself along with all his courtiers would jestingly burst into laughter. It was such an insulting spectacle that once Mutawakkil's son could not contain himself and said to Mutawakkil: “It might some-how be alright for you to use certain expressions about Hazrat Ali (A.S.), but when you affirm your relationship with him, why should you tolerate such utterances against All from these wretched people? Therefore instead of being affected by his son's words, Mutawakkil used extremely derisive language for him and composed two verses and gave them to the singers of his court. These verses contained abusive expressions about his son with respect to his mother. The singers used to sing these verses and Mutawakkil would burst into laughter. Another event of this period is not any less regrettable. One Ibne Sikkeet Baghdad!, who was acknowledged as an authority on Arabic syntax and lexicology was appointed by Mutawakkil as tutor of his two sons. One day Mutawakkil asked him whether he had more affection for his two sons or for Hasan (A.S.) and Husain (A.S.). Ibne Sikkeet was no doubt forced by compulsions of the time to serve under Mutawakkil but his heart was kindled with the light of the love of Ahle Bait. He lost his composure on this query by Mutawakkil and looking straight into his eyes said unhesitatingly: “What to talk of any comparison with Hasan (A.S.) and Husain (A.S.) I have much more love for Qanbar, the slave of; Ali (A.S.) than for your two sons.” As soon as Mutawakkil heard this reply he went livid with rage and ordered that Ibne Sikkeet's tongue be pulled out right from the larynx. The order was complied with and thus this lover of the Prophet's progeny embraced martyrdom. Although these happenings had no direct corporeal connection with the person of Hazrat Imam AH Naqi (A.S.) but God knows that every such occurrence was like a sword's edge J driven not across the throat but into the very heart of the Imam AS closely or even remotely connected with him was released or m satisfied with that. Things had come to such a pass that even his offspring had turned his mortal Mimtasir got Mutawakkil killed through his own personal slave Bagher Roomi by his own sword in his own bedroom. In this way the people got rid of this tyrant and Muntasir was declared as caliph Immediately after occupying the throne Muntasir abrogated all the tyrannical orders of his father and granted general permission for pilgrimage to Najaf and Karbala . He also got the sacred shrines re-built to some extent. He also did not take any oppressive steps against Imam AH Naqi (A.S.). But Muntasir did not live for long. He left the world only after six months. After Muntasir no instances of ill treatment of the ImamAS are reported against his successor, Mustaeen also. Because the ImamAS had built his own house and had settled in Samarra permanently, therefore, either he himself did not think it advisable to return to Madinah or the rulers of his time did not want him to do so. In any case the lmam (A.S.) continued to stay in Samarra . As there was no obstruction on behalf of the government during this period, seekers of knowledge having affiliation with the house of the Prophet*A being somewhat reassured, began to assemble in large numbers to benefit from his teachings. Consequently, Motaz, who had succeeded Mustaeen, developed a hostile attitude towards him and ultimately put an end to his life. Manner and Attributes The life style, manners and other noble qualities of the ImamAS were the same as were exhibited distinctly by every individual member of this line of the infallible ones in his time. Whether in captivity or under surveillance or when free from all sorts of restrictions, at all times and in every situation they always remembered God, remained engrossed in His worship, eschewing dependence on fellow beings, firm of purpose, patient and persevering, unruffled by miseries swarming in from all sides, dealing even with their enemies with forbearance and kindness and helping the indigent— these were the qualities that were also found prominently in Imam AH Naqi During his captivity, irrespective of his place of detention, would always have a grave dug out and complete in all respects in front of his place of offering prayers. When people showed fear and astonishment at this spectacle, he would say that he had the grave ready before his eyes in order to keep his heart always conscious of the inevitability of death. In fact, it | was a silent and practical rejoinder to the demand of the forces P of oppression for submission and abandonment of the teachings P of true Islam. That is, he just wanted to impress the rulers of the day that the utmost that they could do was to take one's | life. But when one was so prepared for death as to always have a grave ready before him, how could he be frightened into submission by a tyrannical regime? But at the same time the P ImamAS kept himself strictly aloof from political intrigues and conspiracies and from taking any improper step against the ] government of the day. So much so, that in spite of his permanent stay in the capital and the most rigid spy ring of the government no such accusations could ever be levelled against him and the government could never find any ground whatsoever that could justify any hard action against him. This was despite the fact that the foundations of the Abbaside rule had become so hollow that almost every day mischief in the form of a fresh conspiracy was raising its head in the capital. The hostile instance towards Mutawakkil of his own son Muntasir and the animosity of his dearest slave Bagher Roomi, disintegration amongst the nobles of the State after Muntasir, that led to the loss of Caliphate by Mutawakkil's sons, the uprising by Yahya bin Umar bin Yahya bin Husain bin Zaid Alvi in Kufa during the regime of Mustaeen, taking possession of the territory of Tabristan by Hasan bin Zaid called Daiyul Haq and subsequent establishment of a permanent and independent state by him, then the mutiny of the Turkish slaves in the capital, fleeing of Mustaeen from Samarra to Baghdad in me capital, fleeing of Mustaeen from &amau« and then being put to sword at the hands of Motaz Billah, the opposition of the Romans in the time of Motaz Billah and his apprehension of danger from his own brothers, ending of the Mowaid's life and the imprisonment of Mofiq in Basra the notable events of the period. In all these tumultuous and turbulent situations and uprisings not even a remote pretext could be found for casting the slightest doubt on Imam Ali Naqi's (A.S.) involvement in them. Is this role of the ImamAS not contrary to that of the people who are prone to be led away by their sentiments on such occasions? This attitude of the Imam (A.S.) was towards a regime which he not only considered as unlawful but at the hands of which he had faced banishment, imprisonment and humiliations. But his was a soul completely devoid of all base passions. This living and perfect manifestation of the greatness of human self considered any exploitation of situations of turmoil and reaping of benefit from accidental chances against his selflessness, his righteousness and his truthfulness that were weightier than the mountains. Accordingly he always kept himself aloof from these intrigues considering it against his lofty ideals and code of conduct to attack adversary from behind. Manners and Virtues In respect of his manners and qualities, Imam Muhammad Taqi (A.S.) occupied that lofty position of humaneness that is the distinguished characteristic of the Prophet (SAW) and his progeny. The predominant feature of his life style was to meet everybody with humility, to help the needy, to maintain human equality and observe simplicity. To offer help to the indigent secretly, to treat not only friends but even adversaries kindly and politely, to be attentive in entertaining the guests and to keep the springs of bounties overflowing for those thirsty for religious and scholarly knowledge, were his chief occupations. His life pattern was exactly the same as that of the other members of this chain of the infallible ones whose life history has already been given in earlier chapters. The worldly people who did not have a full idea of the greatness of his soul must have certainly been under the impression that the very fact of a small child becoming the son in-law of the emperor of a great Muslim empire must alter his thoughts, nature, behaviour and habits and, thus, completely remould his life style. In fact this must have been an important objective before Mamun's shortsighted vision. The animus of the Abbasides or the Umayyad kings was not so much against the members of the Prophet' (SAW) progeny as for their extraordinary God-given qualities. They were ever endeavouring to break that centre of lofty manners and humaneness that was established at Madinah and had become nucleus of exemplary spirituality against the material power of the realm. Accordingly, in desperation, they devised and tried various means with a view to achieving this objective. The demand of oath of allegiance from Imam Husain (A.S.) was one form of it and the appointment of Imam Riza (A.S.) as heir apparenl another. Only outwardly in one case the method of dealing with the situation was hostile and in the other, seemingly devotional. Just as Imam Husain (A.S.) was martyred when he refused to pledge allegiance, Imam Riza (A.S.), being out of step with the materialistic objectives of the regime, was silenced for ever through poisoning. Now from the point of Mamun it was a valuable opportunity. The successor of Imam RizaAS was a mere child of about eight years who had been separated from his father three years back. The political sagacity of Mamun made him wrongly expect that it would be very easy to bring over that child to his own way of life after which the still and silent but extremely dangerous centre that was firmly established against the government of the day would be destroyed for ever. The failure of Mamun in his plan related to the appointment of Imam Riza (A.S.) as the heir apparent was not deemed by him as a ground for any disappointment. He felt so because the life pattern of Jmam Riza (A.S.) was firmly based on a particular principle. If it did not alter, it did not follow that Imam Muhammad TaqiAS, after having been brought in the palace environments right from the early formative years, would stick to his forefather's princioled wav of life. Except those who were conversant with the God-gifted perfections of these chosen beings, everybody in those days must have been of Mamun's mind. But the world was amazed to see that the eight year old child who had been made the sonin-law of the emperor of the Islamic domain, was so steadfast in following his family traditions of sobriety and uprightness and its principles that he refused to stay in the imperial palace after marriage and, while in Baghdad insisted on residing in a rented house. An idea of the strong will power of Imam Muhammad Taqi (A.S.) can be had from another event. Usually when the bride's family financially occupies a higher place it prefers that the sonin-law should reside with it in the same house; if not, at least in the same town. But Imam Muhammad Taqi (A.S.), only a year after the marriage, forced Mamun to let him (and his wife) return to Madinah. Certainly, this must have been extremely unpalatable for a loving father and a powerful potentate like Mamun. But he had to bear the pain of separation of his daughter and let the Imam AS return to Madinah along with Ummul Fazl. After coming to Madinah the style of functioning of the household was the same as before. There was no gatekeeper, no check and restraint, no pomp and show, no particular meeting time and no discrimination in dealings with the visitors. Mostly the ImamAS used to sit in the Prophet's mosque where Muslims in general came to benefit from his preachings and counseling. Narrators of traditions used to put questions about traditions and scholars would place their problems before him and seek solutions. It was evident that it was surely the successor of Imam Jafar SadiqAS who, occupying the same seat of learning, was providing guidance to the people. With regard to household affairs and matters relating to conjugal life, he kept Ummul Fazl confined within the bound within which his forefathers used to keep their wives. He d not at all care for the fact that his wife was the daughter of the emperor of his time. Therefore, in the presence of Ummul Fazl he married an esteemed lady from amongst the progeny of Hazrat Ammar Yasir. It was the divine will that the chain of Imamate should continue through this lady who became the mother of Imam Ali Naqi (A.S.). Ummul Fazl dispatched a written complaint to her father in his regard. For Mamun also this event must not have been any less painful. However, he had now no option but to bear with what he had himself done. He wrote to Ummul Fazl in reply that his objective in marrying hei with Abu Jafar (A.S.) was not to make unlawful for him that God has made lawful. He forbade her writing such letters to him in future. By writing this reply he had only tried to wipe off his own humiliation. There are instances before us where in the presence of a venerable lady, from religious point of view, the husband did not take a second wife during her lifetime. Hazrat and Hazrat Fatima Zahra (A.S.) are examples in this respect. In their lifetime neither the esteemed ProphetSA nor Hazrat Ali Murtaza (A.S.) even thought of having a second wife. But to confer this distinction on the daughter of an emperor simply because she was the daughter of such a person, violated the Islamic spirit of which the progeny of Muhammad (SAW) was guardian. Therefore, Imam Muhammad Taqi (A.S.) considered it his duty to follow a path different from theirs (that is, having a second wife in the lifetime of the first one). Martyrdom The Imam (A.S.) breathed his last on the 3 rd of Rajah 254 A.H. in Samarra during the tenure of Motaz Billah. On that occasion only his son, Imam Hasan Askari (A.S.),was with him who recited the last prayer and performed the funeral rites and buried his body in the main hall of the house in which he was residing. Presently, his shrine stands there and is visited by his devotees. Source: http://www.baabeilm.org Direct Link of the article: http://www.almujtaba.com/Jtest/index.php/left-menu-articles/48-imam-ali-al-hadi-as/1223-imam-ali-naqi-as-life-history
  24. Salam Alaikum ----------------------------------------- Ramadhan Moonsighting Issue We would like to inform our Mo'min brothers and sisters that Friday night, the new moon was not sighted in Montreal and near areas. Followers of Grand Ayatullah Sayed Al-Sistani (H.A.) and other Maraji' who have similar view to him, who want to fast on Saturday; their Niyyat (Intention) should be the last day of Sha'ban. Sunday, August 23, 2009 will be the first day of the holy month of Ramadhan. However, if later on, moon is confirmed; their fast of Saturday will automatically change into Ramadhan month and is counted from Ramadhan. Followers of late Grand Ayatullah Sayed Al-Khoei and other Maraji' who have similar view to him, Saturday, August 22, 2009 will be the first day of Ramadhan because the new moon was sighted in countries which have common night with Montreal. Followers of Grand Ayatullah Sayed Muhammed Sa'eed Al-Hakeem (H.A.), Saturday, August 22, 2009 will be the first day of Ramadhan because the moon was sighted in the American continents and his view is that if the moon is sighted anywhere in the American continents, the beginning of the month will start in the whole continent. Please remember us in your prayers and may Allah accept your fast and Duas in this holy month. åáÇá ÔåÑ ÑãÖÇä äæÏ Ãä äÚáã ÇáãÄãäíä æÇáãÄãäÇÊ Çäå ÈÚÏ ÇáÊÍÑí ÇáÏÞíÞ ãÓÇÁ íæã ÇáÌãÚÉ (áíáÉ ÇáÓÈÊ)¡ áã ÊËÈÊ ÑÄíÉ åáÇá ÔåÑ ÑãÖÇä ÇáãÈÇÑß Ýí ãÏíäÉ ãæäÊÑíÇá æÇáãäÇØÞ ÇáÞÑíÈÉ áåÇ. æÚáíå ÝÇä íæã ÛÏ ÇáÓÈÊ Óíßæä ãßãáÇ áÔåÑ ÔÚÈÇä æíæã ÇáÇÍÏ 23 ÂÈ 2009ã åæ Çæá ÇíÇã ÇáÔåÑ ÇáÝÖíá áãÞáÏí ÓãÇÍÉ ÂíÉ Çááå ÇáÚÙãì ÇáÓíÏ ÇáÓíÓÊÇäí (ÏÇã Ùáå) æãÞáÏí ÇáãÑÇÌÚ ÇáÂÎÑíä ÇáÐíä áÏíåã ÑÃí ÝÞåí ãÔÇÈå áÑÃíå. ÃãÇ ÈÇáäÓÈÉ áãÞáÏí ÓãÇÍÉ ÂíÉ Çááå ÇáÚÙãì ÇáÓíÏ ÇáÎæÆí (ÞÏÓ ÓÑå) æãÞáÏí ÇáãÑÇÌÚ ÇáÂÎÑíä ÇáÐíä áÏíåã ÑÃí ÝÞåí ãÔÇÈå áÑÃíå. Ýíæã ÇáÓÈÊ ÇáãæÇÝÞ 22 ÂÈ 2009 åæ Ãæá ÃíÇã ÇáÔåÑ ÇáÝÖíá áÃäå ËÈÊÊ ÑÄíÉ ÇáåáÇá Ýí ÇáÏæá ÇáÊí áÏíåÇ áíá ãÔÊÑß ãÚ ãÏíäÉ ãæäÊÑíÇá. ÃãÇ ÈÇáäÓÈÉ áãÞáÏí ÓãÇÍÉ ÂíÉ Çááå ÇáÚÙãì ÇáÓíÏ ãÍãÏ ÓÚíÏ ÇáÍßíã (ÏÇã Ùáå) Ýíæã ÇáÓÈÊ ÇáãæÇÝÞ 22 ÂÈ 2009 åæ Ãæá ÃíÇã ÇáÔåÑ ÇáÝÖíá áÃä ÑÃí ÓãÇÍÊå åæ ÇÐÇ ËÈÊÊ ÑÄíÉ ÇáåáÇá Ýí ãäØÞÉ ãä ãäÇØÞ ÇáÞÇÑÉ ÇáÇãÑíßíÉ ÝíÈÏà ÇáÔåÑ ÇáÝÖíá Ýí ÇáÞÇÑÉ ßáåÇ. äÑÌæ Ãä áÇ ÊäÓæäÇ ãä ÕÇáÍ ÏÚÇÆßã æÇÚÇÏ Çááå åÐÇ ÇáÔåÑ ÇáÝÖíá ÚáíäÇ æÚáíßã ÈÇáÎíÑ æÇáíãä æÇáÈÑßÇÊ ----------------------------------------- Please remember us in your prayers,
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