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Showing content with the highest reputation on 04/14/2014 in Posts

  1. 6 points
    a human

    Maarifat Ulnafs

    (bismillah) (salam) (wasalam)
  2. 4 points
    I would just spend all my time praying I guess...What else would I do if I was going to die in a month?
  3. 4 points
    AnaAmmar1

    Thoughts (2010-2016) [ARCHIVE]

    Imam Khamenei is the most precious gift of our time Ayatullah Taqi Misbah yazdi :wub:
  4. 4 points
    shreek

    O Christians And Jews !

    Eastern Orthodox are the same as Catholics. They venerate the Blessed Virgin equally to us.
  5. 3 points
    No it is not jaiz. Why? It is intended to spread immorality for profit. And they will not be having hijabi images on their website, of course.
  6. 3 points
  7. 3 points
    herenow477

    O Christians And Jews !

    And there is none of the people of the Scripture (Jews and christians) but must believe in him ['Îsa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), as only a Messenger of Allah and a human being] before his ['Îsa (Jesus) عليه السلام) or a Jew's or a Christian's] death (at the time of the appearance of the angel of death). And on the Day of Resurrection, he ['Îsa (Jesus)] will be a witness against them. O people of the Scripture (christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of Allah aught but the truth. The Messiah 'Îsa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, ("Be!" - and he was) which He bestowed on Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (Ruh ) created by Him; so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not: "Three (trinity)!" Cease! (it is) better for you. For Allah is (the only) One Ilah (God), glory be to Him (Far Exalted is He) above having a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs. What nonsense are you talking about placid? God stipulated that he is only ONE Say, "He is Allah , [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal, Absolute; "He begets not, nor was He begotten; "And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him." So what nonsense are you going on about trying to prove that Quran is pushing forward trinity? Are you seriously that illiterate?
  8. 2 points
    Qa'im

    Liberal "muslims On Sc And Solution

    Perhaps I wasn't clear in delivering my point. Renewing Islam (tajdeed) does not mean reforming Islam. Reform would imply changing or modernizing the religion, which is absolutely unjustifiable. Tajdeed is re-establishing the religion; giving fresh life to it without sacrificing its principles. But see, that's my entire point - renewing Islam does not mean "reforming" it, or making it more liberal, or changing its precepts in any way. Homosexuality is a great example. It is unislamic, and no one can change that, but how have our communities addressed it? The only thing I've ever heard about homosexuality in the masjid is "ew, it's gross!" But that's not an intellectual response, and clearly, even some Muslims aren't buying it. Liberals have produced thousands of books, documentaries, and websites on the subject. We have the truth, so why not present it in the best manner and instead of behaving like children? I never said Islam was an eastern, lesser, sensationalistic religion. I'm saying that much of the Muslim community behaves in a way that makes Islam appear that way to non-Muslims and young Muslims. Surely we all have friends or family that are less religious, or even apostates. Some leave religion to pursue a corrupt lifestyle, yes. But how many have left because the communities don't cater towards their needs? This is true, the Prophet (pbuh) said that the Muslims will follow the same paths as the Christians and the Jews. But I don't like confusing Muslims with Islam. Some people who deviate from our communities have legitimate (and even Islamic) reasons for doing so. There's things we can do to bring these people back, and bring new people into the fold. Do you believe Islam is currently being presented "the way Ahlulbayt wanted it to be presented"? At all? My comparison was not to put feminism above or equal to Islam... read my previous sentence. Islam needs to be presented in a way where both intellectuals and common people can appreciate it. Different mediums need to be developed to achieve both ends. Feminism is an example of a cultural movement that has roots in both academia and in pop culture. To feminists, all other systems are archaic and obsolete. The onus is on us to show that our system is better than theirs.
  9. 2 points
    any of you brothers ever seen this ?
  10. 2 points
    (salam) firstly I will never go to a quack and make it worse secondly I will treat it and cure it myself :Inshallah using the many cures and methods that I have access to . thirdly , I would be grateful at the lesson that :Allah swt has provided me with and see this as a test from him to increase my patience and decrease my bad habits. I would not let a small thing like this effect me from being with my :Imam (as). ws
  11. 2 points
    That's not true, millions turn their life around not even knowing anything about ahlul bayt (a).
  12. 2 points
    shreek

    O Christians And Jews !

    Mary, properly revered as the Blessed Virgin Mary, has a special place for us Catholics (and Orthodox). Careful though, when we say Venerate, we do not mean Worship. There is a big difference. We only Worship God, that's it. Protestants (and some ignorant Muslims) assert we worship Mary (a-la God) and Idols/Icons/Statues etc. There are two types of Reverence in Christian Theology (or rather Catholic and Eastern Orthodox). Latria and Dulia. We Worship GOD Alone (Latria), however, we respect and honour/venerate the Blessed Virgin Mary (Dulia). This is not merely splitting hairs as some Protestants tell me. There is a big difference. Latria is a worship that can only be offered to God, while Dulia is a reverence given to Earthly creatures, so to speak. I have seen Icons, or rather representations, of Imam Ali in some Shia homes, are Shia worshipping Imam Ali? no ofcourse not. The Blessed Virgin Mary has a special place in our hearts because she is: 1 - Sinless / Immaculate 2 - Ever Blessed Virgin who bore Jesus Christ
  13. 2 points
    Jahangiram

    O Christians And Jews !

    Well actually Jesus (as) is the Word made flesh in Christian theology, so Placid does advocate the trinity.
  14. 2 points
    (salam) Source: Dailymail UK
  15. 2 points
    -Enlightened

    Thoughts (2010-2016) [ARCHIVE]

    So it rings, i receive a call..Anxious, nervous, I was gonna fall.. Into what I have been dreaming since YEARS. And I hear the news with joyful tears Dear master, meet your servant. At your gate in just 40 days
  16. 2 points
    Sounds like you're just mad because some of us have manners or a different point of view. 1. It's okay to try to discuss the flaws you feel exist in others' thought in a polite and educated manner, it's another thing to just stroke yourself and act superior while disregarding anybody's opinion but your own when people call you out for behaving in an uneducated or narrow minded manner. 2. This is an international forum for Shia Muslims from all walks of life and cultures as well as those with personal and academic interest in the faith. If you can't handle some of them having different political or spiritual views than your own or wanting to discuss controversial subjects because they are relevant to their life, you need to leave. 3. This is ShiaChat, not IranChat. None of us are obligated to excessively laud over Iran and we have every right to criticize or question certain things Iranians do or have done that we feel may be contrary to the Islamic ethos it professes. Not all of us idolize Ayatollah Khomeini or consider the Supreme Leader to be our marja-i taqlid and just because we don't think the Iranian Revolution of '79 was the absolute greatest thing since sliced bread doesn't mean we are supporting the enemies of Islam or Ahlul Bayt. Seriously, this kind of attitude makes you sound like those hardcore Israeli apologists who think that any Jew who says the treatment of the Palestinians by Israel is unfair is automatically a self-hating Jew. Just because some people here think that maybe Iranian authorities shouldn't hang teenage homosexuals from metal cranes doesn't mean we are justifying American sanctions on an independent nation that is not threatening anyone outside its borders that isn't threatening it already. you need to get a clue, brother.
  17. 2 points
    The only effective medicine will help these kids turn their life around is the teachings of ahlul byte(as).
  18. 2 points
  19. 2 points
    No one said you must cry rivers. But if it does not make you want to cry then you have lost your human worth im afraid. Part of what it means to be a shia is to care for and to take care of others, regardless of faith or anything else. Crying is something special Allah has given us. It connects us and helps us understand one another. It makes you want to do something, its a driving force. It takes arrogance and animal behavior from you. You become a compassionate person, kind to others... It shows the situations of a select group of children (African Americans) in the west of Chicago. Probably the most run down and unfortunate place in all of America. It documents their thoughts and how a day in their life goes.
  20. 2 points
    TAWTHIQ AMM Tawthiq given to a specific (named) individual is Tawthiq Khass, but if it (i.e. Tawthiq) is given to unspecified (unnamed) individuals coming together under a general principle then it is Tawthiq Amm. Examples of Tawthiq Khass are obvious, most of the Tawthiqat given by the Shaykh and al-Najashi are of this kind, for example, the Shaykh saying – al-Hasan b. Mahbub (is) Thiqah. As for Tawthiq Amm, we will go through the following examples: 1. Tawthiq of the narrators in Tafsir al-Qummi Tafsir al-Qummi is a narration-based commentary of the Qur’an, it has recently been published in Najaf in two volumes, its author is Ali b. Ibrahim al-Qummi (d. 217), and he (Ali b. Ibrahim) was one of the Shaykhs of al-Kulayni - from whom al-Kulayni narrates a lot in al-Kafi. This book has a long introduction in which the following passage can be found: ‘And we will quote and report that which has reached us and has been narrated by our Shaykhs and Thiqat on the authority of those whose obedience has been made obligatory upon us by Allah …’ A number of learned scholars have inferred from this statement that all the individual narrators who occur in the chains of this book are Thiqah (according to Ali b. Ibrahim al-Qummi), among these (scholars) is Sayyid al-Khoei. He (al-Khoei) refutes the possibility that al-Qummi (in the passage) aimed to declare only his direct Shaykhs as Thiqah, arguing that al-Qummi through these words - wished to establish the authenticity of his Tafsir, and that hinges upon the Wathaqa of all the narrators who occur in it - not just those from whom he narrates directly. Based upon this, al-Khoei ruled that all the narrators found in the chains of the Tafsir are Thiqah, provided that they are not separately weakened by someone else – in which case the Tawthiq of that narrator (based on al-Qummi’s Tawthiq Amm) cannot be depended upon, this is because the rule for accepting the Tawthiq of a narrator is that he (the narrator) should not also be the subject of a conflicting Tadh’if. If this Tawthiq Amm is enforced - it will result in 620 narrators who are otherwise unknown to be ruled as Thiqah. And this is refuted because: the original manuscript of the book (Tafsir al-Qummi) is not in our hands, and we cannot guarantee that the published edition which we have access to is in its entirety identical to the original Tafsir al-Qummi, rather there are some indicators which point to it being a combination of Tafsir al-Qummi and other works, so, for example, the following phrases occur repeatedly in it ‘returning to the Tafsir of Ali b. Ibrahim’, or ‘returning to the narration of Ali b. Ibrahim’, or ‘the narrative version has returned to that of Ali b. Ibrahim’ etc. Going over these points - we acquire ‘general knowledge’ that it (the Tafsir) is a mixture of Tafsir al-Qummi and other than it, this being the case, there is no way to differentiate and separate it (so as to apply the Tawthiq Amm only to those narrators found within Tafsir al-Qummi), and thus all of it is to be discarded (for this purpose).[1] 2. The Narrators in Kamil al-Ziyarat Kamil al-Ziyarat is a book authored by one of our earliest scholars Ja’far b. Muhammad b. Qulawayh - with the aim of collecting the Ziyarat. In his short introduction to the book he writes the following: ‘And we have known not to give credence to all that is narrated on their authority in this topic (Ziyara) or otherwise, rather, what has come down to us from the side of the Thiqat from among our companions – may Allah have mercy on them by His mercy – and I have not taken out in it a Hadith narrated from the odd-ones among the men …’ The author of al-Wasail (Shaykh Hurr) understood from it (the passage) that Ibn Qulawayh sought to establish the Wathaqa of all those whom he narrates from in the book (whether direct intermediaries or not). Sayyid al-Khoei in his previous opinion had also agreed with him, whereby, he had ruled that whoever occurs in the chains of the aforementioned book is Thiqah as long as his Wathaqa is not opposed by a weakening (Tadh’if) from another quarter. It has been said that the Tawthiq of 388 narrators can be established if we choose to enforce this Tawthiq Amm. And this is refuted because: the level of interpretation that we can be certain of from the passage of Ibn Qulawayh is that his Tawthiq Amm covers those from whom he narrates directly, and we cannot positively determine whether he extends it to mean all the narrators in the book or not (thus we limit ourselves to what we are sure of), and this position is what Sayyid al-Khoei himself later reverted to, going back on his former position in the latter years of his honored life.[2] 3. The Direct Teachers of al-Najashi A number of learned scholars have ruled for the Wathaqa of all the direct teachers of al-Najashi. This is on the basis that - it has become apparent from a number of biographical entries [in his Fihrist] that he (al-Najashi) had imposed upon himself the condition of not narrating from someone who is not Thiqah. So, for example, in the entry on al-Jawahari, he (al-Najashi) said: ‘I saw this Shaykh, and he was a friend to me and my father, and I heard a lot (of Hadith) from him, and I saw our Shaykhs weakening him, so I did not narrate on his authority anything, and I left him …’ And in the entry on Ibn al-Bahlul, he (al-Najashi) said: ‘And he was in the former period of his life stable, then he changed, and I saw a majority of our companions criticizing him and weakening him … and I saw this Shaykh, and I heard from him a lot (of Hadith), then I halted narrating on his authority, except by an intermediary between me and him’ And if it is asked: what is the benefit of establishing the Wathaqa of the direct teachers of al-Najashi while being aware that he does not have book on Hadith? The Answer will be: the benefit will become apparent in regards the narrations found in al-Tahdhib and al-Istibsar, for al-Shaykh al-Tusi mentioned a number of Usul (primary Hadith note books) that reached him through the intermediacy of Ahmad b. Abdun and Ibn Abi Jiyd, and no Tawthiq Khass is available for these two, but it is observed that they are also from the direct teachers of al-Najashi (apart from being teachers of al-Tusi), so based upon this Tawthiq Amm - their Wathaqa will become established, and the narrations that come down by their route will gain probative force. 4. The occurrence of Banu Fadhal in the chain Banu Fadhal i.e. al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal, and Ahmad b. al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal, and Ali b. al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal – were from the Fathiyya. And the Fathiyya were a sect that professed belief in the Imama of Abdallah al-Aftah – the son of Imam al-Sadiq. Because of the large number of narrations from them, and the corruption of their Aqeeda, some of the Shia sent a question to Imam al-Askari asking him what their stance should be in regards these narrations, so he answered them: ‘take what they narrate and leave what they believe’. It is due to this that a number of the learned scholars, among them al-Shaykh al-Ansari, had ruled that whenever a narration has one of the Banu Fadhal in its chain – then it is a Hujjah to be acted upon, even if it contains Dhuafa between the Bani Fadhal and the Imam (based on the instruction of the Imam). A large number of scholars have rejected this notion – explaining that the answer from the Imam simply makes clear that there being narrations narrated by those who are corrupt in Aqeeda does not stand in the way of accepting these narrations if some conditions are met, the most that can be inferred from the answer is that the Imam allays caution against the Banu Fadhal in particular and not something more than that.[3] 5. The narration of one of the three (from someone) It is said that one of the three – Muhammad b. Abi Umayr, Safwan b. Yahya and al-Bazanti – if they narrate from someone than that is evidence for his Wathaqa (the one they narrate from) i.e. all those they narrate from are Thiqah. Proof for this is cited from the passage of al-Shaykh al-Tusi in his book Udda al-Usul: ‘And if one of the two conflicting narrations is Musnad and the other Mursal, we look at the condition of the one who is making the Irsal (narrating it in that disconnected fashion i.e. without naming his intermediary), so if it is known that he is someone who does not make Irsal except from the Thiqah, then there is no way to prefer the other (Musnad) report over his, and this is why the Ta’ifa has equated between that which has been narrated by Muhammad b. Abi Umayr, and Safwan b. Yahya, and Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr, and others apart from them of the Thiqat – those whom they have known do not to narrate either with Ittisal or with Irsal except from those whom they consider Thiqah – and between those (narrations) narrated by others apart from them with a (complete) chain’. Using this as evidence, the majority have ruled that the Marasil of Ibn Abi Umayr and likewise Safwan and al-Bazanti are like their Masanid (no difference between the two forms).[4] And Sayyid al-Khoei has argued against this, despite it being the popular position, using the argument that the notion that these figures do not narrate except from the Thiqah is a matter that cannot be discovered except tracing it back to the three themselves, but they have not claimed this, nor has anyone attributed words with this import to them, that they ever said: ‘we do not narrate except from the Thiqah’. This being the case, it becomes necessary to conclude that the origin of the attribution of this equivalence by the Shaykh to the companions is his Hadas (cognitive function) and to his Ijtihad, and not to his Hiss (sensory observation or relay). And what supports this is the lack of anyone else making a similar claim from among the Qudama apart from the Shaykh, and there is no hint of its practical application in Fiqh. And the Tawthiqat Amma [pl. of Tawthiq Amm] are not limited to these which we have mentioned, rather there are other examples which we shall treat in detail in the coming parts. NOTES: [1] A scholar like al-Dawari believes that we can separate the present published edition of Tafsir al-Qummi into its constituent parts, Tafsir Abu al-Jarud and the original Tafsir al-Qummi, he also maintains that the redactor who combined the two Tafasir preserved certain markers to indicate this. Granting him this, there is still the question of whether the introduction was actually written by Ali b. Ibrahim al-Qummi. [2] In the view of the translator, the understanding of Sayyid Ali al-Husayni al-Sistani as documented in the treatise ‘La Dharar wa La Dhirar’ by his son Sayyid Muhammad Ridha al-Sistani who transcribed his opinions from the audio lectures of the former provide a more natural understanding of Ibn Qulawayh’s words in his introduction, and result in there not being any Tawthiq Amm, not for the direct Mashayikh or any other narrator in Kamil. [3] The Riwaya which contains this answer from al-Askari is itself considered weak in chain, furthermore, the prominent members of Banu Fadhal who are also narrators have independent Tawthiq Khass and do not require this for their Tawthiq. [4] In other words, if Ibn Abi Umayr or another member of the trio narrates from someone they do not mention (eg. by saying: an rajul an al-Sadiq) then this Mursal narration is considered at the same level as the Musnad narration of other normal narrators - this is because the majority believe that they had imposed upon themselves not to narrate from any except from the Thiqah, so whether we know their intermediaries or not – it does not harm the narration as they (the unknown intermediaries) are Thiqah regardless.
  21. 1 point
    This is a translation of the first chapter (more chapters to hopefully follow) of Durus al-Tamhidiyya Fi Qawaid al-Rijaliyya, which is an introductory primer on Ilm al-Rijal, authored by Shaykh Baqir al-Irwani, who was a foremost student of Sayyid al-Sistani, and who currently teaches Dars al-Kharij in the Hawza at Najaf. More advanced students of Ilm al-Rijal will realize that it generally falls within the bounds of the school of Sayyid al-Khoei [and the Modern Usulists] in accepting as default the foundations of Hiss [as a requirement for the bindingness of the rulings of Tawthiq and Tadh'if from the Qudama] and restricting the provenance of Qarain-based Ijtihad from the Muta'akhirin. Thus, any comments that contend or argue against these two principles of this school are outside the scope of the treatment presented here, which is rudimentary by admission. Arabic words used throughout include - Shahada which can be translated as testimony, Wathaqa which can be translated as moral probity [and integrity in relay], A'lam which can be translated as learned scholars, Tawthiq [ruling someone as Thiqah], Tadhi'f [ruling someone as Dhaif]. Questions are welcome. Chapter One The Methods Through Which the Wathaqa of a Narrator Can be Established Their are a number of methods through which the Wathaqa of a narrator can be established, we will mention the following among these: A. The Shahada of the Ma’sum If a Ma’sum gives a Shahada of Wathaqa for a given individual then their is no doubt that this will be a valid method to establish the Wathaqa of said individual. An example of this is what has been narrated about Zurara (in Rijal al-Kashshi) via a Sahih chain that ends up with Jamil bin Darraj from Imam al-Sadiq who said: ‘Give glad tidings of paradise to the humble ones – Burayd bin Muawiya al-Ijli and Aba Basir Layth bin al-Bukhturi al-Muradiy and Muhammad bin Muslim and Zurara – four chiefs and trustees of Allah upon his Halal and Haram. If it were not for these then the traces of prophethood would have disappeared and been destroyed’[1]. Obviously, it is necessary that the one who narrates the Shahada from the Imam (that is to be used to establish Wathaqa) not be the same individual whose Tawthiq is sought for by the same said Shahada. Otherwise it will be akin to circular logic[2]. B. The Shahada of one of the A’lam Shaykh Abu al-Abbas Ahmad bin Ali bin al-Abbas famously known as al-Najashi – a contemporary of Shaykh al-Tusi and his colleague in some of their common classes (under the same tutors) – wrote his famous book ‘Fihrist Musannifi al-Shia’ in which he gathered the names of those who had authored books (Shia authors prior to him), while also indicating, in most cases, whether these authors were Thiqah or Dhaif. Similarly, Shaykh al-Tusi wrote two books in this regard, one titled Fihrist and the second known as Rijal Shaykh al-Tusi, and he sometimes mentions Tawthiq and Tadh’if of some narrators in them (i.e. his two books). Likewise, Shaykh Abu ‘Amr Muhammad bin Umar bin Abd al-Aziz famously known as al-Kashshi – who is considered to have lived in the same generation as al-Kulayni – also authored his book famously known as Rijal al-Kashshi. He aimed to collect the narrations which talk about (pertain to) different narrators, he predominantly does this without directly commenting upon the Tawthiq or Tadh’if of the narrators (just quoting narrations that impinge on a narrator’s credibility in some way, mainly from the Aimmah). The Shahada of one of these three A’lam with regards the Wathaqa of a specific narrator is a certain method to establish his Wathaqa, this is justified by the practice of the intelligent ones (Seerah al-Uqala) who do demonstratedly act upon the reports of a Thiqah in all spheres of life – among them – evaluations of people[3]. And since these three A’lam are Thiqah, then their reports in regards the Wathaqa of various narrators can be justifiably acted upon based upon the aforementioned principle of compliance with the practice of the intelligent ones. And the Shahada of just a single one of these A’lam is enough and it does not require multiplicity (more than one A’lam giving Shahada), since the aforementioned practice of the intelligent ones is seen as confirming the act of granting of utility to such reports even when the reporter is one (solitary). Is the Shahada of some of our Ulama from the Muta’akhirin like Ibn Tawus and the Allamah and Ibn Dawud and the Shahid al-Thani - a method to establish Wathaqa? In this is there is disagreement which we shall broach in the second section – if Allah wills[4]. C. Ijma’a Upon the Wathaqa Their are some narrators for whom the A’lam like al-Najashi and the others - have not given a Shahada to effect their Wathaqa, but they are individuals about whom al-Kashshi has claimed Ijma’a (unanimity) of the Shia over the acceptance of their Riwayat. So, for example, Aban bin Uthman who is famously known as Aban al-Ahmar[5]; al-Najashi or someone other than him (from the A’lam) have not given a Shahada in regards his Wathaqa, but he is one of the six companions of al-Sadiq about whom al-Kashshi claimed the Ijma’a of the Isaba (unanimity of the community) in considering them truthful, this is when he (al-Kashshi) said – ‘the community is united in considering authentic what is authentically narrated from these, and in considering them truthful in what they say, and they have all acknowledged their priority in Fiqh (these are) – Jamil bin Darraj and Abdallah bin Bukayr and Hammad bin Uthman and Hammad bin Isa and Aban bin Uthman’. And the secret behind giving credence to the Ijma’a mentioned above in proving Wathaqa is as follows: If al-Kashshi is correct in his claim of the existence of an Ijma’a over these narrators, and if the Ijma’a actually existed, then this is what we want (i.e. it is enough to prove the Wathaqa of these individuals and more, since it is based on the unanimity of the community, among whom would necessarily be a large number of A'lam), and if he was not correct (mistaken) in his stating of the existence of an Ijma’a over this, and if the Ijma’a did not exist in reality, then it is sufficient for us in establishing the Wathaqa of these - the implicit Shahada of al-Kashshi himself in this regard, since his claim of an Ijma’a reveals that he too was agreed with the implication of the Ijma’a (i.e. Wathaqa of these narrators) as one of the members of the community forming the Ijma’a (i.e. since he did not go on to criticize the Ijma’a which he claims to have existed), and since he is one of the A’lam, then, his Shahada alone is enough to establish Wathaqa (falling under method B above). D. Wakala for the Imam Wakala (deputyship) can be a general one where one deputises for the Imam in all his affairs, or it can be an agency for a specific outlined purpose. As for the first type of Wakala (i.e. the general one) then this is what is termed al-Safara, and their is no debate in regards the fact that it (someone being appointed as a Safir by the Ma’sum) establishes the Wathaqa of the one appointed, rather it points to a greater position for the appointed one beyond mere Wathaqa. On the other hand, their is debate in regards whether the other type of Wakala (one appointed for a specific mission) establishes Wathaqa or not, a number have rejected its utility in establishing Wathaqa, for example, Sayyid al-Khoei has rejected that it does point to Wathaqa, he does so by arguing that we find a lot of the Wukala who were censured by the Aimmah and from whom the Aimmah disassociated themselves. As an example, Shaykh al-Tusi included a whole chapter in his Kitab al-Ghyaba wherein he enumerates the blameworthy Wukala who were criticized by the Aimmah for their activities as Wakils. And the correct opinion is that any form of Wakala for the Imam is enough to establish Wathaqa due to the practice of the intelligent ones not to deputize those who are not Thiqah over any part of their affairs, and this is more so for the Imam, because the non-Thiqah individual they deputize could attribute to the office of the Imamate something which is anathema to the Imam, which could effect the Madhhab and the role of the Imam in a negative way. And if it is said: How can we reconcile this with the censure and disassociation that originated from the Aimmah for some of their Wakils? The answer will be: this [censure and disassociation] arose after their appointment as Wakils and not before it (i.e. they were Thiqah when appointed and changed after becoming Wakils as the Thiqah’s condition can change from that of Wathaqa to Dhi’f). And it is not hidden that if we accept the principle that Wakala for the Imam indicates Wathaqa we will have the advantage of ruling as Thiqah a number of narrators previously considered among the Majahil and the Dhuafa, we will mention one among them as Ali bin Abi Hamza al-Bataini – for he was a Wakil for Imam al-Kadhim, and the one who oversaw his properties for him. And the scholars differ among themselves over his status, so if we agree that Wakala indicates Wathaqa, then, we are able to rule for his Wathaqa based upon that [for a period in his life], and use this fact to rule as Sahih a large number of narrations that al-Bataini occurs in its chains, since he is someone who has occurred in a large number of chains. E. The Narration of the Thiqat from someone Mirza Husayn al-Nuri – the author of al-Mustadrak - ruled that the narration of a Thiqah from someone proves the Wathaqa of that person (the one the Thiqah narrated from). While, we maintain that the correct opinion is that the narration of a Thiqah from someone does not indicate his Wathaqa, for how many narrations are their in our books where we observe the Thiqat narrating from those who are non-Thiqah. And if the narration of a Thiqah on someone’s authority was an indication of that person’s Wathaqa then the Wathaqa of most of the narrators would be established thereby, since, for example, Shaykh al-Tusi is Thiqah, so if he narrates in his books from someone it would mean that that person is Thiqah, and if that person [from whom Shaykh al-Tusi narrates who we have established is Thiqah through this principle] narrates from a third person - he too becomes Thiqah [because a Thiqah has narrated from him], and so on. Yes, if the Ajilla [meritious] ones from the Thiqat and the Kibar [great] ones from the Thiqat increase in narrating [narrate a lot] from someone, then it is not farfetched to conclude that person’s Wathaqa (who is narrated from alot by the Ajilla and the Kibar), because of the improbability of an intelligent person to narrate a lot from someone whose Wathaqa he is not sure of, it would be a wastage of time on his part without any advantage, since there is no benefit in collecting a lot of narrations from the weak ones. And if we accept this opinion, we will obtain important results, we will mention among these, as a case in point, Muhammad bin Ismail; for al-Kulayni has narrated a lot in al-Kafi from Muhammad bin Ismail from al-Fadhl bin Shadhan. And it has been said that he [Muhammad bin Ismail] is Majhul, so all these multitude of narrations will drop from the level of I’tibar (if we insist on ruling that he is Majhul), while, based upon this aforementioned principle, it is possible to rule his Wathaqa, and through this step, a large number of narrations will attain Hujiyya [probative force to effect legalities]. F. Being a Shaykh of Ijaza Bearing (taking or receiving) a Riwaya from someone has a number of formal forms, so sometimes, a student hears the Riwaya from his teacher, and in other cases, the student reads over the Riwaya to his teacher, and in a third case, the teacher permits [licences] his student to narrate a specific work that he has authored or has authority over (without the student neccesarily hearing or reading over the Riwayat to the teacher). And this third form of bearing is what is known as the method of reception by Ijaza, similarly, the one who gave the Ijaza is known as Shaykh al-Ijaza. And there is a difference of opinion whether being Shaykh al-Ijaza [having handed out Ijazat] is enough for establishing the Shaykh al-Ijaza’s Wathaqa or not. And the discussion over this point is an important one - because - many of the primary works (Usul) of Hadith that were authored and which were incorporated into the major compilations such as al-Tahdhib and al-Istibsar and Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih reached Shaykh al-Saduq and Shaykh al-Tusi through the intermediary of personages who do not have explicit Tawthiq in their own right, the most that can be said about them is that they were Shuyukh al-Ijaza who licensed al-Saduq and al-Tusi these primary works (Usul) of Hadith which they had authority over - to allow these two (i.e. al-Saduq and al-Tusi) to use these works in their compilations. Examples of these Shuyukh al-Ijaza include Ahmad bin Abdun, and Ahmad bin Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin al-Walid and Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Yahya al-Attar … And perhaps it can be affirmed that the famous opinion among the Qudama was that - simply being a Shaykh al-Ijaza was enough to establish that Shaykh al-Ijaza’s Wathaqa, in opposition to modern scholars such as Sayyid al-Khoei who consider being a Shaykh al-Ijaza as not having any relation to Wathaqa. And one can argue against this principle by noting that the impetus behind Ijaza is not anything else but that someone like Shaykh al-Mufid, for example, will be granted the right due to an Ijaza he receives, to say ‘reported to me Ahmad bin Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin al-Walid[4] these reports which were found in the book which he gave me an Ijaza to narrate on his authority’ and he (al-Mufid) becomes as someone who heard these Riwayat from him (since hearing was the strongest form of reception). And since we have already pointed out that just the mere act of a Thiqah hearing a narration from someone does not establish the Wathaqa of the one who is heared from, in the same way, a Thiqah obtaining an Ijaza from someone should not be used to establish the Wathaqa of the one who handed out the Ijaza (i.e. the Shaykh al-Ijaza). NOTES: [1] The Shahada from the Ma’sum should meet two other conditions to be accepted: It should be clear (Imam’s words should infer Tawthiq) and It should be through a Mu’tabar chain. [2] Someone narrating the Shahada of the Imam for himself is taken to be giving a self-testimony in his favour - something which cannot be accepted rationally. [3] Practice of the intelligent ones is a Hujjah, since the Aimmah are considered members of the assembly of the intelligent ones, and a Dalil al-Aql is by necessity supported by the Shar even if not explicitly stated in the revelatory texts. [4] As will be seen later, it is the Ihtimal that the Wathaqa (as preserved in the Shahada) is based upon Hiss (observation by a contemporary) that allows the acceptance of the Qudama’s Shahada in matters of Tawthiq and Tadh’if as opposed to the Muta’akhirin for whom there is no Ihtimal of Hiss. [5] Emphasis here is on Aban al-Ahmar since he does not have independent Tawthiq [from the other methods] as the rest of Ashab al-Ijma'a have. [6] Ahmad bin Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin al-Walid was a Shaykh al-Ijaza to his students (eg. al-Mufid) for the works of his father, the famous Ibn al-Walid, since he inherited these works from his father. Shuyukh al-Ijaza, in most cases, did not author works of their own (thus they did not merit a place in the Fihrist works being non-authors - where they could potentially be given Tawthiq), rather, they had the authority to license people to quote from books they had received via the formal means of reception.
  22. 1 point
    Zaynab McCabe

    If I Died Tomorrow

    if I died tomorrow would you still feel the same? would you be in sorrow and cry in vain? if I died tomorrow would you still feel me tremble? would you break down the wall that this reflection resembles? if I died tomorrow would you hear my I love you would you resent all the day's we were more like 1 and 2? if I died tomorrow would you visit my grave or would you just move on like the huge giant wave. silence cuts the air with lonelyness followed. hearts become wretched dark and hallow.
  23. 1 point
    Shian e Ali

    Silence, A Virtue

    (bismillah) (salam) Silence is a virtue of a Mo'min. Words are important; we should not waste our words in useless discussions, rather we should use them for the benefit of others & to make Allah happy. When you are wrong, be quiet & learn from your mistakes; don't go on proving yourself right. We have been given a tongue to talk with, but in the end, we will have to asnwer as to how we used it. Did we use it as an entertainment, loose talks, jokes, for back bitting, to make fun of others or for the good? Islam teaches us to maintain silent unless we have something of a benefit to say. Save your tongue from loose talks & save them during the time you spend in Chatting... "Increase you silence & your thoughts will flourish, your heart will enlighten, & people will be safe from your hands." Imam Ali (as) "Silence is the best reply to a fool." Imam Ali (as) "Excess of Silence produces awe." Imam Ali (as) "The one who indulges in jokes & loose talks, loses a part of his wisdom." Imam Ali (as) "Allah has made it(silence) a veil for the ignorant & an adornment for the man of knowledge." Imam Jafar (as) Rabi' ibn Khuthaym used to place a parchment before him, upon which he would write down everything he said during the day. In the evening, he would recall himself to account while he was still alive, seeing what he had said both for & against himself. Then he would say, 'Oh! The silent have indeed been saved." "Speech is like a medicine, a small dose of which cures but an excess of which kills." Imam Ali (as)
  24. 1 point
    Sumerian

    Any Serious Woman Want To Marry.

    This is a spam.
  25. 1 point
    Crimson

    Any Serious Woman Want To Marry.

    I don't think this is the place for that. If you want to do it online, there are specific websites for marriage.
  26. 1 point
    GermanShia

    Alcohol In Medication Haram?

    ‘I once asked Abu Abd Allahasws about al-Nabidh which is placed in medicine. The Imamasws said, ‘No, it is not proper for one to seek cure from unlawful things. Source: http://hubeali.co.uk/articles/Intoxication-and-Penalty.pdf
  27. 1 point
    Firsly,I think you are not even allowed to gaze upon a woman (Muslim or non-Muslim), then how do you propose not using them in your website? Secondly, what are these things used for? (you probably have the answer) I've never been to these websites but I'm sure promoting this kind of stuff can never be "Jaiiz" :S
  28. 1 point
    I would say that the majority of Jews in the US are confused, torn apart between liberal peace-leaning (as a revolutionary socialist, I wouldn't call it left) and constant Zionist brainwashing. Many people are afraid to be openly anti-Zionist, because they don't want to be considered pariahs by the powerful Zionist establishment. People who participated in this demonstration are not necessarily left-wing (well, I am, and I know a few religious socialist and communist fellows who also participated). Many of these people are politically very conservative, but they reject Zionism to various degrees, because it's a destructive heresy and because they want peace, but for them it's not necessarily an expression of left-leaning.
  29. 1 point
    baradar_jackson

    Iran Vs Usa

    A lot of useless points being raised here. Anyone saying anything along the lines of "Iran would be desyroyed in two seconds under the power of the mighty US empire," is an idiot. It means nothing - absolutely nothing - that the US is logistically capable of destroying Iran's military forces. Nor does it somehow imply Iran's weakness. Because guess what? The US could conquer Moscow or Beijing in a nuclear war. Meaning, the logistics of it are not all that hard. Ever since WWII, overwhelming firepower has been the chief characteristic of the US military. Not even the USSR at its peak could match the firepower of the US. That doesnt mean that in "reality," it would be prudent or wise to make use of that firepower. Thus, in REALITY, the US' superior firepower means nothing with respect to Iran. There are too many variables in Iran's favor to make a US invasion of Iran a strategic blunder. Anyone who says otherwise is a tool. These are the same types who bring up the irrelevant "fact" that the US military never lost a single battle in the Vietnam war. (File that under "information that means nothing") There is a reason why there are no portraits of Synghman Rhee in Pyongyang. There is a reason the flag of Vietnam is red. And there is a reason there has been no major overt US military operations against Iran. And it's not because the US is just too cool to be bothered with these petty countries (a country that invades Grenada doesn't consider any war to be too petty). It's because there is a strategic disadvantage which impedes them. So the captain obviouses and the semantic wizards in here should learn to think a little.
  30. 1 point
    I... I don't... :cry: *runs away*
  31. 1 point
    placid

    O Christians And Jews !

    To continue: If Almighty God was larger than this one Universe that we are familiar with, and has no shape, nor form, how can we understand Him? We have ONE GOD, who is above and beyond any understanding we have of Him. --- But to relate to His creation that He brought into being on this little planet Earth, He has Manifested Himself in many ways, --- and the Three mentioned in Genesis 1:1-3 are the Manifestations of, --- God (as the Father of all), --- the Holy Spirit (as the Spirit of Life), --- And the Word (Logos, the creative power of God, and the symbol of Light). So, very simply, --- There is one ALMIGHTY GOD, --- and these three MANIFESTATIONS OF GOD, --- which have been ‘from the beginning.’ To show this again we go to Genesis, where the earth was created, and then filled with birds, animals and fish, --- vegetation, etc. and then this in Genesis 1: 26 Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness.” You may not understand this, but the word ‘God’ used here is Elohim, which is a plural name for God. --- And it says, “LET US MAKE MAN IN OUR IMAGE.” --- The reason that can’t be ALMIGHTY GOD speaking is because ALMIGHTY GOD is SINGULAR, and He has no IMAGE to make anything like. So this Elohim has to be these three Manifestations of God, --- and it has to be the Father, speaking to the Word (Logos) and the Holy Spirit, and saying, “Let Us make man in Our image, after Our likeness.” --- (Notice how the capitalization started here and carries right through the Quran for God, the Word [when it means “Be” and he is,] --- and the Holy Spirit?) --- They are all mentioned in the Quran, but not as a trinity, --- nor were they ever a trinity. --- While these three are all invisible in our creation, they would be seen by all of the angels, and there is mention even in the Quran of angels being there before Adam was created. We have to assume that there was a standard size set for a created image, like the angels, --- So God, the Father said, “Let Us make man. --- This is the instruction for the Word and the Holy Spirit to be involved in what the Father desired. --- And it goes on to say in Genesis 2: 7 And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being. --- So it was the Fathers job to design what He wanted, --- and the Word, the creative power of God would bring it into being from the dust of the ground, --- and then God ‘Breathed into his (Adam’s) nostrils, the “Breath of Life,” the Holy Spirit, --- and man (Adam) became a living being. Notice here that while all things were created ‘through the Word, (Logos),’ --- this is no longer creating something from nothing, --- but using the elements that were already there. --- And the Quran also says that Adam was created from dust, does it not? Then we have the Three Manifestations of ALMIGHTY GOD working together in harmony, as it says in 1 John 5: 7 “For there are three that bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word and the Holy Spirit, and these three are one.” Notice, it doesn’t say, --- “and these three are God.” Nor does it say, --- And these three are gods,” --- as is wrongly misunderstood by many, as a result of the doctrine. Nor does it say, --- “These three are co-equal” which is what the doctrine of trinity says. Nor does it say, “The Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit.” --- Jesus was born on earth so couldn’t have been there in the beginning. --- And while some suggest Jesus and the Word are the same, --- Here is where the problem lies, --- that nobody seems to accept, though it is written plainly in the Quran as well as the Gospel, --- that Jesus was born in a human body on earth, and the Word ‘FROM GOD,’ came down to indwell the body that God brought into being on earth. --- They were separate --- one from earth, and one from heaven. --- Try to read Surah 3:45 again with some understanding of this. --- (I will get to 4:171 eventually, too busy now.) Placid
  32. 1 point
    (salam) As you started the topic with this sentence " the concept of Gunah in islam" let me add a bit clarification to what my friends have already said: the realty which lays down behind the Gunah is the spirit of disobedience upon Allah S.W.T. Allah is going to cultivate our souls toward perfection through his commands though his commands themselves have an independent effect on our souls. and the spirit of obedience and disobedience could be appeared by performing what he said to be done and avoiding what he said to be kept away from. so those who do not perform Salat and Fasting , in fact show their insubordination toward Allah that may lead to punishment in hereafter
  33. 1 point
    American scientists have said that individuals who derive their happiness from a sense of purpose showed favourable gene-expression profiles in their immune cellsUCLA research found people with high levels of the type of happiness that comes from consuming goods showed weak antiviral genes Doing good and feeling good have very different effects on the human genome, even though they generate similar levels of positive emotionAmerican scientists have found different types of happiness have surprisingly contrary effects on our genes. UCLA research found that people who derive their happiness from helping others have strong antibody genes, while people who get their kicks from self-gratification can suffer from low antiviral and anitbody gene expression. The study, which also involved the University of North Carolina, is the first of its kind to examine how positive psychology impacts human gene expression. People who are do-gooders have high levels of 'eudaimonic well-being'. They derive their happiness from a deep sense of purpose and meaning in life showed favourable gene-expression profiles in their immune cells. Those studied from this happiness group had low levels of inflammatory gene expression and strong antibody and antiviral genes. However, individuals who have high levels of 'hedonic well-being' - the type of happiness that comes from consuming goods and self-gratification - showed the opposite. This group of people showed high inflammation and weak antibody and antiviral genes. The study's findings were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The research, led by Steven Cole, a UCLA professor of medicine and Barbara L. Fredrickson of the University of North Carolina, has taken a decade. The scientists have looked at how the human genome responds to fear, stress, misery and other negative mental states, but focused on how human genes might respond to positive psychology in this study. They studied the biological implications of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being through some 21,000 genes. Previous research found immune cells show a shift in baseline gene expression profiles during times of uncertainty, stress and fear. The shift is characteristised by an increased expression of genes involved in inflammation and less of those involved in antiviral and antibody functions. Professor Cole believes the response probably evolved to help human immune systems cope with the changing nature of microbial threat associated with changing social and environmental conditions at the time. The threats included bacterial infection from wounds produced by fighting and increased risk of viral infections as people lived closer together and became more sociable. Professor Cole said: 'In contemporary society and our very different environment, chronic activation by social or symbolic threats can promote inflammation and cause cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and other diseases and can impair resistance to viral infections.' In the present study, the researchers drew blood samples from 80 healthy adults who were assessed for hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as negative psychological and behavioral factors. The team used the gene-expression profile to map the potentially distinct biological effects of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. The study found people with eudaimonic well-being showed favorable gene-expression profiles in their immune cells and those with hedonic well-being showed an adverse gene-expression profile. But interestingly professor Cole said: 'People with high levels of hedonic well-being didn't feel any worse than those with high levels of eudaimonic well-being.' 'Both seemed to have the same high levels of positive emotion. However, their genomes were responding very differently even though their emotional states were similarly positive.' 'What this study tells us is that doing good and feeling good have very different effects on the human genome, even though they generate similar levels of positive emotion. 'Apparently, the human genome is much more sensitive to different ways of achieving happiness than are conscious minds.'   http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2381304/Be-happy--genes-thank-Doing-good-leads-strong-immune-cells.html#ixzz2aYMg7o1L
  34. 1 point
    frozen star

    Brain Death; Dead Or Not Dead

    In fetal life,the heart forms and starts beating long before formation of any specific brain tissues.. And the fetus is considered alive as long heart activity is present...so in IMHO a person should not be considered dead as long as heart is beating irrespective of the brain activity... Beacuse heart activity is indicator of life from the most initial stage of human development
  35. 1 point
    Another new picture? Do you have an identity crisis, or you can't find the 'look' you want? :donno: :donno: :dry: :shifty:
  36. 1 point
    PeaceLoving

    O Christians And Jews !

    Yes, I am fully aware oif that. And at the same time, he believes in a different form of Trinity, comprising of GodThe Word andThe Holy SpiritAnd he has been arguing that verse [4:171] supports his view. Please read post #63 carefully.
  37. 1 point
    Love is real , it exists it stirs deep inside my heart it patiently waits for the one to calm me and complete me the absence devours , the days are long and the nights cold :Allah swt has promised me that I will meet my love one day , that day is only known to :Allah swt this hope , gives me faith, keeps me going, as it's my only quest and remedy in life till that day when he will call me , and i will meet my love , my :Imam (as) .
  38. 1 point
    Bismillah. Salaam. Of course we can; what is the philosophy of them being created and sent to us? To show us the right path through their sayings and actions; they've been created to be role model for humanity; we have to match up our deeds to them as much as we can. With Duas. Narsis.
  39. 1 point
    IloveImamHussain

    O Christians And Jews !

    Hi Ali Mosaaa Shreek is just saying that Eastern Orthodox Christians have the same regard for the mother of Jesus as Roman Catholics do. That is all.
  40. 1 point
    Abu Hadi

    Barriers For Marriage.

    Salam, I know there are many single brothers and sisters on SC. I also know that most of them want to get married. So maybe we can come up with a list of the 'top three' or 'top five' barriers to marriage in the modern world and propose some steps to overcome them. From my single days, I can tell you the top three things that delayed me getting married (which I regret now). This is from a male perspective. 1) Money, or lack of money and financial resources to support a family 2) Prejudice / Cultural baggage. I only want my daughter to marry an Iraqi, Lebanese, Iranian, Paki, etc. 3) Non-acceptance by Shia of Muta' or fixed term marriage. It is halal, but try asking. Solutions 1) Earn enough to supply the basics (food, clothing, shelter for you and your wife) and once you are married, continue to make efforts to improve your living situation 2) Learn to make a case for yourself and speak up. (I'm a good guy, despite the fact that I'm not Iraqi, etc) 3) More brothers and sisters doing mutah openly and more Islamic education
  41. 1 point
    Ali Musaaa :)

    O Christians And Jews !

    Salaam, Would you mind going into greater detail? What exactly does this entail? Salaam Placid, Just a side note: In Shi'i Theology, the Holy Spirit is distinguished from the Angel's. According to the Imam's, it is a creation greater than the Angel's, including JIbreel (Gabriel). The Angel of the Lord mentioned throughout the Old Testament is identified as Gabriel [a] in the Book of Daniel. The Holy Spirit is a separate entity and it accompanies and supports the prophets and hujja (proof of God) such an Imam, and allows God's representatives and guides to perform actions we wouldn't normally be able to perform, with God's permission of course. Sunni's have adopted the view that the Holy Spirit is Gabriel, however, this was not the position of the Imams [as] themselves, and this is evident in Shi'i Hadith literature.
  42. 1 point
    As far as I know if the aHadith contradict the Quran, the Quran takes precedence no?
  43. 1 point
    El Cid

    Liberal "muslims On Sc And Solution

    ALL HAIL THE BEAST !! -fangirl scream-
  44. 1 point
    I find your comment very displeasing and ignorant. You have the name of our imam in you signature, yet you show no respect to his etiquette he has provided us with.
  45. 1 point
    Today I experienced something which once more reaffirmed my belief and devotion on the importance of Hijab. Only this time it happened differently... :no: Subhan'Allah, I was going to cross the street to the bus transfer center, the light was at red, all cars were stopped(at least from the moment I started my way to the other side of the street). I continued walking, and it's a tendency of mine to walk with my head lowered, I was nearly approaching the other end and I raised my head. At that moment, from my peripheral vision I see something in motion, as I turn I realize a car is slowly accelerating (light still at RED).. the idiot has his head turned toward the other side, and I am staring at him, to try and catch his attention, to STOP...but his head is fixed in the opposite direction, I follow his gaze and find that he is staring at a girl. I could not believe it, nearly close to hitting me I wave both my hands up in the air frantically, an inch away from my leg he turned and I ran as fast as I could to dodge him. Scariest moment of my life.. :cry: Alhamdellah for the Hijab of Fatima (as) and for the Hijab of Zainab (as). Really, it saves lives.
  46. 1 point
    narsis

    Doing Tayamum Instead Of Wudhu

    Bismillah. Salaam sister. A solution came to my mind which is religiously recommended too; you can make your Wudhu in your home and keep it till the time of prayer. Being with Wudhu in every minute of your life is so recommended in Islam. With Duas. Narsis.
  47. 1 point
    followers

    Doing Tayamum Instead Of Wudhu

    Salamun alaykum Well as you know whether to ask a universal question or a personal, what marja tells us are indeed the answers of Islam deducing from Quran and hadith. But why we see differences between edicts? Some detailed edicts are not mentioned in the Quran, so we should refer to our tradition and hadith. But when we go throw ahādith we notice some differences even between ahādith. There are some main reason for differences in ahādith which lead to different edicts by marāje. Here I mention some main reasons: 1. For the Shi'is, the imams had to dissimulate (taqiyya) due to the purported dangers to their lives. This was a major contributory factor that led to the differences in traditions from the imams. In this situation they refused to express the shi‘i fatwa in that regard and instead they were introducing opposite edicts to save the followers life. Zurara is reported to have noted that Muhammad al-Baqir (as) gave three conflicting answers to the same question posed by him and two other disciples from Kufa. When Zurara questioned the Imam about the different responses, Imam al-Baqir (as) is reported to have said, "O Zurara, this is better for us and [more conducive] to our and your survival. If you [all] agreed on a matter, people would have believed you and [thereby] followed us. That [would have meant] less [chances of] survival for us and you." 2. The differences reported between the disciples and the imams combined with the differences among the disciples themselves may have contributed to the proliferation of contradictory hadith. According to the Shi'i biographer Kashshi (d. 978), disciples like Abu al-Khattab (d. 755), an alleged extremist, had differed from the imams on ritual issues whereas others like Zurara, Muhammad b. Muslim, and Hisham b. al-Hakam (d. 807) had allegedly held variant theological views. The disciples' personal interpretation of the teachings of the imams led them to maintain distinct legal/theological views. 3. Various extremist groups are accused of interpolating the traditions of the imams. It is affirmed that some people were paid to interpolate different hadiths and ideas into shia tradition to destroy the shi‘i fundamentals. 4. There are some other reasons which I ignore them to have a shorter post. Well however sometimes marāje conclude different edicts due to the situations I explained above and some other time due to their different principles of jurisprudence and etc which needs more explanations. So now if one wants to deduce a fatwa from ahādith s/he should study a variety of subjects to recognize and rely on a valid authentic hadith. S/he should study Quran and its commentaries, Islamic jurisprudence, Shi'i biographical texts, Islamic history, Arabic literature, and so many other fields which take more than even 20 years to get the basics. That’s why you see marāje like Ayatullah Khamenei or Ayatullah Sistani dedicate their life to Islamic studies and devote a great time to jurisprudence. It is easy to claim that “I get my ijtihad and formulate my opinion” but actually ijtihad is not just looking at the translation of Quran and check what implies. To have a correct ijtihad man should study all related ahādith comparing them to each other and then deducing a fatwa as Islamic principles. Finally to clarify the situation, I explain two more points: First: generally the differences between fatwas of marāje is less that 20 percent and different marāje don’t equal different doctrines in main jurisprudential rules. What makes them different is some small detailed edicts. Second: different marāje do not contradict each other i.e. you cannot claim that whoever follows other marja is wrong while no one can acclaim who is the most learned, so the two marjas are at the same level of knowledge.
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