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In the Name of God بسم الله
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All about the "Sufyani"


Abraram

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Image result for isis cut off head

 

We all have heard a lot about Sufyani and yet couldn't recognize it because of several reasons. Till today, there are mix stories about Sufyani so I thought to compile all about Sufyani in deep so that interested eyeballs could benefit from it.

 

Importance of Sufyani

Sufyani is a character and his appearance is one of the signs of reappearance that has to be appeared before the arrival of Imam Mahdi a.s. Rise of Sufyani, Yamani and Khurasani in the same year, month and day is one of the signs that is mentioned iteratively in many of the Ahadith which proves its importance as a proof of nearness of Imam Mahdi a.s.

 

Sufyani's Traits and Appearance

The mystical sufyani is named as "Usman bin Anbasa" and would rise from the deep Damascus (Syria). He would have small pox, a christian cross hidden in his neck and not much popular among the Syrians but identified as a person who would take revenge against the Ashab(Lion - Merely Bashar ul Assad) and Abqa()Patchy dotted face). He would be the most ferocious killer of the time and one of the Ahadith of Imam claims that Abu Sufyan was the man who hated Imam Ali a.s and killed him, Mawiya was the one who killed Imam Hasan, Yazeed killed Imam Hussain a.s and then the Sufyani who would appear to confront Imam Mahdi a.s. 

According to Imam Ali a.s that the man would appear from deep damascus (Wadi-e-Yabas), he would be illiterate, ill-mannered and ill-faced having small pox on his head. If you see him, he would then look like one-eye binded (Kana in Urdu), he would appear in Damascus and sit on the minbar of Damascus.

 

Events mentioned before his appearance:

According to Imam Ali a.s quotation (summary): Shaam (Syria) would be rattled by a horrific earth quake leading to the killing of 1 million people. After this, you would see white/black vehicles (vehicles without ears and tails) coming from the West (Magrib) having Yellow colored flags in their hands and they would start killing from the West part and reaches to Syria. When you see this, you should wait for the land (named as Marmarsa or Harasta) near Damascus to be buried into the ground. When this happens you would see Sufyani would rise from the deep of Damascus, Syria.

 

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Journey of Sufyani (RAJAB - RABI UL AWWAL)

Sufyani will appear in the scenes to destroy Ashab and Abqa in islamic month of Rajab (as mentioned above). Riwayats says that the all of the 3 including Abqa and Ashab would create a menace just because they wanted to rule the Syria. Sufyani would kill the both parties and win over them. One thing to remember is that Sufyani wouldn't rule more than 9 months(mentioned frequently by imams). There is a gap of 6 months of his appearance and Imam's reappearance.

 

Sufyani in Syria: 

Sufyani would be well received and supported by the majority and so does he win over Ashab and Abqa. Further more, Sufyani would be very powerful and the frequent Ahadith claims that Sufyani would be able to invade 5 places including: Damascus, Homs, Urdun (Jordan), Qansarin (Aleppo I think) and Iraq. 

Sufyani in Iraq:

After taking over Jordan, Sufyani would then move to the Iraq where there will be many groups fighting including Rome (West - USA/Britain/France/Europe) and Turks (Russians) and Iraq forces. They all would lose man power because there would be a horrific bloodshed killing thousands. After this, Sufyani would enter Iraq, defeats Yamani and the lands where Yamani have already secured its positions till they reach Kufa where Sufyani would kill Shias ruthlessly and will call for people to bring them the heads of Shias to get a reward in return. There will be certain uprisings against Sufyani in Iraq but Sufyani would prove more powerful.

Sufyani in Iran:

After so much success, Sufyani would be greedy to attack Iran and hence move towards Shiraz, Iran where he would fight withSeyyed Khurasani.

Sufyani in Hijaz (Saudi Arabia):

Sufyani's faction of army would march towards Medina but Imam would have already appeared in at that time in Makkah and would wait till the Sufyani's army (Sufyani wouldn't be there in the army sent to Hijaaz) would grounded between Mecca and Medina. There are also claims that Sufyani's army would destroy Medina for 30 days. That army of Sufyani will then move to Mecca where they will be buried down into the ground.

 

Sufyanis' End:

Raamallah (Israel/Palestine) would be the last stop of Sufyani because after the reappearance of Imam Mahdi a.s he would leave Makkah and then move towards Raamallah (Israel/Palestine) recapturing every region under Sufyanis control. This would be the end of Sufyani's 9 months and the beginning of the world wide revolution of confronting USA (Romis) and Israel (Yahoodis).

 

Get access to the map I've marked on Google Maps

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ISIS LIVE MAP SCREENSHOT dated Jan 2016

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6 Comments


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  • Advanced Member
2 minutes ago, Ali al-Abdullah said:

I think it's not safe to say Turks mean Russians, its probably Turkey. Also yellow flags from the West? Hezbollah?

I've heard from an aalim who told that turks doesn't mean turkey because at that time, there was nothing such as Turkey as a country. Russians were called as turks at that time. (quoted by an aalim).

Yellow flags, probably and most likely the mighty Hezbollah.

Edited by Abrar Ahmed
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23 minutes ago, Abrar Ahmed said:

I've heard from an aalim who told that turks doesn't mean turkey because at that time, there was nothing such as Turkey as a country. Russians were called as turks at that time. (quoted by an aalim).

Yes but he (as) could be talking about the future. 

Also bro, here look at this;

the advance of the Turkish brothers until they descend to the peninsula (jazira),4

What is the jazira? I think there are three possibilities:

1. An island, or peninsula. Most likely Cyprus. (Already descended and occupied)

2. Arabian Peninsula (I don't think it's likely)

3. Upper Mesopotamia (Northern Iraq, Southern Turkey, and Northern Syria) is called jazira

File:Al-Jazira.svg

And I think this is most likely and most realistic.

 

So, now look at this, Turkey has descended to the jazira

Jarabulus offensive (2016)
Part of the Syrian Civil War, the military intervention against ISIL, the Turkey–ISIL conflict, the Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War and the Rojava conflict

Turkish Offensive in Northern Syria.png

 

Wa Allahu a'lam.

Edited by Ali al-Abdullah
Link to comment
  • Advanced Member
20 minutes ago, Ali al-Abdullah said:

Yes but he (as) could be talking about the future. 

Also bro, here look at this;

the advance of the Turkish brothers until they descend to the peninsula (jazira),4

What is the jazira? I think there are three possibilities:

1. An island, or peninsula. Most likely Cyprus. (Already descended and occupied)

2. Arabian Peninsula (I don't think it's likely)

3. Upper Mesopotamia (Northern Iraq, Southern Turkey, and Northern Syria) is called jazira

File:Al-Jazira.svg

And I think this is most likely and most realistic.

 

So, now look at this, Turkey has descended to the jazira

Jarabulus offensive (2016)
Part of the Syrian Civil War, the military intervention against ISIL, the Turkey–ISIL conflict, the Turkish involvement in the Syrian Civil War and the Rojava conflict

Turkish Offensive in Northern Syria.png

 

Wa Allahu a'lam.

Wallahu Alam. Good observation! Thanks!

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      ‘Abdullah bin al-Hasan, upon him be peace, used to pray with his family in his house during the nights of Ramadan like one would pray tarâwîh in the mosques.
       
      Imam al-Hâdi ila al-Haqq Yahya bin al-Hussein, upon him be peace, said:
      You asked about what was narrated on the authority of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, that he prayed tarâwîh one night in Ramadan and then commanded the people to go to their houses. Some of the people have narrated and mentioned this. However, we do not consider any of this authentic. It wasn’t one night or two nights. We do not know of it on his authority nor have we narrated it. It has not reached us that he, peace be upon him and his progeny, prayed tarâwîh with the people one night or two, one hour or two, or one unit or two. Not one of our scholars has ever narrated that. Not one of our ancestors has related that on the authority of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny. If there was anything to it and it was from him, it would have been narrated from our ancestors on the authority of their ancestors on the authority of their grandfathers. Since they did not fail to mention anything from him, that which they came with is authentic on his authority.
       
      We may also add that it is not only the opinion of Imam Ali and the Ahl al-Bayt, upon them be peace, but it is also the opinion of some Companions and jurists of the Muslim Community. Imam al-Bayhaqi narrated in his Sunan that when ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar was asked about praying in the mosques for tarâwîh, he said: “Pray in your homes.” Al-Bayhaqi also narrated that Ibn Umar used to pray the tarâwîh in his house. Ibn Abi Shayma narrated in his Muŝannaf that Ibrahim an-Nikha’i used to not pray along with others during Ramadan. The same opinion was held by al-Hasan al-Basri, al-Alqama and al-Aswad. Badrudîn al-A’ini said in his commentary of Sahîh al-Bukhâri called ‘Umdat al-Qâri:
      Mâlik, ash-Shâfi’, and Rabi’a held to the view that the prayer in the house is better than the prayer with an imam [i.e. in the mosques]. This is the view of Ibrâhîm [an-Nikha’i], al-Hasan al-Basri, al-Alqama and al-Aswad.
      In the chief book of Mâliki jurisprudence, the Mudawwana, when Imam Mâlik was asked about praying during Ramadan, he said:
      If one has the strength, it is preferred to me that one prays in his house. Not everyone has the strength to do that.
       
      The proponents seek to justify the praying of tarâwîh by the following report in Ŝahîh al-Bukhâri on the authority of ‘Urwa bin az-Zubayr:
      He was informed by A’isha, the Mother of the Believers: “The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, went out in the middle of the night and prayed in the mosque, and some men prayed behind him. In the morning, the people began talking about it and then a large number of them gathered and prayed behind him [i.e. that second time]. On the next morning the people again talked about it, and on the third night the mosque was filled with a large number of people. The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, came out, and the people prayed behind him. On the fourth night, the mosque was overflowing with people and it couldn’t accommodate them. Then, he came out for the Morning Prayer. After completing the Morning Prayer, he faced the people, pronounced the testimony of faith and said: ((As to what follows: I did not fear your place, rather I feared that you may view it as obligatory)). The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, died and it remained that way.”
       
      This report does not prove what our opponents surmise. First of all, the report says that the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, came out “in the middle of the night” which is contrary to what most who pray tarâwîh do; rather, they pray it immediately after the Evening Prayer (I’shâ). Second, according to this report, the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, went to the mosque to pray, but it is not narrated that he commanded or encouraged those behind him to pray in congregation. Third, he discontinued praying it in the mosque until he died, which shows something to be abrogated (mansûkh) and not established (thâbit). One is not permitted to act upon something explicitly abrogated unless there is proof otherwise. Fourth, his, peace be upon him and his progeny, statement indicates a connection with the first report that we mentioned on the authority of Zayd bin Thâbit. Although, there are some minor differences—which occur amongst narrators—there is seemingly a connection between the two reports, which shows that the Prophet censured anyone who prayed in congregation, and he stated the preference for prayer alone.
       
      We say is that the prayer mentioned in the reports of ‘Urwa and Zayd were actually the obligatory prayers of the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny. As we know, the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, had additional obligatory prayers he had to offer and he was simply making them in the mosque and prayer hall. As he noticed that the people started to congregate behind him, he discontinued it to tell them that he did not want them to pray behind him intending obligatory prayers, but rather pray their supererogatory prayers at home. This is because a person praying a supererogatory prayer cannot pray behind someone making an obligatory prayer.
       
      The opponents also say that the action of ‘Umar can be considered a sunnah because the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, is reported to have said: ((Follow my sunnah and the sunnah of the rightly-guided successors after me)).
       
      We reply with the following points:
      - First, there is disagreement amongst the scholars of this hadîth regarding its authenticity.
      - Second, even if the hadîth was authentic, it would be problematic because our opponents say that the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, did not specifically name his successor. It would be nonsensical that the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, would command the Muslims to follow someone who he had not specifically designated as his successor! There was mass confusion and disagreement not only regarding who was to succeed the Prophet, but also who could be considered “rightly guided”!
      - Third, if the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, established a sunnah, it is not the duty of a successor to come after him and abrogate it with something else. Remember the narration in Ŝahîh al-Bukhâri where ‘Umar referred to tarâwîh as an “innovation.” Did not the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, say: ((Every innovation is deviance and every deviance is in the Hellfire)) and ((Every matter that is not from our matter is rejected))?!
      - Fourth, even Umar acknowledged that the prayer later in the night is better than the tarâwîh with his statement: “But the prayer which they do not perform but sleep at its time, is better than the one they are offering now!”
      - Fifth, if the tarâwîh was “the sunnah of the rightly-guided successors,” why did prominent Companions, Followers, and jurists refrain from it and encourage others to do so?! Either they did not consider it to be a sunnah or they did not consider the one who instituted it to be a “rightly guided successor”!
       
      Our opponents say that the tarâwîh prayer is the practice of Imam ‘Ali, may Allah ennoble his face, because it is narrated in Musnad Imam Zayd in the chapter “Standing in the Prayer during Ramadan”:
      Zayd bin ‘Ali narrated on the authority of his father—his grandfather—Ali, upon him be peace, that he commanded that the one who stands in prayer with the people during Ramadan and pray 20 units should give the final salutations after every two units. He should take a break (yarâwah) after four units so one could relieve oneself and repeat the ritual ablution. He should pray the odd prayer (witr) at the last part of the night while leaving.
       
      We reply by saying that this report does not prove what our opponents import. The first part of the report says: “he commanded that the one who stands in prayer with the people during Ramadan and pray 20 units should…” This indicates that Amîr al-Muminîn, upon him be peace, was advising someone who was already making the tarâwîh prayer to “give the final salutations after every two units…take a break after four units so one could relieve oneself and repeat the ritual ablution…pray the odd prayer (witr) at the last part of the night while leaving.” He is not advising them to pray the tarâwîh prayer; rather, he was advising them what to do if they prayed the tarâwîh. Perhaps he witnessed that the people used to prolong the prayers without taking a break and so forth. Therefore, he saw fit to advise them regarding their actions to make the prayer easier upon the Muslims. Regardless of the circumstances, this report is not sufficient in proving that Imam ‘Ali, upon him be peace, endorsed the tarâwîh prayer.
       
      Our opponents may ask: “If Imam ‘Ali was so opposed to the tarâwîh prayer, why didn’t he advise the people not to do it?”
       
      We say that it may have not been possible at that time to discontinue the tarâwîh prayer because it was during the caliphate of ‘Umar. This may have caused unnecessary disorder. So, for the sake of Muslim unity, he simply advised the one who would already pray the tarâwîh. Such an action is not unique to ‘Ali, upon him be peace. There are examples in history where the Companions disagreed with the ruling of the prevailing order but chose instead to opt for unity rather than controversy.
       
      One example is that of ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ûd. Imam al-Bayhaqi narrated this incident in his Sunan al-Kubra on the authority of ‘Abdur-Rahmân bin Yazîd:
      We were with ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ûd in a group and when we entered the mosque in Mina, he said: “How many units does the Amîr al-Muminîn (meaning ‘Uthmân) pray?” They said: “Four.” So they prayed four units. We said: “Didn’t you narrate to us that the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, prayed two units, as well as Abu Bakr?” He said: “Indeed. I narrate that now; however, ‘Uthmân is the imam and I didn’t want to differ with him because disagreements are an evil.”
       
      This report shows that although Abdullah bin Mas’ûd held to the view that the two unit prayer in Mina was the Sunnah, he chose to act on what ‘Uthmân did because the latter was the caliph of the time and Ibn Mas’ûd feared controversy. Similar is the case with Imam ‘Ali, may Allah ennoble his face. He probably felt that during the time of ‘Umar, the issue of praying the tarâwîh was not one that required outcry as to cause a political disturbance. However, as is made clear from the narrations of Ahl al-Bayt that we quoted above, Imam ‘Ali prohibited it from taking place during his caliphate. It is noteworthy that the Musnad Imam Zayd does not report that Imam ‘Ali ever prayed the tarâwîh prayer.
       
      Our opponents say that there are some reports in the books of hadîth that Imam Ali, upon him be peace, actually prayed the tarâwîh prayer and/or commanded people to do it. The first one is in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqi on the authority of Arfaja’ ath-Thaqafi, who said:
      ‘Ali bin Abi Tâlib, may Allah be pleased with him, used to command the people to stand in prayer during Ramadan. He appointed one man as the prayer leader for the men and another man as the prayer leader for the women. [Arfaja’ added:] I was made the prayer leader of the women.
      The second report is similarly narrated by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan on the authority of ‘Ali who said:
      I was present with ‘Umar during the prayer in Ramadan. I informed him that over the seven heavens is a pen (haďîra) and on this pen is written: “Holy.” Living in this pen are people, and they are called: “Spirit.” On the Night of Power (Laylat al-Qadr), they seek permission from their Lord to descend to this world. There is no one who prays or are on the path except that they are showered with blessings. ‘Umar said: “O Abul-Hasan, we will command the people to be present in this prayer so that they are showered with these blessings.” So, he commanded the people to stand in prayer.
      The third report is also narrated by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan on the authority of Ismâ’îl bin Yazîd, who said:
      ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, continued to the mosque. There were lamps there during Ramadan. He said: “May the Light of Allah be upon ‘Umar in his grave just as there is light on us in this mosque!”
       
      We say that these reports cannot be used as a proof because these reports are considered inauthentic, even based upon the criteria of those held as authorities by our opponents. One of our contemporary scholars, Sayyid Allama ‘Abdur-Rahmân ash-Shâyim addressed these reports in his treatise Ar-Radd al- Jalayi ‘ala Sâhib al-Qawli al-Jaliyi.
       
      Regarding the first report, he said:
      I say that based upon the conditions of the scholars of hadîth criticism, its chain of narrators contains Arfaja’ bin ‘Abdullah ath-Thaqafi. Ibn al-Qattân said regarding him: “He is unknown.”…Also in its chain of narrators is ‘Umar bin ‘Abdullah bin Ya’la bin Murra ath-Thaqafi (i.e. Abu Abdullah ath-Thaqafi). There is consensus that he is “weak.” Yahya bin Mu’în said: “‘Umar bin ‘Abdullah is weak. I heard Jarîr bin ‘Abdul-Hamîd say: ‘Umar bin ‘Abdullah used to drink alcohol.” Abu Nu’aym said: “I saw ‘Umar bin ‘Abdullah and it is not permissible to narrate from him.” Ahmed bin Hanbal said: “He is weak in hadîths.” Abu Zara’a said: “He is not strong.” Ibn Abi Hâtim said: “He is objectionable in hadîths.” The crux of the matter is that there is consensus regarding his weakness. Refer to Tahdhîb al-Kâmil and you will find this clearly. No one narrated this about Imam ‘Ali except these two men.
       
      Regarding the second report, he said:
      I say that its chain of narrators contains Sa’d bin Ťarîq al-Iskâfi al-Kûfi and there is consensus that he is “weak.” Yahya bin Mu’în said: “It is not permissible to narrate anything from him.” He said elsewhere: “He is nothing.” Al-A’jli said in his Ma’rifat ath-Thuqqat: “He is weak in hadîths.” Abu Zara’a said: “He is a weak Kufan.” Ahmed bin Hanbal said: “Sa’d bin Ťarîq is weak in hadîths.” As-Su’di said: “Sa’d bin Ťarîq is blameworthy.” Al-Bukhâri said: “Sa’d bin Ťarîq is not strong.” Ibn Hibbân said: “He used to fabricate hadîths on the spot.”
       
      Regarding the third report, he said:
      I say that its chain of narrators contains Ismâ’îl bin Yazîd as-Sakûni. Al-Halabi said in his Al-Kashf al-Hathîth: “He is an imposter (dajjâl).” Ibn al-Jawzi and Ibn Hibbân accused him of fabrication. It is not permissible to mention Ismâ’îl except in terms of censure.” Ibn ‘Uday said: “He is objectionable in hadîths.” Generally, whatever he narrates cannot be followed by anyone regarding its chain of narrators and regarding its text. This is only one report. We not only stand upon what you witness, but other chains. Ibn ‘Asâkir also narrated it but I say that its chain of narrators contains Muhammad bin Subîh al-Baghdâdi, and he is unknown.
       
      Therefore, even based upon the criteria of the hadîth scholars of the Generality, these reports cannot be relied upon. As we mentioned earlier, the imams of Ahl al-Bayt reject any narration or report that implies or states that the Prophet, Imam ‘Ali, or any other imam of the Prophet’s Descendants, prayed tarâwîh or encouraged others to do so.
       
      We therefore, call the Muslims who were charged by the Prophet, peace be upon him and his progeny, to adhere to the Book of Allah and the Prophetic Descendants, to base their practices upon these Two Weighty Things and pray the voluntary prayers individually in their homes. It is by this adherence that our actions will be accepted by our Lord, insha-Allah
    • By Ali bin Hussein in Zaidia the middle path.
         1
      Examples of Judeo-Christian Influence in Muslim Belief and Practice
      By The Imam ar-Rassi Society 
       
      In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious the Most Merciful…
      All praise is due to Allah, the Exalted and Majestic; the One who has no partners or associates; the 
      One who provides the light of guidance to His slaves so that they may attain spiritual perfection and 
      illumination by means of it. May Allah send His choicest blessings upon His slave and seal of the 
      Messengers, Muhammad bin 'Abdullah. May Allah bless his pure Progeny, righteous Companions, and 
      those that follow them in excellence until the Day of Judgment. As to what follows…
      Ever since the emergence of Islam, the fledging Muslim community had the cumbersome duty to 
      distinguish itself from the other two Monotheist faiths on the Arabian Peninsula. Pre-Islamic Arabia had 
      vestiges of Jewish and Christian communities amongst its population. There were numerous tribes who 
      adhered to the Jewish or Christian faith. Various researches have been done regarding the presence of these 
      two faith communities in Arabia. 
      When the revelation of the Qur‟ān reached the shepherd, Muhammad bin „Abdullah, peace and 
      blessings be upon him and his progeny, the Divine message seemed akin to that of the pre-existing faiths. 
      The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, spoke of the Divine Oneness of Allah and 
      preached to his people the obligation of wilful submission to this reality. 
      While in his hometown Mecca, he was met by opposition from the Qurayshi idolaters. They 
      chided him that his new-fangled faith was the same as those People of the Book. They told him that he 
      followed {“tales of the ancients”} (Q. 68:15). They also opted to remain upon their idolatry as the Exalted 
      quotes their statement: {“Verily we found our forefathers upon a religion and we follow their footsteps”} 
      (Q 43:23). The short-sighted Meccan idolaters were not about to exchange their pantheon of iconography 
      for an unseen Deity. 
      They saw that the religion preached by their kinsman was a potential danger to the social 
      hierarchical system they had in place. For example, their Black and Persian slaves declared their belief in 
      the Oneness of Allah and saw themselves as equal to their Arab owners. This became a problem to the 
      idolatrous Meccan aristocracy, so they ousted this Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his 
      progeny, and his early followers from their home city. 
      When the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, and the nascent believers 
      fled, they were welcomed by the tribes of Medina who rejoiced at the coming of a Prophet from amongst 
      them with a message similar to that of their Christian and Jewish neighbours.
      Upon arriving to Medina, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, began to establish a state with him as its political, social, and religious leader. He had assumed the role of his
      brother-prophet Moses, upon him be peace, in that he was to take the group of scattered peoples and
      assemble them to form a community built upon common belief and practice. Laws were established,
      punitive measures were taken, and this new community of faith was to be the vanguard of the Divine
      Message to man. Indeed, this community consisted of Arabs, non-Arabs, Black Africans, Persians,
      Romans, Hebrews, and other groups.
      This movement did not go unnoticed by the Jewish and Christian communities surrounding them.
      Indeed, many of these groups amongst the People of the Book saw this new religious community as a
      threat. Although the Prophet and the believers allowed these communities to maintain their own religious
      beliefs and practices under the agreement of a paid protection tax (jizya), the threat of the Muslim
      community was more so ideological than financial.
      The Muslims represented everything that they were to be, an existent conduit through whom the
      call to Divine Oneness will be issued forth. The Christians were not successful in converting the masses of
      Bedouins and Arab city-dwellers to their religion. The Jews, although not a proselytizing faith, saw that
      their own identity could possibly be at threat. The call of Islam seemed to be an unstoppable juggernaut that
      would eventually encompass the Arabian Peninsula.
      The Qur‟ān is rife with examples of the attempts of the People of the Book to challenge the
      Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny. They felt that if they could outwit the
      Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, they could easily demoralize him
      and stop the influence of this emerging faith. One example is instructive.
      We relate an account narrated in the book Tanbīh al-Ghāfilīn ‘an Fadā`il at-Ťalibiyīn. In this
      book, Hākim al-Jashmi related the incident in which a delegation of Christians from Najrān agreed to meet
      the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny. Al-Hākim al-Jashmi reported:
      They came to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, and kneeled
      down in front of him. The bishop came in front of him and said: “O Abul-Qāsim, who
      was Moses‟ father?” He replied: ((„Imrān)). He then asked: “Who was Joseph‟s father?”
      He replied: ((Jacob)). He then asked: “Who is your father?” He replied: ((„Abdullah bin
      „Abdul-Muŧŧalib)). He then asked: “So, who was Jesus‟ father?” The Prophet, peace and
      blessings be upon him and his progeny, became silent and waited upon the divine
      inspiration. Then Gabriel descended and revealed this verse: {Verily, the likeness of
      Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created him from clay and said to him: “Be!” And
      he was. This is the truth from your Lord so do not be amongst the doubters} (Q. 3:59-60).
      He recited it to them. The bishop became agitated and looked down. He lifted his head
      and said: “You claim that Allah has inspired you to say that Jesus was created from dust.
      You may find that in what was inspired to you, but we do not find that in what was
      inspired to us. Neither do these Jews find that in what was inspired to them!” Then
      Gabriel descended and revealed this verse: {And if anyone should argue with thee about
      this [truth] after all the knowledge that has come to you, say: “Come! Let us summon our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves; and 
      then let us pray [together] humbly and ardently, and let us invoke Allah‟s curse upon the 
      liars.”} 
      According to the import of this narration, the Christians of Najrān sought to challenge the Prophet, 
      peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, by debate. They sought to defame him by having him 
      admit that Jesus‟ father must have been Allah since he affirmed the supernatural nature of his birth. The 
      Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, met this challenge with help from above.
      There are also examples of the Jews challenging the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and 
      his progeny. In the book Yanābī’ an-Nasīha fil-Aqīdat as-Šahiha, Amīr Badr ad-Dīn bin al-Hussein, upon 
      him be peace, related an account on the authority of Imam „Ali bin Abi Ťalib, may Allah ennoble his face. 
      The report is as follows: 
      Some Jews came to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, and 
      said: “Describe your Lord to us.” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his 
      progeny, became silent because he was amazed at what they said and because he wanted 
      to wait until the command of Allah came. They then said: “We describe our Lord with 
      greatness! Our Lord, Allah, holds the heavens on His Finger on the Day of Judgment, as 
      well as the seas on one Finger, the rest of things on one Finger. His other Hand is free.” 
      He [i.e. the Prophet] belied them and then Allah revealed the verse: {They have not made 
      for Allah a just appraisal…} (i.e. they did not magnify Him in what He is deserving to be 
      magnified). {…the whole earth will be in His Grasp on the Day of Judgment} (this 
      means His Dominion). {The heavens will be folded in His Right Hand} (this refers to His 
      Rule). {He is Glorified and Exalted above all of what they say} (i.e. this refers to 
      describing Him with limbs and imagery) (Q. 39:67). 
      A similar report exists in Šahih al-Bukhāri with a slight variation. It is narrated on the authority of 
      Abdullah bin Mas‟ūd and it says: 
      A Jew [and in other narrations, “a rabbi from amongst the Jews” and “a man from the 
      People of the Book”] came to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his 
      progeny, and asked said: “O Muhammad, we find that Allah holds the heavens on one 
      Finger, the earth on one Finger, the mountains on one Finger, the trees on one Finger, and 
      the rest of creation on one Finger. I am the king!” The Prophet, peace and blessings be 
      upon him and his progeny, laughed until his molars showed--confirming what he said1

      He then recited: (({They have not made for Allah a just appraisal…})) 
      In this example, the challengers [or challenger, depending on the narration] ascribed corporeality to Allah 
      by his assertion. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, denied such and counteredwith a verse of the Qur‟ān revealed to him. 
      This in no way implies that world Jewry ascribes to the belief of Allah‟s corporeality. The Jewish 
      religion denies the possibility that Allah has a body, as is evident in their books. Rather, this is an example 
      of a person or group amongst the Jews in Arabia who held such belief. 
      There are many more examples of exchanges between the Prophet Muhammad, peace and 
      blessings be upon him and his progeny, and the People of the Book. One can see these examples in the 
      Qur‟ān and Prophetic hadīths. As long as the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, 
      was alive, the designs of those People of the Book who sought to undermine the Messenger of Allah and 
      his community, was met by the Messenger of Allah himself. 
      Realizing the inefficacy of their engaging the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his 
      progeny, into theological debate, some of the People of the Book sought military confrontation with him 
      and the Muslims. For example, some of the Jews aligned themselves with the pagan Meccan opposition and 
      desired to wipe this new faith out by means of physical force. However, they and their allies were defeated.
      After suffering defeat at the hands of the Muslims, they decided to regroup their efforts. Some of 
      them decided to join this new faith. Former rabbis and clergymen embraced the faith of Islam. Although 
      some of them became Muslims out of sincerity and strong conviction, others of them pretended Islam to 
      infiltrate this new faith from within. Many of them saw the opportunity to corrupt the faith of the people by 
      introducing new ideas and practices to the fledging community. 
      However, there were others who might have been sincere but felt that their knowledge of the 
      previous revealed scripture enabled them to direct the ideology of the Muslims. After all, the Arabs did not 
      possess a Holy Book to refer to and did not have the luxury of belonging to the People of the Book. The 
      former rabbis and priests became consulted regarding the affairs of the religion and matters of the Unseen 
      especially. They believed that their previous knowledge of the Holy Scripture gave them the permission to 
      answer the questions of the unlettered Muslims. 
      It is for this reason that the Israeli narrations (Isrā`iliyyat) and Christian narrations (Masīhiyyat) 
      began to develop. Some of these narrations even found themselves being attributed to the Prophet, peace 
      and blessings be upon him and his progeny! Many of these narrations contained fantastic accounts and 
      descriptions of the Unseen. No doubt, many of the Muslims were captivated by the expertise of the former 
      rabbis and priests!
      The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, was not unmindful of the 
      influence of the People of Book upon the Muslims. It is even recorded that when he saw one of his 
      Companions studying a book in Hebrew, he censured him from doing so. The Messenger of Allah, peace 
      and blessings be upon him and his progeny, probably realized the effect that the former People of the Book 
      could have upon the Muslims. This is why he would take advantage of any opportunity to differentiate the 
      practices and beliefs of the Muslims from that of the Jews and Christians.
      ......More to come ......
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