Recently, I had the privilege to attend a workshop on the above topic and I took some notes.The actual workshop was much more thorough and extensive and full of valuable information. I am posting just a few points here which in my opinion are the most commonly made errors and other things we tend to overlook as falliable humans, with the intention that we can all InshaAllah improve our Taharrat and Salat. (These are as per rulings of Ayatullah Sistani(may Allahسُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى prolong his life) May Allah shower his bounties upon the brother who conducted such a useful workshop.
Do not stand [for prayer] within it - ever. A mosque founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy for you to stand in. Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves. -Quran 9:108
1. While doing ghusl people generally wash the body first and then continue with the Niyyah of ghusl. If they are doing this then what needs to be done is, make a demarcation between regular washing and ghusl. So one washes himself/herself as in a regular shower --> steps out of the shower ---> makes Niyyah for ghusl --> steps back in.
regular washing --> turn tap/shower off --> do ghusl niyyah --> turn tap on.
2. Head should always be washed first(ghusl e tartibi) It's mustahab to wash the right side first. The rest of the body can be washed in any direction, even from feet up.
3. Tattoes; If the ink is on the skin and forms a barrier to the water reaching the skin, it should be removed. If the ink is under the skin, nothing needs to be done.
4. Wajib ghusl often compensates for Wudhu, but if one passes wind during or after ghusl then for the purpose of praying namaz, either the person does a separate wudhu afterwards or starts ghusl again ( step out --> do niyyah --> step in shower again)
5.Body parts often missed in ghusl - under the chin, neck, armpits, under the feet.
1. One wuddhu for all salats is sufficient even if one did specific niyyah for one salat. So you can do wuddhu in the afternoon with niyyah for Zuhr for example, and pray asar, maghrib and isha with the same wuddhu ( as long as nothing happens which invalidates the wuddhu) things which invalidate wuddhu: https://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2159/
2. Wuddhu consists of:
- two washes (face & arms)
- two wipes (head & feet)
While washing the face start from the forehead, go from the hairline to the chin vertically.One has to wash from top to bottom. Horizontally, the span of one spread hand (from thumb to little finger should be covered)
one wash is good, second wash is good, third wash makes wuddhu BAATIL.
False eyelashes need to to removed.
Start a little above the elbows just to be on the safe side. Go right upto the fingertips. (People sometimes tend to miss washing the hands or fingertips since they might already be wet, but they must be covered while washing the arms)
As for face one wash is good, second is good, but third wash makes wuddhu BAATIL. Once you have poured the water from the elbow to the finger tips you can wipe/rub with your hand all you want to make the water reach the between the fingers or all round the arms, but if you pour water again and again it will count as second and third washes and makes wuddhu invalid.
INGLOT or other nail polishes which claim to be water permeable, it's better to remove them.
Wiping head and feet
The breadth of wiping both the head and feet is three joined fingers
The areas to be wiped should be dry
While wiping the head ,the moisture doesn't have to reach the skin. Wiping can be done on the hair too UNLESS a.there is some oil based gel etc or some other barrier or b.hair are long that they fall on the face then one should part the hair and do the wiping on the scalp. Recommended is that the head should be wiped from back to front.
While wiping the feet and head, it's the hand that should be moving on the head and feet. The head should be stationary and feet shouldn't be moving(so ideally no wobbling while trying to wipe one foot then another) nothing wrong if they move a little but repeating again, its the hand that should be moved over the head. So if one place his palm over the head for wiping and moves his head instead of his hand , his wuddhu is BAATIL.
The moisture for wiping should come from the wudhu itself, means no wetting of hands again after washing arms, for wiping. If the weather is hot and one's hands become dry quickly after washing one can obtain moisture from his beard for wiping.
The sequence of Wuddhu must be followed; washing of face --> washing of right arm --> washing of left arm --> wiping of head --> wiping of feet
The wuddhu must be uninterrupted.Maintain continuity in Wuddhu, means you cannot wash your face, watch 5 minutes of football and then start washing your right arm. lolz
While saying takbiratul ehram, body must be stationary.
Raising of hands while saying takbir is mustahab, not wajib.
A person should pronounce Takbiratul ehram clearly and with the correct pronunciation. For eg say Allahu Akbar and not Allah wakbar
In Wajib namaz,If one chooses to recite Surah Quraish after Fatiha then Surah Fil has to recited with Surah Quraish. Similarly, Surah Nashra and Surah Dhuha have to recited together.
The is no islamic basis of turning the rings towards palm in Qunoot
Tashahhud: Ashhadu alla illaha illal lah, wahdahu la shareeka lah, wa ashhadu anna Mohamman abduhu wa rasuluh
While saying tasleem either one says all three, or one can say just the last one(bare minimum). But he can't say just the first one (Assalmu Alaika Ayyuhan Nabiyu wa Rahmatul Lahi wa Barakatuh) or just the second one( Assalamu Alaina wa Ala Ibadil Lahis Saliheen) or just the first and second so either its all three or just the last one (Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatul Lahi wa Barakatuh)
SOME GENERAL ADVICE:
1. It is very important that a person learns correct recitation and pronunciation of the surahs in Salat. there aren't many, so we should invest some time listening to the recitation on you tube etc in an attempt to master the recitation.
2. There are several duas that can be recited in while performing wudhu. They are available on duas.org. http://www.duas.org/wadhu.htm What one can do is, print them out, put them in a plastic cover and put them on the wall besides his place of wuddhu.
3. Something that I have implemented in my life over the past few couple of years. Whenever you go to the bathroom or restroom,or before going to bed make it a habit to do wuddhu. Takes only a minute or so, but the sawab and benefits you get is enormous. for eg.He who renews his ablution without [the need to do so to purify] an impurity, Allah renews his repentance without him [needing to] asking for forgiveness.’ Imam al-Sadiq (AS) [Wasael al-Shi`aah , v. 1, p. 264, no.7