Jump to content
Guests can now reply in ALL forum topics (No registration required!) ×
ShiaChat.com
Guests can now reply in ALL forum topics (No registration required!)
In the Name of God بسم الله

Imamology

  • entries
    38
  • comments
    387
  • views
    13,471

What We Should Learn From the Nation of Islam


Qa'im

1,078 views

  150213162305-15-malcolm-x-restricted-sup

 

When Elijah Muhammad went to court and the judge asked him about his aim and purpose, he said he was going to make Black America Islamic. The judge said that making black people Muslims was like putting pants on an elephant. Elijah Muhammad said, "I got one pant-leg on already."[1]

 

In 2012, my student society invited the late grandson of Malcolm X, Malcolm El Shabazz, to speak at our university. I had some knowledge of his grandfather’s history, having watched Spike Lee’s legendary 1992 biopic, but I did not have a thorough understanding of the history of Islam in America. His appearance at the University of Toronto drew in a large audience.

We spoke briefly before his speech about the cold Toronto weather and his seminary studies in Syria, and I bought him two coffees – a double-double and an iced cappuccino. It was probably too cold for the iced cap, but it was a signature Canadian beverage at Tim Hortons that we felt he may enjoy. After the speech, Malcolm expressed his gratitude for the warm welcome, and even called me “a sincere brother”.[1]

Although Malcolm El Shabazz had the tenacity of his grandfather, he was a troubled young man. After a life of run-ins with the police, Malcolm was killed in 2013 at a night club in Mexico under peculiar circumstances.[2] At the time I had just finished reading The End of American Lynching by Ashraf Rushdy, which details the history of racial oppression in America. The loss of this new friend prompted me to devote some time to studying the Civil Rights Movement – a story of persecution, loss, and eventual healing and rejuvenation.

I was skipping university readings to flip through books, papers, and videos that pertained to contemporary black history. I found the topic to not only be socially relevant, but spiritually uplifting and inspiring. The story of suffering ex-slaves fighting fearlessly for their inalienable rights spoke to me. The Nation of Islam taught that the black man was robbed of his name, language, culture, country, God, and religion. Their spirit and valour could only remind me of the Israelite bondage in Egypt, or the Arabian Age of Ignorance. Nations are born out of trial and tribulation. Eventually, people pull together in tough times for a greater good, and they can find success even when all they have on their side is a kernel of truth.

There are some obvious and irreconcilable differences between traditional Islamic theology and the teachings of the Nation of Islam. Sunni and Shia Muslims feel queasy at the suggestion that God’s attributes were manifest in Master Fard Muhammad, that all whites are devils, and that Elijah Muhammad was the messenger of God. These issues aside, there is much to learn from the Nation of Islam’s example. They were arguably the most successful and the most socially-relevant Western Islamic movement in history.

Social Relevance

By the 1970s, the Nation of Islam had nearly two million members, almost all of whom were converts from a Christian background. The fact that many victims of the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade were Muslim[3] perpetuated the idea that Islam was the proper religion of the African American. Malcolm X was able to present the Nation of Islam’s enigmatic teachings to the public in a way that highlighted the need for separation, independence, and sovereignty for black people. Within a few short years, Malcolm X’s wit, charm, and hard work brought hundreds of thousands of people to the organization. The organization was still growing exponentially even after the controversy surrounding Malcolm’s assassination.

In 1974, the Nation of Islam owned enough assets to create a budding, self-sufficient community: over one hundred and fifty mosques, over forty schools, a newspaper plant, farms, a bank, apartment complexes, restaurants, grocery stores, clothing stores, a national trucking system, and an aviation department.[4] Whether or not territorial independence was viable, the Nation of Islam created an independent subculture and economic unit. This frightened the U.S government. The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover actively tried to sabotage the movement and “prevent the rise of a ‘messiah’ who could unify and electrify the militant black nationalist movement.”[5] In 1996, then-Libyan leader Muammar Qadhafi offered to give the group one billion dollars, until the donation was blocked by the Clinton administration.[6] Still, the unmatched coordination of the Nation of Islam attracted the brief support of the D.C. Department of Public and Assisted Housing.[7]

In 1995, the Nation of Islam held the historic Million Man March rally in Washington DC, which brought leading African American figures together to demand justice and reproach, including Rosa Parks, Betty Shabazz, Jesse Jackson, and Jeremiah Wright.

Diet

The group’s unique diet was one of the primary means by which Master Fard Muhammad and the Nation of Islam were able to hook-in African American converts. The diet not only cut down food expenditures during the Great Depression, but it purported to have improved the general health of adherents.[8]

Master Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad developed a strict diet that makes a traditional Muslim diet look easy. Not only did the Nation of Islam fast and abstain from pork and alcohol, but they only ate one meal per day. This was done to prepare adherents for the possible severity that national independence or apocalypse may cause.[9] To improve their general health, Black Muslims mostly ate vegetables, fish, whole-wheat bread, and chicken; and they would avoid all non-halal and non-kosher meats.[10] Even beef and potatoes were to be avoided for being too coarse and too starchy respectively.[11]

Realism

Every member of the Nation of Islam is put into one of two institutions: males became part of the Fruit of Islam (FOI), and females became part of the Muslim Girls’ Training (MGT) program. The FOI is a paramilitary force with its own hierarchy that is trained to protect and provide provision for the Nation of Islam. They wear distinct blue uniforms and provide security for social and religious functions. The MGT educates women on home economics, housekeeping duties and self-defence.

There is a strong sense of responsibility in the sect that reportedly commands respect and better job opportunities for black people.[12] Indeed, devotees to the movement were encouraged to be clean, well-spoken, obedient, fearless, and abstinent from intoxicants and other vices – all traits that employers would give preference to, especially during tough economic times.

The emphasis on self-knowledge and self-emancipation, which was probably borrowed from Marcus Garvey, gave an urgent sense that black people should not wait for America to do for them what they can do for themselves. They would commonly ask, why rely on your ex-slave masters when you could pool in your own resources to build a future for your people?

The Nation of Islam was undoubtedly a realist organization that did not buy into Martin Luther King’s “dream” of an integrated America. After all, they believed that Caucasians were flesh-and-blood devils that Allah would soon destroy, and so whites were to be seen as rivalling competitors rather than potential allies.

Furthermore, unlike Black Lives Matter, the Nation of Islam puts a special emphasis on uplifting African American males from drug and alcohol abuse, gang violence, and hook-up culture. The perceived downfall of black men due to social ills was the primary motivation for the Million Man March.

 

What could traditional Muslims learn from this example?

The Nation of Islam proved that Muslims could be brazen and unapologetic; and not have to rely on co-opting forces in the political system to thrive in the West. Despite governmental censures on the organization and its leaders, the Nation of Islam produced Malcolm X, Muhammad Ali, Warith Deen Muhammad and Louis Farrakhan, who collectively introduced millions of people to the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad. The subculture the sect created heavily influenced the worlds of sports, music, and intermittent dieting in America.

The Nation of Islam sought to give a religious hue to the issue of civil rights. As people of faith, we don’t see all suffering as simply a result of natural or systemic causes. Rather, some suffering has a divine function that includes trial, refinement, and chastisement. The Million Man March’s major themes included “Affirmation and Responsibility” and “Atonement and Reconciliation”, which emphasized that a return to traditional values and religious duties would bring about Allah’s succor and uplift legitimate grievances. Malcolm X’s example in particular shows that daʿwa cannot exist in a vacuum; but rather it has to be complimented with a socially-relevant message.

The reformative power of our religion is something that many traditional Muslims are forgetting. The Nation of Islam targeted addicts, sex-workers, inmates, and broken families, and turned them into productive and upright citizens. They knew that their teachings, which are heavily influenced by the Quran, could “resurrect” their people. On the other hand, immigrant communities often neglect and ostracize Muslim individuals for their marital status, education, poverty and past crimes or sins. One must remember that the Prophet Muhammad never walked away from his people, despite the debauchery that they took part in jahiliyya.

Muslims in North America and Europe should not only be passport-carrying doctors and engineers, but a self-sufficient international community with its own sense of purpose, loyal only to our own values and worldview. The Umma is the true shining city on the hill, and that light could foist the second pant-leg on.


[2] Mitchell, John L., and Jack Chang. “Searching for Mecca.” Vice, Vice, 13 Dec. 2013, www.vice.com/en_ca/article/dpwpz7/searching-for-mecca-0000178-v20n12.

[3] Austin, Allan. African Muslims in Antebellum America, A Sourcebook. New York: Garland Press, 1984.

[4] Saviour's Day 1974. YouTube, YouTube, 17 Feb. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rh8VnhCjzbQ.

[5] Farley, Jonathan David. “Preventing the Rise of a 'Messiah'.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 4 Apr. 2008, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/apr/04/preventingtheriseofamessi

[6] Dorothy Gaiter, “Nation of Islam Tries to Accept gift of $1 Billion from Libya, The Wall Street Journal, 26 August 1996, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB841007141275125500

[7] “D.C. HIRES NATION OF ISLAM GUARDS FOR SE COMPLEX.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 4 May 1995, www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1995/05/04/dc-hires-nation-of-islam-guards-for-se-complex/04352e30-6ad8-48fc-8de5-57a1283b7647/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.f2b7a21a48a5.

[8] Beynon, “American Journal of Sociology.” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 43, no. 6, 1938, pp. 895, 906.

[9] Sahib, H. (2018). Contributions in Black Studies, Vol 13 No. 1, pp. 89

[10] Ibid

[12] Sahib, H. (2018). Contributions in Black Studies, Vol 13 No. 1, pp. 87

 


[1] “The Final Call.” Willie Lynch Letter: The Making of a Slave, www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Minister_Louis_Farrakhan_9/Death_Stands_at_the_Door_-Pt_II_973.shtml. http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Minister_Louis_Farrakhan_9/Death_Stands_at_the_Door_-Pt_II_973.shtml

3 Comments


Recommended Comments

  • Moderators

What's always struck me as interesting is how the Nation of Islam's prominence in the 20th century fuelled an image of an American Muslim as an ethical, virtuous figure who would abstain from the societal debauchery that exists around him (before this characterisation was reversed post-9/11). The NOI brought Islam to the forefront of American public consciousness for the first time, and its mission of giving Blacks respectability and a sense of purpose was the catalyst for Americans to formulate a notion of 'what' a Muslim was for the first time. To America in the '60's and 70's, a quintessential Muslim was Black, native-born, often a convert, and always socially-driven and self-disciplined. You can see examples of this in pop culture as late as the 1990's, such as Tupac Shakur rapping about how his homies that converted to Islam gave up on 'living large' for a more chaste lifestyle.

"Oh you a Muslim now, no more dope game / Heard you might be comin' home, just got bail / Wanna go to the Mosque, don't wanna chase females / I seems I lost my little homie he's a changed man / Hit the pen and now no sinnin' is the game plan." (1996)

It's easy to see how these stereotypes have shifted in the last few decades with waves of immigration reducing the proportion of African-American Muslims (although they still constitute almost 30% of Muslims in the USA) and the War on Terror demonizing the communities that have grown since. 

Link to comment
  • Advanced Member

As Salaam Alaikum

Ashura, Karbala

What's important in the Lost Found Nation of Islam in the West to learn is first the knowledge of self and secondly the presence of God in being (person) or existence. These two subjects Self and God is the knowledge that was stripped away from the so-called African slaves and their descendants the so-called American Negro or African American as they are called today. 

Mentioning W F Muhammad twpadf, I wanted to give you a understanding of what the W means in his name something, that a minister like Malcolm X may not or would not have expounded on because those who he would have been teaching would not have been prepared to understand the meaning. That kind of teaching the student would have gotten after the student was initiated into the school or University of Islam and by way of studying the meaning.

The W means wilayat.

Edited by Maki D Cabarete
Link to comment

Join the conversation

You are posting as a guest. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Guest
Add a comment...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

  • Latest Blog Entries

    • By ShiaLuma in My Feelings and Emotions About Myself
         7
      It's been a while since I last posted a blog but I would like to share my thoughts on Joe Biden's first day as president.
      Words cannot describe how great it is to see Donald Trump leave. Donald Trump was one of the worst presidents in American history. He caused nothing but trouble to America. He is the one who resulted in Qassim Soleimani and Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis (both men who were responsible for removing terrorism) getting killed which happened early last year. His policies on the Covid-19 disaster were horrible. Joe Biden addressed the Covid-19 matters very nicely on Day 1 and getting rid of the issues Trump caused since he became president. He is going to make America recover from the issues that Trump caused in the last 4 years.
    • By Ayuoobi in The Muslim Theist
         0
      بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
       
      I was engaged in a discussion with a Sunni brother and he requested that I bring forward ahaadith whose chains are strong by our own standards regarding the very explicit appointment of Imam Ali (عليه السلام) by the Prophet (s). What follows is some research I've collected. I have not personally graded these chains nor have I even confirmed their strength; most of these ahaadith are graded by Ayatollah Zanjani, some by Ayatollah Aasif Muhsini or others. At any rate, I request the brothers here to post in the comments if they have anything to say about the chains or the correctness of the sanad evaluation. Note also, that these translations are not mine; anything from Al-Amaali of al-Saduq was done by @Qa'im, may Allah reward him, and most of the ahaadith from Uyoon Akhbar al-Ridha were taken from thaqalayn.net; other translations were found spuriously from various sources.
       
      It is worth mentioning that in Bihar al-Anwar there are 528 hadiths in the section "chapters on the texts appointing the Commander of the Faithful (Ali) and on the 12 Imams." The vast majority of these ahaadith, however, have weak chains (as is usually the case with ahaadith generally, even in Sunni books.) For this reason, I have compiled a few ahaadith with stronger chains in which Imam Ali (عليه السلام) is clearly being mentioned as the Prophet's successor in a clear manner so that we can use the plethora of weak ahaadith to show that the meaning indicated in these ahaadith is mutawaatir. The plethora of weak hadiths act as additional proof to raise our confidence to certainty. This is because it is impossible for so many independent chains of narrators to have conspired and agreed upon a lie, throughout different times, locations, etc. The existence of even a single sahih hadith in addition to dozens of independent weak chains pointing to the same meaning means that there is no room for doubt about the correctness of that meaning. This would mean that it is beyond doubt that the general teaching that Imam Ali (عليه السلام) was appointed directly from the Prophet (s) was indeed taught by the Imams, as the Rafidha claim. 
       
      1.  
        الأمالی للصدوق ج1، ص 360، ح12 
      صحيح
      حدثنا جعفر بن محمد بن مسرور قال حدثنا الحسين بن محمد بن عامر عن عمه عن محمد بن أبي عمير عن سليمان بن مهران عن الصادق جعفر بن محمد ع عن أبيه محمد بن علي ع عن أبيه علي بن الحسين ع عن أبيه الحسين بن علي ع عن أبيه علي بن أبي طالب ع قال قال رسول الله ص [ يا علي أنت أخي و أنا أخوك يا علي أنت مني و أنا منك يا علي أنت وصيي و خليفتي و حجة الله على أمتي بعدي لقد سعد من تولاك و شقي من عاداك.]
      Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Masrur narrated to us. He said: Al-Husayn b. Muhammad b. `Amer narrated to us from his uncle from Muhammad b. Abi `Umayr from Sulayman b. Mehran from al-Sadiq Ja`far b. Muhammad (عليه السلام) from his father Muhammad b. `Ali (عليه السلام) from his father `Ali b. al-Husayn (عليه السلام) from his father al-Husayn b. `Ali (عليه السلام) from his father `Ali b. Abi Talib (عليه السلام).
      He said: The Messenger of Allah (s) said: O `Ali! You are my brother and I am your brother. O `Ali! You are from me and I am from you. O `Ali! You are my deputy, my vicegerent, and the Proof of Allah over my Nation after me. Whoever aligns with you will be happy, and whoever opposes you will be wretched.
      Grading: Saheeh
      2. 
      عيون أخبار الرضا (ع) ج2 ص6 ح13
      صحیح /

       حَدَّثَنا حَمْزَة بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زَيد بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن بْنِ علي بن أَبي طالِب عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بقم فِي رَجَب سِنَةَ تِسْعَ وَثَلاثِينَ وَثَلاثِمائَةٍ قالَ: حَدَّثَني أَبي عَنْ ياسر الخادِم، عَن أَبي الحَسَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ، عَن آبائِهِ، عَن الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِى عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ لِعَلِيٍّ: يَا عَلِيُّ أَنْتَ حُجَّةُ اللَّهِ وَأَنْتَ بَابُ اللَّهِ وَأَنْتَ الطَّرِيقُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَأَنْتَ النَّبَأُ الْعَظِيمُ وَأَنْتَ الصِّرَاطُ الْمُسْتَقِيمُ وَأَنْتَ الْمَثَلُ الأَعْلى.    يَا عَلِيُّ أَنْتَ إِمَامُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَأَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَخَيْرُ الْوَصِيِّينَ وَسَيِّدُ الصِّدِّيقِينَ.    يَا عَلِيُّ أَنْتَ الْفَارُوقُ الأَعْظَمُ وَأَنْتَ الصِّدِّيقُ الأَكْبَرُ.    يَا عَلِيُّ أَنْتَ خَلِيفَتِي عَلَى أُمَّتِي وَأَنْتَ قَاضِي دَيْنِي وَأَنْتَ مُنْجِزُ عِدَاتِي.    يَا عَلِيُّ أَنْتَ الْمَظْلُومُ بَعْدِي يَا عَلِيُّ أَنْتَ الْمُفَارِقُ بَعْدِي يَا عَلِيُّ أَنْتَ الْمَهْجُورُ بَعْدِي. أُشْهِدُ     اللَّهَ تَعَالَى وَمَنْ حَضَرَ مِنْ أُمَّتِي أَنَّ حِزْبَكَ حِزْبِي وَحِزْبِي حِزْبُ اللَّهِ وَأَنَّ حِزْبَ أَعْدَائِكِ حِزْبُ الشَّيْطَانِ.     (`Uyoon Akhbar ar-Rida)|
       
      The Messenger of Allah [s] said to Ali [a]:     "O Ali, you are the Proof of Allah   and you are the Gate of Allah   and you are the Path to Allah   and you are the great tiding   and you are straight path   and you are the supreme example!     O Ali, you are Imam of the Muslims and the Commander of the Faithful   and the best of the trustees   and the master of the truthful!     O Ali, you are the great criterion   and you are the great saint!     O Ali, you are my caliph upon my nation after me   and you are the judge in my religion   and you are the one who will fulfill my promises!     O Ali, you will be oppressed after me!   O Ali, you will be abandoned after me!   O Ali, you will be forsaken after me!   I testify to Allah and take those who are present in my community as witnesses that your party is my party and my party is the party of Allah and the party of your enemies is the party of Satan."  
      (Translation by @Qa'im)
      Grading: Saheeh
       
      3. 
      عيون أخبار الرضا (ع)، ج2، ص13، ح30
       صحیح
      30 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى ماجِيلوَيْه وَأَحْمَدِ بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِمٍ وَأَحْمَد بْنِ جَعْفَر الْهَمَذانيّ - رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ - قالُوا: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ إِبراهِيمِ بْنِ هاشِمٍ، عَنْ أَبيهِ، عَنْ مَعبَدٍ عَنِ الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ خالِدٍ عَنِ الرِّضا عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى، عَنْ أَبيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَر، عَنْ أَبيهِ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّد، عَن أبِيهِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِىٍّ، عَنْ أَبيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن، عَنْ أَبيهِ الحُسَيْنُ بْنُ عَلِىٍّ، عَنْ أَبيهِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبي طالِب‏ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلاَمُ قالَ: قالَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ صِدِّيقٌ وَفَارُوقٌ وَصِدِّيقُ هَذِهِ الأُمَّةِ وَفَارُوقُهَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ إِنَّ عَلِيّاً سَفِينَةُ نَجَاتِهَا وَبَابُ حِطَّتِهَا إِنَّهُ يُوشَعُهَا وَشَمْعُونُهَا وَذُو قَرْنَيْهَا مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ عَلِيّاً خَلِيفَةُ اللَّهِ وَخَلِيفَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ بَعْدِي وَإِنَّهُ لامِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَخَيْرُ الْوَصِيِّينَ مَنْ نَازَعَهُ فَقَدْ نَازَعَنِي وَمَنْ ظَلَمَهُ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَنِي وَمَنْ غَالَبَهُ فَقَدْ غَالَبَنِي وَمَنْ بَرَّهُ فَقَدْ بَرَّنِي وَمَنْ جَفَاهُ فَقَدْ جَفَانِي وَمَنْ عَادَاهُ فَقَدْ عَادَانِي وَمَنْ وَالاهُ فَقَدْ وَالانِي وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ أَخِي وَوَزِيرِي وَمَخْلُوقٌ مِنْ طِينَتِي وَكُنْتُ أَنَا وَإِيَّاهُ نُوراً وَاحِداً.
       
      30-30 Muhammad ibn Ali Majiluwayh, Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem, and Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja’far al-Hamadani - may God be pleased with them - narrated that Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashem quoted on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ali ibn Ma’bad, on the authority of Al-Husayn ibn Khalid, on the authority of Al-Ridha’ Ali ibn Musa ((عليه السلام).), on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja’far ((عليه السلام).), on the authority of his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad ((عليه السلام).), on the authority of his
      father Muhammad ibn Ali ((عليه السلام).), on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Husayn ((عليه السلام).), on the authority of his father Al-Husayn ibn Ali ((عليه السلام).), on the authority of his father Ali ibn Abi Talib ((عليه السلام).), “God’s Prophet (S) said, There is a companion and one who distinguishes truth from falsehood for every nation. The one for this nation is Ali ibn Abi Talib. He is the ship of salvation. He is its gate of repentance. He is like its Yosha’, Sham’oon, and Thul-Qarnayn. O people! Ali is God’s vicegerent and my Caliph after me. He is the Commander of the Faithful. He is the best of the Trustees. Whoever fights with him has indeed fought with me. Whoever oppresses him has indeed oppressed me. Whoever overcomes him has indeed overcome me. Whoever does him good has indeed done good to me. Whoever mistreats him has indeed mistreated me. Whoever is his enemy is indeed my enemy. Whoever is his friend is indeed my friend, since he is my brother and Vizier. He has been created from the same essence that I have been created from. He and I are but one and the same light.’”
      Grading: Saheeh
       
      4.
      كمال الدين، ج1، ص260، ح6
       / صحیح /
       حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه قال حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم عن أبيه عن علي بن معبد عن الحسين بن خالد عن علي بن موسى الرضا ع عن أبيه ع عن آبائه ع قال قال رسول الله ص [ من أحب أن يتمسك بديني و يركب سفينة النجاة بعدي فليقتد بعلي بن أبي طالب و ليعاد عدوه و ليوال وليه فإنه وصيي و خليفتي على أمتي في حياتي و بعد وفاتي و هو إمام كل مسلم و أمير كل مؤمن بعدي قوله قولي و أمره أمري و نهيه نهيي و تابعه تابعي و ناصره ناصري و خاذله خاذلي ثم قال عليه السلام من فارق عليا بعدي لم يرني و لم أره يوم القيامة و من خالف عليا حرم الله عليه الجنة و جعل مأواه النار و بئس المصير و من خذل عليا خذله الله يوم يعرض عليه و من نصر عليا نصره الله يوم يلقاه و لقنه حجته عند المساءلة ثم قال عليه السلام الحسن و الحسين إماما أمتي بعد أبيهما و سيدا شباب أهل الجنة و أمهما سيدة نساء العالمين و أبوهما سيد الوصيين و من ولد الحسين تسعة أئمة تاسعهم القائم من ولدي طاعتهم طاعتي و معصيتهم معصيتي - إلى الله أشكو المنكرين لفضلهم و المضيعين لحرمتهم بعدي و كفى بالله ولي ا و ناصرا لعترتي و أئمة أمتي و منتقما من الجاحدين لحقهم و سيعلم الذين ظلموا أي منقلب ينقلبون.]
       
      6 - Narrated to us Muhammad bin Ali Majilaway: Narrated to us Ali bin Ibrahim from his father from Ali bin Mabad from Husain bin Khalid from Ali Ibn Musa al-Reza (a.r.) from his father from his forefathers that the Messenger of Allah (S) said:
      “Whoever desires to fasten unto my religion and board the ark of salvation after me, must follow Ali Ibn Abi Talib ((عليه السلام).), bear enmity against his enemies and befriend his friends. For sure, he is my successor and my caliph on my followers in my life and after my death. He is the chief of every Muslim and the chief of every believer after me. His saying is my saying, his command is my command, his prohibition is my prohibition, his follower is my follower, his helper is my helper and one who forsakes him has forsaken me.”
      Then he continued, “Whoever separates from Ali ((عليه السلام).) after me, shall not see me and I will not see him on the Day of Judgment. Whoever opposes Ali ((عليه السلام).), Allah will make Paradise forbidden for him, his abode will be the Hell-fire, and evil will be his fate. Whoever forsakes Ali ((عليه السلام).), he will be forsaken on the Day of Presentation, and whoever helps Ali ((عليه السلام).) Allah will help him on the day he will meet Him. The Divine Proof (Hujjat) will prompt his answers to him on the day of questioning.”
      Thereafter he said, “Hasan ((عليه السلام).) and Husain ((عليه السلام).) are the two Imams of my Ummah after their father and the leaders of the youth of Paradise. Their mother is the chief of the women of universe, and their father is the chief of the successors. From the descendants of Husain ((عليه السلام).), there will be nine Imams, and the ninth of them will be the Qaim of my progeny. Their obedience is my obedience and their defiance is my defiance. I will complain to Allah against those who challenge their superiority and deny their sanctity after me. Allah suffices as a Master and as a Helper for my progeny and the Imams of my Ummah, and as an Avenger for those who have denied them their rights.
      وَسَيَعْلَمُ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا أَيَّ مُنْقَلَبٍ يَنْقَلِبُونَ
      And they who act unjustly shall know to what final place of turning they shall turn back.
      Grading: Sahih
       
      5.
       
      عيون أخبار الرضا (ع)،ج۱،ص۲۹۵،ح۵۳
      / موثق
       
      48 - حَدَّثَنا مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ بَكْرِ ان النقاش وَأَحْمَدِ بْنِ الحَسَن القَطَّانُ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدِ بْنِ إِبْراهِيم المعاذي وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِبْراهيمِ بْنِ إِسْحاق المكتب قالُوا حَدَّثَنا أَبُو العَبَّاسِ أحْمَد بْنِ‏سَعِيدُ الهَمْدانِيَّ مَوْلى‏ بَنِي هاشِم قالَ: حَدَّثَنا عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ فضال، عَن أَبيهِ، عَن أَبي الحَسَن عَلِىِّ بْنِ مُوسَى الرِّضا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَر عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ‏عَنْ أَبِيهِ الصَّادِق مُحَمَّد عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَن أَبيهِ الباقِر مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ عَنأَبيهِ زَيْنُ العابِدِينَ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الحُسَيْن‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ سَيِّد الشُّهَداءِ الحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِى‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، عَن أَبيهِ سَيِّد الوَصِيِّين أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنين عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبِي طالِب‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ: إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ خَطَبَنَا ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ فَقَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّهُ قَدْ أَقْبَلَ إِلَيْكُمْ شَهْرُ اللَّهِ بِالْبَرَكَةِ وَالرَّحْمَةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ شَهْرٌ هُوَعِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَفْضَلُ الشُّهُورِ وَأَيَّامُهُ أَفْضَلُ الأَيَّامِ وَلَيَالِيهِ أَفْضَلُ اللَّيَالِي وَسَاعَاتُهُ أَفْضَلُ السَّاعَاتِ هُوَشَهْرٌ دُعِيتُمْ فِيهِ إِلَى ضِيَافَةِ اللَّهِ وَجُعِلْتُمْ فِيهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ كَرَامَةِ اللَّهِ أَنْفَاسُكُمْ فِيهِ تَسْبِيحٌ وَنَوْمُكُمْ فِيهِ عِبَادَةٌ وَعَمَلُكُمْ فِيهِ مَقْبُولٌ وَدُعَاؤُكُمْ فِيهِ مُسْتَجَابٌ فَسَلُوا اللَّهَ رَبَّكُمْ بِنِيَّاتٍ صَادِقَةٍ وَقُلُوبٍ طَاهِرَةٍ أَنْ يُوَفِّقَكُمْ لِصِيَامِهِ وَتِلاوَةِ كِتَابِهِ فَإِنَّ الشَّقِيَّ مَنْ حُرِمَ غُفْرَانَ اللَّهِ فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ الْعَظِيمِ وَاذْكُرُوا بِجُوعِكُمْ وَعَطَشِكُمْ فِيهِ جُوعَ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَعَطَشَهُ وَتَصَدَّقُوا عَلَى فُقَرَائِكُمْ وَمَسَاكِينِكُمْ وَ قِّرُوا كِبَارَكُمْ وَارْحَمُوا صِغَارَكُمْ وَصِلُوا أَرْحَامَكُمْ وَاحْفَظُوا أَلْسِنَتَكُمْ وَغُضُّوا عَمَّا لا يَحِلُّ النَّظَرُ إِلَيْهِ أَبْصَارَكُمْ وَعَمَّا لا يَحِلُّ الاسْتَِماعُ إِلَيْهِ أَسْمَاعَكُمْ وَتَحَنَّنُوا عَلَى أَيْتَامِ النَّاسِ يُتَحَنَّنْ عَلَى أَيْتَامِكُمْ وَتُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَارْفَعُوا إِلَيْهِ أَيْدِيَكُمْ بِالدُّعَاءِ فِي أَوْقَاتِ صَلَوَاتِكُمْ فَإِنَّهَا أَفْضَلُ السَّاعَاتِ يَنْظُرُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهَا بِالرَّحْمَةِ إِلَى عِبَادِهِ يُجِيبُهُمْ إِذَا نَاجَوْهُ وَيُلَبِّيهِمْ إِذَا نَادَوْهُ وَيَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُمْ إِذَا دَعَوْهُ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ أَنْفُسَكُمْ مَرْهُونَةٌ بِأَعْمَالِكُمْ فَفُكُّوهَا بِاسْتِغْفَارِكُمْ وَظُهُورُكُمْ ثَقِيلَةٌ مِنْ أَوْزَارِكُمْ فَخَفِّفُوا عَنْهَا بِطُولِ سُجُودِكُمْ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى ذِكْرُهُ أَقْسَمَ بِعِزَّتِهِ أَنْ لا يُعَذِّبَ الْمُصَلِّينَ وَالسَّاجِدِينَ وَأَنْ لا يُرَوِّعَهُمْ بِالنَّارِ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ مَنْ فَطَّرَ مِنْكُمْ صَائِماً مُؤْمِناً فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ كَانَ لَهُ بِذَلِكَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ لِمَا مَضَى مِنْ ذُنُوبِهِ. قِيلَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ! وَلَيْسَ كُلُّنَـا يَقْـدِرُ عَلَى ذَلِــكَ. فَقَالَ‏ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِهِ: اتَّقُوا النَّارَ وَلَوْ بِشِقِّ تَمْرَةٍ.إتَّقُوا النَّارَ وَلَوْ بِشَرْبَةٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ. أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ مَنْ حَسُنَ مِنْكُمْ فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ خُلُقُهُ كَانَ لَهُ جَوَازاً عَلَى الصِّرَاطِ يَوْمَ تَزِلُّ فِيهِ الأَقْدَامُ وَمَنْ خَفَّفَ فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ عَمَّا مَلَكَتْ يَمِينُهُ خَفَّفَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ حِسَابَهُ وَمَنْ كَفَّ فِيهِ شَرَّهُ كَفَّ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ غَضَبَهُ يَوْمَ يَلْقَاهُ وَمَنْ أَكْرَمَ فِيهِ يَتِيماً أَكْرَمَهُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ يَلْقَاهُ وَمَنْ وَصَلَ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ وَصَلَهُ اللَّهُ بِرَحْمَتِهِ يَوْمَ يَلْقَاهُ وَمَنْ قَطَعَ فِيهِ رَحِمَهُ قَطَعَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ رَحْمَتَهُ يَوْمَ يَلْقَاهُ وَمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ فِيهِ بِصَلاةٍ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَهُ بَرَاءَةً مِنَ النَّارِ وَمَنْ أَدَّى فِيهِ فَرْضاً كَانَ لَهُ ثَوَابُ مَنْ أَدَّى سَبْعِينَ فَرِيضَةً فِيَما سِوَاهُ مِنَ الشُّهُورِ وَمَنْ أَكْثَرَ فِيهِ مِنَ الصَّلاةِ عَلَيَّ ثَقَّلَ اللَّهُ مِيزَانَهُ يَوْمَ تَخِفُّ الْمَوَازِينُ وَمَنْ تَلا فِيهِ آيَةً مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ كَانَ لَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِ مَنْ خَتَمَ الْقُرْآنَ فِي غَيْرِهِ مِنَ الشُّهُورِ.أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ أَبْوَابَ الْجِنَانِ فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ مُفَتَّحَةٌ فَسَلُوا رَبَّكُمْ أَنْ لا يُغَلِّقَهَا عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَبْوَابَ النِّيرَانِ مُغَلَّقَةٌ فَسَلُوا رَبَّكُمْ أَنْ لا يُفَتِّحَهَا عَلَيْكُمْ وَالشَّيَاطِينَ مَغْلُولَةٌ فَسَلُوا رَبَّكُمْ أَنْ لا يُسَلِّطَهَا عَلَيْكُمْ.قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فَقُمْتُ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا أَفْضَلُ الأَعْمَالِ فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ؟فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ أَفْضَلُ الأَعْمَالِ فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ الْوَرَعُ عَن مَحَارِمِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. ثُمَّ بَكَى. فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا يُبْكِيكَ؟ فَقَالَ يَا عَلِيُّ أَبْكِي لِمَا يَسْتَحِلُّ مِنْكَ فِي هَذَا الشَّهْرِ. كَأَنِّي بِكَ وَأَنْتَ تُصَلِّي لِرَبِّكَ وَقَدِ انْبَعَثَ أَشْقَى الأَوَّلِينَ شَقِيقُ عَاقِرِ نَاقَةِ ثَمُودَ فَضَرَبَكَ ضَرْبَةً عَلَى قَرْنِكَ فَخَضَبَ مِنْهَا لِحْيَتَكَ.قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَذَلِكَ فِي سَلامَةٍ مِنْ دِينِي؟فَقَالَ‏ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فِي سَلامَةٍ مِنْ دِينِكَ.ثُمَّ قَالَ: يَا عَلِيُّ مَنْ قَتَلَكَ فَقَدْ قَتَلَنِي وَمَنْ أَبْغَضَكَ فَقَدْ أَبْغَضَنِي وَمَنْ سَبَّكَ فَقَدْ سَبَّنِي لأنَّكَ مِنِّي كَنَفْسِي رُوحُكَ مِنْ رُوحِي وَطِينَتُكَ مِنْ طِينَتِي إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى خَلَقَنِي وَإِيَّاكَ وَاصْطَفَانِي وَإِيَّاكَ وَاخْتَارَنِي لِلنُّبُوَّةِ وَاخْتَارَكَ لِلإِمَامَةِ وَمَنْ أَنْكَرَ إِمَامَتَكَ فَقَدْ أَنْكَرَ نُبُوَّتِي.يَا عَلِيُّ أَنْتَ وَصِيِّي وَأَبُو وُلْدِي وَزَوْجُ ابْنَتِي وَخَلِيفَتِي عَلَى أُمَّتِي فِي حَيَاتِي وَبَعْدَ مَوْتِي أَمْرُكَ أَمْرِي وَنَهْيُكَ نَهْيِي أُقْسِمُ بِالَّذِي بَعَثَنِي بِالنُّبُوَّةِ وَجَعَلَنِي خَيْرَ الْبَرِيَّةِ إِنَّكَ لَحُجَّةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ وَأَمِينُهُ عَلَى سِرِّهِ وَخَلِيفَتُهُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ.
      28-48 Muhammad ibn Bakran an-Naqash, Ahmad ibn Al-Hassan al-Qattan, Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Mo’azi and Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Mokattib narrated that Abul Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’eed al-Hamdani - a servant of the Hashemites - quoted on the authority of Ali ibn Al-Hassan ibn Ali ibn Fadhdhal, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Abil Hassan Ali ibn Musa Al-Ridha (s), on the authority of his father Musa ibn Ja’far (s), on the authority of his father As-Sadiq Ja’far ibn Muhammad (s), on the authority of his father Al-Baqir Muhammad ibn Ali (s), on the authority of his father the Ornament of the Worshippers Ali ibn Al-Hussein (s), on the authority of his father the Master of the Martyrs Al-Hussein ibn Ali (s), on the authority of his father the Master of the Trustees and the Commander of the Faithful Ali ibn Abi Talib (s) that one day God’s Prophet (s) delivered a sermon and said, “O people! The month of God (Ramadan) has come to you with blessings, mercy, and forgiveness. This is the noblest of the months to God. Its days are the noblest of the days. Its nights are the noblest of the nights. It is the month in which you have been invited to be God’s guests. You have been established as those honored by God in that month. Your breathing in this month is considered to be saying His Glorifications. Your sleeping in it is considered to be His worshipping, your deeds are accepted by Him and your supplications to Him are fulfilled. Then ask God - your Lord - with sincere intentions and pure hearts to help you succeed in His fasting and reciting His Book. Whoever gets deprived of God’s forgiveness in this great month is at a real loss. Remember the thirst and hunger of the Resurrection Day by experiencing this thirst and hunger. Give charity to your poor and indigent ones; respect your elder ones; be kind with the younger ones; visit your relations of kin; watch your tongues; lower your eyes from what your eyes are forbidden to look at; and guard your ears from what your ears are forbidden to hear. Be kind to other people’s orphans so that others may be kind to your orphans. Repent to God for your sins. Raise up your hands towards Him in supplication at the times of saying your prayers. These times are the noblest of the hours during which the Honorable the Exalted God looks upon His servants with Mercy, responds when they make supplications, replies to them when they call Him, and fulfills for them what they ask for. O people! You are tied down by your deeds. Free yourselves with your supplications. Your backs are overburdened with your sins. Make them lighter with extended prostrations. Know that the Sublime God has sworn by His Honor that He will not punish or throw into the Fire those who pray and fall in prostration on the Day on which all the people will rise for the Lord of the Worlds. O people! The reward with the Honorable the Exalted God for whoever provides for the breaking of the fast of any believer in this month is like that of freeing a slave and the forgiveness of all past sins.” The people said, “O Prophet of God! Not all of us are able to do that.” Then the Prophet (s) said, “Fend off the Fire from yourselves (by providing for the breaking of the fast of any believer) - even if it be with a piece of a date. Fend off the Fire from yourselves (by providing for the breaking of the fast of any believer) even if it be with a sip of water. O people! Whoever is good-tempered in this month will easily cross the Bridge on the Day (of Judgment) on which one’s steps are not firm. God will ease the reckoning of whoever takes it easy with those whom his right hand possesses (slaves) in this month. On the Day one meets God, God will withhold His Wrath from whoever controls his wickedness in this month. On the Day one meets God, God will honor whoever honors an orphan in this month. On the Day one meets God, He will shower His Mercy upon whoever maintains family ties in this month. God will deprive from His Mercy whoever breaks off his family ties in this month. God will record freedom from the Fire for whoever says one unit of recommendable prayers. The reward of whoever performs an obligatory deed in this month is seventy times that of one who performs the same deed in other months. The Balance of Deeds of whoever sends blessings upon me a lot will be more positive on the (Judgement) Day on which the Balance of Deeds are negative. The reward of whoever recites one verse of the Quran in this month is like the reward of one who recites the whole Quran in other months. O people! The gates of Paradise are open in this month. Then ask your Lord not to close them on you. And the gates of the Fire are closed. Then ask your Lord not to open them up to you. Satan is chained down. Then ask your Lord not to let him overcome you.” The Commander of the Faithful (Imam Ali) (s) said, “I stood up and said, ‘O Prophet of God! What are the noblest of the deeds in this month?’ The Prophet (s) said, “O Abul Hassan (s)! The noblest of the deeds in this month are abstaining from what the Honorable the Exalted God has forbidden.” Then the Prophet (s) cried. I asked him (s), “O Prophet of God! Why did you cry?” The Prophet (s) said, “O Ali! I cried for what will be done to you in this month. It is as if I see you while you are praying to your Lord and the nastiest of those of old or those of later times - as nasty as he who killed the she-camel of Thamud - will stand up and deliver such a blow to your head that your beard will get stained (with blood).” The Commander of the Faithful (Imam Ali) (s) said, “O Prophet of God! Will my religion remain intact in this situation?” The Prophet (s) said, “Your religion is intact.” The Prophet (s) then added, “O Ali! Whoever kills you has indeed killed me. Whoever despises you has indeed despised me. Whoever swears at you has indeed sworn at me. This is because you are from me and just like myself. Your spirit is from my spirit. Your clay is from my clay. In fact, the Blessed the Sublime God has created you and me, and appointed you and me. God chose me for the Prophethood and chose you for the Divine Leadership. Whoever denies your Divine Leadership has, in fact, denied my Prophethood. O Ali! You are my Trustee, the father of my grandchildren, the spouse of my daughter, the Caliph over my nation during and after my life. Your orders are just like my orders. Your admonishing is just like my admonishing. I swear by Him who has appointed me to the Prophethood and established me as the best of the people that you are God’s Proof for His creatures, the one entrusted with His Secrets and His Successor over His servants.”
      Grading:
      Muwatthaq (Zanjani's rating)
      Shaykh Asif al-Mohseni: معتبر - Mashra’at Bihar al-Anwar (2/458)
       
      Same hadith with slightly different isnad:
      فضائل الأشهر الثلاثة،ج۱،ص۷۷،ح۶۱ / موثق / حدثنا محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق قال حدثنا أحمد بن محمد الهمداني قال حدثنا علي بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال عن أبيه عن أبي الحسن علي بن موسى الرضا ع عن أبيه موسى بن جعفر ع عن أبيه الصادق جعفر بن محمد ع عن أبيه الباقر ع عن أبيه زين العابدين ع عن أبيه سيد الشهداء الحسين بن علي ع عن أبيه سيد الوصيين أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب ع قال إن رسول الله ص خطبنا [ إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله خطبنا ذات يوم…
       
      6.
       From: http://www.revivingalislam.com/2010/10/hadeeth-al-thaqalayn-in-sheeah-book.html
      حدثنا محمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني رضي الله عنه قال حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم عن أبيه عن محمد بن أبي عمير عن غياث بن إبراهيم عن الصادق جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه محمد بن علي عن أبيه علي بن الحسين عن أبيه الحسين بن علي ع قال سئل أمير المؤمنين ص عن معنى قول رسول الله ص إني مخلف فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله و عترتي من العترة فقال أنا و الحسن و الحسين و الأئمة التسعة من ولد الحسين تاسعهم مهديهم و قائمهم لا يفارقون كتاب الله و لا يفارقهم حتى يردوا على رسول الله ص حوضه
       
      Translation:  Ameer al-Mu'mineen was asked  about the Messenger of Allah's (SAWAS) words "I am leaving among you two weighty things, the Book of Allaah (Quran) and my progeny" 'Who is the progeny (`itrah)?'.  So he (Imam `Alee) said I, Hasan, Husayn and the 9 Imams from the children (i.e lineage) of Husain and the 9th from them is Al-Qaa’im and the Mahdee, and they will not separate from the Book of Allaah until they reach Messenger of Allaah at the Hawd (Pond of Kawthar).
       
      Source:  Shaykh Sadooq, Kamaal al-Deen, pg. 240-241 Hadith # 64
       
      This hadeeth has a great chain and would be graded Hasan Kal-SaHeeH (Hasan like a SaHeeH (hadeeth)), and that is only because of Ibraaheem bin Haashim Al-Qummee. All narrators in the isnaad are thiqaat (pl. thiqah).
       
      One correction Muhammad bin Ziyaad bin Ja`far Al-Hamadaanee is actually aHmad bin Ziyaad bin Ja`far Al-Hamadaanee, there seems to be a mistake in the transcription in the hadeeth, but the tabaqah (path) of their narration are the same.
       
      Conclusion
      There were some other ahaadith I could have included here, but inshaAllah this suffices to prove the point. We have multiple attestations in Shi'i books that the Prophet (s) explicitly and implicitly appointed Imam Ali (عليه السلام) such that this is considered one of the musalaamaat (things taken from granted) within the madhhab. We are therefore certain that the Imams themselves taught this central doctrine. The following questions then emerge:
      Why do the majority of Ahlul Sunnah deny that the Imams (عليه السلام) taught this doctrine? Is it really reasonable to deny hundreds of ahaadith as being the lies of the raafidha, while claiming the Imams had no hand in spreading this doctrine? If one acknowledges that the Imams indeed taught this doctrine, do they believe that the Imams were liars? For example, did Imam al-Ridah or Imam al-Sadiq simply fabricate this view from thin air? Why were they considered to be trustworthy by their contemporaries - indeed their chain of transmission is called the Golden Chain? Why is it that even in Sunni books, we find indications that Imam Ali (عليه السلام) believed himself to be the rightful caliph after the Prophet? Was Imam Ali (عليه السلام) mistaken? Why is it that these hundreds of ahaadith from the Shi'i side are not taken as a qareenah (corroborating evidence) as to what the Prophet (s) meant in the many ahaadith found in Sunni books which seem to indicate that the Prophet was appointing Imam Ali (عليه السلام)? Why is there is an insistence that hadith al-thaqalayn meant merely to love the household (not follow them), or that the meaning of "mawlaa" in hadith al-ghadeer does not mean master, when the Ahlul Bayt themselves are clearly saying otherwise?  
      A Clarification: Is this post pointless?
      A brother reached out to me asking for some clarification as to the point of this post, as it is a circular argument. I thought I had made it clear in the very first sentence of this post that a Sunni brother requested that I show him a shi'i hadith that:
      Is strong by shi'i standards Goes back to an explicit statement of the Prophet (i.e. it is not Imam al-Sadiq saying the Prophet appointed Imam Ali in his view, but rather Imam al-Sadiq quoting the Prophet, for example.) It should indicate the appointment of Imam Ali without there being any other reading of the text (unlike in strong sunni versions of hadith al-thaqalayn or hadith al-ghadeer in which there is a debate about what certain words mean etc.) The reason is because he felt that if the Shia did not have a strong hadith going back to the Prophet (s) in which the appointment of Imam Ali was not crystal clear, our argument fails before it even gets off the ground because, in his words, "succession is not indicated by ambiguous statements from which we must infer what is meant." Upon his request I tried looking through 3 or 4 baabs of al-kaafi only to be disappointed (the hadiths either didn't quote the Prophet directly, or else they did not contain the explicit words that the Sunni brother was looking for, or they were weak by our own standards). I looked online, thinking that surely someone must of done this before me, but in fact I couldn't find anything. I therefore decided to put together what I found in this post for others to benefit, in case they are ever asked this question in the future.
      The only inference I actually *do* think is a valid one is that the 500+ ahaadith in Bihar amount to evidence that the followers of the Imams were not the ones who made up the doctrine that Imam Ali was explicitly appointed, but rather that this was what their Imams taught them. In other words, if Sunnis want to call the Raafidha liars, they should start with Imam al-Sadiq rather than Hisham ibn al-Hakam. The reason for this is because even by secular historical standards, the sheer volume of narrations, chains etc that lead back to the Imams with this explicit claim make it hard to believe that dozens of independent individuals fabricated the whole thing. Furthermore, most of the chains go back to one of the known companions of an Imam which means that the burden of proof is on Sunnis to show, in an academic manner, how all of the main companions of Al-Baqir, Al-Sadiq, Al-Kadhim and al-Ridha - who came from multiple locations and throughout the span of decades, conspired to fabricate what the Imams were teaching. They must also show where the Imams denied believing in this specific doctrine (the appointment of Imam Ali), why the Imams were put under house arrest or actual prison if the Khalifa did not believe they were pinning their claim to succession on this doctrine, etc. I don't think any neutral historian can come to the conclusion that the Imams did not actually teach this point of doctrine. At the very least, it puts the burden of proof back on the Sunni who wants to conveniently claim that all of the closest companions of Imams 5-8 happened to teach the exact opposite central doctrine of what those Imams actually taught (which in their view was in fact agreeable with post-Imam Ahmad canonization.) Note: this claim is significantly different than what Shias claim about the companions of the Prophet (s) for reasons I will not get into here.
      Do I think this is an argument to end all arguments? No. I don't. It's simply a corroborating piece of evidence that one makes in their overall case. I hope this clarifies the reason behind this post.
       
    • By Qa'im in Imamology
         4
      During this occultation, there are unique trials, tests, tribulations, confusions and perplexities. Imam ar-Rida (as) said in two narrations that the Shi`a will be "refined (yuftanoon) just as gold is refined; purified just as gold is purified". (يفتنون كما يفتن الذهب، ثم قال: يخلصون كما يخلص الذهب.) When gold is taken out of the ground, it is black. During the refinement process, in order to rid it of excess minerals, it must be burned until nothing remains except pure gold. Likewise, during the occultation, "years will come that will perish them, a sword that will kill them, and a disagreement that will scatter them" (يأتي عليهم سنون تفنيهم، وسيف يقتلهم، واختلاف يبددهم  ). In the same hadith, as-Sadiq says this process will continue until 300+ true Shi`a are left. If you read the narrations on what constitutes a true Shi`a of Ahl al-Bayt, it's a very high bar that many of us will never reach. Beyond the 313 companions of the Mahdi, he will have no less than 10,000 others in his army, who will be people of taqwa, but not at the same level of yaqeen as the 313. These are the people that survive the tribulations, which will cause many Shi`as and Muslims to deviate under the heat.
      Not only are we supposed to "await the relief day and night" (ليتوقعوا الفرج صباحا ومساء), but awaiting the relief is considered a part of the relief (إنتظار الفرج من الفر ). This is a time period where we can gradually develop our relationship with the Imam and be counted from his followers without even fighting alongside him. The reward of one who recognizes him is like that of those who will be in his pavilion (ومن عرف إمامه ثم مات قبل أن يرى هذا الامر ثم خرج القائم عليه السلام كان له من الاجر كمن كان مع القائم في فسطاطه   ).
      Another spiritual instruction given to us for the occultation is to hold our tongues and stick to our homes (حفظ اللسان ولزوم البيت ). This is an indicator to the outward corruption and schism of this time period. The more time spent in the markets/malls, for example, the more likely we are to see/hear/do/buy things that are bad for our relationship with God and His representative. This is becoming increasingly the case with nudity, music marketed towards our desires, and a global culture that maximizes our ego and materialism.
      Now, if you've read in between the lines, there's a trend here. Recognition of the Imam is not just knowing his name and biography. True recognition is to have an experiential relationship with him; so much so that you begin to take on his characteristics. Imam as-Sadiq (as) says, regarding the true Shi`a, "They are those, whose lives are so simple, whose abodes move from place to another, who, if they are seen they, will not be known, if they are absent, they will not be missed, if they become ill, they will not be visited, if they propose to a woman, they will not be married, and if they die, their funerals will not be attended. It is they, who divide their wealth among them, who visit each others' graves, and who never disagree even if their countries are different.” (أولئك الخفيض عيشهم، المنتقلة دارهم، الذين إن شهدوا لم يعرفوا، وإن غابوا لم يفتقدوا، وإن مرضوا لم يعادوا، وإن خطبوا لم يزوجوا، وإن ماتوا لم يشهدوا، أولئك الذين في أموالهم يتواسون، وفي قبورهم يتزاورون، ولا تختلف أهواؤهم وإن اختلفت بهم البلدان). This isn't an instruction to be aloof, but rather, it's describing the state of the true believers of this time. They will be supporters of one another and have close ties, but to the outside world, it is as if they do not even exist. They are not recognized by their merit, and that's exactly what is happening now. The good is seen as evil, and the evil is seen as good, and so consequently, the Shi`a are despised, rejected, unrecognized, not missed, not visited, and not felt for. Sound familiar?
      This is a part of the tawalla and tabarra. Anyone can pray, fast, perform Hajj, and give alms, but the true Shi`i is the one who has a direct relationship with his Imam and disassociates from his enemies. During the time of Husayn (as), when he was calling his supporters to come with him to Karbala, it did not suffice to say "I am going to stay in Medina, pray more tahajjud, write up some fiqh manuals". The true supporter had to live Husayn's life and die his death. Those who didn't regretted that, and they became the tawwabun. During the time of as-Sadiq, he became a teacher and educator in theology and jurisprudence, and likewise, his companions were not off joining revolutions - they were students of his and teachers of the people.
      What I find fascinating is that the 313 live the life of the Hidden Imam. That is, they live simply, they are unrecognized, they are forgotten, they support one-another, and they seclude themselves from the overspreading darkness of this world. They feel the Imam's suffering and fear, and live it. But, their proximity to Imam will allow them to all travel to Mecca prior to his coming. They will be the first to give bay`a to the Imam upon his appearance. Then, they take on the new characteristics of the Imam: utmost strength, courage, initiative, and they abandon taqiyya. Then, with the Imam together, they bring justice and peace to a world fraught with tyranny and injustice.
    • By Muntazir e Mahdi in Bayaan e Muntazir
         0
      کتنی بار تو انسانیت کو مارے گا بتا؟
      کب تک تو کائینات کو رلائے گا بتا؟

      کعبة سے تو کرارؑ کو کرپایا نہ ختم
      کب تک تو دیواروں سے مٹائے گا بتا؟

      نامِ حق سے باطل تیرا کام ہے منافق
      کب تک تو حق کو جھٹلائے گا بتا؟

      تیری سیاہ روح، نہ کوئلہ، ہے جہنم کا ایندھن
      کب تک تو جلتے در سے منہ موڑے کا بتا؟

      آتا ہے بقيةللّٰهؑ اور دَورِ عدل و انصاف
      کب تک تو اپنے انجام سے بھاگے گا بتا؟

      تو  نے بہایا نہ صرف آب تو نے بہایا ہے لہو
      کب تک تو منتظر کو اس سے لکھوائے گا بتا؟
    • By Warilla in Zaidia the middle path.
         0
      Taken from IRS
      Usually, after discussing the issue of the explicit appointment of Ali (عليه السلام) the next question that usually arises is the Zaydi position on the first three Caliphs. Below is an excerpt from an aqeeda commentary Kitaab al-Idaah fi Sharh al-Misbaah:
      Regarding the judgment concerning those who preceded Amir al-Mumineen (عليه السلام) in the imamate, such as Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthmaan, the consensus of the Prophet’s Descendants holds that they were in error when they preceded him. They are declared disobedient by that. This is because the explicit appointment of ‘Ali’s imamate is established by clear and unequivocal text. Its proof was elucidated.
      Ad-Dawaari said that the majority of the Prophet’s Descendants do not consider them disobedient. Some declared them disobedient and some did not, and they disagreed. Some of them reserved judgment (tawaqqaf). This [i.e. reservation] is the position of the majority of the Zaydis. Some also pray for Allah’s pleasure for them, such as Sayyid Mu’ayyad Billah, al-Kani, Qadi Ja’far, and others.
      I say: This is the position of the majority of later Zaydis.
      They say that due to their preeminence and the Messenger’s praise for them, as well as what has come in the Qur’aan concerning Allah being pleased with them, such as the verse {Verily, Allah was pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to thee under the tree} and so forth. We are certain of their true faith, and one cannot speak of them except with true faith.
      I say: This statement does not preclude that they can never be guilty of disobedience. Our knowledge of their true faith is subject to abrogation clearly. Regarding their praise and the declaration of pleasure on them, this applies to them before being guilty of disobedience.
      They say that disobedience is either major sin or minor sin. One cannot apply their act of disobedience to either category with definitive proof.
      I say: Since it is established the imam after Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, was ‘Ali (عليه السلام), it does not apply. This is because they prevented the imam from that which was his right. This is a form of rebellion. Rebellion is a form of disobedience by consensus. It is the root of every other major sin of disobedience like that which can be proven with definitive proof. This is the original doctrine (madhhab) of the Prophet’s Descendants (عليه السلام) as was stated.
      And Allah knows best!
    • By Warilla in Zaidia the middle path.
         7
      Taken from Imam Rassi society
      Among the things that it is praiseworthy to do on Ashura is fast.
      --Imam al-Mutawakkil ala Allah, Ahmed bin Suleiman (عليه السلام) said in his Kitāb Usūl al-Ahkām :
      It is narrated on the authority of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his
      progeny, that he used to fast on ‘Ashura.
      It is narrated on the authority of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his
      progeny, that he said: (There are no days that has as much reward as the month of Ramadan and
      ‘Ashura.) There are two reports that mention the recommendation of fasting on ‘Ashura, which is the tenth
      of al-Muharram. Some of the Imamis discourage fasting because al-Hussein bin Ali (عليه السلام) was killed on
      ‘Ashura. That is not reliable (‘itimād) because fasting does not prevent grief. Also, breakfast is closer to
      the pleasure of fasting. He was killed after the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and
      his progeny, and it is not permissible to change something after a Shari`ah law has been established. It is
      narrated on the authority of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny,
      that he fasted on ‘Ashura and encouraged others to fast. It was said to him: “O Messenger of Allah, it is a
      day that is esteemed by the Jews and Christians.” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and
      his progeny, replied: ((Then, next time, we fast on the ninth day.))
      Elsewhere in the book, there are other narrations that state that Prophet, peace and blessings be upon
      him and his progeny, commanded those who ate on ‘Ashura to make it up.
      --Imam Nātiq Bil Haqq, Abu Talib Yahya bin al-Hussein al-Hārūni (عليه السلام) said in his Kitāb at-Tahrīr :
      It is recommended to fast during times where there is no difficulty or detriment to the body. One is to
      break the fast [i.e. not fast] on the days of the 2 Eids and the Days of Tashrīq. It is recommended to fast
      during the months of al-Muharram, Rajab, and Sha’ban. It is also praiseworthy to fast on Mondays and
      Thursdays. It is recommended to fast on ‘Ashura, which is the tenth of al-Muharram. It is also
      recommended to fast on the day of ‘Arafat for those in other cities. [It is also praiseworthy to fast] on the
      13th, 14th, and 15th days of every month.
      --Imam al-Qasim bin Ibrahim ar-Rassi (عليه السلام) said in his Kitab al-Wāfid:
      “The fasts of great reward include: Rajab, Sha’ban, the White Days, ‘Ashura, the day of ‘Arafat, Mondays,
      and Thursdays.”
      --Imam al-Hadi ila al-Haqq, Yahya bin al-Hussein (عليه السلام) says in Kitāb al-Ahkām :
      There’s no problem fasting on ‘Ashura. It is a good thing to do so. It is narrated on the authority of the
      Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, encouraged fasting on that day
      as something special. It is recommended to fast during times where there is no difficulty or detriment to
      the body. This is because Allah, the Exalted, does not desire hardship in acts of worship and desires
      ease for them. Allah says: {Allah desires ease for you and not difficulty} (Q. 2:185). If one is strong, they
      can fast this fast.
      It is not permitted to fast during the days of al-Fitr and al-Ažha, as well as the Days of Tashrīq. This is
      because the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, forbade fasting on
      these days. He also said that eating and drinking are to be done during these days, and one is to break
      the fast. One is not to fast on these days.
      I relate on the authority of my father on the authority of his father who was asked about fasting on
      ‘Ashura, which day is it, and fasting on ‘Arafat: He replied: “Fasting on that day is a beautiful act and there
      is a lot of reward in doing so. There’s no harm in refraining from it. It is also a lot of reward in fasting on
      the day of ‘Arafat. It is expiation for that year. Concerning ‘Ashura, it is on the 10th. There is no
      disagreement concerning that.
      Among the blameworthy things to do is wail and strike oneself out of grief Imam al-Mutawakkil ala Allah, Ahmed bin Suleiman (عليه السلام) says in his Kitāb Usūl al-Ahkām :
      It is narrated on the authority of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny: ((Two
      evil sounds are cursed in this world and the hereafter: the sound of lamenting from one in mourning who
      rip their pockets, scratch their faces, and laments the lamentations of Satan; as well as the sound of one
      who celebrates a blessing with mindless entertainment (lahw) and the flutes of Satan)).
      It is narrated on the authority of Zayd bin ‘Ali—his ancestors—‘Ali, upon them be peace: “The Prophet,
      peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, said: ((The one who shaves, lashes, rips, and calls
      out of woe and grief, is not one of us)). Zayd bin ‘Ali said: “‘Shaves’ refers to shaving one’s hair. ‘Lashes’
      refers to cries of the wailers. ‘Rips’ refers to ripping one’s pockets.
      Our comments: The proof of lashing out severely is in the statement of Allah, the Exalted: {But when fear
      departs, they lash at you with their sharp tongues} (Q. 33:19).
      It is narrated on the authority of ‘Ali, upon him be peace, that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon
      him and his progeny, prohibited wailing.
      It is narrated on the authority of ‘Abdur-Rahmān bin ‘Awf who said: I took the Prophet, peace and
      blessings be upon him and his progeny, by the hand and we went with to his son, Ibrāhīm, may Allah
      bless him, who passed away. He buried him and then cried. I then said: “O Messenger of Allah, do you
      cry after prohibiting it?” He replied: ((I did not prohibit crying. However, I did prohibit two types of evil
      sounds: the sound of one who celebrates a blessing with mindless entertainment and the flutes of Satan;
      as well as the sound of lamenting by slapping one’s cheeks (laŧm) and ripping one’s pockets. This [i.e.
      crying] is a mercy. The one who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy)).
      Therefore crying for Imam al-Husswen (عليه السلام) and his family is permissible, but wailing isn't.
      And Allah knows best!
    • By Ali in ShiaChat.com Blog
         26
      [This will be a series of blog entries on the history of ShiaChat.com; how it was founded, major ups and down, politics and issues behind running such a site and of course, the drama!  I will also provide some feedback on development efforts, new features and future goals and objectives]
      Part 1 - The IRC (#Shia) Days!
      Sit children, gather around and let me speak to you of tales of times before there was ever high-speed Internet, Wi-Fi, YouTube or Facebook; a time when the Internet was a much different place and 15 yearold me was still trying to make sense of it all. 
      In the 90s, the Internet was a very different place; no social media, no video streaming and downloading an image used to take anywhere from 5-10 minutes depending on how fast your 14.4k monster-sized dial-up modem was.  Of course you also had to be lucky enough for your mom to have the common courtesy not to disconnect you when you’re in the middle of a session; that is if you were privileged enough to have Internet at home and not have to spend hours at school or libraries, or looking for AOL discs with 30 hour free trials..(Breathe... breathe... breathe) -  I digress.
      Back in 1998 when Google was still a little computer sitting in Larry Page and Sergey Brin’s basement, I was engaged in endless debates with our Sunni brothers on an IRC channel called #Shia.  (Ok, a side note here for all you little pups.  This is not read as Hashtag Shia, the correct way of reading this is “Channel Shia”.  The “Hashtag” was a much cooler thing back in the day than the way you young’uns use it today).
      For those of you who don’t know what IRC was (or is... as it still exists), it stands for Internet Relay Chat, which are servers available that you could host chat rooms in and connect through a client.  It was like the Wild West where anyone can go and “found” their own channel (chat room), become an operator and reign down their god-like dictator powers upon the minions that were to join as a member of their chat room.  Luckily, #Shia had already been established for a few years before by a couple of brothers I met from Toronto, Canada (Hussain A. and Mohammed H.).  Young and eager, I quickly rose up the ranks to become a moderator (@Ali) and the chatroom quickly became an important part of my adolescent years.  I learned everything I knew from that channel and met some of the most incredible people.  Needless to say, I spent hours and dedicated a good portion of my life on the chatroom; of course, the alternate was school and work but that was just boring to a 15-year-old.
      In the 90’s, creating a website was just starting to be cool so I volunteered to create a website for #Shia to advertise our services, who we are, what we do as well as have a list of moderators and administrators that have volunteered to maintain #Shia.  As a result, #Shia’s first website was hosted on a friend’s server under the URL http://786-110.co.uk/shia/ - yes, ShiaChat.com as a domain did not exist yet – was too expensive for my taste so we piggybacked on one of our member’s servers and domain name.
      The channel quickly became popular, so popular that we sometimes outnumbered our nemesis, #Islam.  As a result, our moderator team was growing as well and we needed a website with an application that would help us manage our chatroom in a more efficient style.  Being a global channel, it was very hard to do “shift transfers” and knowledge transfers between moderators as the typical nature of a chatroom is the fact that when a word is typed, its posted and its gone after a few seconds – this quickly became a pain point for us trying to maintain a list of offenders to keep an eye out for and have it all maintained in a historical, easily accessible way.
      A thought occurred to me.  Why not start a “forum” for the moderators to use?  The concept of “forums” or discussion boards was new to the Internet – it was the seed of what we call social media today.  The concept of having a chat-style discussion be forever hosted online and be available for everyone to view and respond to at any time from anywhere was extremely well welcomed by the Internet users.  I don’t recall what software or service I initially used to set that forum up, but I did – with absolutely no knowledge that the forum I just set up was a tiny little acorn that would one day be the oak tree that is ShiaChat.com.
      [More to follow, Part 2..]
      So who here is still around from the good old #Shia IRC days?
  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    No registered users viewing this page.

  • Blog Statistics

    84
    Total Blogs
    456
    Total Entries
×
×
  • Create New...