Jump to content

Imamology

  • entries
    38
  • comments
    389
  • views
    10,980

What We Should Learn From the Nation of Islam

Qa'im

276 views

  150213162305-15-malcolm-x-restricted-sup

 

When Elijah Muhammad went to court and the judge asked him about his aim and purpose, he said he was going to make Black America Islamic. The judge said that making black people Muslims was like putting pants on an elephant. Elijah Muhammad said, "I got one pant-leg on already."[1]

 

In 2012, my student society invited the late grandson of Malcolm X, Malcolm El Shabazz, to speak at our university. I had some knowledge of his grandfather’s history, having watched Spike Lee’s legendary 1992 biopic, but I did not have a thorough understanding of the history of Islam in America. His appearance at the University of Toronto drew in a large audience.

We spoke briefly before his speech about the cold Toronto weather and his seminary studies in Syria, and I bought him two coffees – a double-double and an iced cappuccino. It was probably too cold for the iced cap, but it was a signature Canadian beverage at Tim Hortons that we felt he may enjoy. After the speech, Malcolm expressed his gratitude for the warm welcome, and even called me “a sincere brother”.[1]

Although Malcolm El Shabazz had the tenacity of his grandfather, he was a troubled young man. After a life of run-ins with the police, Malcolm was killed in 2013 at a night club in Mexico under peculiar circumstances.[2] At the time I had just finished reading The End of American Lynching by Ashraf Rushdy, which details the history of racial oppression in America. The loss of this new friend prompted me to devote some time to studying the Civil Rights Movement – a story of persecution, loss, and eventual healing and rejuvenation.

I was skipping university readings to flip through books, papers, and videos that pertained to contemporary black history. I found the topic to not only be socially relevant, but spiritually uplifting and inspiring. The story of suffering ex-slaves fighting fearlessly for their inalienable rights spoke to me. The Nation of Islam taught that the black man was robbed of his name, language, culture, country, God, and religion. Their spirit and valour could only remind me of the Israelite bondage in Egypt, or the Arabian Age of Ignorance. Nations are born out of trial and tribulation. Eventually, people pull together in tough times for a greater good, and they can find success even when all they have on their side is a kernel of truth.

There are some obvious and irreconcilable differences between traditional Islamic theology and the teachings of the Nation of Islam. Sunni and Shia Muslims feel queasy at the suggestion that God’s attributes were manifest in Master Fard Muhammad, that all whites are devils, and that Elijah Muhammad was the messenger of God. These issues aside, there is much to learn from the Nation of Islam’s example. They were arguably the most successful and the most socially-relevant Western Islamic movement in history.

Social Relevance

By the 1970s, the Nation of Islam had nearly two million members, almost all of whom were converts from a Christian background. The fact that many victims of the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade were Muslim[3] perpetuated the idea that Islam was the proper religion of the African American. Malcolm X was able to present the Nation of Islam’s enigmatic teachings to the public in a way that highlighted the need for separation, independence, and sovereignty for black people. Within a few short years, Malcolm X’s wit, charm, and hard work brought hundreds of thousands of people to the organization. The organization was still growing exponentially even after the controversy surrounding Malcolm’s assassination.

In 1974, the Nation of Islam owned enough assets to create a budding, self-sufficient community: over one hundred and fifty mosques, over forty schools, a newspaper plant, farms, a bank, apartment complexes, restaurants, grocery stores, clothing stores, a national trucking system, and an aviation department.[4] Whether or not territorial independence was viable, the Nation of Islam created an independent subculture and economic unit. This frightened the U.S government. The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover actively tried to sabotage the movement and “prevent the rise of a ‘messiah’ who could unify and electrify the militant black nationalist movement.”[5] In 1996, then-Libyan leader Muammar Qadhafi offered to give the group one billion dollars, until the donation was blocked by the Clinton administration.[6] Still, the unmatched coordination of the Nation of Islam attracted the brief support of the D.C. Department of Public and Assisted Housing.[7]

In 1995, the Nation of Islam held the historic Million Man March rally in Washington DC, which brought leading African American figures together to demand justice and reproach, including Rosa Parks, Betty Shabazz, Jesse Jackson, and Jeremiah Wright.

Diet

The group’s unique diet was one of the primary means by which Master Fard Muhammad and the Nation of Islam were able to hook-in African American converts. The diet not only cut down food expenditures during the Great Depression, but it purported to have improved the general health of adherents.[8]

Master Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad developed a strict diet that makes a traditional Muslim diet look easy. Not only did the Nation of Islam fast and abstain from pork and alcohol, but they only ate one meal per day. This was done to prepare adherents for the possible severity that national independence or apocalypse may cause.[9] To improve their general health, Black Muslims mostly ate vegetables, fish, whole-wheat bread, and chicken; and they would avoid all non-halal and non-kosher meats.[10] Even beef and potatoes were to be avoided for being too coarse and too starchy respectively.[11]

Realism

Every member of the Nation of Islam is put into one of two institutions: males became part of the Fruit of Islam (FOI), and females became part of the Muslim Girls’ Training (MGT) program. The FOI is a paramilitary force with its own hierarchy that is trained to protect and provide provision for the Nation of Islam. They wear distinct blue uniforms and provide security for social and religious functions. The MGT educates women on home economics, housekeeping duties and self-defence.

There is a strong sense of responsibility in the sect that reportedly commands respect and better job opportunities for black people.[12] Indeed, devotees to the movement were encouraged to be clean, well-spoken, obedient, fearless, and abstinent from intoxicants and other vices – all traits that employers would give preference to, especially during tough economic times.

The emphasis on self-knowledge and self-emancipation, which was probably borrowed from Marcus Garvey, gave an urgent sense that black people should not wait for America to do for them what they can do for themselves. They would commonly ask, why rely on your ex-slave masters when you could pool in your own resources to build a future for your people?

The Nation of Islam was undoubtedly a realist organization that did not buy into Martin Luther King’s “dream” of an integrated America. After all, they believed that Caucasians were flesh-and-blood devils that Allah would soon destroy, and so whites were to be seen as rivalling competitors rather than potential allies.

Furthermore, unlike Black Lives Matter, the Nation of Islam puts a special emphasis on uplifting African American males from drug and alcohol abuse, gang violence, and hook-up culture. The perceived downfall of black men due to social ills was the primary motivation for the Million Man March.

 

What could traditional Muslims learn from this example?

The Nation of Islam proved that Muslims could be brazen and unapologetic; and not have to rely on co-opting forces in the political system to thrive in the West. Despite governmental censures on the organization and its leaders, the Nation of Islam produced Malcolm X, Muhammad Ali, Warith Deen Muhammad and Louis Farrakhan, who collectively introduced millions of people to the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad. The subculture the sect created heavily influenced the worlds of sports, music, and intermittent dieting in America.

The Nation of Islam sought to give a religious hue to the issue of civil rights. As people of faith, we don’t see all suffering as simply a result of natural or systemic causes. Rather, some suffering has a divine function that includes trial, refinement, and chastisement. The Million Man March’s major themes included “Affirmation and Responsibility” and “Atonement and Reconciliation”, which emphasized that a return to traditional values and religious duties would bring about Allah’s succor and uplift legitimate grievances. Malcolm X’s example in particular shows that daʿwa cannot exist in a vacuum; but rather it has to be complimented with a socially-relevant message.

The reformative power of our religion is something that many traditional Muslims are forgetting. The Nation of Islam targeted addicts, sex-workers, inmates, and broken families, and turned them into productive and upright citizens. They knew that their teachings, which are heavily influenced by the Quran, could “resurrect” their people. On the other hand, immigrant communities often neglect and ostracize Muslim individuals for their marital status, education, poverty and past crimes or sins. One must remember that the Prophet Muhammad never walked away from his people, despite the debauchery that they took part in jahiliyya.

Muslims in North America and Europe should not only be passport-carrying doctors and engineers, but a self-sufficient international community with its own sense of purpose, loyal only to our own values and worldview. The Umma is the true shining city on the hill, and that light could foist the second pant-leg on.


[2] Mitchell, John L., and Jack Chang. “Searching for Mecca.” Vice, Vice, 13 Dec. 2013, www.vice.com/en_ca/article/dpwpz7/searching-for-mecca-0000178-v20n12.

[3] Austin, Allan. African Muslims in Antebellum America, A Sourcebook. New York: Garland Press, 1984.

[4] Saviour's Day 1974. YouTube, YouTube, 17 Feb. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rh8VnhCjzbQ.

[5] Farley, Jonathan David. “Preventing the Rise of a 'Messiah'.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 4 Apr. 2008, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/apr/04/preventingtheriseofamessi

[6] Dorothy Gaiter, “Nation of Islam Tries to Accept gift of $1 Billion from Libya, The Wall Street Journal, 26 August 1996, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB841007141275125500

[7] “D.C. HIRES NATION OF ISLAM GUARDS FOR SE COMPLEX.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 4 May 1995, www.washingtonpost.com/archive/local/1995/05/04/dc-hires-nation-of-islam-guards-for-se-complex/04352e30-6ad8-48fc-8de5-57a1283b7647/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.f2b7a21a48a5.

[8] Beynon, “American Journal of Sociology.” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 43, no. 6, 1938, pp. 895, 906.

[9] Sahib, H. (2018). Contributions in Black Studies, Vol 13 No. 1, pp. 89

[10] Ibid

[12] Sahib, H. (2018). Contributions in Black Studies, Vol 13 No. 1, pp. 87

 


[1] “The Final Call.” Willie Lynch Letter: The Making of a Slave, www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Minister_Louis_Farrakhan_9/Death_Stands_at_the_Door_-Pt_II_973.shtml. http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/Minister_Louis_Farrakhan_9/Death_Stands_at_the_Door_-Pt_II_973.shtml



3 Comments


Recommended Comments

What's always struck me as interesting is how the Nation of Islam's prominence in the 20th century fuelled an image of an American Muslim as an ethical, virtuous figure who would abstain from the societal debauchery that exists around him (before this characterisation was reversed post-9/11). The NOI brought Islam to the forefront of American public consciousness for the first time, and its mission of giving Blacks respectability and a sense of purpose was the catalyst for Americans to formulate a notion of 'what' a Muslim was for the first time. To America in the '60's and 70's, a quintessential Muslim was Black, native-born, often a convert, and always socially-driven and self-disciplined. You can see examples of this in pop culture as late as the 1990's, such as Tupac Shakur rapping about how his homies that converted to Islam gave up on 'living large' for a more chaste lifestyle.

"Oh you a Muslim now, no more dope game / Heard you might be comin' home, just got bail / Wanna go to the Mosque, don't wanna chase females / I seems I lost my little homie he's a changed man / Hit the pen and now no sinnin' is the game plan." (1996)

It's easy to see how these stereotypes have shifted in the last few decades with waves of immigration reducing the proportion of African-American Muslims (although they still constitute almost 30% of Muslims in the USA) and the War on Terror demonizing the communities that have grown since. 

Share this comment


Link to comment

As Salaam Alaikum

Ashura, Karbala

What's important in the Lost Found Nation of Islam in the West to learn is first the knowledge of self and secondly the presence of God in being (person) or existence. These two subjects Self and God is the knowledge that was stripped away from the so-called African slaves and their descendants the so-called American Negro or African American as they are called today. 

Mentioning W F Muhammad twpadf, I wanted to give you a understanding of what the W means in his name something, that a minister like Malcolm X may not or would not have expounded on because those who he would have been teaching would not have been prepared to understand the meaning. That kind of teaching the student would have gotten after the student was initiated into the school or University of Islam and by way of studying the meaning.

The W means wilayat.

Edited by Maki D Cabarete

Share this comment


Link to comment

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now
  • Latest Blog Entries

    • By 3wliya_maryam in deep poetry
         0
      Some days feel low and some days feel high
      some days I find joy and some days I just cry
      its a mixture of heightened emotions that I can’t even describe
      some days feel tough and some days feel like a breeze
      some days I find comfort and some days I can’t find ease
      its a mixture of heightened emotions I can’t even describe
       
      lost and trapped in this loophole
      don’t know when I'll get it under control
    • By Haji 2003 in Contemporania
         35
      W.I.M stands for 'woe is me".
      We get new threads on Shiachat started by new posters who typically relate some domestic issue where a woman has been badly treated by either the father or the husband and occasionally some other male.
      The story, since these posts are typically reasonably long, has a fair amount of detail and explanation and has clearly been written by someone with a reasonably good command of the English language. We are not talking about someone who has secretly grabbed access to the village computer in some remote part of a developing country.
      Not unreasonably the post elicits uncritical sympathy from most Shiachatters. After all, if you saw Bambi's mother wounded in the forest would you not do all you could to support her and criticise the hunter in the process? 
      Given the patriarchal nature of Muslim societies, the collateral damage is, of course, the implicit criticism of such societies, their institutions, cultural norms and so on. So for example, if someone has been taken advantage of through the use of mutah, then invariably there will be concerns directed at the practice and the people who engage in it.
      And to my mind, that is the objective of these threads. 
      The following are the reasons why I usually have grave reservations about their authenticity:
      The person writing them is articulate and educated. They know how to construct a narrative that works. This is not an easy skill to acquire. Their spelling and sentence construction are always good. This matters because such education does not exist in a vacuum. Anyone who is educated to this level has a knowledge of their environment and you'd expect the support systems where they could get help (if that is what they wanted). The poster typically writes about a situation where they were taken advantage of, sometimes as a result of their lack of knowledge e.g. the terms of mutah. Now that situation would be entirely reasonable if the person was writing about a situation pre-internet. However, if they are writing about any event within the last 5-10 years the question which arises is that any google search of various Islamic issues throws up results that include Shiachat discussions. We are therefore being led to believe that the first time this person heard of Shiachat is when the situation imploded and not beforehand. Allied to this point the question why someone would turn to anonymous, generally unqualified strangers for help when it would make more sense to approach organisations and institutions they were familiar with and which would both offer an independent and trustworthy point of view. If someone can find shiachat on google they can find such resources. There are often references to the poster's fragile state of mind, which in my opinion is simply there to head off any uncritical assessment. In developed countries the first person anyone would go to in a fragile state of mind would be there local G.P. (doctor) and they would refer the person to appropriate sources of help. Such stories are always about 'relationships'. The topic is sexy and everyone has an unqualified opinion. We don't get similar posts about any other aspect of human activity. We don't get anonymous new posters writing in detail about the challenges they face in terms of choosing between medicine or engineering, for example.  The question then is what motivates such posters?
      In my opinion, it is to attack Islamic and Shia institutions and practices, it is to sow discord amongst board members and certainly it is to provide ammunition for those board members who have an anti-Islamic agenda and who can use these stories as the basis for attacking people with a more orthodox mindset.
      You may well ask what would qualify such threads as being genuine. 
      I'd expect a genuine poster to leave out the 'gory' details. After all, that is for the benefit of feeding the bun fight that is supposed to follow. I would expect a genuine person to explain in very general terms the situation that they are facing and then to ask posters if they are familiar with any sources of support in a particular country or region (this assume that they can't find such resources themselves). At a push, I would say that a new poster could say that they wanted to speak to someone qualified and whether board members or moderators could point them in the right direction.
    • By starlight in Light Beams
         9
      Salam everyone, 
      Recently, I had the privilege to attend a workshop on the above topic and I took some notes.The actual workshop was much more thorough and extensive and full of valuable information. I am posting just a few points here which in my opinion are the most commonly made errors and other things we tend to overlook as falliable humans, with the intention that we can all InshaAllah improve our Taharrat and Salat. (These are as per rulings of Ayatullah Sistani(may Allahسُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى prolong his life) May Allah shower his bounties upon the brother who conducted such a useful workshop.
      Do not stand [for prayer] within it - ever. A mosque founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy for you to stand in. Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves. -Quran 9:108
      GHUSL
      1. While doing ghusl people generally wash the body first and then continue with the Niyyah of ghusl. If they are doing this then what needs to be done is, make a demarcation between regular washing and ghusl. So one washes himself/herself as in a regular shower -->  steps out of the shower ---> makes Niyyah for ghusl --> steps back in. 
      OR
      regular washing --> turn tap/shower off --> do ghusl niyyah --> turn tap on.
      2. Head should always be washed first(ghusl e tartibi) It's mustahab to wash the right side first. The rest of the body can be washed in any direction, even from feet up.
      3. Tattoes; If the ink is on the skin and forms a barrier to the water reaching the skin, it should be removed. If the ink is under the skin, nothing needs to be done.
      4. Wajib ghusl often compensates for Wudhu, but if one passes wind during or after ghusl then for the purpose of praying namaz, either the person does a separate wudhu afterwards or starts ghusl again ( step out --> do niyyah --> step in shower again)  
      5.Body parts often missed in ghusl - under the chin, neck, armpits, under the feet. 
      WUDDHU
       1. One wuddhu for all salats is sufficient even if one did specific niyyah for one salat. So you can do wuddhu in the afternoon with niyyah for Zuhr for example, and pray asar, maghrib and isha with the same wuddhu ( as long as nothing happens which invalidates the wuddhu) things which invalidate wuddhu:  https://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2159/
      2. Wuddhu consists of:
      - two washes (face & arms)
      - two wipes (head & feet)
      Washing face
      While washing the face start from the forehead, go from the hairline to the chin vertically.One has to wash from top to bottom. Horizontally, the span of one spread hand (from thumb to little finger should be covered) 
      one wash is good, second wash is good, third wash makes wuddhu BAATIL. 
      False eyelashes need to to removed.  
      Washing Arms 
      Start a little above the elbows just to be on the safe side. Go right upto the fingertips. (People sometimes tend to miss washing the hands or fingertips since they might already be wet, but they must be covered while washing the arms) 
      As for face one wash is good, second is good, but third wash makes wuddhu BAATIL. Once you have poured the water from the elbow to the finger tips you can wipe/rub with your hand all you want to make the water reach the between the fingers or all round the arms, but if you pour water again and again it will count as second and third washes and makes wuddhu invalid.
      INGLOT or other nail polishes which claim to be water permeable, it's better to remove them. 
      Wiping head and feet
      The breadth of wiping both the head and feet is three joined fingers
      The areas to be wiped should be dry
      While wiping the head ,the moisture doesn't have to reach the skin. Wiping can be done on the hair too UNLESS a.there is some oil based gel etc or some other barrier or b.hair are long that they fall on the face then one should part the hair and do the wiping on the scalp. Recommended is that the head should be wiped from back to front. 
      While wiping the feet and head, it's the hand that should be moving on the head and feet. The head should be stationary and feet shouldn't be moving(so ideally no wobbling while trying to wipe one foot then another) nothing wrong if they move a little but repeating again, its the hand that should be moved over the head. So if one place his palm over the head for wiping and moves his head instead of his hand , his wuddhu is BAATIL. 
      The moisture for wiping should come from the wudhu itself, means no wetting of hands again after washing arms, for wiping. If the weather is hot and one's hands become dry quickly after washing one can obtain moisture from his beard for wiping.
      The sequence of Wuddhu must be followed; washing of face --> washing of right arm --> washing of left arm --> wiping of head --> wiping of feet 
      The wuddhu must be uninterrupted.Maintain continuity in Wuddhu, means you cannot wash your face, watch 5 minutes of football and then start washing your right arm. lolz
      SALAT
      While saying takbiratul ehram, body must be stationary.
      Raising of hands while saying takbir is mustahab, not wajib.
      A person should pronounce Takbiratul ehram clearly and with the correct pronunciation. For eg say Allahu Akbar and not Allah wakbar
      In Wajib namaz,If one chooses to recite Surah Quraish after Fatiha then Surah Fil has to recited with Surah Quraish. Similarly, Surah Nashra  and Surah Dhuha have to recited together.
      The is no islamic basis of turning the rings towards palm in Qunoot
      Tashahhud: Ashhadu alla illaha illal lah, wahdahu la shareeka lah, wa ashhadu anna Mohamman abduhu wa rasuluh
      While saying tasleem either one says all three, or one can say just the last one(bare minimum). But he can't say just the first one (Assalmu Alaika Ayyuhan Nabiyu wa Rahmatul Lahi wa Barakatuh) or just the second one( Assalamu Alaina wa Ala Ibadil Lahis Saliheen) or just the first and second so either its all three or just the last one (Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatul Lahi wa Barakatuh)
      SOME GENERAL ADVICE:
      1. It is very important that a person learns correct recitation and pronunciation of the surahs in Salat. there aren't many, so we should invest some time listening to the recitation on you tube etc in an attempt to master the recitation.
      2. There are several duas that can be recited in while performing wudhu. They are available on duas.org.  http://www.duas.org/wadhu.htm   What one can do is, print them out, put them in a plastic cover and put them on the wall besides his place of wuddhu.
      3. Something that I have implemented in my life over the past few couple of years. Whenever you go to the bathroom or restroom,or before going to bed make it a habit to do wuddhu. Takes only a minute or so, but the sawab and benefits you get is enormous. for eg.He who renews his ablution without [the need to do so to purify] an impurity, Allah renews his repentance without him [needing to] asking for forgiveness.’ Imam al-Sadiq (AS) [Wasael al-Shi`aah , v. 1, p. 264, no.7
    • By Haji 2003 in Contemporania
         2
      In a previous blog post I identified threads that I considered problematic, since they had the (un)intended effect of causing friction with the Shiachat community.
      I think that friction emanates from people on both sides of the debate taking an emotional approach to the issues. While I cannot legislate for those people who deliberately want to diminish the faith, those people who want to take a pro-Islamic constructive approach could consider the following suggestions.
      In order to address such posts you do not need to question elements of the story, if you do it just draws attention away from the OP to you (which is a possible intended purpose of such posts). So take the narrative at face value. You are welcome to make factual observations and no moderator can take down your post if you do this. If the OP's thread makes reference to unIslamic behaviour, you can point this out (but stay factual, remember a possible goal of such threads is to present Islam as unsympathetic). You are also welcome to make observations of errors in the OPs understanding of Islamic concepts and those of their oppressors. Your task here is to move criticisms away from Islamic teachings and institutions and onto individuals and their misunderstandings If there are practical and legal solutions to the problem point these out. Often the OP will have ignored these in order to elicit an emotional response and it is worth focusing on these practical solutions. You can thereby present yourself as being helpful and constructive, while at the same time undermining the OPs (possible) agenda .
    • By 3wliya_maryam in deep poetry
         1
      Thought I was never going to change
      Now thinking about it just feels strange
      'Cause I never used to see it coming
      I saw myself changing and chose to ignore it
      It was for the good but mostly for the bad
      Even after I realised, I was neither happy nor sad
      I became nicer but less faithful 
      Maybe I should've been more careful
      The things I told myself I was never going to do 
      Now I do them like it's not so bad
      I know I didn't completely change to the worst 
      But I know my level in faith decreased
      Maybe I just wanted to fit in 
      And experience it all
      Maybe I felt like I was restricting myself too much 
      I do not know when I'll climb back 
      When I'll return back to my original phase
      Where I was so dedicated to my faith.
      No matter what obstacle would try and deceive me.
      Never thought I was going to change
      Now thinking about it just feels strange
      'Cause I never used to see it coming
      I saw myself changing and chose to ignore it.
    • By 3wliya_maryam in deep poetry
         1
      Such hard things in life that you can't even cope 
      But with God by your side, you can't just lose hope
      All that pain keeping you up tonight 
      You just gotta keep reminding yourself that it's alright
      For that silent growing pain is only temporary.
      Strengthening our faith and pushing away the guilt that wasn't even necessary.
    • By 3wliya_maryam in deep poetry
         0
      Overthinking is everybody's greatest weakness
      Did I say or do something wrong?
      What does that person think of me?
      Does he/she hate me?
      Is it really my fault ?
      Did I make a good or bad impression?
      Was I exaggerating?
      Was I being a hypocrite?
      Maybe I shouldn't have said that
      I shouldn't have made that person think of me that way
      Why does he/she hate me?
      I know that it was my fault
      I know I made a bad impression
      I know I was over exaggerating 
      I know I was being a hypocrite
      Overthinking is like smashing your head against a wall
      You keep smashing your head, knowing that nothing's gonna change
      No matter how much you think of that situation 
      Everything will stay the same.
  • Recently Browsing   0 members

    No registered users viewing this page.

  • Blog Statistics

    73
    Total Blogs
    363
    Total Entries
×