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Did the Imam Curse Zurara?


Islamic Salvation

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قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: رحم الله زرارة بن أعين لو لا زرارة و نظراؤه لاندرست أحاديث أبي عليه السلام

Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: May Allah have mercy on Zurara b. A`yan, if it was not for Zurara and his peers the narrations of my father عليه السلام would have perished

سمعت أبا عبد اللّه عليه السلام يقول: لعن اللّه زرارة!

I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: may Allah curse Zurara!

 

Did the Imam Curse Zurara?

Zurara is such an important narrator in the Madhhab. No one has narrated more narrations than him. There are more than two thousand surviving Hadiths attributed to him in our books. No surprise then to find that we have a lot of reports of praise from the `Aimma confirming his esteemed status. A bit more difficult to explain away is the not insignificant number of narrations that portray him in a negative light. These have been latched onto by polemicists who believe that they can damage the Madhhab by weakening this man who transmitted such a lot of knowledge from the `Aimma that he became a cornerstone of our Fiqh. How do we defend him? There is a reliable text preserved by al-Kashshi in his book which I believe is useful in explaining this phenomenon preserving as it does a candid assessment by the Imam of the real situation.

The words of the Imam are indented and a relevant commentary is provided directly below each section. The  text can be accessed in its entirety here https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/zurara-b-ayan [See No. 17/172]

 

Abdallah b. Zurara said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: convey my salutations of peace to your father and say to him …

The letter that the Imam dictates to this son of Zurara is done in confidence and with the expectation that no one else will come to know of its contents. It seems to have been prompted by Zurara’s grief, conveyed directly to the Imam, for censuring him to fellow companions and others, such that word reached back to him. Zurara seeks to clarify what the Imam’s true opinion of him is.

 

I only defame you as a way of defending you, for the masses and the enemy hasten to whomever we draw near and praise his station so as to cause harm to the one we love and bring close. They accuse such a one because of our love for him and his closeness and intimacy with us, and they consider causing him harm and even killing him as justified. On the other hand, they praise every one whom we fault even if his affair is not praiseworthy. Thus, I fault you because you have become notorious as a result of your association with us and your inclination towards us, which have caused you to become blamable in the eyes of the people and your works to be looked upon unfavourably, all this because of your love for us and your inclination towards us. So I wished to fault you so that they can praise your religious stand as a result of my denigrating and diminishing you, and this becomes a way of warding off their evil from you. 

This narration is important because it is the lens through which all the negative narrations about Zurara should be seen. The Imam explains his rationale for publicly cursing Zurara i.e. the Imam is defending his companion through Taqiyya.  As he notes, the enemy wishes to bring down everyone they draw near, a fate which he does not wish for Zurara. Zurara was particularly at risk because of how many narrations he had from them and how closely he was associated to them.

 

Allah Majestic and Mighty says: “as for the boat then it belonged to the poor working at sea so I wished to damage it because there was a king after them who seizes every good boat by force” (18:79) … No by Allah! he did not damage it except that it be saved from the king and is not ruined in his hands. It was a ‘good’ boat which had no question of being defective Allah be praised, so comprehend the parable, may Allah have mercy on you!

The Imam likens his act of criticizing Zurara to Khidhr damaging the fisherman’s boat, both seem ostensibly cruel on the surface but they are ultimately done to secure the very person they seem to hurting.

 

… this is a revelation from Allah [including the word] ‘good’

The Qira’a of the Ahlulbayt includes the word صالحة in the verse which is not there in our existing copies. This can be seen as an interpretive addition which happens to be quite straightforward and does not go against conventional understanding. This is also how Ibn Mas`ud and Ubay b. Ka`b read the verse [See Tafsir al-Tabari].

 

You are by Allah! the most beloved of people to me and the most beloved of the companions of my father in my estimation both in life and after death. Indeed you are the best boat in that tumultuous and stormy sea, and there is a tyrannical and usurping king after you, keeping watch for the crossing of every good boat returning from the sea of guidance so that he can take it for himself and seize it and its owners, so may the mercy of Allah be upon you in life and His mercy and pleasure be upon you after death.

This is the true status of Zurara in the eyes of the Imam. It becomes very clear that Zurara is the principal companion of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq and the closest to them. This tallies with the Madhhab’s conception of his status where he is seen as the greatest of their companions barring Muhammad b. Muslim which is arguable.

 

Let not your heart constrict in grief if Abu Basir comes to you with the opposite of that which you were instructed by my father and by me, for by Allah! we did not instruct you and him except with an instruction that is fitting to act upon both for us and for you, and for each [instruction, even if seemingly contradictory] we have diverse expressions and interpretations which all agree with the truth. And if we were allowed [to explain] you would come to know that the truth is in that which we have instructed you.

The Imam acknowledges a second problem which Zurara seems to have raised which is the Ikhtilaf [differences] of instructions which are attributed to them. The Imam accepts that these may indeed go back to them but notes that they have a reason for every instruction they give even if the companions cannot fully comprehend the reasons behind them. However, the Imam is very clear that despite the seeming diverse answers there is a way to reconcile them and all agree with the truth. 

 

The one who has divided you is your shepherd who has been given authority by Allah over His creation. He [the shepherd] is more aware of what is in the interest of his flock and what can corrupt it. If he wishes he divides between them to safe-guard them, then he unites them once more so that it is secure from destruction and the fear posed by its enemy, in such a time as Allah permits, bringing it thereby safety from His place of safety and relief from Him. Upon you is to submit and to refer back to us and to await our affair and your affair and our relief and your relief. 

The significance of these words of the Imam cannot be overstated. It reveals that the `Aimma would purposely teach different things to different Ashab aiming to purposely divide them. Elsewhere it is explained that they saw Madhhabic uniformity among their followers especially in rituals as being a distinctive marker that would make them a target. What the companions have to understand is that answering differently to different people is the prerogative of the Imam. No one can question this practice. What the companions have to do is submit fully to whatever they receive from the `Aimma and know that it has an explanation behind it for which the time is not ripe. All will be finally revealed when the time comes.

 

However [if you do not submit wholly then], if our Riser were to rise and our Speaker speak and he recommences teaching you the Qur’an, the Laws of religion, the rulings and inheritance shares the way Allah revealed them to Muhammad the ‘people of insight’ among you will repudiate it on that day a bitter repudiation, then you will not remain steadfast upon the religion of Allah and his path except under the threat of the sword over your necks!

If the companions cannot submit now, when they have lived through a chain of living Imams, then it augurs badly for the reaction of the self-appointed ‘people of insight’ who will be the first to line up against the One al-Sadiq calls ‘our Riser’ and alternatively ‘our Speaker’. When he comes back after a long period of occultation and recommences teaching them the religion as it is supposed to be the opposition to him from the Shia themselves be deafening! Those scholars who have cherished their dusty books will still cling to them even though the Imam who is the living embodiment of the Sharia is himself telling them otherwise.

 

The people after the prophet of Allah were left to embark by Allah the same example as those who came before you, so they changed, altered, distorted, and added to the religion of Allah and reduced from it, consequently there is not a thing which the people are upon today [following] except that it is distorted when compared to that which was revealed from Allah. Respond then my Allah have mercy on you away from what you are calling for to what you are being called to, until comes the one who will renew the religion anew.

Why did it have to come to this? This is the unfortunate consequence of the Umma betraying the will of the prophet. It has become utterly divided. Not having the correct leaders has meant that the authentic message of Muhammad has been irredeemably altered. There is not a single act of worship or belief that has been left un-corrupted because every middling scholar can peddle his interpretation. The temporal rulers are also more than happy to take advantage of the confusion and extend patronage to scholars whose interpretations were power friendly. The Imams themselves cannot openly propagate the actual version without repercussions.

 

To be continued ...

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lol I was debating a Sunni brother on this topic a little while ago, I want to take it up with him again Inshallah. Thanks for putting this up so the wider Muslim community can be exposed to the righteousness and excellent character of Zurarah ibn Ayan (ra)

 

Rijal al Tusi Volume 1 Page 123

وروي أن زرارة كان وسيما جسيما أبيض. وكان يخرج إلى الجمعة وعلى رأسه برنس أسود، وبين عينيه سجادة، وفي يده عصا، فيقوم له الناس سماطين ينظرون اليه لحسن هيئته، فربما رجع عن طريقه، وكان خصما جدلا لا يقوم أحد -

It is narrated that Zurarah (ra) was handsome and white, and when he went out on Friday with a burnus (hooded cloak) on his head and a prostration mark between his eyes, and in his hand a stick, people who would give him gifts just to get a glimpse of him, and there was no competition against him.

 

Edited by Mansur Bakhtiari
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On 7/9/2018 at 2:53 AM, Islami313 said:

Salams to all

To all my shi'i brothers.. i need help in this issue! This is what ive read/heard soo far..correct me if im wrong.. that its confirmed Zurarah was cursed a few times by Imam Ja'far, BUT it was to save him as narrated by his son. Do we have a better argument/explanation than this?

The words used by Imam Ja'far seems explicitly clear.. and sounds like something someone would say in anger. He lied upon me.. may Allah curse Zurarah etc.. this is the worst thing an Imam can say about a person.. It totally destroys a persons credibility! And im guessing the Imam said it openly.. thats how it reached Zurarah's own ears.

My question is this.. if this 'curse to Zurarah' IS confirmed. If for example.. i personally heard Imam Ja'far clearly and explicitly curse Zurarah and call him a liar in all seriousness, why would i believe what Zurarah's son narrated in his defence? Why would i believe in what anyone else says in his defence? Being a shi'i; i believe in the Imam and follow him. After hearing what the Imam said clearly and harshly,  am i to reject what i KNOW the Imam said and meant.. and instead believe in this supposed meeting where the Imam says he didnt mean it and it was to protect him.

Im sorry for going around in circles to paint this picture.. it just doesnt sit right soo far. Its like taking the ambiguous instead of what is clear. Leaving the open and known words for the secret and hidden ones.. This and a few other issues have put me in a lot of doubt. Please help me in clarifying how we accept and understand this.

 

On 7/9/2018 at 11:51 AM, Islami313 said:

Salams.. and thank you for the reply sirius_bright. @Sirius_Bright

Ive read this article and i still have a few questions.. if not more from it. Why should we view all the negative statements of the Imam about Zurarah through this lens? why do we believe in his son's defence if the father was cursed? Is the narration authentic? Is that the ONLY narration defending him after the 'curse'? 

Does this narration not seem a bit too convenient..??? Could it not be fabricated for obvious reasons?? it deals with two major issues in one simple hit. It clears Zurarah AND explains away all the contradictions of the narrators.

Please help and clear these doubts.. 

 

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      Obviously the cult is not amnongst actual worshippers but amongst tourists keen to see their monuments. Nefertari was the favourite wife of Pharaoh Ramesses II and as for Hatshepsut this is what Wikipedia has to say:
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatshepsut
      While I have been in Luxor this year with the family the itinerary for touring came up and I suggested to the guide that may be the Hatshepsut temple was a bit overrated (based on my last visit in 2016), but he insisted and so we went. As I remembered it's a golf buggy ride from the entrance to the foot of a long flight of steps and when you get to the top - not really a great deal and a fair bit is seemingly reconstructed. I still think it is overrated. I'd much rather spend more time in the riot of hieroglyphics and colour that is the Madinet Habu (from Wiki):
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medinet_Habu
       
      As for Nefertari the guide and the local Egyptians felt that it was overrated particularly in light of the US$60 (!!!) entrance fee. This is a few times the going rate and such is the demand that you get 10 mins in the tomb.
      So going back to my earlier contention - what's the cult?
      It's the contemporary interest in women's empowerment, their positions in leadership roles and so on. I am not challenging the validity of the interest. I am just drawing attention to how the interest manifests itself in tourists making choices about what to see, how much they pay to see it and how much effort they put into doing so.
         0 comments
      "Indeed Allah taught me and He taught me well"*
      *"ان الله ادبنی فاحسن تادیبی"

      During these thousands of years, God tested me frequently until I got permission to return to Him.
      Now, I am going to fly; but how can I do it without my wings?
      Everytime I committed a sin, I lost one of my feathers. I must find the feathers and restore my wings.
      I found a feather at the foot of the Rocky Mount and another feather in a rivulet, floating in the water. One feather was close to the Mirror of Truth and many feathers were around the Square House.
      I am going to fly towards paradise... Towards paradise?!... No!...Somewhere higher...much higher than paradise!
      Somewhere that even Gabriel cannot go...I need to create two wings stronger than Gabriel's.
      I am going to fly to Qab-e Qawsain...To Qab-e Qawsain and maybe closer**
       
      The final part of my book, "From Earth to Heaven" (Az Khāk ta Aflāk)
      Footnotes:
      * a narration from the prophet (s)
      ** surah Najm: 8. Then he came near, and hovered around. 9. He was within two bows’ length, or closer.
      *********
      «به هنگام بامداد آماده باش! بامدادان از کوه سنگی بالا آمده، نزد من آنجا بر قله‌ی آن کوه بایست[1]. تنها بیا و آن دو امانتی را که به تو سپرده بودم، همراه خودت بیاور». این پیام پروردگارم بود که بر من الهام شد. باید خود را برای بی‌نظیرترین رخداد معنوی تاریخ جهان آماده میکردم!
      راستی، آن دو امانت چه بودند؟!
      ********
      کاروانی از ملائک تا به عرش       
      ردشان کرده فلک را نقش نقش
      میزبان بی نظیری شد بهشت         
      از برای مردمان خوش سرشت
      تا بیاید بهر دیدار خدا                  
      کرد روح خویش را از تن جدا
      قید‌ها و بند‌ها را باز کرد              
      تا به اوج آسمان پرواز کرد
      ****
      اینک از منازل تاریک و ظلمانی نفس عبور کرده و از خود به سوی خدا مهاجرت می‌کنم...
      ***
      ان الله ادبنی فاحسن تأدیبی؛ خداوند مرا تربیت نمود و چه نیکو تربیت نمود!
      در این چند هزار سال پروردگار مرا به اموری فراوان امتحان فرمود تا اینکه سرانجام توانستم جواز عروج به سوی او را اخذ کنم. آیا رخداد خوشی که بهار خبرش را به من داده بود، همین نبود؟
      اینک عزم پرواز دارم ولی پرنده که بدون بال نمی‌تواند پرواز کند حتی اگر درِ قفس برایش گشوده باشد. سالهای سال زحمت کشیدم تا توانستم میله‌های قفس را بشکنم ولی اینک می‌بینم که اصلا بالی ندارم که بتوانم پرواز کنم. باید چاره‌ای اندیشید. برای بازگشت به موطنم باید به سوی آسمان پرواز کنم. باید بالهایم را پیدا کنم.
      هر بار که گناهی می‌کردم پری از بالهایم جدا می‌شد. باید پرها را پیدا کنم تا بتوانم بالهایم را بسازم. پری را در پای کوه سنگی یافتم و پری را در جویباری، روان بر روی آب. پری را در کنار آینه حقیقت و پرهای بسیاری را پیرامون خانه چهارگوش.
      میخواهم به سوی بهشت پرواز کنم... به سوی بهشت؟! نه! نه! به جایی بالاتر، خیلی بالاتر... جایی که حتی جبرئیل هم نمی‌تواند به آن راه یابد. باید بالهایم را قدرتمندتر از بالهای جبرئیل بسازم... می‌خواهم به سوی قاب قوسین پرواز کنم... به سوی قاب قوسین و شاید هم نزدیکتر!
      پایان
       
        [1] _ «به هنگام بامداد آماده باش. بامدادان از کوه سینا بالا آمده، نزد من آنجا بر قله‌ی آن کوه بایست» (عهد عتیق، سِفر خروج).
      [2] ثم دنی فتدلی. فکان قاب قوسین أو أدنی (سوره نجم، آیات 8 و 9).
      -----------------------------
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