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About this blog

 'Jihad al Nafs' by Shaikh Muhammad bin al-Hasan al-Hurr al-Amili.

 Ayatullah Behjat's advice: “One of the most beneficial actions for spritual growth is to sit with your fellow students every day and study one hadith from the chapter jihad al-nafs of the book Wasail al-Shi’a of Shaykh Hurr al-Amili. Of course, the hadith must be discussed properly, pondered over carefully and then transformed into action. This will be a spiritual tonic that within one year, will transform an individual in a way that he will himself see the change.”

Entries in this blog

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Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) quoted his infallible forefathers as having narrated on the authority of the Prophet (saw) that He said: 'One who, when an evil thought or carnal desire comes to him, shuns it because of his fear of Allah, Mighty and Exalted. Allah will forbid the Fire from touching him, and will protect him from the Great Terror, and will bestow on him what He has promised him in His book: "And for him who fears to stand before his Lord are two gardens." - Quran 55:46 

As for one who, when this base world and the Hereafter both occur to him, chooses this world over the next, he will meet Allah on the Day of Judgment without any good deed to protect him from  the Fire. And he who chooses the Hereafter and abandons this world, Allah will be pleased with him, and will forgive him according to his deed.'      al-Faqih, v.4, p.2, no.1

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Imam Musa al-Kazim(as) said to one of his companions, Hisham b.al-Hakam: 'O Hisham, indeed Allah has given glad tidings to the people of intellect and understanding in the Quran saying : "Therefore give good news to My servants,those who listen to the word, then follow the best of it; those it is whom Allah has guided, and those it is who are the men of understanding." (39:17-18) 

Then he said: 'O Hisham, verily Luqman said to his son: 'Humble yourself to the truth and you will be the most intelligent of men. My son, this world is a deep sea in which many a scholar may drown, so let piety be your boat, and faith your provision, and reliance on Allah your sails, and intellect your captain, and knowledge your steer, and patience the shipmates.'

'O Hisham, every single thing has an authority and the authority of intellect is thinking and the authority of thought is silence. Every thing has a riding beast(tool) at its disposal, and for the intellect it is humility, and you would have to be a fool to mount a prohibited and unstable beast.

'O Hisham, verily Allah has two authorities over His creation, one manifest and the other hidden. The manifest authority is the prophets, messengers and divine guides, whereas the hidden authority is the intellect.

'O Hisham, how can your expect your actions to be purified by Allah when your heart is preoccupied with matters other than the command of your Lord, and you obey your whims in spite of your intellect?

'O Hisham, the intelligent person contents himself with a meagre portion of this world along with wisdom, and does not content himself with a meagre portion of wisdom along with this world.This is why their businesses flourish. The intelligent people have abandoned the extravagances of this world, so how can they sin?; for abandoning this world is a virtue and abandoning sin is a duty.

'O Hisham, The intelligent man looks at this world and at its people, and he knows that this world is acquired only by toil. And he looks at the Hereafter, and he knows that it too is acquired only by toil, so by means of toiling, he acquires the more permanent of the two.'     al-Kafi,v.1,p.10,no.12.

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Imam Jafar al-sadiq (as) said: 'The intellect is the authority of the believer.'                                     al-Kafi, v.1,p.19,no.24. 

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Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) quoted the Prophet(saw) as having said : ' 'O Ali, there is no poverty worse than ignorance, and no wealth more profitable than the intellect.'    al- Kafi, v,1,p.20,no.25.

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Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) said: ' There are five things that if a person lacks, he will also lack in enjoyment[of anything]. They are: the intellect, good manners, belief, generosity and a good nature.'  al-Mahasin,p.191,no.1. 

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Amir al-Muminin (as) said: 'The intellect is a chaste covering, and virtue is a manifest beauty, so cover the flaws of your character with your virtue, and kill your desires with your intellect - compassion will submit to you and love will manifest itself to you.'     al-Kafi, v.1, p.15,no.13.

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Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) said : 'When Allah created the intellect, He gave it the faculty of reason and then commanded it,'Come forward', so it came forward, then commanded it, "Go back"' and it went back. Then He said to it:"By my Honour and Sublimity,I have no created anything as dear to Me as you, and I have bestowed you only upon one whom I love. It is you that I command, and you that I prohibit from things, and you that I punish and you that I reward."'  - al- Kafi,v.1, p.8, no.1: al-Mahasin,p.192,no.6 & 7

 

Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) was asked by someone what the intellect was, to which Imam(as) replied: 'It is that with which a servant worships the Beneficent and that with which he attains Paradise.' So the man asked:'So what about that which even Muawiyah possessed?' Imam(as) replied:' That is a vicious thing, that is devilry, and resembles intellect, though it is not so.'  - al-Kafi,v.1, p.8, no.2; al-Mahasin, p.191, n0.2; al- Faqih, v.4, p.298,no.902 

 

Imam Ali al-Rida(as) said; 'Every man's friend is his intellect, and his enemy is ignorance.'   al-Kafi v.1,p.8,no.4; al-Mahasin, p.194, no.12; Illa al-Shara'i, p.101, no.2; Uyun Akhbar al-Rida(as), v.2,  p.24, no.1; and v.1, p.258, no.15

 

Imam Jafar al-Sadiq(as) said; 'Whoever uses his intellect will have belief, and whoever has belief will enter Paradise.'  al-Kafi, v.1,p.9, no.6; Thawab al-A'mal, p.29,no.2 

 

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The choice Adam(as) made

Salam, 

After the rather long tradition on the mandatory and recommended rights I decided to jump a few chapters( which I will come back to later) and post the hadiths in the book regarding Intellect. 

According to Sheikh Hurr al-Amilli the word ''Intellect" in the terminology of scholars and wise men, has been used to mean various things. Through the course of research, we know that, in traditions, it has been ascribed three meanings:

1. The faculty enabling one to tell right from wrong, and to distinguish them, and the knowledge of the cause of things. This is what has been charged with religious obligations.

2.The state and disposition that incites one to choose good and advantageous things, and to avoid evil and harm.

3. Intelligence, i,e., knowledge. This is why its opposite has been referred to as ignorance, and not folly or madness.

The intellect which is referred in most of the traditions refers to the second and third meanings and Allah is the most Knowledgeable

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Imam Ali Amir ul-Muminin(as) said: 'The angel Gabriel(as)  descended upon Adam (as) and said to him: "O Adam, I have been commanded to give you a choice of three things, of which you must choose one and leave the other two." 

Adam replied: "O Gabriel, what are these three things?"

He said: " Intellect, Modesty and Belief"

So Adam said :"I choose Intellect." 

Then Gabriel told Modesty and Belief to leave. However, they beseeched him and said: "O Gabriel, we have been commanded to be wherever the Intellect is."  

So he replied:"As you wish and ascended back from whence he had come'

   -al-Kafi, v.1, p.8, no.1; al-Mahasin, p.192, no.6. 

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Imam Ali Zayn al-abidin (as) said:

The right of him who asks for your advice is that you advise him, but conduct yourself towards him with forbearance and kindness. 

The right of your adviser is that you act gently towards him, and listen to him attentively. If he presents you with the right course praise Allah. And if he does not agree with you, show forbearance towards him and do not blame him. Consider him to have made a mistake, and do not reproach him for that, unless he should be deserving blame, in which case you should attach no more importance with respect to him.And there is no strength save in Allah.

The right of him who is older than you is that you respect him because of his age, and honour him because he entered Islam before you. Abandon confrontation with him in a dispute, do not walk ahead of him on a path, do not overtake him and do not consider him to be foolish. If he should act foolishly towards you,bear with him and honour him, for the sake of Islam and the respect due to it.

The right of him who is younger than you is that you should show forbearance towards him by teaching him, pardoning him, concealing his faults, being kind towards him and helping him. 

The right of him who asks from you is that you give to him according to his need.

The right of him who you ask is that you accept from him with gratitude and recognition of his bounty if he gives, and you accept his excuse if he withholds.

The right of him through whom Allah makes you happy, is that you first praise Allah and then thank the person.

The right of him who does evil to you is that you pardon him.But if you know that your pardon will harm him,defend yourself. Allah says:Whosoever defends himself after he has been wronged, against him there is no way to blame. [42:41]

The right of the people of your creed is that you harbour safety for them,be forbearing towards them, and are even kind towards the evildoer from among them. You should treat them with friendliness, seek their well-being, be grateful to one who does good to them and keep harm away from them. You should love for them what you love for yourself, and dislike for them what you dislike for yourself. Their old men stand in the place of your father, their youth in the place of your brothers, their old women in the place of your mother, and their young ones in the place of your children. 

The right of the non-Muslims under the protection of Islam is that you accept from them what Allah has accepted from them, and that you do not wrong them as long as they fulfill Allah's covenant.

Al Faqih, v.2, p.376, no.1626.

This tradition has also been quoted, with additions and omissions from what is quited above, and with various chains of transmissions in : al-Majalis, -Amali, al-sadiq, p.301, no 1, al-Khisal, p.564,no.1, Tuhaf al-Uqual, p256, Makarim al-Akhlaq,p. 419

 

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Imam Ali Zayn al-abidin (as) said:

The right of your partner is that you should suffice for him in his affairs in his absence and show regard for him when he is present. Make no decision without his decision and do not act on the basis of your own opinion without exchanging views with him. Guard his property for him, and do not betray him in matters that are difficult or of little importance, for Allah's hand is above the hand of two partners, as long as they do not betray one another. And there is no strength save in Allah.

The right of your property is that you acquire it only from what is lawful, and spend it only on what is proper. You must not let those who do not praise you affect you, for with it, you should work only towards obeying Allah. Do not be miserly with it, lest you suffer from regret and remorse while suffering the ill consequences of it. And the is no strength save in Allah. 

The right of him to whom you owe a debt is to pay him back as soon as you have means, and if you are in straitened circumstances, satisfy him with good words, and send him away gently and politely.

The right of the adversary who has a claim against you - if his claim happens to be true - then you should give witness to it against yourself. You should not wrong him but give him his full due. If what he claims against you is false, then you should act with kindness towards him, and should show nothing other than kindness with respect to him, and do not displease Allah in his affair. And the is no strength save in Allah.

The right of the adversary against whom you have a claim is that, if your claim is true, you maintain polite moderation in speaking to him, and do not deny his right. If your claim is false, fear Allah, repent to Him and abandon your claim.

The right of whom who consults you is that, if you know that he has a correct opinion, encourage him to follow it. And if you do not consider it to be correct, direct him to one who does.

The right of whom you consult is that you do not blame him for an opinion that does not conform to your opinion. If it does conform to it,praise Allah. 

 

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Imam Ali Zayn al-abidin (as) said:

The right of mu'azzin (caller to prayer) is that you know that he is reminding you of your Lord,calling you to your good fortune and helping you to accomplish what has made obligatory upon you.So thank him for that, just as you thank one who does good to you. 

The right of your imam (leader) in your prayer is that you know that he has taken on the role of mediator between you and your Lord. He speaks on your behalf , but you do not speak on his behalf; he supplicates for you but you do not supplicate for him. He has spared you the terror of standing in front of Allah. If his prayer is flawed, he is answerable for it, not you; but he performs it perfectly, you share in the blessing, and he does not gain anymore benefit than you do. So protect yourself through him, protect your prayer through his prayer, and thank him in that measure. 

The right of your neighbour is that you guard him in his absence, honor him when he is present, and help him when he is wronged. You should not pursue any of his weaknesses, and if you know any evil from him, conceal it. If you know that he will accept your advice, counsel him in that which is between him and you. You should not forsake him in difficulty,but should overlook his stumbles, forgive his sins and associate with him generously. and there is no strength save in Allah. 

The right of your sitting companion is that you lower your wing for him, show fairness towards him while discussing with him and do not stand up from his company without his permission. But it is permissible for him who sits with you to leave without asking your permission.You should forget his lapses and remember his good qualities, and you should speak only of his good.

The right of your companion is that you share his company with bounty and fairness. You should honor him as he honors you, and should not let him be the first to extend his generosity. And if he is first to do so, then repay him. Wish for him as he wishes for you, and restrain him from any act of disobedience that he may contemplate. Be a mercy for him and not a chastisement. And there is no strength save in Allah.

- al -Faqih,v.2,p.376, no.1626.

 

 

 

 

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Imam Ali Zayn al-abidin (as) said:

The right of him who performs a kindly act towards you is that you thank him and mention his kindness; that you reward him with beautiful words and supplicate for him sincerely in that which is between you and Allah. If you do that you have thanked him both secretly and openly. Then if you are able to repay him one day, repay him. 

al -Faqih,v.2,p.376, no.1626.

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Imam Ali Zayn al-abidin (as) said:

The right of your brother is that you know that he is your hand, your might and your strength. Take him not as a weapon with which to disobey Allah, nor as a tool with which to wrong Allah's creatures.Do not neglect to help him against his enemy or to give him good counsel.If he obeys Allah, well and good, but if he does not, then Allah should be dearer to you than him. And there is no strength save in Allah. 

The right of your slave is that you should know that he is a creature of your Lord, the son of your father and mother, and your flesh and blood. You own him, but you did not make him; Allah made him. You did not create any of his limbs, nor do you provide him with his sustenance; rather, Allah has provided you sufficiency to be able to do that. He has subjugated him to you, entrusted him to you and deposited him with you, that you may be safeguarded by the virtue of the good you do to him. So be good to him just as Allah has been good to you. And if you dislike him, then replace him, but do not torment a creature of Allah, and there is no strength save in Allah. 

The right of your patron who has done you a favour( by freeing you from servanthood) is that you acknowledge that he has spent his wealth on you and brought you out of abasement and estrangement of bondage to the exaltation and comfort of freedom. He has freed you from the captivity of possession, and loosened the bonds of slavery from you. He has taken you out of prison, and given you ownership of yourself, and the leisure to worship your Lord. Know that he is the closest of Allah's creatures to you in your life and in your death, and that aiding him with your life and what he needs from you is incumbent upon you. And there is no strength save in Allah. 

The right of your servant to whom you have done a favour by freeing him is that you know that  Allah has made your freeing him a means of access to Him and a veil against the Fire. Your immediate reward is that you inherit from him - if he does not have any relatives - as a compensation for the property you have spent for him, and your ultimate reward is Paradise. 

 - al -Faqih,v.2,p.376, no.1626.

 

 

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Imam Ali Zayn al-abidin (as) said:

The right of your wife is that you know Allah has made her a comfort and a companion to you, and know that she is a bounty of Allah upon you, so you should honour her and treat her with kindness. Although her right towards you is more incumbent, you must treat her with compassion, as she is your prisoner, whom you clothe and feed, and if she is ignorant you should pardon her.

The right of your mother is that you know that she carried you where no one carries anyone, and gave you from the fruit of her heart, which no one gives to anybody else, and protected you with all her organs. She did not care if she went hungry as long as you ate,if she was thirsty as long as your thirst was quenched, if she was naked as long as you were clothed, and if she was in the sun as long as you were shaded. She gave up sleep for your sake, and protected you from heat and cold, all so that you might belong to her. You will never be able to show her gratitude, except with the help and success granted by Allah.

The right of your father is that you know that he is your root, without whom you would not be.Whenever you see something in yourself that pleases you, know that your father is the root of its bounty upon you, so praise Allah and thank Him in that measure, and there is no strength save Allah. 

The right of your child is that you should know that he is from you, and will be ascribed to you, through both his good and his his evil in the immediate affairs of this world. You are responsible for that with which you have been entrusted, in bringing him up to have good conduct and guiding him towards his Lord, and helping him to obey Him. Therefore, act towards him, as one who knows that he will be rewarded for treating him well and punished for treating him badly.   - al -Faqih,v.2,p.376, no.1626.

 

 

 

 

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Imam Ali Zayn ul-Abidin(as) said : The right of the one who trains you in knowledge is to magnify him, to frequent his sessions, to listen to him attentively and to attend to him with devotion. You should not raise your voice to him, nor answer a question addressed to him, so that he may be the one to answer. You should not address anyone else in his session, not speak ill of him to anyone else. If anyone ever speaks ill of him in your presence, you should defend him, conceal his faults and publicize his virtues. You should not sit in the company of his enemy, nor be hostile towards his friend. If you fulfill this right, Allah's angels bear witness that you frequented him and learned from his knowledge for the sake of Allah, and not for the sake of people. 

The right of the one who trains you through his ownership of you is that you should obey him, and not disobey him unless obedience to him would displease Allah, for there can be no obedience to a creature, when it entails disobedience of the Creator.

The right of the ruler is that you know that Allah has made you a trial fro him. He is tested by Allah on account of the authority that He has given him over you, and that you should not expose yourself to his displeasure and thereby cast yourself with your own hands into destruction and become his accomplice in his sin when he wrongs you. 

The right of your subjects through the authority you possess over them is that you should know that they have been made subjects on account of their weakness and your strength. Hence you must treat them with justice, and be like a compassionate father towards them. You should forgive their ignorance and not be quick to punish them, and you should thank Allah, Mighty and Exalted, for the power He has given you over them.

The right of your subjects through the knowledge you possess is to know that Allah has made you a custodian over them on account of the knowledge He has bestowed on you and the storehouses (of wisdom) that He has opened up for you. If you teach people well and do not mistreat them, nor treat them roughly, then Allah will increase His bounty upon you. But if you withhold your knowledge from people or treat them roughly when they seek knowledge from you, then it will be Allah's right to deprive you of knowledge and its magnificence and make you fall from your place in the people's hearts.   - al- Faqih, v.2, p.376, no.1626.

 

 

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Imam Ali Zayn al-Abidin (as) said:  The right of your daily prayer(salat) is that you know that it is an audience with Allah, Mighty and Exalted, and that through it you are standing before Him. When you are aware of this, you will stand as one who is a lowly servant - vile, beseeching, trembling, hopeful, fearful, submissive and abased, magnifying Him in whose presence you stand with tranquility and dignity. You will approach the prayer with your heart and perform it according to its bounds and rights. 

The right of pilgrimage (Hajj) is that you know it is an arrival before your Lord and a flight to Him from your sins; through it your repentance is accepted at the same time as performing an obligation that Allah has enjoined upon you. 

The right of fasting is that you know there is a veil that Allah has set up over your tongue, your ears, your eyes, your stomach and your private parts, to shield you from Fire. If you abandon the fast, you will have torn Allah's protective veil away from yourself.

The right of charity is that you know that it is your savings with your Lord, and a deposit for which you will have no need for witnesses, and which, when given in secret, will be a more secure deposit of which you can be confident, than when given publicly. Know that it repels afflictions and illnesses from you in this world, and it will repel the Fire from you in the Hereafter. 

The right of the sacrificial offering (during Hajj) is that through it you desire Allah, Mighty and Exalted, and not his creation; and through it you desire only to be exposed to Allah's mercy and for your soul to be saved on the Day you meet Him. 

 

 

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Imam Ali (as), in his will to his son Muhammad b. Hanafiyyah, said: You must read the Quran, act upon its contents, carry out the duties prescribed therein, the divine laws regarding that which is lawful and that which is unlawful, its commands and its prohibitions, and ponder over it in the middle of the night, and recite it day and night, for it is Allah's contract to His creation, and as a result it is incumbent upon every Muslim to read His contract everyday, even it be only fifty verses; and know that the various stages in Paradise are according to the number of verses of the Quran, such that on the Day of Judgement, when the reciter of the Quran will be told: ''Read, and rise in rank accordingly", there will be no higher in rank than such a person, after the prophets and Righteous Ones.' al-Faqih,v.2, p.381, no.1627.

 

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Imam Ali (as), in his will to his son Muhammad b. Hanafiyyah, said: 'O my son, do not say that which you do not know, and, at the same time, do not say everything that you do know, for Allah has enjoined certain duties on each and everyone of your limbs, which He will use to testify against you on the Day of Judgement, and He will ask you concerning them, as to how you heeded their counsel, their admonition, their warnings, and how you refined them, and He has not left them to wander aimlessly.

Allah, Mighty and Exalted, has said: 'And do not follow that of which you have no knowledge;surely the hearing and the sight and the heart, all of these shall be questioned about that' - 17:36

and He has said:'When you received it with your tongues and spoke with your mouths that of which you have no knowledge, and you deemed it an easy matter, while with Allah it was grievous'- 24:15

Then He bade them to worship Him by obeying Him, and said: 'O you who believe! Bow down and prostrate yourselves and serve your Lord, and do good that you may succeed' - 22:77

This is therefore a comprehensive duty incumbent on all our limbs, for he has also said: ' and that the parts of prostration are Allah's, so call not upon anyone beside Allah' - 72:18        By the parts of prostration, He means the face, the hands, the knees and the two big toes.

And Allah, Mighty and Exalted, has said: 'And you did not use to veil yourselves lest your ears and your eyes and your skins should bear witness against you' - 41:22  and by skin here He means the private parts.Then he singled out each limb for a specific duty, which He has clearly determined.

He has enjoined on the ears that they must not listen to that which is forbidden and constitutes disobedience to Allah, and He has said regarding this :'And indeed he has revealed to you in the Book that when you hear Allah's communications disbelieved and mocked, do not sit with such people until they enter into some other discourse, surely then you would be like them' - 4:140

from which He, Mighty and Exalted, has made an exception, i,e., when hearing such discourse is a result of forgetfulness: 'And if the Shaytan causes you to forget,then do not sit after recollection with the unjust people' -6:68 

and He has said: 'Therefore give good news to My servants, those who listen to the word and follow the best of it;those are they whom Allah has guided and those it is who are the men of understanding' - 39:17,18   

And: Successful indeed are the believers, who are humble in their prayers, and who keep aloof from vain talk, and who are givers of the poor rate - 23:1-4

and: 'When they hear idle talk they turn aside form it' - 28:55

and : 'When they pass by vain talk, they pass by it nobly' - 25:72

This is what Allah has enjoined upon the ears and, this is their duty.

And on the eyes, He has enjoined that they should not look at what Allah has forbidden, and regarding this, He, Mighty and Exalted has said: 'And say to the believing men that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts' - 24:30 and has forbidden anyone to look at private parts of another.

He has enjoined upon the tongue to attest to and to express that in which the heart has believed, with regards to which He has said: 'you shall speak good words to people' - 2:83  and  'Say, '' we believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you, and our God and your God is One, and to Him do we submit" ' - 29:46 

And he has enjoined upon the heart,which is the seat of authority for all the limbs, to perceive and to understand, and by whose command and conviction one sets about one's duties, and regarding this, He has said: 'not he who is compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith, but he who opens his breast to disbelief - on these is the wrath of Allah, and they shall have a grievous chastisement' - 16:106.

Allah, Mighty and Exalted, with regards to a group of people who verbally proclaimed their faith while their hearts did not have conviction, says: 'Those who say with their mouths "we believe" , while their hearts do not believe' - 5:41  and 'Now surely by Allah's remembrance are the hearts set at rest' - 13:28  and 'Whether you make manifest what is in your hearts or hide it, Allah will call you to account for it; then He will forgive whom He pleases and chastise whom He pleases' -  2:284.

And he has enjoined upon the hands that they must not be used for anything that Allah, Might and exalted, has prohibited, and that they must be used to obey Him, as He has said:

'O you who believe!When you rise up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles' - 5:6

and: 'So when you encounter in battle those who disbelieve, then smite their necks until you have overcome them,then make them prisoners,and afterwards either set them free as a favour, or let them ransom themselves until the war ends' - 47:4

He has prescribed that the feet be used to walk towards that which is in obedience of Him, and that they should not be used to walk about insubordinately, with regards to which He has said: 'And do not go about in the land exultingly, for indeed you cannot cut through the earth nor reach the mountain in height':all this - the evil of it - is hateful in the sight of your Lord- 17:37,38

and 'On that day We will set a seal upon their mouths, and their hands shall speak to Us, and their feet shall bear witness of what they had earned' - 36:65.

Allah informs us that they will testify for or against those who had control of them on the Day of Judgement. 'This is the  sum of what Allah has enjoined on your limbs, so be careful of your duty to Allah, my son, and use them towards His obedience and His pleasure, and beware of Allah, exalted be His name, watching you as you disobey Him, for the  you will surely be one of the losers.'  al-Faqih,v.2, p.381,no.1627.

 

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Imam Jafar al-Sadiq(as) said: 'Surely the ears and eyes and the heart,all of these shall be questioned about that' - 17:36  i,e the ears shall be questioned regarding what they heard, and the eyes with regard to what they looked at, and the heart regarding what it believed in.   al-Kafi, v.2, p.31, no.2.

Imam Jafar al-Sadiq(as) said : Faith can exist only with action, and action is part of it, such that faith can remain firm only when accompanied by action.  al -Kafi,v.2, p.32, no.3

Imam Jafar al-Sadiq said: He who attests to Allah's religion is a Muslim, and he who acts upon that which Allah has commanded is a Mu'min. al-Kafi,v.2, p.32, no.4.

Imam Muhammad Baqir(as) when asked about faith by Khaythamah, said: 'It is to have faith in Allah, to believe in the Book of Allah and not to disobey Allah'. al-Kafi, v.2,p.32,no.5.

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(as), when asked about faith by Jamil b.Darraj said: 'It is to testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad(saw) is the messenger of Allah.'  Jamil then asked:' Is this not achieved through action?'  to which he (as) replied: 'Of course, for faith can remain firm only when accompanied by action, and action is a part of it.'  al-Kafi, v.2, p.32, no.6

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The narrations below are part of a long tradition which I started yesterday  https://www.shiachat.com/forum/blogs/entry/413-faith-assigned-to-the-face-and-heart-of-humans/

I wanted to post the whole narration in three parts and finish it tomorrow but it's Shab e Jumah (friday night) here today and as I was reading Dua Kumayl I came across some lines which I will mention at the end which made me post all of it on Shab e Jumah as the narration goes so well with this dua of friday night.

TONGUE

Allah has made incumbent upon the tongue to speak and express that to which the heart has contracted and attested. Allah, Glorified and Exalted be His name, has said: 'you shall speak good words to people' - 2:83  and  'Say, '' we believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you, and our God and your God is One, and to Him do we submit" ' - 29:46  So this is the duty that Allah has made incumbent upon the tongue.

EARS

As for the duty that He has made incumbent upon the ears, it is to refrain from listening t0 that which Allah has forbidden, and to abstain from Allah's prohibitions that are unlawful and from listening to what Allah has abased, and,regarding this, Allah has said: 'And indeed He has revealed to you in the Book that when you hear Allah's communications being disbelieved and mocked, do not sit with such people until they enter into some other discourse' - 4:140

 and then He excludes listening to such discourse owing to forgetfulness and heedlessness, saying: 'And if the Shaytan causes you to forget,then do not sit after recollection with the unjust people' -6:68                                              

and He has said: 'Therefore give good news to My servants, those who listen to the word and follow the best of it;those are they whom Allah has guided and those it is who are the men of understanding' - 39:17,18   

And: Successful indeed are the believers, who are humble in their prayers, and who keep aloof from vain talk, and who are givers of the poor rate - 23:1-4

and: 'When they hear idle talk they turn aside form it' - 28:55

and : 'When they pass by vain talk, they pass by it nobly' - 25:72

This is the portion of faith that Allah has made incumbent upon the ears,that they should not listen to what is not permissible, and this is their duty.

EYES

And He has enjoined that the eyes should not look at anything that Allah has forbidden, and that they should turn away from unlawful things that Allah has prohibited them to look at, and this is their duty in acquiring faith.

And regarding this Allah has said: 'And say to the believing men that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts' - 24:30

and He has said: 'And say to the believing women that they cast down their looks and guard their private parts' - 24:31  that is from anybody looking at them, and to cast down their gazes from looking at other's private parts.

All the other verses of the Quran referring to guarding one's private parts imply guarding them from fornication;however,these two verses specifically imply guarding them from being looked at.

Allah has mentioned all the duties that are incumbent upon the heart, the eyes and the tongue in one verse, saying: 'And you did not use to veil yourselves lest your ears and your eyes and your skins should bear witness against you' - 41:22 Skins here mean private parts and thighs.

And He has said: 'And do not follow that of which you have no knowledge;surely the hearing and the sight and the heart, all of these shall be questioned about that' - 17:36

This is the duty that Allah has made incumbent upon the eyes - to lower the gaze, and this is their portion for acquiring faith.

HANDS

And on the hands he has charged that they should not be used to strike anything unlawfully, and that they must be used to strike only that which Allah has ordered.He has also ordained for them to give charity, and to bring reconciliation between near kin, and to strive in the way of Allah, and to be purified for prayer(salat), as He has said: 'O you who believe!When you rise up for prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles' - 5:6

and: 'So when you encounter in battle those who disbelieve, then smite their necks until you have overcome them,then make them prisoners,and afterwards either set them free as a favour, or let them ransom themselves until the war ends' - 47:4

This is what Allah has made incumbent upon hands, as in striking in action for them.

LEGS

And he has charged that the legs should not be use to walk towards any transgression of Allah's laws, and He has made incumbent upon them to walk to what pleases Allah, Mighty and Exalted, as He has said: 'And do not go about in the land exultingly, for indeed you cannot cut through the earth nor reach the mountain in height'- 17:37

and: 'And pursue the right course in your going about, and lower your voice;surely the most hateful of voices is the braying of the donkey' - 31:19.

Regarding the hands and the feet testifying against themselves and those who had control of them(i,e the people), for having wasted their limbs in doing other than that which Allah had commanded, He says: 'On that day We will set a seal upon their mouths, and their hands shall speak to Us, and their feet shall bear witness of what they had earned' - 36:65.

This is what Allah has enjoined on both the hands and the feet, and it is their portion of faith. al-Kafi,V.2, p.28,no.1.

 

And finally the lines from the beautiful Dua e Kumayl which I talked about earlier.

O Allah, my Master and my Lord!

أَتُرَاكَ مُعَذِّبِي بِنَارِكَ بَعْدَ تَوْحِيدِكَ

Canst You see Yourself tormenting me with Your fire after I have professed Your Unity

وَبَعْدَ مَا انْطَوَى عَلَيْهِ قَلْبِي مِن مَّعْرِفَتِكَ

And after the knowledge of You my heart has embraced,

وَلَهِجَ بِهِ لِسَانِي مِنْ ذِكْرِكَ

And the remembrance of You my tongue has constantly mentioned

وَاعْتَقَدَهُ ضَمِيرِي مِنْ حُبِّكَ

And the love of You to which my mind has clung,

وَبَعْدَ صِدْقِ اعْتِرَافِي وَدُعَائِي خَاضِعاً لِّرُبُوبِيَّتِكَ

And after the sincerity of my confession and my supplication, humble before Your lordship?

هَيْهَاتَ أَنتَ أَكْرَمُ مِنْ أَن تُضَيِّعَ مَن رَّبَّيْتَهُ

Far be it from You! You art more generous than that You shouldst squander him whom You hast nurtured,

أَوْ تُبْعِدَ مَنْ أَدْنَيْتَهُ

Or banish him whom You hast brought nigh,

أَوْ تُشَرِّدَ مَنْ آوَيْتَهُ

Or drive away him whom You hast given an abode

أَوْ تُسْلِّمَ إِلىَ الْبلاءِ مَن كَفَيْتَهُ وَرَحِمْتَهُ

Or submit to tribulation him whom You hast spared and shown mercy.

وَلَيْتَ شِعْرِي يَا سَيِّدِي وَإِلَهِي وَمَوْلاي

Would that I knew, my Master, My God and my Protector,

أَتُسَلِّطُ النَّارَ عَلَى وُجُوهٍ خَرَّتْ لِعَظَمَتِكَ سَاجِدَةً

Whether You wilt give the Fire dominion over faces fallen down prostrate before Your Tremendousness,

وَّعَلَى أَلْسُنٍ نَّطَقَتْ بِتَوْحِيدِكَ صَادِقَةً وَّبِشُكْرِكَ مَادِحَةً

And over tongues voicing sincerely the profession of Your Unity and giving thanks to You in praise,

وَّعَلَى قُلُوبٍ اعْتَرَفَتْ بِإِلَهِيَّتِكَ مُحَقِّقَةً

And over hearts acknowledging Your Divinity through verification,

وَّعَلَى ضَمَائِرَ حَوَتْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ بِكَ حَتَّى صَارَتْ خَاشِعَةً

And over minds encompassing knowledge of You until they have become humble

وَّعَلَى جَواِرحَ سَعَتْ إِلَى أَوْطَانِ تَعَبُّدِكَ طَائِعَةً وَّأَشَارَتْ بِاسْتِغْفَارِكَ مُذْعِنَةً

And over bodily members speeding to the places of Your worship in obedience and beckoning for Your forgiveness in submission.

مَّا هَكَذَا الظَّنُّ بِكَ وَلا أُخْبِرْنَا بِفَضْلِكَ عَنكَ

No such opinion is held of You! Nor has such been reported - thanks to Your bounty — concerning You,

يَا كَرِيمُ، يَا رَبِّ

O All-generous! My Lord,

 

May Allahسُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى keep us all guided on the right path.

                                       

 

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Imam Jafar al-Sadiq(as) said, in a long tradition, that Allah has enjoined faith (iman) upon the limbs of the son of Adam, and has distributed it and divided it evenly between them, and every single limb has been assigned a different portion of faith particular to it. I will divide the long hadith into smaller parts to narrate the duties of each limb.

HEART

The portion of faith with which the heart has been charged is to affirm, to know, to conclude a contract and willingly to admit and submit that there is no being worthy of worship but Allahسُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى, the One and Only, who has no partner, the One God, who has taken neither wife nor son, and that Muhammad is His servant and messenger(pbuh). And it is to attest to every prophet and divine scripture that Allah has sent down. This affirmation and knowledge is the duty of the heart, upon which Allah has made it incumbent, as He has said in His Book:

'Not he who is compelled while his heart is at rest on account of faith' -16:106  and

'Now surely by Allah's remembrance are the hearts set at rest' - 13:28  and

'Those who say with their mouths "we believe" , while their hearts do not believe' - 5:41  and

' Whether you make manifest what is in your hearts or hide it, Allah will call you to account for it; then He will forgive whom He pleases and chastise whom He pleases' -  2:284

So this is the affirmation and knowledge of faith that Allah has made incumbent upon the heart and that is its duty, and it is the fountainhead of faith.

FACE

He has made incumbent upon the face to bow down in prostration to Him in the night and in the day at prayer times, about which He has said:

'O you who believe! Bow down and prostrate yourselves and serve your Lord, and do good that you may succeed' - 22:77

This is a joint duty on the face as well as the hands and the feet, for He has said in another verse:

'And that the parts of prostration are Allah's, so call upon not anyone with Allah....' - 72:18

 

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6. Imam Jafar al-Sadiq(as) said: He who does not have a preaching heart, a reproaching self and a guiding friend will be easily overcome by his enemy.    Al Faqih, v.4, p.287, no.862.

7. Imam Jafar al Sadiq(as) narrated on the authority of the Imams before him that Holy Prophet (phuh), in his advice to Imam Ali(as0 said: O, Ali, the best thing about self struggle is when a person wakes up with no desire to wrong anyone.  Al Faqih, v.4, p254, no.821

8. Imam Jafar al-Sadiq(as) said: He who has complete control over hismelf (nafs) when he desires something as well as when he fears something, when he is angry as well as when he is pleased, Allah prohibits the fire of Hell from touching his body.   Al Faqih, v.4, p.286 , no.856 ; Thawab al- Amal p.192, no.1

9. Imam Ali (as) said: The Prophet dispatched his soldiers to battle to fight the enemy and, upon their triumphant return, said: Greetings on those who have successfully carried out the 'Minor Combat',but have yet to engage themselves in the 'Greater Combat' He was asked: O Prophet of Allah! What is 'Greater Combat', To which he replied: 'Combat with the Self'  And the Prophet (pbuh) said: The best combat is the combat of one who fights his inner self.                        Amali al Sadiq, p.377, no.8; ma'ani al-Akhbar, p.160, no.1

10. Imam Ali (as) said: The warrior is the one who combats his inner self.            Al-Majazat al-Nabawiyyah, p.201, no.157

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1. Imam Jafar al-Sadiq(as) said that the Holy Prophet(pbuh) dispatched his soldiers to battle to fight the enemy and, upon their triumphant return said: Greetings on those who have successfully carried out the 'Minor Combat' (jihad al asghar), but have yet to engage themselves in the 'Greater Combat'. He was asked: 'O Prophet of Allah! What is the 'Greater Combat'?' To which he replied: 'Combat with the Self'   Al Kafi, v.5, p.12, no.3.

2. Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) said : Take responsibility for your self, for if you do not no one else will.   Al Kafi, v.2, p.329, no.5.

3. Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) said to a man: Indeed you have been made the doctor of yourself, the ailment has been made manifest to you, you know the marvel of health and have been shown the cure, and yet look at how you treat your soul!  Al Kafi, v.2, p.329, no.6.

4. Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (as) addressed a man saying: Consider your heart to be a kind friend and a dutiful son, and your knowledge a father whom you can follow, and your self (nafs) an enemy that you fight and your wealth a destitute woman whom you would repel.   Al Kafi, v.2, p.329, no.7; al Faqih v.4, p.294, no.889.

5. The Holy Prophet(pbuh) has said : The truly powerful person is the one who has conquered himself.   al Faqih, v.4, p.272.

 

 

 

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Introduction

Combat with the Self' or 'Jihad al-Nafs' is a volume from the great hadith collection 'Wasail al-Shiah' by Shaikh Muhammad al-Hasan al-Hurr al-Amili. It contains advice from our infallibles about fighting our greatest enemy, our nafs.

I had been wanting to read this book for some time but much to my surprise there wasn't an e-book available. I searched the bookstores and of the only two that stocked it out of more than a dozen I searched, none would ship to the country where I live. It wasn't until very recently that my dearest friend coming from abroad bought it for me along with a bunch of other books(Thank you again if you ever happen to read this!!) I decided to share this book here because of the unavailability of the book and because of the prime importance of the issue in the life of a Muslim.The fact that narrations about combating the self have been compiled into a separate volume in the book of Jihad should tell us about the importance of the greatest Jihad, the battle against one's own self. The following anecdote further highlights the momentousness of struggle against the self.

Once, some hawza students from Lebanon requested Ayatullah Behjat for spiritual and (moral) advice. He replied: “One of the most beneficial actions in these matters is to sit with your fellow students every day and study one hadith from the chapter jihad al-nafs of the book Wasail al-Shi’a of Shaykh Hurr al-Amili. Of course, the hadith must be discussed properly, pondered over carefully and then transformed into action. This will be a spiritual tonic that within one year, will transform an individual in a way that he will himself see the change.”

@Abu Nur Brother started a thread with the hadiths sometime back but couldn't complete it due to other commitments. I will try my best to share the whole book inshallah in a year(at least a hadith per day)with the intention that hopefully some of us will read it together, ponder over the hadiths and with the help of Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى make some positive changes in ourselves.

Thank you.

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