Salamun Ala Manittaba alHuda
Recently, Ive been very disappointed hearing about some of the posts of Br. Tahasyed, who in my opinion is a very open minded brother who looks for *facts* and derives conclusions based on what he feels is the strongest evidence. Although I do not agree with this approach at all, since I consider such a capability to be found within a Mujtahid only, I respect his endeavour.
One of the issues he discussed was concerning Sadl and Qadhb. The Madhab of Imam Malik is well known for not clasping the hands, but letting them hang to the sides. It should be noted though that a large majority of Maliki Ulema permitted clasping the hands together such as Ibn Abd Al Barr himself whom Br. Taha quoted enthusiastically - and he (Ibn Abd Al Barr) would not have allowed it if he did not see any evidence for it. Ibn Rushd, the great Maliki faqih said in his Bidayat Al Mujtahid:
- ( المسألة الخامسة ) اختلف العلماء في وضع اليدين إحداهما على الأخرى في الصلاة، فكره ذلك مالك في الفرض، وأجازه في النفل. ورأى قوم أن هذا الفعل من سنن الصلاة وهم الجمهور. والسبب في اختلافهم أنه قد جاءت آثار ثابتة نقلت فيها صفة صلاته عليه الصلاة والسلام، ولم ينقل فيها أنه كان يضع يده اليمنى على اليسرى، وثبت أيضا أن الناس كانوا يؤمرون بذلك. وورد ذلك أيضا من صفة صلاته عليه الصلاة والسلام في حديث أبي حميد فرأى قوم أن الآثار التي أثبتت ذلك اقتضت زيادة على الآثار التي لم تنقل فيها هذه الزيادة وأن الزيادة يجب أن يصار إليها. ورأى قوم أن الأوجب المصير إلى الآثار التي ليس فيها هذه الزيادة، لأنها أكثر، ولكون هذه ليست مناسبة لأفعال الصلاة، وإنما هي من باب الاستعانة، ولذلك أجازها مالك في النفل ولم يجزها في الفرض، وقد يظهر من أمرها أنها هيئة تقتضي الخضوع، وهو الأولى بها.
- Scholars have differed regarding placing the hands, one of them on the other during Salah. Malik considered that makruh (disliked) during the obligatory prayer, and permitted it during the voluntary prayers. And some people considered this action to be from the Sunnah of Salah. They are the majority. The reason for their difference is that some established traditions (of the companions and successors) have come (in which) the description of the Prophet’s prayer – may Allah grant him peace – has been related in them and nowhere in them was it related that he placed his right over his left. It also has been confirmed that the people were commanded to do that (i.e. fold their hands). The former has also been mentioned as part of the description of his prayer – may Allah bless and grant him peace – in the hadith of Abu Hamid.
Br Taha said:
And in reply to (my assumption of) what you said; then sadl should be as permissible in salaat as the takteef of the hanafis, as their takteed is nothing more that ra'ee combined with the singular isolated hadith passed down to Abu Hanifah.
A blatantly wrong conclusion. There are a number of hadith, weak and sound, that state that the hands should be clasped during the prayer. Imam Al Kattani, the Muhaddith of his age, in his Nazm states the narrations on folding hands as Tawatur i.e. mass transmitted.
Here are the number of people saying placing one hand on the other was what the Prophet did.
( وضع اليدين أحداهما على الأخرى في الصلاة ).
- Putting the hands one over the other in prayers: (narrated) by:
عن (1) سهل بن سعد
1. Sahl Ibn Sa'd
(2) ووائل بن حجر الحضرمي
2. Wa'il Ibn Hujr
3) وعبد اللّه بن مسعود)
3. Ibn Mas'ud
(4) وهلب الطاءي
4. Wahb al Ta'i
(5) وعلي بن أبي طالب
5. Ali bin Abi talib
وابن الزبير (7) وأبي هريرة (6)
6. Ibn Zubair and 7. Abu Hurayrah
(8) وجابر ابن عبد اللّه (9) والحارث
8. Jabir bin Abdullah and 9. Harith
(Ive stopped posting the Arabic)
10. Amr bin Harith
11. Ya'la bin Marah
12. Ibn Umar
13. Abu Al Darda
16. Ibn Abbas
18. Shadad bin Sharjil
19. Muadh bin Jabal
20. Sufyan Thawri (Mursal- he was a Tabi' , one who met the Sahaba)
21. Abi Umayyah
23. Hasan Al Basri
25. Ibrahim Nakha'i
Thus it is absolutely clear that placing the hands on the other is *not* a singular, gharib hadith with no basis. Rather, it is mass transmitted from the Prophet through the Companions and Tabi'in.Br. Taha then said:
In any case, don't forget that no hadith is mutawatir when it comes to folding the arms except the one that states the placement on the chest. So Abu Hanifah WAS actually wrong.
This statement is actually once again incorrect. Most of the narrations merely mention placing the hands on the other without *position*.
As for the hands on the chest then it is the position of *none* of the prominent scholars save some of the Salafiyyah and Imam Shafi' who has two opinions on the matter, the placement on the chest is less soundly attributed to him. Imam Tirmidhi also provides proof of this when he states in his Sunan that *both* placing the hands below the navel and above (below the chest) are sound, without mentioning the placement on the chest as a position.
Also, according to the Hanbalis the most sound position is the same as the Hanafis and Imam Ahmad was certainly not a person who used Ra'i as much as Imam Al Azam. This can easily be seen by looking at the major Hanbali works such as Al Mughni by Ibn Qudamah and others.
قال: [ويجعلهما تحت سرته] اختلفت الرواية في موضع وضعهما, فروى عن أحمد أنه يضعهما تحت سرته روى ذلك عن على وأبي هريرة وأبي مجلز, والنخعي والثوري وإسحاق لما روي عن على رضي الله عنه قال: من السنة وضع اليمين على الشمال تحت السرة رواه الإمام أحمد, وأبو داود وهذا ينصرف إلى سنة النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم- ولأنه قول من ذكرنا من الصحابة وعن أحمد أنه يضعهما فوق السرة وهو قول سعيد بن جبير والشافعي لما روى وائل بن حجر قال: (رأيت النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم- يصلي فوضع يديه على صدره إحداهما على الأخرى وعنه أنه مخير في ذلك لأن الجميع مروي, والأمر في ذلك واس
Ibn Qayyim Al JAwziyya, a Salafi favorite states:
واختلف في موضع الوضع، فعنه: فوق السرة، وعنه: تحتها، وعنه: أبو طالب سألت أحمد بن حنبل أين يضع يده إذا كان يصلي؟ قال: على السرة أو أسفل، وكل ذلك واسع عنده إن وضع فوق السرة أو عليها أو تحتها، قال علي رضي اللّه عنه: من السنة وضع الكف على الكف في الصلاة تحت السرة، عمرو بن مالك عن أبي الجوزاء عن ابن عباس مثل تفسير علي، إلا أنه غير صحيح، والصحيح صهيب، وعلي، قال في رواية المزني: أسفل السرة بقليل، ويكره أن يجعلها على الصدر، وذلك لما روي عن النبي ـ صلى اللّه عليه وسلم ـ أنه نهى عن التكفير، وهو وضع اليد على الصدر، مؤمل بن إسماعيل عن عاصم بن كليب عن أبيه عن وائل أن النبي ـ صلى اللّه عليه وسلم ـ وضع يده على صدره، فقد روى هذا الحديث عبد اللّه بن الوليد عن سفيان لم يذكر ذلك، ورواه شعبة، وعبد الواحد لم يذكرا خالفًا، كذا سفيان، اه
The reason the Hanafis state that one should place his hands beneath his Navel, since this is the Sunna, as do the Hanbalis as stated in Kashaf Al Qina by Al Buhuti. There are also many Hadith that support this (also see the quotes of Ibn Qudama and Ibn Qayyim which mention some of these hadith):
حدثنا أبو معاوية عن عبد الرحمن بن إسحاق عن زياد بن زيد السوائي عن أبي جحيفة عن علي قال : من سنة الصلاة وضع الايدي على الايدي تحت السرر
Sayyidina Ali states:
- To place one palm over the other beneath the navel, is from the sunna of prayer (Bayhaqi, Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 1:391).
Also there is another hadith by Sayyidina Ali from Uqba ibn Suhban (a Thiqa narrator) regarding placing the hands below the navel. The narration has a Qawi sanad (strong chain) and was first reported with his Isnad by al Hafiz Abu Bakr al Athram (a famous student of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal). This narration is strong enough to raise the level of the narration via the dha'if narrator Abdur Rahman ibn Ishaq al Kufi - who reports from his uncle: Nu'man ibn Sa'd from Imam Ali and others like Abu Juhaifa from Ali - these narrations are found in some editions of Sunan Abu Dawud, then also in Sunan al Daraqutni, Sunan al Bayhaqi, Zawa'id al Musnad ibn Hanbal by Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Shahin in al Sunna, Razin ibn Mu'awiya in his Tajreed al Sihah, Diya al Maqdisi in al Mukhtara etc. This latter narration is thus Hasan li Ghayrihi.
حدثنا يزيد بن هارون قال : أخبرنا حجاج بن حسان قال : سمعت أبا مجلز أو سألته قال : قلت كيف يصنع قال : يضع باطن كف يمينه على ظاهر كف شماله ويجعلها أسفل من السرة
Hajjaj ibn Hassan relates:
- Either I heard Abu Mijlaz saying or I inquired from him, ‘How should one position his hands [during prayer]?’ He replied, ‘He should place the inner portion of his right hand upon the back of the left one beneath the navel.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 1:390)
The transmission of this hadith is Hasan.
حدثنا جرير عن مغيرة عن أبي معشر إبراهيم قال : لا بأس بأن يضع اليمنى على اليسرى في الصلاة
Ibrahim Nakhai states:
- One should place his right hand upon the left one beneath the navel whilst in salat. (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 1:390)
And there are more hadiths in regards to this.
Following is an analysis of the ahadith often quoted for placing the hands upon the chest.
This is a short article based on Shaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh al Haq's book: The Salah of the Believer, in reply to the claim that it is from the Sunna to place the hands upon the chest in Salah. To place the hands on the chest is not the position of any of the 4 Madhhabs or their major students.
قال في رواية المزني أسفل السرة بقليل ويكره أن يجعلهما على الصدر ، وذلك لما روي عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه نهى عن التكفير وهو وضع اليد على الصدر
Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyah writes in his Badai' al Fawaid:
- It is makruh (undesirable) to place the hands on the chest in view of the narration that the Prophet forbade takfeer, which is to place the hands on the chest. (3:73)
Further, in the same book it says:
وعنه أبو طالب : سألت أحمد أين يضع يده إذا كان يصلي . قال : على السرة أو أسفل
- And Abu talib narrated: I asked Ahmad (ibn Hanbal) where to place the hands.... He said: On the navel or lower.
As for the hadith on placing the hands on the chest following is an analysis of most of them:
1. Sayyidina Wail bin Hujr says, 'I prayed with the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and he placed his right hand over his left on his chest.(Ibn Khuzaimah: 479)
Imam Nimawi says:
- It's isnad is questionable and the additional wording 'on his chest' is inauthentic and not established.
This hadith has been reported by Muammal bin Ismail from Sufyan al Thawri from Aasim bin Kulaib from Wail bin Hujr
- However it is only Muammal who reports these additional words from Sufyan al Thawri. Sufyan's other student, Abdullah bin al Waleed who also narrates this hadith from him does not include these words in his narration as recorded in Imam Ahmad's Musnad. (Ahmad 18392)
The other narrators who report the hadith together with Sufyan al Thawri from Aasim bin Kulaib have also not included these words in their narrations. Observe the following list of narrators who have all reported the same hadith from Aasim bin Kulaib but none of then have included the additional words reported by Muammal bin Ismail
• Sh'ubah, Abdul Wahid, and Zubair bin Muawiyah as in Imam Ahmad's Musnad. (Ahmad 18398, 18371 & 18397)
• Zaidah as in Imam Ahmad's Musnad, Darimi, Abu Dawood. Nasai and Baihaqi (Ahmad 18391, Darimi 1357, Abu Dawood 726, Nasai 889 and Baihaqi 2325)
• Bishr bin al Mufaddhal as in Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood and Nasai (Ibn Majah 810, Abu Dawood 726 & 957, and Nasai 1265)
• Abdullah bin Idrees as in Ibn Majah (Ibn Majah 810)
• Salam bin Saleem as in Abu Dawood Tayalisi's Musnad (Abu Dawood Tayalisi 1020)
There are many other chains for this hadith, however, none contain this extra wording. Thus, it is clear that this is Muammal bin Ismail's own erroneous addition to the hadith. Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyah also says in I'laam al Muwaqqieen, 'No one has said upon the chest apart from Muammal bin Ismail.’ (2:361) Therefore, as Imam Nimawi has concluded in his al Ta'leeq al Hasan, this hadeeth with the additional wording of' upon his chest' is extremely weak.
It is an accepted principle of hadith that if a certain authentic and reliable narrator contradicts other equally authentic or more reliable narrators in his wording of a hadeeth then his narration will be declared shaadh and will not be accepted. If this is the case with authentic narrators, then an irregular addition of the words 'upon the chest' cannot be accepted from a narrator who, although declared acceptable by some, errs excessively and is weak of memory like Muammal bin Ismail. Study the following observations of the scholars of Jarh and T'adil about Muammal bin Ismail:
Abu Hatim says, 'He is saduq, firm in sunnah, but one of many mistakes."
Imam Bukhari says, 'Muammal is munkar al hadeeth (People who view Imam Bukhari as the ultimate authority in matters of Hadeeth should note his following statement: 'It is not permissible to narrate from anyone whom I have labelled munkar al hadeeth [Mizan al I'itidal 1:119]
Dhahabi says in al Kashif, 'He is saduq, firm in sunnah, but one of many mistakes. It was also said that he buried his books and narrated by heart and thus erred. '
Ibn Sa'd says, 'He is thiqah, though one of many mistakes.'
Ya'qub bin Sufyan says:
- Muammal Abu Abdul Rahman is a great sunni shaikh. I heard Sulaiman bin Harb praise him. Our shaikhs would advise us to take his hadeeth, only that his hadith are not like the hadith of his companions. At times it is obligatory upon the people of knowledge to distance themselves from his narrations as he narrates munkar ahadith from even his authentic teachers. This is worse for had he narrated these munkar ahadith from weak authorities we would have excused him.
Saji says, 'He errs excessively. He is saduq, but one of many mistakes. He has errors that would take too long to be mentioned.'
Muhammad bin Nasr al Marwazi says, 'If Muammal alone relates a certain narration then it becomes obligatory to pause and research the hadeeth as he had a bad memory and erred excessively (See Tahdheeb al Tahdheeb)
Hafidh Ibn Hajr has made it clear in his Fath al Bari that there is dh'af (weakness) in Muammal bin Ismail's narrations from Sufyan (Fath al Bari, 9/297).
The above hadeeth has this very chain of narration.
We must also bear in mind that Sayyidina Wail Ibn Hujr, the very companion who narrates this hadith, was a resident of Kufa, and the practice of the people of Kufa was to fasten their hands below the navel. There is nothing to suggest that he contravened this practice. Sufyan al Thawri, from whom Muammal narrates this hadith, is himself of the view that the hands should be placed below the navel (Ibn Qudamah in al Mughni 2:23, and others as quoted by the author of Bughyah al Almai 1:316)
Furthermore, there is another hadeeth narrated by Sayyiduna Wail
himself (quoted above) which says that he saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) fasten his hands below the navel.
2. Sayyidina Hulb relates, 'I saw the Prophet turn from both his right and left and I also saw him place this upon his chest.' Yahya (one of the narrators) described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint. (292)
The above hadith contains the words 'upon his chest'. This extra wording is not firmly established or confirmed, because of all the narrators who report this hadeeth from Simak, only one reports this extra wording.
Observe the following narrations of the same hadeeth without the extra wording of 'upon his chest'.
• Abu al Ahwas reports from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father that the Prophet would lead us in prayer and would clasp his left hand with his right. (293)
• Shareek reports from Simak from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says (towards the end of a longer hadeeth), 'I saw him place one of his hands on the other and I also saw him turn once towards his right and once towards his left.' (294)
Waki reports from Sufyan from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says, 'I saw the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) place his right hand upon his left in prayer and I also saw him turn away from both his right and left.' (295)
• Daruqutni narrates from Abdul Rahman bin Mahdi and Waki', from Sufyan from Simak bin Harb from Qabeesah bin Hulb from his father who says, 'I saw the Prophet place his right hand upon his left in prayer.' (Daruqutni #1087)
The above narrations all clearly show that the wording 'upon his chest' is an unreliable addition on the part of one of the reporters and therefore this particular narration is shaadh.
Imam Nimawi adds in his al T'aleeq al Hasan (1:145):
- I have a suspicion that the wording of this hadith has mistakenly been changed by a writer. The correct words would appear to be "Yadhau hadhihi ala hadhihi", i.e., "he would place this hand upon this hand", and not "hadhihi ala sadrihi", i.e., "this hand upon his chest". Only this wording would be in agreement with the narrators own interpretation of the hadeeth as is stated in the narration "Yahya described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint". This would also tally with all the other narrations of this hadith that do not contain the wording "upon the chest", and would also explain why the following authors have not included this narration in their comprehensive books: Haythami in his Majm'a al Zawaid, Suyuti in his Jam' al Jawami, and Ali al Muttaqi in his Kanz alUmmal. And Allah knows best.
The author of Awn al M'abud also admits that Yahya's commentary does not fit the wording of the hadeeth.
footnote (fn) no. 292 says: Ahmad 21460. Allamah Hashim Sindhi says in Dirham al Surrah p. 113 that both Simak bin Harb and Qabeesah (two of the narrators of this hadith) have been disparaged by some of the ulama of jarh and t'adeel.
fn. 293 Ibn Abi Shaybah 3934, Ahmad 21467, Ibn Majah 809 and Tirmidhi 252. Imam Tirmidhi adds that it is a hasan hadeeth.
fn. 294: Ahmad 21464.
fn. 295: Ahmad 2146I & 21475. Daruqutni 1087. al T'aleeq al Hasan 1:145
A more detailed reply can be found in arabic works like:
i) Dirham Al Surra by Imam Muhammad Hashim al Sindi (d. 1174 AH) - which contains a thorough reply to Shaykh Muhammad Hayat al-Sindi and those who imitated him in later times (like Abdur Rahman al Mubarakpuri in his Tuhfatul Ahwadhi)
ii) Athar al-Sunan ma'a Ta'liq al Hasan by Imam al-Nimawi
iii) I'la al Sunan by Shaykh Zafar Ahmad al-Uthmani (d. 1974)
iv) Badhlul Majhud fi Halli Sunan Abu Dawud by Shaykh Khalil al-Sahranpuri
v) Ma'arif al-Sunan by Shaykh Muhammad Yusuf al Binuri (d. 1977)
And Allah alone gives Success.Salman
Edited by bkkkb, 09 June 2005 - 12:07 PM.