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Sh. Saduq's Risalat al I`tiqadat


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#1 Guest_abaleada_*

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Posted 15 June 2004 - 03:44 PM

(bismillah)
(salam)
Is there any kind of sharh on this text? Or can someone help me understand the concepts that are presented here? Some claim that we have permitted ourselves to be dishonest with fellow Muslims where no danger exists to our lives or persons; they use texts such as these as ammunition for their hatred and lies against us.

And in any case, I have been trying to make a study of this text.

Intellectualism is pereferred, please.

http://www.sicm.org....dd2b863c0218dd9

CHAPTER 39

THE BELIEF CONCERNING DISSIMULATION (taqiya)

Says the Shaykh, may the mercy of Allah be on him: Our belief concerning taqiya (permissible dissimulation) is that it is obligatory, and he who forsakes it is in the same position as he who forsakes prayer. Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq was told: 0 son of the Messenger of Allah, verily we see in the mosque one who openly abuses your enemies, calling out their names. And he said: May Allah curse him! Why does he refer to us? He, Who is Exalted above all, says: "Revile not those who invoke (deities) other than Allah, lest wrongfully they revile Allah through ignorance" [6, 108] And Imam Ja'far in explaining this verse has said: So do not revile them, lest they revile your 'Ali. And he also said: He who reviles the friend (wali) of Allah (i.e. All) has reviled Allah. And the Prophet said: He who reviles thee, 0 'Ali, has verily reviled me; and he, who reviles me, has verily reviled Allah.

Now until the Imam al-Qa'im appears, taqiya is obligatory and it is not permissible to dispense with it. He, who abandons it before the appearance of the Qa'im, has verily gone out of the religion of Allah, Exalted is He, and the religion of the Imams, and disobeys Allah and His Messenger and the Imams. Imam Ja'far was asked concerning the Word of Allah, Mighty and Glorious is He: "Verily the noblest among you, in the sight of Allah, is the most pious" [49, 13]. He said: (It means) he who adheres most scrupulously to the practice of taqiya.

And Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has described the showing of friendship to unbelievers as being (possible only) in the state of taqiya. And He the Mighty and Glorious says: "Let not believers take disbelievers for their friends in preference to believers. Whoso doeth that hath no connection with Allah unless (it be) that ye but guard yourselves against them, for fear of being killed" [3, 28]. And Allah the Mighty and Glorious says: "Allah doth not forbid you to deal with kindness and fairness toward those who have not made war upon you on account of your religion, or driven you forth from your homes: for Allah loveth those who act with fairness [60, 8]." "Only Allah doth forbid you to make friends of those who, on account of your religion, have warred against you, and have driven you forth from your homes, and have aided those who drove you forth: and whoever maketh friends of them are wrong-doers" [ibid., 9].

And Imam Ja'far said: Verily, I hear a man abusing me in the mosque; and I hide myself behind a pillar so that he may not see me. And he (Imam Ja'far) said: Mix with the people (enemies) outwardly, but oppose them inwardly, so long as the Amirate (imratun) is a matter of opinion. And he also said: Verily diplomacy (arri'a') with a true believer is a form of shirk (polytheism); but with a hypocrite (munafiq) in his own house, it is worship. And he also said: He who prays with them (hypocrites) standing in the first row, it is as though he prayed with the Prophet in the first row. And he also said: Visit their sick and attend their funerals and pray in their mosques. And he also said: (You should) become an ornament for us, and not a disgrace. And he said: May Allah have mercy on a person who inculcates friendship towards us among men, and does not provoke ill-will among them.

The storytellers (qassasun) were mentioned before Imam Ja'far, and he said: May Allah curse them, for they speak ill of us. And he was asked concerning the storytellers, whether it is permissible to hear what they say, and he said: No. And Imam Ja'far said: He, who gives ear to a speaker, has verily rendered himself submissive to him; if the speaker (discourses) concerning Allah, then the listener has verily worshipped Allah, and if he speaks of the devil, then the listener has worshipped the devil.

And Imam Ja'far was asked concerning the Word of Allah, Exalted is He above all: "As for the poets, the erring follow them" [26, 224]. He said: These are the storytellers.

And the Prophet said: He, who goes to an innovator (dhu bid'a) and gives him respect, strives towards the destruction of Islam. And our belief, concerning him who opposes us in a single injunction of religion, is the like of our belief concerning him who disobeys us in all the injunctions of religion.


Edited by abaleada, 23 June 2004 - 10:17 AM.


#2 Guest_abaleada_*

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Posted 23 June 2004 - 09:00 AM

http://www.ahl-ul-ba...tm#_Toc11723203

If no-one knows anything about the issue of taqiyyah, could someone help me get some harakat on the text below? The grey indicates patrs that I have completed.

http://www.ahl-ul-ba...qadat/iet01.htm

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  • NeedHarakat.jpg

Edited by abaleada, 23 June 2004 - 09:57 AM.


#3 fyst

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Posted 24 June 2004 - 03:40 AM

(salam)

well, i wasn't originally planning on replying to this coz of your statement: "Intellectualism is pereferred, please.", but since this seems to have deterred everyone else too, i suppose u won't mind a single regular-joe reply.

ok, i don't know what "sharh" and "harakat" are, so i'm ignoring that.

the hadith in the first paragraph is quite unambiguous, so i assume you aren't looking for clarifications there. obviously, if we insult the leaders of the other sects right up in front of them, then this doesn't help them understand our viewpoint. it will probably produce anger in them and this will result in obstinacy and spite, thus causing no improvement to their state at all. so, if we want to help matter out, then we shouldn't insult the religious leaders of other sects publicly, even though we accept inwardly that they are wrong.

i'm not too sure about the authenticity of the hadith in the second paragraph, since, though taqiyya is a form a piety, it surely can't be the highest form, as that hadith implies.

the third paragraph keeps using the word "friend/friendship" with reference to unbelievers. if you read the arabic word in the quran, you'll see that it is "aw-liyaah" (plural of 'wali'). the translation of wali is not exactly "friend", it is infact more like "protecting friend". in other words a wali is someone whom we depend upon. in this sense, it is forbidden to depend on unbelievers, since they do not depend upon Allah. obviously, the only exception is in the state of taqiyyah, the permission of which has been granted in the verses of the quran mentioned in that paragraph.

"And Imam Ja'far said: Verily, I hear a man abusing me in the mosque; and I hide myself behind a pillar so that he may not see me."
i don't think this hadith has anything to do with fear. it is better that your enemy stops abusing you as a result of realizing that you are not worthy of abuse, instead of feeling ashamed of himself because he was backbiting about you. if someone is abusing me behind my back, then i would not let him know that i know about it, to avoid him the embarassment. in this way, if his opinions are wrongly based, then maybe he might realize his mistake someday and correct himself. if he is embarassed into silence then he will never realize that he was wrong in the first place. he might agree that it was wrong to backbite, but he won't agree that what he was saying about me was wrong too.

"And he (Imam Ja'far) said: Mix with the people (enemies) outwardly, but oppose them inwardly, so long as the Amirate (imratun) is a matter of opinion."
it is just asked to mix with these people. not to pretend to like them. just like prophet muhammed pbuh was polite and courteous to the people of makkah before beginning to preach islam. and just like he pbuh was kind to all the sahabis including the munafiqeen.

"And he also said: Verily diplomacy (arri'a') with a true believer is a form of shirk (polytheism); but with a hypocrite (munafiq) in his own house, it is worship."
diplomacy, is just being subtle. it is not lying or doing the forbidden. just like ayatullah sistani's verdict to pose no resistence to the US take-over of iraq and thus ridding it of saddam is diplomacy. it is clear, and always has been so, that ayatullah sistani has never supported US policies, or its occupation of iraq. but offering no opposition when an evil fights an evil is not wrong.
remember that diplomacy is not accepting what one believes to be wrong. it is only putting forward what is correct subtly.

"And he also said: He who prays with them (hypocrites) standing in the first row, it is as though he prayed with the Prophet in the first row."
i clearly think this hadith is fabricated. according to islamic law (and as mentioned in the quran as well), even the "masjids" built by hypocrites are to be demolished, leave alone praying with them. if this hadith was authentic, then i'm sure the maraja'i right now would have declared that it is mustahab to pray at wahhabite (or some other similar sect's) masjids, instead of our own.

"And he also said: Visit their sick and attend their funerals and pray in their mosques."
to visit the sick was our prophet's pbuh way of life. clearly this is not wrong. for attending the funerals and praying in their mosques, once again if this were so, then it would have been declared mustahab by our own maraja'e. since it has not (well, not by ayatullah sistani atleast, whom i follow), i cannot accept this hadith as authentic.

"And he also said: (You should) become an ornament for us, and not a disgrace. And he said: May Allah have mercy on a person who inculcates friendship towards us among men, and does not provoke ill-will among them."
i assume these are not a matter of doubt.

the rest of the article is not directly related to taqiyyah, so i'm not commenting on it.

for your second post, i do not understand arabic, so no can do.

by the way, if you have some doubts regarding the authenticity of ahadith or articles regarding matters of fiqh, you can send an email to the marj'a whose taqleed you do. i'm sure they can verify the ahadith and explain all incongruencies.

#4 Guest_abaleada_*

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Posted 24 June 2004 - 03:13 PM

(bismillah)
(salam)
I am not concerned so much about the aunthenticity of the ahadith, since Sh. ibn Babawi as-Saduq was a hadith specialist whose text on creed is one of the foremost in Shi`ah Islam. What I am concerned about is the concept of obligation and taqiyyah and the interpretation of the ahadity that are presented in the chapter. I need to know in what sense taqiyyah is required: is it required for us to accept the concept and not forbid people from it? Or is it obligatory on us in certain situations? Or is it just plain obligatory? And what would that entail?

Where is brother Abdul Hussain? oiii

Any other thoughts that you have, please let me know.

#5 aasaria

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Posted 24 June 2004 - 04:59 PM

bismillah,
salaamun alaikum,

my personal understanding of this text here is that it is talking about a different type of taqiyyah than how we normally understand it. in the normal understanding, taqiyyah means hiding our belief by actually acting against what we believe to be true. in this taqiyyah, you actually break rules (hopefully because you are trying to avoid persectuion) for example you pray differently or you eat pork, etc.

notice that nowhere in the text does it tell you to actually do things against the sharia as we understand it by doing haram things or avoiding wajibaat.

in the text you are quoting, i believe it is talking about a different form of hiding your beliefs. here the sheikh is speaking about hiding the fact that you believe someone is way off in their beliefs. for example, we believe that inna aladheena kafaru min ahlil kitaabi (wal mushrikeena) fee naari jahanama khalideena fee ha. however we don't go about condemning them to hell and saying this at every opportunity. instead we are friendly with them. we don't make fun of polytheists false gods because of the verse quoted.

by being good with people even though we believe they are going to hell or even though we believe that they are committing the worst of acts, we can see that, in a way, we are hiding our beliefs. we are doing taqiyyah. and i think it is this type of taqiyyah, on the authority of the verse quoted in the quraan [6,108], that is wajib upon us.

i really believe in this because i often pray with the ahlul sunna. in truth, we believe that they are praying incorrectly by following the teachings of abuhanifa only, but i never say this to them [unless they ask or when it is appropriate]. in a way i hide my belief. or when i am with non-muslims, i never say i believe that some of the things that they do are the worst of deeds worthy of the flames of hell, etc. instead, i am cordial with them. i hide my belief.

so i think that we can be very comfortable with what the sheikh says when we carefully read what he means by taqiyyah.

-ali

Edited by aasaria, 24 June 2004 - 05:19 PM.


#6 Guest_abaleada_*

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Posted 25 June 2004 - 12:27 PM

(salam)

...

ok, i don't know what "sharh" and "harakat" are, so i'm ignoring that.


(bismillah)
(salam)
Sharh - scholarly explanation. Harakat: dashes and other marks above or below Arabic consonants; the vowel markings.

the hadith in the first paragraph is quite unambiguous, so i assume you aren't looking for clarifications there.


Actually, the irst paragraph did confuse me, but not the hadith as much as the word "obligatory" and its applications. Also, while Imam Sadiq's tafsir of the ayah was provided, it might also help me to know how that nass (text) is transferred into fiqhi application.

obviously, if we insult the leaders of the other sects right up in front of them, then this doesn't help them understand our viewpoint. it will probably produce anger in them and this will result in obstinacy and spite, thus causing no improvement to their state at all. so, if we want to help matter out, then we shouldn't insult the religious leaders of other sects publicly, even though we accept inwardly that they are wrong.


That's fine and everything, but I doubt that we are actually allowed to insult or curse people even in the privacy of our own homes. What I mean by this is that I am actually revolted at the thought of insulting the founders of the madhahib of Sunni Islam. I am insulted when people react against the `ulama, as in the case of a Palestinian man who said on BBC's Newshour that the mufti of al Quds "doesn't know what happens in our homes" and "has other priorities and better things to do" than to tell them what kinds of jobs they could do (the speaker of thsoe words works on the Apartheid Wall in contradiction of a fatwa of the mufti of al Quds). I've circulated a paragraph slamming the individual for speaking out against him who delivers the verdicts of the religion to us when as Muslims it is Allah and the laws of Islam that we should obey. It angers me to see people calling the `ulama of Sunni Islam "without knowledge" simply because they are not Shi`ah Muslims. And by way of clarification, itshould be known that I have the same feelings when people insult and slander our `ulama. But in these cases, I see the laws of Islam guiding us. That is, we do not spread rumours about Muslims, backbite them, or slander them. We are directed to have respect for those who strivein the way of Allah to acquire knowledge so that they might warn and admonish us. I see this as applying to us whether we speak about someone in our own sect or abuot someone outsideof our sect, because the both of us are Muslims and the both of us have these same laws.

But how does all of that fit into the concept of taqiyyah? Does it relate at all? Or is that something different?

Another perspective that I have which relates directly to taqiyyah is the kinds of things that we say about some of the companions of Prophet Muhammad. What serves as a yardstick here is the very rules that exist in Sunni Islam for the same thing. These rules are that one should not curse any companion of Prophet Muhammad, slander them, etc. And as far as saying lan`at on someone or accusing someone of fisq, I see no need for me or any otehr layperson to do that. I think, though, that in Sunni Islam this also expands to not spending one's time talking on and on about the mistakes that the companions made. I can see the sense in that if one is exhorting to the good. However, I feel that there is a way to mention in a respectful way things that the companions did wrong when a topic arises that could be exemplified by it. An example that I have in mind is Tijani's books. He goes beyond mentioning the errors of the companions for the purpose of classifying which ones he deems worthy of confidence and speaks about the family history of some or the religious backgrounds of others where he had not been discussing the impact of one's previous lifestyles on one's current state of mind - and in any case, mentioning someone's family history simply does not seem graceful to me Other texts mention the obsitinancy of the companions in general in matters of obeying Prophet Muhammad and accepting his orders for the purpose of discussing historical and political events. Many of those texts do not go so far as to name any names. I feel that this way is better, sicne it is contained in a discussion of the state of a historical society and its politics in a way that is certainly applicable to our situation today where if a scholar were to issue an edict for jihad, we would all suck our thumbs and watch cartoons. The same type of attitude of obstinence and laziness exists among us today, at a worse level.

I could be wrong: it could be that it is permissible in Sunni Islam to discuss the errors of the companions as long as it is done with respect, perhaps anonymiy, and within a sincere and applicable context. Or it could be that it is considered wrong altogether to do that kind of thing. Perhaps brother ultra could give some information on that.

My whole problem here is that there is a great amount of time between me in the 21st century and Sh. Saduq ibn Baawiya in his time, and no-one who is learned in explaining his texts seems to have published any kind of explanation.

#7 fyst

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Posted 26 June 2004 - 05:57 AM

Sharh - scholarly explanation.

ok, i'm out.

Harakat: dashes and other marks above or below Arabic consonants; the vowel markings.

out again.

Actually, the irst paragraph did confuse me, but not the hadith as much as the word "obligatory" and its applications. Also, while Imam Sadiq's tafsir of the ayah was provided, it might also help me to know how that nass (text) is transferred into fiqhi application.

yes, i myself do not understand the limits of the applications of taqiyya. i have known for some time that it is indeed obligatory but have not been able to find any descriptions of the boundaries or extent of taqiyya. however, i have read an article that states that it is only permissible in countries/regions under tyrannous rule. but this article does not clarify the extent of taqiyya in these regions. this is the link: http://www.al-islam.org/shiism/10.htm

That's fine and everything, but I doubt that we are actually allowed to insult or curse people even in the privacy of our own homes. What I mean by this is that I am actually revolted at the thought of insulting the founders of the madhahib of Sunni Islam.

well, the persons who were being insulted according to that hadith were the enemies of our imam (as)

we see in the mosque one who openly abuses your enemies

and the enemies of our imams (as) deserve to be insulted whether they be the founders of the sunni madhahib or not.
"tabarra" is an essential part of our religion. it falls in the same category of obligations as prayers.

It angers me to see people calling the `ulama of Sunni Islam "without knowledge" simply because they are not Shi`ah Muslims.

clearly it is wrong to slander those who are good, whether they be shi'ite, sunnite, muslim or non-muslim.
however, it is equally wrong to support the bad, be they of any religious creed or sect. i believe the hadith was referring to someone who was an enemy of our imam (as). this would make him unambiguosly bad and thus deserving of insults, regardless of his position in other madhahib.

But how does all of that fit into the concept of taqiyyah? Does it relate at all? Or is that something different?

as i stated earlier the concept of taqiyya is only applicable when one is under a tyrannous government. the man who slandered the alim did not do so under any threat, so it is not relevant here.

What serves as a yardstick here is the very rules that exist in Sunni Islam for the same thing. These rules are that one should not curse any companion of Prophet Muhammad, slander them, etc.

i think the yardstick here should be to not curse those who are good, and to curse those who are bad. being a companion of our prophet pbuh doesn't make any companion good. abu lahab was an uncle of our prophet pbuh and Allah himself has cursed him in the holy qur'an. surat-al-munaafiqoon was also revealed to curse those companions of the prophet who were actually hypocrites.
so cursing the bad regardless of their "closeness" to our prophet pbuh is a direct application of what qur'an teaches us.
it is also what is meant by "tabarra".

Many of those texts do not go so far as to name any names. I feel that this way is better

yes, this is also the method adopted by the qur'an. it just lays down the definitions of what good and evil are without specifically stating names. then it lays the burden of selection upon us. whoever fits the description of good is good, and whoever fits the description for evil is evil.
however, once we do realize who all are evil, we should not refrain from openly dissociating from them, for indeed that is what we pray for five times a day:
(bismillah)
[1:7] The path of those upon whom Thou hast bestowed favors. Not (the path) of those upon whom Thy wrath is brought down, nor of those who go astray.

where if a scholar were to issue an edict for jihad, we would all suck our thumbs and watch cartoons. The same type of attitude of obstinence and laziness exists among us today, at a worse level.

:)
yes, indeed the bad outnumber the good now, as they always have. but not all are of that disposition.

Perhaps brother ultra could give some information on that.

why don't you pm him. i don't think he would have chanced upon this section of the thread.



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