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Ali

#8 Imam Ridha (as) [OFFICIAL THREAD]

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Name - Ali

Title - Ar-Ridha

Kunyat - Abul Hasan

Born - Thursday 11th of Zilqad 148 A.H. , at Medina

Father's Name - Moosa ibn Ja'far

Mother's Name - Ummul Baneen Najma

Died - At the age of 55 years, at Mashad in Khorasan, on Tuesday, 17th Safar 203 AH. Poisoned by Mamoon the Abbaside Caliph

Buried - in Mashad, Iran .

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The Martyrdom of Imam Reza (as)

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful

Divine Leadership-Imamat, Peak of Wisdom, Ultimate Love and Sincerity

Abd al-Aziz ibn-Muslim narrates:

We were accompanying Imam Reza (pbuh) in Marv. Upon our entrance, we gathered in the grand mosque of the city. The people present were debating and discussing the different opinions on the topic of divine leadership-Imamat. I went to Imam Reza (pbuh) and reported the discussion about Imamat. Imam Reza (pbuh) smiled and said, “O! Abd al-Aziz, the people have misunderstood and have been deceived and have become negligent of their correct beliefs …”

The fact of the matter is that do people really know the value of the state of Imamat amongst the community, in order to be authorized to select him? Certainly, the position of an Imam is higher, his esteem is greater, his rank is higher, his place is more superior, and his depth is deeper than what people can bear to understand. Therefore, they are not authorized to select a divine Imam. Imamat is a position that the Allah (SWT) granted to Abraham (pbuh) after he had passed the state of his prophetic mission and divine friendship (being Allah’s Khalil). Allah (SWT) honored him, excelled his name by this virtue of Imamat and said, “Lo! I have appointed you an Imam for mankind…1” So pleased of this virtue, Prophet Abraham (pbuh) asked, “And of my offspring (will they be Imams too) 2”? Allah (SWT) said, “My covenant does not include the unjust.3” So this verse has permanently revoked the position of Imamat for oppressors and has devoted it only to the elite, those worthy of this position. Then, Allah (SWT) honored Prophet Abraham (pbuh) and made this position a chosen and pure position while He said: “And we granted him (Abraham) Is’haq and Yaqoub, and we made them all righteous men. And we made them Imams who guided (people) by our command4”.

Imam is as an intimate friend, a kind father, an equal brother, a compassionate mother to her child, and the refuge of people in time of difficulties. Imam is the trustworthy of the Allah (SWT) amongst the people, His representative-Hujjat for His servants, His Caliph in His cities, a caller towards the Lord and a defender of His laws. Imam is purified of sins and faults.

Once Allah (SWT) chooses one to amend the affairs of His servants, He increases his patience, grants him wisdom, and gives him knowledge so that he would answer all questions and never deviate from truth. Therefore, he is purified and accredited and supported by Him. He is immune of any sin or fault. The Allah almighty has specified him with these virtues to become his representative amongst the people; this is His blessing that is given to anyone He wishes. Indeed His grant is enormous.

Do people really have such ability to choose such a person? Or is it possible that the person they select, have the characteristics of a divinely chosen?

(A Summary of Osool al-Kafi, v. 1, p. 198-233)

The Roshd website offers condolences to all the Muslims, especially you dear friend, on the occasion of the last day of Safar, the martyrdom of the 8th Imam and successor and the attribute of kindness and compassion, Imam Ali ibn-Musa al- Reza (pbuh).

Roshd Islamic Shia website

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1-The Holy Quran (2,124)

2-The Holy Quran (2,124)

3-The Holy Quran (2,124)

4-The Holy Quran (2, 72-73)

Edited by Ali Mahdi

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Qualities of Imam Reza (as)

Imam Reza (as) had the high noble traits of his grandfather – Holy Prophet (saw).

Concerning his noble traits, Ibrahim b al- Abbas narrates: I have never seen nor have I ever heard that there is a man more meritorious than Abu al- Hasan al Reza (as). He never turned way from anyone; nor did he interrupt anyone; nor did he refuse to do someone a favor he was able to do; nor did he ever stretch out his leg before an audience; nor did he ever lean upon something while his companion did not; nor did he ever call any of his servants or attendants a bad name; nor did he ever spit or burst into a laughter; rather his laughter was just a smile. When he was ready to eat, he seated with him all his attendants, including the doorman and the groom. He slept little at night. He spent most of his nights from beginning to end (in praying or reciting the Quran). He did abundant charity, most of which was at dark nights.

These words display the Imam’s noble traits, which are as follows:

He did not turn away from any of the people, whether they were his friends or his enemies; rather he received them warmly and smiled at them.

He did not interrupt anyone while he was speaking; rather he let them talk until he finished his talking.

Among his exalted morals is that he did not stretch out his legs before those who sat with him, rather he sat politely.

He did not lean upon something while his associate did not.

He did not call any of his retainers or attendants a bad name even if they mistreated him.

He did not even show haughtiness (arrogance) toward them; rather, he seated with them when he was ready to eat.

He prayed abundantly and spent his nights in praying and reciting the Book of Allah.

He did a lot of good for the poor, he gave alms to them at dark nights lest none should recognize him.

These are some of the Imam’s noble traits which Ibrahim b al- Abbas had witnessed.

Reason behind his title – ‘al- Reza’

A group of historians maintain that it was al – Mamun who gave him this title, for he was satisfied with him and appointed him as his successor. Imam Jawad (as) refuted this statement before a group of his companions, saying: Verily Allah, the Blessed and the Most High named him al – Reza, for he was the pleasure of Allah, of His Messenger (saw) and of the Imam’s (as).

Somebody asked him, Weren’t all your past forefathers (as), the pleasure of Allah, His Messenger (saw) and of the Imams (as).

Yes, replied Imam Jawad (as).

Why has only your father been named al – Reza, asked the man.

Because both his opposing enemies and obedient supporters were pleased with him, while this did not happen to any of his fathers, so only he was named al – Reza.

Reference: Life of Ali bin Musa al – Rida by Baqir Sharif al – Qarashi.

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I just posted what I got I an email. Yes, I noticed it was about Imam Kazem (as) and not Imam Reza (as), so I found this:

Imam ar-Reza, A Brief Look Into His Life

Name: Ali bin Musa.

Titles: ar-Reza, Zamin ath-Thamin, Gharib al-Ghurabah, Alim e Ale Mohammad.

Kunyat: Abul Hasan.

Birth: 11th Zil Qadah

Mother: Bibi Suttanah (or Najmah or Umm al-Banin).

Father: Imam Musa al-Kazem (as)

Death: 29th Safar 203 a.h. (Poisoned by Mamun Rashid ).

Buried: Mashhad, Iran.

His Parents & Birth:

Mother:

She was a slave of Umm Hamida (6th Imam's wife). When the 7th Imam had gone to buy her from the slave trader he was told that when he was coming to Medina from Marrakesh a pious Christian lady had told him that Bibi Suttana was a very special slave who would bear a son who would spread the true word from the East to the West.

Umm Hamida saw the Prophet (pbuh) in her dream telling her to give Bibi Suttana to Imam Musa al-Kazem (as) which she did. The 6th Imam used to tell his companions to await the birth of his grandson who he addressed as Alim e Ale Mohammad. He was one of the three Imams who did Jihad with their knowledge. (The other two were the 5th and 6th Imams). Imam Ali ar-Reza (as) was born one month after the martyrdom of his grandfather Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (as) He was born during the reign of the Harun ar-Rashid who poisoned his father.

Father:

Imam Musa al-Kazem (as)

His Titles:

ar-Reza - Angels, Prophets, Aimma, believers and even the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt accepted him. So much so that Mamun Rashid had to offer him to be the heir apparent (to be the leader after him). Imam Zamin ath-Thamin - Thamin means eight. Zamin means safety and security. One of the incidents attributed to this title is that one day Imam was going through the market place with a few followers when he saw a hunter about to kill a (struggling) female deer. Imam told the hunter to let the deer go as she wanted to feed her two young ones who were in the forest and that she would return to the hunter who could then kill her. The hunter thought that Imam was making a fool out of him. Imam stood in surety and the hunter allowed the deer to go. A little while later the deer returned with her young ones and asked Imam to look after them. We believe that if anyone who is going on a journey goes under the security of Imam he/she will return safely.

Gharibul-Ghurabaa (One who is a stranger i.e. he is away from his hometown). Imam was far away from his home and family and he is the only Imam who is buried out of Iraq and Hejaz (Saudi Arabia). Alim e Aali Mohammed - The learned one from Aale Mohammad. This name was given to him by his grandfather (Imam Jafar as-Sadiq (as)).

Life And Works

Imam played a significant role in the educating of Muslims. Setting examples of education through one's own conduct.

He saw a short period of the rule of Harun Rashid who had murdered his father. Harun Rashid also attempted to kill Imam Ali Reza (as) but was unsuccessful. After Harun's death, his sons, Amin and Mamun fought for power. Mamun won with Amin being killed.

Immediately after becoming the khalifah Mamun, according to the tradition started by Muawiyah, had to name a successor (heir apparent) . Mamun summoned Imam to come to his capital Marw sending a messenger to Medina to bring the Imam to him and specifying a certain route and sending a security force . The route he chose was not the normal route where, a lot of Shia's lived. On the way they entered a town called Nishapur. There the scholars and people requested Imam to tell them a hadith. Imam related the following hadith which is known as the hadith of the golden chain.

"My father Musa al-Kazem narrated to me from his father Jafar as-Sadiq from his father Mohammed al-Baqir from his father Ali Zayn al-Abedin from his father , the martyr of Karbala from his father Ali ibn Abu Talib saying :"My loved one, and the pleasure of my eyes, the Messenger of God (pbuh) told me once, that Jibrail told him from the Lord "The kalimah of LA ILAHA ILLALLAH is my fort; whoever said it would enter my fort; and whoever entered my fort was safe from my punishment".

Those who wrote down the hadith numbered twenty thousand. People started reciting the kalimah when Imam put his hand up and continued: "Yes, the kalimah is Allah's fort. It will provide you with excellent safety but on one condition only and that is that you obey and follow us - the holy Imams in the progeny of the holy Prophet (pbuh). On reaching Marw Mamun forced Imam to accept the heir apparency (To be the leader after him). Imam accepted unwillingly.

Why did Mamun want Imam to be the heir apparent ?

1. To please the Shia public opinion in Khorasan and the surrounding areas which would make it easier for Mamun to be accepted by the people there and a victory over his brother Amin.

2. To avoid clashes with those like the Alawids who had always threatened the Abbasids with various uprisings.

Mamun celebrated the occasion of Imam's acceptance of heir apparency. Imam only gave a short sermon saying after he had praised Allah "We have over you a right appointed by the Prophet, and you have a right over us as well; so if you fulfil your duty towards us, we will be bound to perform our duty towards you".

Mamun ordered a new coin to be minted with Imam ar-Reza's name on it. Imam however knew that this would not last long.

Soon Mamun put Imam under constant watch. Imam used the position to spread the true word of Islam. Mamun's court was visited by thousands and Imam made an impact on their minds. His ahadith were widely recorded. Mamun who was fond of scholarly discussions would arrange for intellectuals from Greece, Italy , India etc. to come to his court and hold discussions with the Imam.

One day a Jewish scholar was brought by Mamun to debate with Imam. The scholar asked: "How can you accept Mohammad to be the prophet of God when he showed no miracles ? " Imam replied : "The greatest of miracles of Allah is the human mind. It allows ideas to be thought through and reasoned out. Islam appeals to human reason. Man must accept God through reason and not through miracles ".

The scholar did not have much to say after that answer.

Imam also encouraged greatly the remembrance of Imam Husayn (as)

Mamun was never sincere in his behaviour towards Imam. Seeing the Imam's popularity increase disturbed him immensely especially after the occasion when he requested Imam to lead Eid prayers as he was not well. He saw that even before Imam had reached the mosque the people had lined the streets and were reciting takbir and it seemed that even the walls of Marw were doing the same. He had to ask Imam to go back that day.

There are various accounts of how Imam Ali ar-Reza (as) was killed by Mamun. One of them is that Imam used to like grapes and Mamun offered Imam poisoned grapes. Imam was ill and died after two days on the 29th Safar 203 a.h.

Imam Ali ar-Reza (as) died in Toos in a village called Sanabad. He had only one son, Imam Mohammad at-Taqi (as), who succeeded him as the 9th Imam.

Mamun ordered Imam's grave to be dug near his father Harun's and when it was being dug he said that Imam had told him that when his grave would be dug water and fish would appear underneath. Just as Imam had said when they finished digging a spring of water appeared with fish in it and then disappeared. Imam is buried there at what is today called Mashhad in Iran.

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IMAM ALI-REZA (as) :HIS NAMES AND THEIR MEANINGS

1.al-Rida : pleasure

Ima`m al-Jawa`d, peace be on him, reported to have said: "Verily Allah, the Blessed and Most High, named him al-Rida`, for he was the pleasure of Allah, the Exalted, the Great, in His heaven, of His Messenger, and of the Ima`ms, the blessings of Allah be upon them, after him."

Al-Bizanti asked him: "Weren't all your past forefathers, peace be on them, the pleasure of Allah (rida al-Allah), the Exalted, the Great, of His Messenger, and of the Ima`ms after him?"

"Yes," replied Ima`m al-Jawa`d.

"Why has only your father been named al-Rida`?" al-Bizanti asked.

"Because both his opposing enemies and obedient supporters were pleased with him, while this did not happen to any of his fathers, so only he was called al-Rida`. " ('Ilal al-Sharai'. A'Ilam al-Wara. Al-Majjlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 12, p. 2.(I think*))

Some narrators believe that it was Ima`m Musa al-Ka`zim, peace be on him, who gave this nick-name to his son. Sulayma`n b. Hafs reported: "Ima`m Musa b. Ja'far named his son 'Ali al-Rida`. He would say: 'Summon to me my son al-Rida`.' I asked him: 'To my son belongs pleasure (al-Rida).' He answered: 'My son is al-Rida`.' When he addressed him, he said: 'O Abu`` al-Hasan.'1 " These are some statements about giving him this noble nick-name. Ahmed al-Bizanti gave the reason for giving this nick-name to him, saying: "He was given the nick-name of al-Rida` because he is the good pleasure of Allah, the Most Exalted, in His heaven, the pleasure of His Messenger, and of the Ima`ms after him on His earth (Ibid)

2: al-Sabir : the patient

He was given the nick-name of al-Sabir (the patient) because he was patient toward the troubles and misfortunes caused to him by his opponents and enemies.

3: al-Zaki : pure, noble and honourable

4: al- Wafi: loyaltyAs for loyalty, it was one of the Ima`m's qualities, for he was loyal to his community and homeland

5:Siraâjj Allah : the lamp of Allah

The Imam was the Sirajj of Allah (the Lamp of Allah). He guided the misled and the perplexed (to the right path)

6:Quratt Ayn al-Mumineen : the delight of the eyes of the momineenAmong his noble nick-names is Qurrat 'Ayn al-Mu'minïn (the delight of the eye of the believers), for he was their ornament, their pride, their cave, and their stronghold.

7:Makkyadat al-Mulhiddin: the strategem of the unbeleivers

He was given the nick-name of Makkyadat al-Mulhidïn (the stratagem of the unbelievers), for nullified their vague errors and refuted their imaginations. This was through his debates which were held in the 'Abba`sid palace, and with which he established the originality of Islamic principles and values.

8: Al- Siddiq : the very truthful one

He was given the nick-name of Al-Siddïq (the very truthful one), for he was like Yu`suf (Joseph), who ruled Egypt. He led Islamic world and had an absolute leadership over it

9:Al-Fadil : the most mysterious one

He was given the nick-name of al-Fa`dil or the most meritorious one, for he was the most meritorious and perfect of all the people of his time.

Edited by Hameedeh
One source of information in this post is here: http://www.imamreza.net/old/eng/imamreza.php?id=1217

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IMAM AL-AL-RIDHA : HIS QUALITIES

As for the qualities of Ima`m al-Rida (as) they represent all virtues. All noble qualities gathered in him. Allah endowed him with all outstanding qualities just as He endowed his great fathers.:

Concerning his noble traits, Ibra`hïm b. al-'Abba`s has said:

"I have never seen nor have I ever heard that there is a person more meritorious than Abu` al-Hasan al-Rida`, peace be on him. He never turned away from anyone; nor did he interrupt anyone; nor did he refuse to do someone a favor he was able to do; nor did he ever stretch out his leg before an audience; nor did he ever lean upon something while his companion did not; nor did he ever call any of his servants or attendants a bad name ; nor did he ever spit or burst into laughter; rather, his laughter was just a smile. When he was ready to eat, he seated with him all his attendants, including the doorman and the groom. He slept little at night. He spent most of his nights from begging to end (in praying or reciting the Qur'a`n). He did abundant charity, most of which was at dark nights. "

These words display the Ima`m's noble moral traits, which are as follows:

A. He did not turn away from any of the people, whether they were his friends or his enemies; rather, he received them warmly and smiled at them.

B. He did not interrupt anyone while he was speaking; rather, he let him talk until he finished his talking.

C. Among his exalted morals is that he did not stretch out his legs before those who sat with him; rather, he sat politely.

D. He did not lean upon something while his associate did not.

E. He did not call any of his retainers or attendants a bad name even if they mistreated him.

F. He did not show haughtiness toward them; rather, he seated them with him when he was ready to eat.

G. He prayed abundantly and spent his nights in praying and reciting the Book of Allah.

H. He did a lot of good for the poor; he gave alms to them at dark nights lest none should recognize him.

These are some of the Ima`m's noble moral traits which Ibra`hïm b. al-'Abba`s had witnessed. Another example of his morals is that when he undertook regency, the most exalted office in Islamic state, he did not order any of his supporters and retainers to carry out his many affairs; rather, he himself carried them out. The narrators have said:

"When he was in need of taking a bath, he hated to order anyone to prepare the bath for him. He went to the public bath-house in the city. The owner of the bath-house never thought that the deputy (of al-Ma'mu`n) would come to a public bath-house and wash in it; rather, he thought that the kings would take a bath in their own houses. When the Ima`m entered the bath-house, there was a soldier in it. The soldier removed the Ima`m from his place and ordered him to pour water on

his head, and the Ima`m did. Then a man who recognized the Ima`m entered the bath-house, and he shouted at the soldier, saying: 'You have ruined yourself! Why have you ordered the son of the daughter of Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, to give you a massage?' So the soldier felt extremely embarrassed; he kissed the Ima`m's foot and apologized to him, saying: 'O Son of Allah's Messenger, why did you obey me when I ordered you?' However, the Ima`m smiled at him and said to him gently. 'It is a reward. I did not want to disobey you in what I was rewarded.'"

Another example of his exalted morals is that when he was ready to eat, he seated with him his retainers even the doorman and the groom. In this manner he taught them that there was no color discrimination among men, and that they were equal. Ibra`hïm b. al-'Abba`s has said: " I heard 'Ali b. Mu`sa` al-Rida` saying: 'I swear by emancipation and when I swore by it, I would emancipate one of my slaves till I emancipated each and everyone of them that I do not see myself as better than that (and he pointed to a black slave of his who remained in his service) on account of my kinship to the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and his family, except if I do a good deed which would render me better. "

A man said to him: "By Allah, no person on the face of earth is nobler than you in father." He, peace be on him, said: "Reverential fear made them noble and obedience to Allah preserved them."

Another person said to him: "By Allah, you are the most meritorious of the people."

The Ima`m answered him, saying: "Do not exaggerate; he who fears Allah and obeys Him is better than me. By Allah this verse has not been abrogated: 'O men! Surely we have created you of a male and female, and made you nations and tribes that you may know each other; surely the most honorable of you with Allah is the most Allah-fearing of you; surely Allah is Knowing, Aware.' "

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IMAM ALI AL-RIDHA : SELECTED SAYINGS

One who compares Allah with one of His creations, is a polytheist. One who relates to Allah with something he has been forbidden to do, is a kafir (a non-believer).

Knowledge, forbearance and less talk are the qualities of a pious practitioner of the Faith.

Man's best friend is intelligence, and ignorance is his enemy.

The believer is closer to Allah when he throws himself down in prostration before Him.

Charitable giving is like a tree planted in paradise and whose branches are in the world. One who gives charity clings to the branches and is carried to the fulfillment of the ultimate prize of paradise.

A Momin is that person who derives pleasure when he does a good deed, and repents with sincerity when he commits an error.A Muslim is that person from whose hands and tongue the other Muslims do not get hurt.

Belief has four components:

(i)Dependence on Allah;

(ii)Acceptance of the Acts of Allah;

(iii)Submission to His Will;

(iv)Reliance on Allah's help in his deeds.

One who is not thankful to his provider in this world, cannot be thankful to Allah.

Allah has ordained three sets of duties to be performed together:

(i) Pay the poor tax as you offer prayers;

(ii)Thank your parents as you thank Allah;

(iii)Fear Allah and do good to your own kin.

A believer is not a real believer unless he has three traits :

A practice from his God , a practice from his prophet and a practice from his Imam ;

the practice from his God , is keeping his secrets ; the practice from his prophet ,

is compromise and kind treatment with people and the practice from his Imam , is

forbearance in distress and affliction .

Of the signs of knowledge of Islam are : meekness and knowledge ;

and silence is a door of the doors of wisdom . Silence causes love and is a

guide to all goodnesses

Imam Raza (as) was asked concerning the best slaves ( of God ) .

He replied : the ones who get happy when do good , ask forgiveness when do

bad , thank when given , are patient when affliction and forgive when angry .

Whoever resolves a believer's problem , God removes sorrow from his

heart on the Day of Judgement

Do not leave good-deeds and striving hard in worship depending upon

love of Muhammad's descendants ( Pbut ) , and do not leave love of Muhammad's

descendants ( Pbut ) and submission to their commandments depending upon worship because no one of the two is accepted without the other .

Worship is not increased fasting and praying , in fact worship is

increased contemplation in God's decree

No ignorance is more harmful than self-conceit .

Do not think of poverty because you will become stingy and do not think of

long life because you will cause greed to material thinks .

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Imam Reza’s (pbuh) Cooperation with Ma'moun’s Government

www.roshd.org

Many criticized Imam Reza (pbuh) for allowing Ma'moun to introduce Imam Reza (pbuh) as his crown prince. Even though Imam Reza (pbuh) had accepted the position under a strict condition-he would not have any part in the actual government-, yet certain people complained that even just the name of Imam Reza (pbuh) under the government would not be suitable. They believed that in a way it was supporting the corrupt government of Ma'moun.

In a discussion to their complaints, Imam Reza (pbuh) answered: “Are the Prophets superior or their successors?â€

They replied: “The Prophets.â€

Imam (pbuh) asked: “Is a pagan ruler inferior or a corrupt Muslim ruler?â€

They replied: “The pagan ruler.â€

Imam (pbuh) continued: “Which situation is better: one in which the person personally offers to cooperate; or one in which that person is forced to accept a position?â€

They replied: “The one in which the person personally asks to collaborate.â€

The Imam (pbuh) then said: “The pious Yusuf was a prophet, while the king of Egypt during his time was a pagan. Despite this fact, (Yusuf) said: "Set me over the store-houses of the land: I will indeed guard them, as one that knows (their importance).†(Quran 12:55). This is because Yusuf wanted to obtain a position in which he could use it to the best aim. In addition (to this) the king of Egypt was a pagan, whereas Ma'moun is a corrupt Muslim. Yusuf was a prophet and I am a successor of prophet. Yusuf suggested himself but they forced me (to accept the position).â€

That logic is basically what all religions accept, which allows the followers to enter the corrupt systems, providing that they are steadfast in their faith and with the intention to benefit the system in the correct moral sense. In other words, they are not employed to help the system with its corrupt activities; rather they are employed to improve the system in the best religious way. In the latter case, the person is a part of the system and his efforts are put towards the system’s benefits; but in the former, although he is a part of the system, he works in the system in such a way that can be beneficial to his religion and to all of mankind.

All the Imams were as such in that on one hand they would fiercely condemn cooperation with the Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties. When some would bring the excuse that if we do not cooperate, someone else will, the Imams would say, “If no one obeys them, their government will be mutilated.†On the other hand, they encouraged those people who cooperated with the Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties, but had the correct attitude on this matter: namely they employed the government in favor of their religion.

(Excerpt taken from: “A Promenade to the Life of the Imamsâ€, by Mortaza Motahhari (with some changes))

Congratulation to all on the 11th of Dhi al-Qa'dah, the birthday anniversary of the leader of guidance and the symbol of Allah’s (SWT) kindness:

Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Reza (pbuh).

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Imam Reza's (A.S.) Instructions to His Followers

Imam al-Reza (A.S.) to 'Abd al- Azim al-Hasani: O 'Abd al 'Azim! send my regards to my friends and tell them not to be tempted by Satan; and instruct them to be truthful and trustful, recommend them to be silent and refrain from useless discussions and arguments and to be close to each other and to visit each other because that would make them close to me, they should not be busy in annihilating each other; because I have sworn that whoever would do that and would make one of my friends angry I would request Allah to punish him in this world very severely and would be among the losers in the hereafter. Tell them that the Beneficent Allah has forgiven their sins, except the sins of those who were polytheist, or persecute one of my friends or would have bad intentions in regard to him. In these cases Allah would not forgive him unless he would repent and stop doing evil actions. If he would not repent, he would become faithless and would lose our friendship and love. I take refuge in Allah, against that!

Source:

Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) in The Qur'an and Hadith

By: Muhammadi Rayshahri

:angel: :cry:

ELTEMASE DUA :cry: :angel: :Hijabi:

fatemeh

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(salam)

Among the works of Imam al-Reza, peace be on him, is this excellent dissertation called Sahïfat al-Reza; a group of narrators has called it Musnad al-Ima`m al-Reza, and this name is closer to the composition of the dissertation, for it contains the traditions which Ima`m al-Reza` has narrated on the authority of his grandfather, may Allah bless him and his family, and on the authority of his pure fathers, peace be on them. A group of researchers has stated that this dissertation is one of the works of Ima`m al-Reza`, peace be on him.

Any how, this dissertation is among the treasures of Prophet and of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them, and of the Ima`ms; it has reached the top of honor and glory in the chain of authorities, as Dr. Husayn 'Ali Mahfuz said.

As for us, we have quoted this dissertation from a version printed in Cairo by al-Ma'a`hid Press, near al-Azhar, in the year 1340 A. H., and then it was printed by al-'Alla`ma 'Abd al-Wa`si', who classified it into ten chapters, which are as follows: ?

Chapter One

ON INVOCATION OF Allah

Having mentioned a preface concerning the necessity of mentioning the chain of the authorities, Shaykh 'Abd al-Wa`si' said: "I have narrated this Sahïfa through the authentic chain of authorities connected with Imam al-Qa`sim b. Mohammed, peace be on him, on the authority of his Shaykh al-Sayyid Amïr al-Dïn b. 'Abd Allah, on the authority of al-Sayyid Ahmed b. 'Abd Allah al-Wazïr, on the authority of Ima`m al-Mutahhar b. Mohammed b. Sulayman, on the authority of Ima`m al-Mahdi Ahmed b. Yahya, on the authority of Sulayman b. Ibrahïm b. 'Umar al-'Alawi, on the authority of his father Ibrahïm, on the authority of Rida' al-Dïn Ibrahïm b. Mohammed al-Tabari, on the authority of Ima`m Najm al-Dïn al-Tabrïzi, on the authority of al-Hafiz Ibn 'Asakir, on the authority of Zahir al-Sinjani, on the authority of al-Hafiz al-Bayhaqi:

1. On the authority of Abu al-Qasim al-Mufassir, on the authority of Ibrahïm b. Ju'da, on the authority of Abu al-Qasim 'Abd Allah b. Ahmed b. 'Amir al-Ta'i (in Basrah), who said: ['Ali b. Musa al-Reza, peace be on him, related to me in the year 194 A. H. He said: My father Musa` b. Ja'far related to me. He said: My father Ja'far b. Mohammed related to me. He said: My father Mohammed b. 'Ali related to me. He said: My father 'Ali b. al-Husayn related to me. He said: My father al-Husayn b. 'Ali related to me. He said: My father 'Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib, the peace of Allah be on them all, amen to the Day of Resurrection, related to me. He said: Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said: Allah, the Most High, said:] "There is no god but Allah is My fort, so he who enters My fort is safe from My chastisement."

Surely these brilliant words are the secret of existence, lamp of the Allah-fearing, and guide of the knowledgeable. He who says them out of knowledge and belief enters the fort of Allah, which whoever enters wins the good pleasure of Allah, the Exalted, and is safe from His chastisement.

2. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He upon whom Allah bestows a favor should praise Allah for it; he who finds slow daily bread should ask Allah's forgiveness; and he whom a certain matter saddens should say:

There is neither might nor strength save in Allah, the Exalted, the Almighty."

Surely the invocation of Allah and devotion to Him deserve more of His blessings and favors; he who says these words during these situations, Allah's mercy includes him, and he attains general good.

3. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Belief is profession with the tongue, knowledge through the heart, and action by the limbs."

Belief is a flame of light which lightens the heart, flows as life does in the souls of the Allah-fearing and the knowledgeable, dominates their sentiments and feelings.

4. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said: Allah says:] "If a creature takes refuge in a creature other than Me, I will cut him off from the means of the heavens and the earth, so if he asks Me, I will not give him; and if he supplicates Me, I will not answer him; and if a creature seeks refuge in Me other than My creatures, I will guarantee the heaven and the earth in respect of his daily bread; so if he asks Me,

I will give him; and if he supplicates Me, I will respond to him; and if he asks Me for forgiveness, I will forgive him."

Failing and unsuccessful is he who hopes for those other than Allah, the Exalted, at whose hand is the course of events. A poet said:

May the hand which asks those other than You become poor; may the land which sees promising signs in other than the clouds of Your munificence become barren!

So glory is forbidden except from You; money is forbidden except from You!

If the servant devotes himself to Allah and seeks refuge in Him, he will win good and gain bless in this world and the next.

5. Through his chain of authorities, he said: ['Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him, related to me that a Jew asked 'Ali b. Abu` Ta`lib, peace be on him, saying:] "Tell me about that which does not belong to Allah, that which is not with Allah, and that which Allah does not know?"

'Ali, peace be on him, replied: "As for that which Allah does not know, it is your, people of Jews, statement that 'Uzayr is the son of Allah, and Allah does not know that He has a son; as for that which is not with Allah, it is that Allah has no oppression toward the servants; as for that which does not belong to Allah, it is that Allah has no partner."

The Jew said: "I witness that there is no god except Allah, and that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah."

Surely, Ima`m 'Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, is the gate of the city of knowledge of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. He is the leading figure of this community, the pioneer of its intellectual and scientific renaissance. It is certain that if the cushion had been folded for him and he had undertaken the leadership of the reign after the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, the Jews, the Christians, and the Magians would have adopted Islam.

6. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "The best deeds with Allah are: belief without doubt, invasion without stealing from war booty before it is distributed (ghulul), and proper hajj. The first to enter the Garden will be a martyr; a slave who worships his Lord well and is sincere to his master; and a chaste man who abstains from what is forbidden, has a family, and strives to secure the daily bread of his own family. The first to enter the Fire will be a domineering Imam (leader) who does not treat (his subjects) with justice; a possessor of wealth of property who does not pay the right against it; and a boastful, poor (person)."

This tradition includes the best actions in reward and repayment with Allah, the Most High; the actions are: belief in Allah without any doubt, invasion without stealing from war booty before it is distributed (ghulul); for it is spent on spreading Allah's words on earth; and making a pilgrimage to the Sacred House of Allah.

This tradition also gives an account of the best men in the view of Allah, the Exalted, and the most honorable before Him, and they are: the martyrs in the path of Allah, not in the path of booty or worldly pleasures; the slave who believes in his Lord and is sincere to his master; and the chaste man who strives to secure the daily bread of his family.

Moreover the tradition gives an account of the most hateful person in the view of Allah and who deserves the Hellfire. The first to enter it are: the disobedient criminal ruler who wrongs the servants of Allah and does not treat them with fairness and justice; the possessor of a plentiful wealth who is miserly toward the rights of Allah (against him) and does not help the poor; the boastful, poor (person) who boasts of his own person and his family, shows arrogance and vainglory toward the creatures of Allah.

7. Through his chain of authorities, he said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He who makes my community learn by heart forty traditions and it makes use of them, Allah will raise him from the dead a jurist and scholar on the Day of the Resurrection."

Surely, the Prophetic traditions are a flame of light which guides the perplexed and the errant and brighten the road (to them), for they are some springs of wisdom. So he who circulates them among the Muslims surely takes part in building Islamic thought; and Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, had promised him that Allah would raise him from the dead a jurist and scholar on the Day of Resurrection.

8. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He who gives a religious opinion to men without knowledge, the heavens and the earth curse him."

The ugliest and most sinful crime is giving a religious opinion to men without knowledge, for such a religious opinion misleads men, spreads lying among them, and ascribes falsehood to Allah.

9. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Reliance (on Allah) and monotheism are the half of religion; make livelihood come down from Allah through alms."

Surely, reliance on Allah and professing His Oneness are part of core of religion and are basic elements of its entity. The Ima`m has urged (the Muslims) to give alms, for it aids the poor and the deprived. Allah has promised that He will bestow upon those who give alms.

10. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Verily Mu`sa` b. 'Umra`n asked his Lord, saying: 'O Lord, are You far, so I will call out to You? Or are You near, so I will whisper to You?' So Allah revealed to him: O Musa, I am the friend of him who invoke Me!"

11. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "The supplication of the children of my community is accepted unless they commit sins."

Certainly, the supplication of the children of the faithful is accepted, for Allah does not refuse a supplication of theirs on the condition that they should not commit crimes and sins.

12. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He who passes by cemeteries and recites (the sura) Qul Huwa Allah Ahad eleven times and then he gives his reward to the dead, a reward equal to the number of the dead will be given to him."

Surely, Allah doubles the reward of him who recites Surat al-Tawhïd for the dead Muslims, and He abundantly rewards him.

13. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Supplication is the weapon of a believer, pillar of religion, and light of the heavens and the earth. So cling to supplication and be sincere in intention."

This tradition gives an account of the importance of supplication, for it is the weapon of a believer, pillar of religion, and light of the heavens and earth. So supplication has occupied the highest position with Allah, the Exalted.

14. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "If one of you wants a need, then let him seek it early in the morning on Thursday, and let him recites when he goes out of his house the last (verse) of Al 'Umran, Ayat al-Kursi, Inna Anzalnahu fi Laylat al-Qadr, and Umm al-Kitab (Surat al-Fatiha), for in them is the accomplishment of the needs of this world and the next."

This tradition contains the program of accomplishing needs, for he (the Prophet) has appointed the time when the Suras of Allah's dear Book should be recited.

15. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Six (things) are of manhood: Three of them (is performed) in cities and towns and three of them (is performed) on journey. As for those (performed) in cities and towns are: reciting the Qur'a`n, building mosques, and making friends in Allah; and as for those (performed) on journey are: giving food generously, good manners, and joking (in things) other than acts of disobedience to Allah."

These six qualities give an account of man's honor, manhood, and good inner self.

16. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said three times:] "O Allah, have mercy on my successors!"

He was asked: "Who are your successors, Allah's Apostle?"

He replied: "Those who will come after me, narrate my traditions and my Sunna (sayings and practices), and teach them to men after me."

Surely, the successors of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and the closest of men to him are those who narrate his traditions, circulate them among men, teach men the principle features of religion and the precepts of Islam.

17. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Verily, this knowledge is the treasures of Allah and its keys are question, so question, may Allah have mercy on you, for four (persons) are rewarded because of it: the questioner, the teacher, the listener, and the answerer."

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, urges the ignorant to question about the affairs of their religious and worldly affairs which they do not know, for, in this manner, knowledge is spread and circulated.

18. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He who recites Idha Zulzult al-Ardu four times is like him who has recited the whole Qur'an."

Surely, reciting this Holy Verse four times leads to this great result, which is reciting the whole Qur'an.

19. Through his chain of authorities, he said: [My father Mohammed b. 'Ali, peace be on them, related to me. He said: He, peace be on him, said:] "If you enter five (things), you will not able to (perform) the like of them:

The servant should fear (nothing) except his sins, hope for (none) except his Lord. The ignorant, when asked about something he does not know, should not be ashamed of saying that Allah and His Messenger know. He who does not know should not be ashamed of learning. Steadfastness is of the same rank with faith as (that of) the head with the body. He who has no patience has no faith."

Wisdom has been embodied in these matters through which man, if he follows them, is exalted and a model of excellence and politeness.

20. Through his chain of authorities, he said:[ Al-Husayn b. 'Ali, peace be on them, related to me. He said:] "A tablet was found under a wall of one of the cities (al-Mada'in), and therein was written:

'I am Allah; there is no god save Me and Mohammed is My Prophet. I wonder at him who is sure of death, how is he happy? I wonder at him who is certain of (Allah's) determination, how is he sad? I wonder at him who has tried the world, how does he feel secure wherein? And I wonder at him who is sure of reckoning, how does he commit sins?'"

This tablet contains a great warning. If man carefully considers the warning, he will turn away from every sin and do all that which bring him near to Allah.

21. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "An angel came to me and said: 'O Mohammed, verily your Lord recite (His) greetings to you and says to you: 'If you want, I will make the valley of Mecca gold.'" He said: "So he (the Prophet) looked toward the sky and said: 'O Lord, make me satisfied on one day, so I will praise you; make me hungry on another, so I will ask you!'"

Indeed, the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, renounced the world, turned away from its pleasures, and devoted himself to Allah, the most High. This is one of his special qualities which distinguished him from the rest of the prophets.

:angel: :cry:

ELTEMASE DUA :angel:

fatemeh

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(bismillah)

(salam)

The Sahifah of Imam Reza(A.S.)

Chapter Three

ON URGING TO PERFORMING THE FIVE PRAYERS AND THE QUALITY OF THE PRAYER FOR THE DEAD

23. Through his chain of authorities, he said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Satan is still afraid of Adam's son as long as he keeps his prayers. However, if he neglects them, he (Satan) dares against him and throws him into great sins."

Allah, the Most High, honored and dignified man through praying and standing before Him during the five prayers. However, the stoned Satan plays with man and does his best to deprive him of this excellence and honorable rank.

24. Through his chain of authorities, he said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "He who performs a religious duty (farïda), Allah responds to his supplication ."

Surely, he who performs a religious duty, whether prayer or fasting or hajj or others, Allah rewards him and accepts his supplication.

25. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "My community is still in good as long as they love each other, return things deposited (with them), refrain from the unlawful, entertain the guest, perform the prayer, and pay zakat (alms). However, if they do not do that, they will be afflicted by drought."

The Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, has summoned his community to keep these noble qualities, and he promised that they would be in good as long as they performed them, but if they neglected them, Allah would afflict them with a dreadful tribulation.

26. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "If man is not able to perform prayer in standing position, he can pray in sitting position. If he cannot pray in sitting position, he can pray laying down on his back and his feet facing the qibla, and he makes a sign."

The prayer is the most important of religious duties, and the responsible is not exempted from it in all circumstances. If he is able, he prays in standing position; if he is unable, he prays in sitting position; and so on.

27. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Keep the five prayers, for Allah, the Great and Almighty, will summon the servant on the Day of Resurrection; prayer will be the first thing about which He will ask him. If he brings it perfect; otherwise, he will be pushed into the Fire."

Prayer will be the first thing about which the responsible will be asked during his mustering and his raising from the dead. If he performs prayer perfectly, he will be safe from the chastisement of Allah; if he performs it imperfectly or neglects one of its pre-conditions, he will be thrown into the Fire.

28. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "Do not lose your prayers, for he who loses his prayer will be mustered along with Qa`ru`n and Fir'oun and Ha`ma`n; and it is incumbent upon Allah to make him enter the Fire along with the hypocrites; and woe unto him who does not keep his prayers and does not perform the Sunna of his Prophet."

Islam takes great care of prayer and distinguishes it from the rest of acts of worship. So he who performs it is a Muslim; and he who denies it dies the death of those pagans before Islam and will be mustered along with the oppressive and the unbelievers.

29. Through his chain of authorities, he said: ['Ali, the blessings of Allah be on him, said:] "Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, led us in the traveler's shortened prayer and recited in the first (rak'a) al-hamd and qul ya ayuha al-kafirun, and in the other (rak'a) he recited al-hamd and qul huwa Allahu ahad. Then he said: 'I recited to you the one-third and one-fourth of the Qur'an.'"

A four-rak'a prayer is shortened during travel, and surely the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, recited qul ya ayuha al-kafirun in the first rak'a after al-fatiha, and in the second rak'a he recited surat al-Tawhïd after al-fatiha; and he, may Allah bless him and his family, made clear the reward of that when he said that he recited the one-third of the Qur'an in the first rak'a and the one-fourth of the Qur'a`n in the second rak'a.

30. Through his chain of authorities, he said: "Mohammed b. 'Ali, peace be on him, was asked about the prayer, and he claimed that his father would shorten the prayer during travel."

As for shortening prayer during travel, it is among the necessities of the creed of the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them; the Book and the Sunna are two proofs of that.

31. Through his chain of authorities, he said: "I saw the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, exclaim 'Allah is Great!' over his uncle Hamza, peace be on him, five times, and after him he exclaimed 'Allah is Great!' over the martyrs, so seventy times of exclaiming 'Allah is Great!' was the share of Hamza."

As for the prayer for the dead, it is one of the general obligations. In other words, it is not obligatory on all Muslims to perform it; rather it obligatory on some of them. As for its performance, it is as follows: Five takbïrs should be made; al-Shahadatayn (the two testimonies:

I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Mohammed is Allah's Messenger) should be recited after the first takbïr, calling down blessing upon the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, should be after the second takbï~r; a supplication for the believers, male and female, should be recited after the third takbïr; a supplication for the deceased should be recited after the fourth takbïr; the fifth takbïr should be recited, and then departure.1 In this connection many traditions have been reported from the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt), peace be on them. As for the Sunnis, they believe that the takbï~rs are four, and the worshipper departs after the fourth (itakbïr).

32. Through his chain of authorities, he, peace be on him, said: [Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, said:] "O 'Ali, when you pray over a deceased person, say:

O Allah, verily this is Your slave and son of Your bondmaid has passed away according to Your decree, and he is not a mentioned thing. He has visited You and You are the best One whom is visited.

O Allah, dictate to him Your argument, join him to Your Prophet, brighten his grave for him, be generous toward him during his entering, make him firm through the firm statement, for he is in need of You and You are in no need of him. He bore witness that there was no god but You, so forgive him. O Allah, do not deprive us of the reward through him and do not try us after him.

"O 'Ali, when you pray over a woman, say: O Allah, You created her, and You gave life to her, and You made her die, and You are more knowledgeable of her secret and openness. We have come to You as intercessors for her, so forgive her. O Allah, do not deprive us of the reward through her.

"O 'Ali, when you pray over a child, say: O Allah, make him an ancestor and provisions for his parents, make him an intercessor (for them), make him for them as light and guidance, and make his parents follow (him to) the Garden. Verily, You are powerful over all things!"

As for the performance of the prayer for the dead, we have already mentioned it. As for this supplication, it should be recited after the fourth takbïr. As for the prayer over the child, it is as follows: If he/she dies at the age of six years, then the prayer for the dead should be performed over him. If he/she has not reached this age, then prayer over them is recommended.

:cry: :angel: ......

ELTEMASE DUA :cry:

fatemeh

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Abbasid Government's Attitude towards Imam Reza (A.S.)

Direct Link: http://www.almujtaba.com/articles/10/000771.html

The attitude of the then rulers towards Imam al-Reza (A.S.) and the other Imams may provide us with a clear view of the distinctions which raised their personalities to the zenith. And it is essential to explain the phenomenon of the government's attitude towards them which manifested itself in the surveillance imposed upon them rather than upon other distinguished dignitaries or chiefs of the Alawides, monitoring their movements and counting their steps in all their social and personal encounters. What we can mention here to explain this phenomenon are the following reasons:

1) The belief of a large number of Muslims in their Imamate and in their being the most worthy of the caliphate, and their conviction that all other caliphs are considered usurpers of authority, trespassers upon the rights ordained by God to others. This is why the politicians of the time considered them their competitors whose mere presence increased the dangers surrounding them and jeopardized the security of the very existence of their government structure.

2) Their being the magnet which attracted leading scholars and thinkers who shrank in their presence despite their intellectual advancement and distinction in the fields of the arts and knowledge and despite their genius and intellectual prowess. This caused the caliphs to feel a stronger animosity towards them and be more grudgeful towards them due to the public fascination by them and to their attempts to be close to them and to being emotionally distant from the center of the government.

3) Their being the better alternative from the public's political standpoint to take charge of the responsibilities of government, bear its burdens, carry out its obligations and doing all of that most efficiently. This frightened the rulers and made the obscure future seem to their eyes even more so.

4) The vicious incitements about them by their opponents who bore animosity towards them and who wished thereby their elimination, and the tell-tales of even some of their own kin whose judgement was blinded by jealousy, so they kept fabricating stories and attributing them to those Imams and telling them to the rulers who were pleased to hear them since they became outlets to the grudge they felt towards those Imams and, at the same time, found in them the pretexts for annihilating and harassing them and in the end a justification to put an end to their lives and rid themselves of the complex they were suffering from due to their existence.

By these and by others can we explain the phenomenon of the rulers pursuing them and desperately trying to alienate them from the stage of events affecting the nation in order to secure a distance from the ghost of competition which could haunt them had they permitted the Imams to do as they pleased. Thus, can we understand the general characteristics of the significant distinctions the personalities of those Imams enjoyed in all sectors of the society in its various centers of activity and in its various aspirations; otherwise, how do you explain this phenomenon, and why should those rulers pay the Imams so much attention?

Source: http://www.imamreza.net

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The Unique Medical Dissertation by Imam Reza(A.S.)

www.imamreza.net

The sciences of Ima`m al-Reza`, peace be on him, were not confined to the precepts of Islamic law; rather they included all kinds of science of which was medicine. The Ima`m was unique in medicine, and the clear proof of that is this dissertation which al-Ma'mun called al-Risala al-Dhahabiya fi al-Tibb (the golden medical dissertation). As al-Ma'mu`n admired the dissertation, he gave the Medal of Doctor to the Ima`m, peace be on him.

The dissertation contains general programs necessary for putting right man's body and protecting it from diseases, so it is regarded as the main base of preventive medicine in these times and as a great means of improving health. Any how, it is necessary for us to give a brief outline of this dissertation before presenting it. That is as follows:

A. The Cause of Writing it

Al-Ma'mu`n's palace was distinguished by that it was most times one of the seminars of knowledge and literature, especially as it concerns the time of Ima`m al-Reza`, peace be on him, the great figure of this community and pioneer of its intellectual, and scientific renaissance, for the 'Abba`sid palace was changed into a theater for philosophical and scientific researches, as we mentioned in the previous chapters.

One of the scientific researches which were presented in that seminar was on man's body, which contains marvelous cells, organs and systems which show the wisdom and wonderful power of the Almighty Creator. The people discussed those things which put right and corrupted man's body. The seminar included the greatest scholars and leaders of whom are the following:

1. Imam al-Reza(A.S.)

2. Al-Ma'mu`n.

3. Yohnna` b. Ma`sawayh.

4. Gabriel b. Bakhtishu`'

5. Sa`lih b. Bahla al-Hindi.

These people discussed medicine, but Ima`m al-Reza`, peace be on him, remained silent, so al-Ma'mu`n asked him with admiration: "Abu` al-Hasan, what do you say about this matter which we are discussing today, and which is necessary for recognizing these things, useful and harmful foodstuffs, and directing the body?"

Al-Ma'mu`n asked the Ima`m to open for him horizons to the science of systems of man's body, to guide him to useful and harmful foodstuffs, and those things which put right and harmed man's body.

The Ima`m answered him, saying: "I have of it knowledge of what I have personally tested and came to know about its accuracy by experience and by the passage of time in addition to what I was told by my ancestors of what no body afford to be ignorant of, nor excused for leaving it. I shall compile it with an equal portion of what everyone should know."

Surely the Ima`m, peace be on him, was among the keepers of wisdom and inheritors of the prophets, for he had the knowledge of what the people needed from among the affairs of their religion and their world. As a result the Ima`m responded to al-Ma'mu`n's request and supplied him with al-Risala al-Dhahabiya fi al-Tibb.

The Explanation and Translation of the Dissertation

As this dissertation was of great importance, it was explained and translated by some scholars who have been mentioned in the introduction to it by His Eminence al-Muhaqqiq al-Hujjah al-Sayyid Mahdi al-Khurasa`ni. That is as follows:

1. Tarjamat al-'Alawi lil Tibb al-Radawi by Sayyid Diya' al-Dïn Abu al-Rida Fadl Allah b. 'Ali al-Rawandi (died 548 A. H.).

2. Tarjamat al-Dhahabiya bi al-Farisiya by Fayd Allah 'Usara al-Tassturi, a contemporary of Fath 'Ali Khan.

3. Tarjamat al-Dhahabiya bi al-Farisiya by Mohammed Ba`qir al-Majjlisi (died 1111 A. H.)

4. Ibn Mohammed Ha`shim al-Tabï~b explained it in Persian.

5. Mohammed Sharïf b. Mohammed Sadiq al-Khawatun explained it and mentioned the explanation in his book Hafiz al-Abbdan.

6. It was explained by Sayyid 'Abd Allah Shubbar (died 242 A. H.).

7. Mïrza Mohammed Hadi b. Mïrza Mohammed Salih al-Shirazi explained it and named it 'Afiyat al-Bariya fi Sharh al-Dhahabiya. He was a contemporary of Sultan Husayn al-Safawi.

8. Al-Mawla Mohammed b. al-Ha`jj Mohammed Hasan al-Mashhadi al-Mudarris.

9. Al-Sayyid Shams al-Dïn Mohammed Badï' al-Radawi al-Mashhadi explained al-Dhahabiya and ended it in 1125 A. H.

10. Mohammed b. Yahya explained al-Dhahabiya in Persian.

11. Nawruz 'Ali al-Bastami explained al-Dhahabiya and mentioned the explanation in his book Firdous al-Tawarïkh.

12. Al-Hajj Mïrza Kazim al-Musawi al-Zanjani (died 1292) explained it and entitled the explanation as al-Mahmudiya.

13. Al-Sayyid Nasr Allah al-Musawi al-Arumi explained it in Persian and named the explanation as al-Tibb al-Radawi.

14. Maqbul Ahmed explained it in Urdu and named the explanation as al-Dhahabiya fi Assrar al-'Ulum al-Tabï'iya, printed in Hayder Abad.

15. Al-Sayyid Mahmu`d wrote >Mafatïh al-Sihha in which he gathered the medicine of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, the medicine of the Imams, and al-Risala al-Dhahabiya along with little explanation in Persian, printed in al-Najaf al-Asraf in 379 A. H.

16. Al-Sayyid Mïrza 'Ali explained al-Risa`la al-Dhahabiya in Persian.1

17. Al-Sayyid Husayn b. Nasr Allah al-Aru`mi al-Mu`sawi wrote Tarjamat al-Mu`sawi fi al-Tibb al-Radawi.

18. Abu` al-Qa`sim Saha`b explained it in Persian and named the explanation as Bihda`sht Radawi, and it was printed at the end of volume one of his book Razandagani Hazrat Ima`m Reza`, peace be on him, pp. 301-350.

19. Dr. al-Sayyid Sa`hib Zayni explained al-Risa`lah (the dissertation) in the light of modern medicine, and the explanation was printed in the Multaqa al-'Asrayn periodical series, in Baghdad.

20. 'Abd al-Wa`si' translated al-Risa`la into Persian. As this dissertation is of great importance, it has been written in ancient calligraphy. An ancient copy, handwritten by 'Abd al-Rahma`n b. 'Abd Allah al-Karkhi in 715 A. H., is available at the Ima`m al-Hakï~m Library, serial 237.

3. Al-Ma'mun praises the Golden Medical Dissertation

Ima`m al-Reza, peace be on him, sent his al-Risala al-Dhahabiya (golden medical dissertation) to al-Ma'mun, and he admired it and ordered it to be written in gold, to be copied many times, to be given to his sons, the members of his family, and the machinery of his government. He also ordered copies of it to be deposited at his depository of wisdom (Buyut al-Hikma). Without doubt al-Risala al-Dhahabiya was shown to the great physicians of his time, and they read it.

Accordingly, al-Ma'mu`n praised it through the following letter: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. Praise belongs to Allah, Qualified for praise and its Guardian, the end and beginning of it belongs to him, the Possessor of blessings, favors, and kindness. I praise Him for His uninterrupted blessings and favors, and I praise Him for His gifts and grants with a praise which gives rise to His increase and brings (me) near to Him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah with the witness of one who is loyal to Him through belief, not of the one who denies His Lordship and Oneness; rather the witness which confirms His ascription to Himself; and that He is just as He, the Great and Almighty, says: Say: He, Allah, is One. Allah is He on Whom all depend. He begets not, nor is He begotten. And none is like Him.

Such is our Lord, the Great and Almighty; and may Allah bless the master of the first and the last, Mohammed b. 'Abd Allah, the last of the prophets. "Now then, I have reviewed the dissertation of my 'Aladwide learned cousin, loved and virtuous one, the logical physician, which deals with the betterment of the body, the conduct of bathing, the balance of nutrition, and I found it very well organized and one of the best blessings. I carefully studied it, reviewed and contemplated upon it, till its wisdom manifested itself to me, its benefits became obvious, and it found its place my heart, so I learned it by heart and I understood it by mind, I found it to be a most precious item to post, a great treasure, and a most useful thing, so I ordered it to be written in gold due to its being precious, good, abundantly blessed, and I called it al-Mudahhaba (the golden one) and deposited it at the depository of wisdom after I had it copied down by the descendants of Ha`shim, the youths of the nation.

Bodies become healthy by balanced diets, and life becomes possible by overcoming disease and through life wisdom is achieved, through wisdom the Garden is won. It is worthy of being safeguarded and treasured; it a place of qualification and consideration, a reliable arbitrator an authority adviser and a source of knowledge, to which commander and forbidder yield. It is so because it came out of the houses of those who derive their knowledge from the knowledge of the chosen Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, the missive of the prophets, the proofs of the testamentary trustees, the manners of scholars, the cure to the hearts and the sick from among men of ignorance and blindness, Allah's pleasure and blessings be upon them, the first of them and the last, the young and the old.

"I showed it to the elite from among my closest train who are known for their wisdom and knowledge of medicine, and who are authors of books, those who are counted among men of knowledge and described with wisdom. Each one of them lauded it and thought highly of it, elevated it with esteem and evaluated it in order to be fair to its author, submitting to him, and believing in the wisdom he included therein, so if those after us from among our children, the children of our state, our subjects, the rest of the people from various classes come across this Risala (medical dissertation), they should recognize its importance, his talent, and his perfect favor; they should take it with gratitude, for it is more precious than agates, more important than pearls and corals; they should learn it by heart and think of it day and night, for it brings them benefit and safety from all diseases, Allah willing, Allah bless His Messenger Mohammed and all his good, pure children. Allah is sufficient for us and is the Best Agent. Praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds."

Al-Ma'mun has praised the Ima`m for his medical dissertation, and his praise gives an account of the following:

A. Its Medical Contents

As for the contents of the Ima`m's medical dissertation, they are as follows:

Firstly, the betterment of the body, protecting it from diseases, and making it enjoy perfect health, for the medical dissertation includes general programs for it.

Secondly, the conduct of bathing which is one of the basic elements of health as well as it takes care of the cleanness of the body; like wise, it takes care of creating activity therein.

Lastly, the balance of nutrition on which man's health and protection from diseases depend on.

2. His Studying it

Al-Ma'mun carefully studied the Imam's medical dissertation. He viewed reading it, and it manifested its wonders and great wisdom to him. He found it as one of the treasured books and among the mines of wealth, for it contained the fundamentals of general health and rules of medicine in the time when medicine was in the first stage. This medical dissertation is regarded as a development in this science, for it has opened brilliant ways

to it.

3. His Showing it to the Physicians

Al-Ma'mun showed the Imam's medical dissertation to the great physicians of his time, so each one of them lauded it, adopted it, thought highly of it, elevated it with esteem, and evaluated it. All those great physicians who read it admitted the excellence and experience of the Ima`m, peace be on him, in this science. These are some of the contents in this praise.

The Text of the Golden Medical Dissertation

As for the text of this medical excellent dissertation, we have quoted it from the book entitled Tibb al-Imam al-Reza, which is one of the publications of the al-Haydariya Press. It was printed in the year 1385 A. H., and it reads as follows: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. Know, Commander of the faithful, when Allah tries a servant with a disease, he appoints for him a medicine in order to cure himself with it, and for every kind of disease there is a kind of medicine, conduct, and prescription."

This paragraph gives an account of Allah's firm wisdom in creating man, who contains wonderful systems which are subject to various kinds of diseases. Allah, the Exalted, creates a disease and creates a medicine for destroying and putting an end to such a disease. Nowadays, medicine has reached zenith: antibiotics such as penicillin and oromycin have been discovered, the science of surgery has been developed, so a group of diseases such as tuberculosis, enteritis, and typhoid has been folded and thrown into the sea. Accordingly, modern medicine has confirmed the wise words of the grandson of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, who says that Allah appoints a medicine for each disease. As a result, those diseases which have no cure will be omitted from the file of medicine.

Ima`m al-Reza`, peace be on him, has said: "Man's body is just like a kingdom: The heart is the king of the body; the (blood) vessels, the limbs, and the brain are workers. The house of the king is his heart; his land is the body; the helpers are his hands, his legs, his eyes, his lips, his tongues, and his ears; his storekeepers are his stomach and his abdomen; and his chamberlain is his chest. Therefore, the hands are two helpers which bring (things) near, take (them) away, and work as the king reveals to them.

The legs carry the kings wherever he likes. The eyes lead him to that which disappears from him, for the king is behind a curtain and does not reach it except through them. They are also his two lamps; they are fort and well-fortified place of the body. The ears introduce nothing to the king except that which agrees with him, for they are unable to bring in anything unless the king inspires to them. When the king inspires to them, he keeps silent and listen to them. Then he answers whatever he likes; and the tongue explains on his behalf with many tools of which are the wind of the heart, the steam of the stomach, and the help of the two lips; and the two lips have no strength except by the means of man, and they are in need of each other."

The wise Ima`m has shown man's body; this wonderful body through which Allah's mighty power, His marvelous creation, and His firm regulation have manifested themselves. In this connection Allah, the Exalted, says: O man, what has beguiled you from your Lord, the Gracious One, Who created you, then made you complete, then made you symmetrical, into whatever form He pleased He constituted you. Concerning this body containing systems and cells which none can describe, the pioneer of wisdom and eloquence in Islam, Ima`m 'Ali, the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, says: "Do you think that you are a small body, while the greatest world has folded itself in you."

Yes, man is not a limited skeleton; nor is he a small body; rather he contains the whole world, so he is a group of universes and worlds.

The Prophet's grandson, source of knowledge and wisdom (i.e. Imam al-Reza) has likened man's body to the government whose machinery consists of a president, soldiers, helpers, and a land over which it rules. The Imam, peace be on him, has mentioned the following main organs and systems of the body:

A. The Heart

As for the heart, it is one of Allah's marvelous signs in man's body, for it pumps the blood to all parts of the body, and the blood conveys food and oxygen in order to distribute them among all places of the body, and then it conveys the waste products in order to rid the body of them.1

The heart pumps the blood to the lungs in order that they may take adequate supply of oxygen from the air which man breathes. In the lungs, the blood gets rid of some waste products which it gathers from the parts of the blood and which take form of a gas called carbon dioxide. The heart also pumps the blood to the kidneys.

As for the regulation of the beats of the heart, it is one of the secrets of creation and origination; the average of the beats of the heart is seventy times per minute. So their average amounts to one hundred thousand times a day, forty million times a year, and over two thousand millions in middle age. Therefore, we must think of this great glorification which never ceases nor flags by night and day. We must think of this marvelous sign in the body, which is the organization of heat. There is something like thermometer in the body.

When sensory news comes from the skin and tells about the external surroundings and degree of their heat, this area which is in the brain stem and what is on it hurries to the circulatory system and urges it to protect the external boundaries and orders it to play the role of the sincere worker during this crisis, and the flexible circulatory system responds to it, and quickly the contraction of the blood vessels occur, and the heart pumps adequate supply of blood to the skin. If the skin is cold, the flow of blood which conveys heat increases in order to remove the coldness and vice versa.

Surely, the heart is the source of man's and animal's life; therefore, it is the king of the body, and all man's organs are its soldiers and helpers.

2. The Nerves

As for the nerves, they are the sinew of life; and it is they which control the body; and they play an important role during anger, fear, the rest of the emotions, match, sexual work, and the like. Some nerves are called voluntary, and they control a group of muscles in the body which are called the striated muscles. In this connection some important physiological researches have been mentioned; therefore, the nerves are proof of the Wise Creator's mightiness.

3. The Brain

As for the brain, it is the greatest of all Allah's creatures; it dominates the whole body, controls all movements of it; and drives it to wherever it desires; and by it man is distinguished from the rest of animals. Allah has singled out the brain for man, and through it He has ennobled man over all His creatures.

Surely, the brain is a world of wonders. No creature can match it in greatness, for it contains stores which never are full and it preserves whatever knowledge is deposited in it. If we want to mention the wonders of the brain, then we have to write a full book about them. Glory belongs to Him who has originated and created the brain!

4. The Hands and the Legs

Among the amazing organs in man's body is the hand, which helps man accomplish his own needs such as preparing food and drink, and which help him perform wonderful works such as writing, goldsmithing, building, and others. The hand carries out all these works according to signals and guidance it receives from the brain, for it is as a worker in the factory of the brain; likewise, the leg helps man walk and accomplish his own needs. Were it not for the hand and the leg, man would do nothing. So glory belongs to Allah, the Wise!

5. The Ear

One of the marvelous organs in man's body is the ear, which contains the following:

A. The Outer Ear: It is the lobe of the outer ear along with the cannel which leads to the eardrum.

B. The Middle Ear: It has three bones just as the tools of a blacksmith: the hammer and the anvil, the stirrup, and the two muscles of the hammer and the stirrup; there is a lobe which connects the middle ear to the pharynx.

C. The Inner Ear: It contains something like snail and three semicircular canals, and these parts are connected with each other and interlocked. Membranous canals like bags are in the semicircular canals, and Korti organ is in the cochlea, which circles two times and a half.

It is the inner ear which receives sounds. As for the middle and the outer ears, they convey sounds.

Sound results from the vibration of the molecules of a matter, so it does not travel unless there is a material means such as liquid air, gases, solid bodies, and the like. Medical books have mentioned important researches regarding sound, which reveals the Wise Creator's mightiness and marvelous creation.1

6. The Eye

As for the eye, it is among Allah's greatest signs, for through it man receives light, knows external surroundings, realizes forms and colors. It is the most marvelous room of art photography; for it is a dark room and closed by three walls which are from outward to inward: the sclera which gives the white color to the eye; the choroid which irrigates the eye through its veins; the retina which conveys the sensitive elements; cones and rods which receive light. In the front there is a thin crystal called the cornea which let the light coming to the eye enter.

Then the light, after the cornea, passes through the transparent liquid which refracts light; it is the aqueous humor which lies between the cornea and the iris; and it is the iris which gives the familiar color to the eyes, in the middle of it there is a special opening receiving light and is like the lens of a photographer; it is called the pupil.

When light enters the pupil, it faces a crystal of a new kind; it is the crystal body (the lens); it is the most marvelous crystal in existence, for it expands and contracts to the extent that the forms of its convexity are very different; therefore, the eye harmonizes with the views before it. If the visible distance is near, it expands and changes in order to fit the condition, and vice-versa; therefore, it is the sane, motive crystal. After the crystal body, light enters a new, transparent humor refracting light; it is the vitreous humor. When light ends passing through it, it reaches the retina where the rods and the cones receive and move it as a nervous stream to the occipital lobe.

The eye is marvelous in creation and protection, for Allah, the Most High, has placed it in a low, facial area surrounded by three high hills, which are: the eye-brow, nasal pyramid, and the bony prominence of the forehead as well as it is covered by lids which opens and shuts very quickly. Besides Allah has surrounded it by tears in order to purify and moisten it. So glory belongs to the Creator, the Originator, the Almighty!

Ima`m al-Reza`, peace be on him, has mentioned some organs of man's body. He has shown their characteristics and their functions (anatomy). Now, let us move to another part of this dissertation. He, peace be on him, has said: "And speech is not good unless it is repeated through the nose, for the nose adorn speech as blowing adorns the flute; likewise, the nostrils are the two openings of the nose and they bring good air to the king. If they bring bad, displeasing air to the king, he reveals to the hands to be as a curtain between him and that bad air.

There will be a reward and punishment for the king because of this, so his punishment is severer than that of the outward, powerful kings in the world, and his reward is better than theirs. As for his punishment, it is sadness; and as for his reward, it is happiness. The origin of sadness is in the spleen, and the origin of happiness is in the kidneys and the ribs , and from them they reach the face, so from there happiness and sadness arise, so their signs are seen on the face, and all these blood vessels are ways of workers to the king, and from the king to the workers, and the proof of that is that when you take a medicine, the blood vessels convey it to the place of illness, with their help."

The Prophet's grandson (i.e. Ima`m al-Reza`) has displayed the operation of utterance and mode of expression, which is a wonder in itself, for speech comes out harmoniously and equally balanced, and it aims at a certain (thing); and it is among the unique, wonderful phenomena which are proof of the Almighty Creator's mightiness. He, the Most High, says: The Beneficent (Allah) taught the Qur'a`n; He created man; He taught him the mode of expression. So what man wants to perform before uttering it arises in the brain, which inspires the tongue to perform it, and that occurs through a wonderful operation which the concerned in this research have mentioned.

The Ima`m, peace be on him, has mentioned that the reward and punishment which the heart and the brain bring about to man's body. Both reward and punishment appear on the expressions of the face; happiness covers the face when there is a reward; and sadness covers it when there is a punishment. The Ima`m has shown that the origin of sadness is the spleen, and the origin of happiness is the kidneys and the ribs. These phenomena result from these organs in man's body.

He, peace be on him, has said: "And know, Commander of the faithful, that the body is like a good land which is maintained by plowing and watering; water should not be increased lest it should drown it; nor it should be decreased lest it should make it thirsty, so that its reformation lasts; its revenue increases; and its plants grow. If the land is neglected, it becomes spoiled and no plant grows therein; therefore, the body is like such a land; it becomes good and well-being flourishes through organizing foods and drinks.

"O Commander of the faithful, reflect on the food which fits you and your stomach, strengthens your own body and gives it to enjoy it, so estimate and carefully consider your own food.

"And know, O Commander of the faithful, that each one of these natures likes that which suits it; therefore, eat that which suits your own body; he who takes an increase of food does not make use of it; and he who takes an amount of food without an increase or a decrease makes use of it; and raise your hand from food while you still incline to it; for it puts right your own body and stomach, pure your reason, and lightens your body."

The wise Ima`m has specified the general program of general health, which depends on balance and immoderation in eating and drinking. The Qur'a`n has mentioned this rule regarding keeping man's body and protecting it from diseases; saying: Eat and drink but do not be extravagant.

Surely the digestive system is the most important one of man's systems; it is the most vital and sensitive of them, for it is affected by the extravagance of food which results in fatness, which is one of the blights which destroy man's body.

Certainly taking care of nutrition, especially in the prim of life, has a great effect on the health condition in the years that follow as well as it lengthens the period of youth; and it is one of the most modern means in preventive medicine; therefore, the different diseases which affect man are a direct result of extravagance in food and drink, unbalanced sexual life, and other life affairs.

The wise Ima`m has likened man's body to a fertile land; and this is a very wonderful comparison, for if man takes care of his land and reforms it, then it will produce and give the most agreeable crops; and if he turns away from it and neglects it, it will be damaged, die, and not give any crop; likewise, if man takes care of his body, puts it right, and does not spoil it through extravagance in food and drink, it becomes good and he enjoys health, which is the most expensive thing in man's life.

The Ima`m, peace be on him, has emphasized the necessity of avoiding extravagance in food, and that man should raise his hand from food while he is still desirous of it, for that is the most useful way for keeping his health and protecting him from diseases. Definitely, eating too much food leads to fatness, which gives rise to the following:

A. Heart failure

B. High blood pressure

Now, let us move to another part of this dissertation. He, peace be on him, has said: "O Commander of the faithful, eat cold (foods) in summer, hot (foods) in winter, and moderate (foods) in the two seasons according to your strength and appetite; and start with the lightest food on which your body feed according to your material, your ability, your activity, and your time in which you must have food every eight hours or three meals every two days;

you must have food early at the beginning of day, and then you have supper; when eight hours of the following day passes, you must eat one lunch; and you are in no need of supper; likewise, my grandfather, Mohammed, may Allah bless him and his family, ordered 'Ali, peace be on him, to have one meal on every day and two meals on the following day; that should be according to an amount which should be neither increase nor decrease; raise your hand from food while you feel appetite for it; and let your drink be immediately after your food."

This part of the dissertation gives an account of organizing the food on which general health stands as follows:

A. One must have light foods during the days of summer, for having heavy foods causes heavy damages to his own body. As for winter, it is on the contrary, namely, one must have heavy food which containing fat and sugar, for his body is in need of them.

B. One must have food according to his own ability; he must not overexert himself in having food.

C. One must have the lightest and the easiest food for the digestive system; in the mean time, he must take into consideration his own age, for when man grows old, he must have light food with little salt and fat, for they bring about arteriosclerosis, especially when he is over fifty years of age.

D. One must decrease the meals of food; he must confine himself to three meals of food, according to what the Ima`m, peace be on him, has detailed; without doubt this way makes body sound and safe from diseases.

E. The Ima`m has underlined that it is necessary for one not to eat any food except when he feels appetite for it and must not fill his own stomach with it. These are some valuable health pieces of advice.

Now, let us read another part of this dissertation. He, peace be on him, has said: "Now we must mention what must be mentioned regarding the direction of the seasons of the year and its Roman months which occur therein; each season (must be mentioned) separately; the foods and drinks which must be used (therein); what must be avoided; and how one must maintain (his) health, according to the view points of the old."

This part of the dissertation is a preparatory preface concerning what man must have and avoid during the seasons of the year. He, peace be on him, has said: "As for the season of spring, it is of the rest of time, and its beginning is March (Adhar); and the number of its days is thirty days; and therein day and night are good; the earth becomes soft; and the power of phlegm terminates; the blood becomes exited; and one must use light food and meat; and he must refrain from eating onions and garlic and sour (things); and he must use laxative therein; and he must use therein bloodletting and cupping."

The Ima`m has mentioned the season of spring, which is the most beautiful one of the seasons of the year, and the most useful of them to living beings. How wonderful these words of the Ima`m: "It is of the soul of the time." That is because, therein, night and day become good; the earth becomes soft; the blood becomes exited. The Ima`m has warned men against eating onions and garlic and sour things, for they bring about diseases which modern medicine will discover, as well as he has regarded it as recommended to have laxative and to take some blood through bloodletting and cupping.

He, peace be on him, has said: "April (Nisa`n) is thirty days; day lengthens therein; the temper of the season becomes strong; the blood moves; the east wind blows; roasted foods are used therein, what is prepared with vinegar; the meat of (birds and animals which are) hunted; and you must treat yourself with having a sexual intercourse, and then massaging yourself with an ointment in the bathroom; drink water before breakfast; smell flowers and scent."

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Mamun Questions Imam Reza (A.S.)

www.imamreza.net

Al-Ma'mun asked Ima`m al-Reza`, peace be on him, some questions. More likely, he wanted to test him. The Ima`m answered these questions which are as follows:

Q1: "Son of Allah's Apostle, do you not say that the prophets are infallible?"

"Yes," replied the Imam.

"What is the meaning of these words of Him, the Exalted: And Adam disobeyed his Lord, so his life became evil (to him)?" asked al-Ma'mu`n.

Ans. 1: "Surely Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, said to Adam: O Adam, dwell you and your wife in the Garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree. And He pointed to the tree of wheat for then you will be of the unjust. He did not say to them: 'Do not eat from this tree or from its kind.' They did not approach the tree; nor did they eat from it; they ate from other than it. When Satan whispered (evil) to them and said: 'Your Lord has not forbidden you from this tree; rather He has forbidden you from approaching other than it. He has not forbidden you from eating from it except that you may not both become two angels or that you may (not) become of the immortal.'

And he swore to them both: 'Most surely I am a sincere adviser to you.' Adam and Hawua`' (Eve) did not see before that anyone who swore by Allah in a false manner. Then he caused them to fall by his deceit and they ate from the tree because they trusted his swearing by Allah, and that was before Adam was considered as a Prophet, and that was not a big sin through which he deserved entering the Fire; rather it was one of the sins which could be forgiven and could be committed by Prophets before the revelation (wahy) came down to them. When Allah chose him and made him a prophet, he became infallible, and was not permitted to commit a sin, minor or major. Allah, the Great and Almighty, said: Thus did Adam disobey his Lord and allow himself to be seduced. But his Lord chose (for His grace); He turned to him, and gave him guidance. 1 And He, the Great and Almighty, said: Allah did indeed choose Adam and Nu`h, the family of Ibra`hï~m, and the family of 'Umra`n above the people."

Q2: "What is the meaning of these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: But when He gives them a good one, they set up with Him associates in what He has given them? "

Ans. 2: "Hawua`' born Adam five hundred males and females, so Adam and Hawua`' promised Allah, the Great and Almighty, prayed to Him, and said: If You give us a good one, we shall certainly be of the grateful ones.

"When He gave them a good one of progeny, sound creature free from illness and defect He gave them two types: a type of males and of females the two types attributed partners to Allah, may His name be Exalted, in what He had given to them, and they did not thank Him as their parents thanked Him, the Great and Almighty. Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, said: But high is Allah above what they associate (with Him). "

Q3: "I witness that you are the son of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, tell me about the words of Him, the Great and Almighty, concerning Ibrahïm: When the night covered him, he saw a star. He said: This is my Lord. "

Ans. 3: "Surely Ibrahïm lived in a society where three types of worship dominated: the worship of Venus, the worship of the moon, and the worship of the sun. That was when he came out of the cave where he was concealed. When the night covered him, he saw Venus and said: This is my Lord. He wanted to deny (such a type of worship) and to ask (his fellows about it). When it (the star) set, he said: I do not love those that set. That this because setting is an attribute of the created not of the Eternal (Being). When he saw the moon rising in splendor, he said: This is my Lord. He wanted to deny (such a type of worship) and to ask (his fellows about it).

But when it (the moon) set, he said: Unless my Lord guides me, I shall surely be among those who go astray. He said: 'Unless my Lord had guided me, I would have been among those who went astray.' When he entered upon morning and saw the sun rising in splendor, he said: This is my Lord; this `is the greatest of Venus and the moon. He wanted to deny (such a type of worship) and to ask (his fellows about it), not to tell them about it and not to admit it (as a lord). When it (the sun) set, he said to the three types of men who worshipped Venus, the moon, and the sun:

O my people! I am indeed free from your (guilt) of ascribing partners to Allah. For me, I have set my face firmly and truly towards Him Who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I attribute partners (to Allah). By the virtue of what he said, Ibrahïm simply wanted to indicate to them the invalidity of their religion and to establish to them that worship did not belong to those things like Vinus, the moon, and the sun; rather it belonged to their Creator and the Creator of the heavens and the earth. The argument which he used against his people was among what Allah had inspired him and gave to him, just as Allah, the Great and Almighty, said: And this was Our argument which We gave to Ibrahïm against his people."

Q4: "How good you are, son of Allah's Apostle! Tell me about these words of Ibrahïm: And when Ibrahïm said: My Lord, show me how You give life to the dead, He said: What! and do you not believe. He said: Yes, but that my heart may be at ease."

Ans. 4: "Surely Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, had revealed to Ibrahïm that He would take one of His creatures for a bosom friend. If he asked Him to give life to the dead, He would respond to him. Ibrahïm thought that he would be the bosom friend, and hence he said: My Lord, show me how You give life to the dead, He said: What! and do you not believe. He said: Yes, but that my heart may be at ease. He (Allah) said: Then take four of the birds, then train them to follow you, then place on every mountain a part of them, then call them, they will come to you flying; and know that Allah is Mighty, Wise.

As a result Ibrahïm took an eagle, a peacock, a duck and a rooster. He cut the birds into pieces and mixed them. They were ten pieces. Then he placed each piece of them on the mountains around him, and put the beaks between his fingers. He put seeds and water beside him. Then he called them by their names, so those pieces flew to each other until they became sound bodies. Then each body came and joined its neck and head. Then Ibra`hïm, peace be on him, released their beaks. The birds flew and then they alighted. They drank from that water, ate from those seeds, and said: 'Allah's Prophet, you have given life to us, may Allah give life to you!' Ibra`hïm said: 'Rather it is Allah who gives life to (creatures) and make (them) die, and He is powerful over all things!'"

Q5: "Allah bless you, Abu` al-Hasan! Tell me about these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: So Musa struck him with his fist and killed him. He said: This is on account of Satan's doing."

Ans. 4: "Musa entered one of Fir'awn's (Pharaoh's) cities when its inhabitants were heedless of him. That was between the sunset and the evening. So he found therein two men fighting, one being of his party and the other of his foes, and he who was of his party cried out to him for help against him who was of his enemies. Therefore Mu`sa` killed the enemy. Allah, the Exalted, mentioned: So Mu`sa` struck him with his fist and he died. He said: This is on account of Satan's doing. This means that the fighting which took place between the two men (was on account of Satan's doing), not the killing which Mu`sa` had committed. (The world) 'he' means Satan (who) is an enemy, openly leading astray."

Q6: "What is the meaning of these words of Mu`sa: My Lord, surely I have done harm to myself, so do You protect me."

Ans. 6: "This means that he put himself in other than its place when he entered this city. So do You protect me, meaning conceal me from Your enemies lest they should find me and kill me, so He protected him; surely He is the Forgiving, the Merciful. Musa said: My Lord, because You have bestowed a favor on me, through the strength so that I killed a man with striking him with my fist; I shall never be a backer of the guilty; rather I shall fight on Your path with this strength until You are content (with me). As a result Mu`sa` was in the city fearing, awaiting, when lo! he who had asked his assistance the day before was crying out to him for aid against another person, so Musa said to him: You are most surely one erring manifestly.

You killed a man the day before and this day you want to kill (another man), hence I shall hurt you. He wanted to strike him. So when he desired to seize him who was an enemy to them both, he said: O Mu`a, do you want to kill me as you killed a person yesterday? You desire nothing but that you should be a tyrant in the land, and you do not desire to be of those who act aright."

Q7: "Abu al-Hasan, May Allah reward you well on behalf of His prophets! What this the meaning of these words of Musa to Fir'awn (Pharaoh): I did it then while I was of those unable to see the right course? 1"

Ans. 7: "Fir'awn said to Mu`sa` when he came to him: And you did (that) deed of yours which you did, and you are one of the ungrateful for me. Mu`sa` said: I did it then while I was of those unable to see the right course through my entering one of your cities. So I fled from you when I feared you, then my Lord granted me wisdom and made me one of the apostles.

"Allah, the Great and Almighty, said to His Prophet Mohammed, may Allah bless him and his family: Did He not find you an orphan and gave you shelter?2 He (Allah) says: 'Did He not find you lonely and He made the people seek shelter in you?' And find you unable to see and show the way to your people? So He guided, namely He guided them to knowing you. And find you in want and make you be free from want? He (Allah) says: 'He has made you free from want when He has made your supplication accepted."

Q8: "Allah bless you, son of Allah's Apostle! What is the meaning of these words of Allah, the Great and Almighty: And when Musa came to our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said: My Lord, show me (Yourself), so that I may look upon You. He said: You cannot (bear to) see me. How is it permissible that Mu`sa` b. 'Umra`n, the Interlocutor of Allah, peace be on him, did not know that Allah, may His name be Blessed and Exalted, could not be perceived? Why did he make such a request?"

Ans. 8: "Musa b. 'Umran, the Interlocutor of Allah, knew that Allah, the Exalted, far above to be perceived by eyes, but when Allah, the Great and Almighty, spoke to him and made him draw nigh holding communion (with Him), he returned to his people and told them that Allah, the Great and Almighty, spoke to him, made him draw nigh, and whispered to him, but they said:

'We will not believe in you until we hear His words as you heard them.' They were seven hundred thousand men, so he chose seventy men from them to the appointed time of their Lord. He took them and went to Mount Sina'. He made them stay at the foot of the mountain. As for Mu`sa`, he climbed the mountain, asked Him to speak to him and make them hear His words. As a result Allah, may His name be Exalted, spoke to him, and they heard His words from top, bottom, left, right, behind, and before (them). That is because Allah, the Great and Almighty, created His words in the Tree and made them come out of it to the extent that they heard them from all directions; yet they said: 'We do not believe that what we have heard is (His) words until we see Allah manifestly.'

When they said this dangerous statement, became arrogant and tyrant, Allah sent down upon them thunderbolt, and it overtook them because of their transgression. They died, so Musa said: 'My Lord, what shall I say to the children of Israel when I return to them and they say: 'You took them and killed them, for you were not truthful when you claimed that Allah, the Great and Almighty, would speak to you?' According, Allah gave life to them and sent them with him. They said: 'If you ask Allah to make you look upon him, He will respond to you; you will tell us how He is, then we will be fully aware of Him.' Musa said: 'People, the eyes cannot perceive Him, and He has no howness; rather He is recognized through His signs and is known through arguments.' Yet they said to him: 'We will not believe in you until you ask Him.' Mu`sa` said: 'My Lord, You have indeed heard the statement of the children of Israel and You know better how to put them right.' So Allah, the Great and Almighty, revealed to Mu`sa`: 'Request from Me what they requested from you, for I will not punish you because of their ignorance.'

Then Mu`sa` said: My Lord, show me (Yourself) so that I may look upon You. He said: You cannot (bear to) see Me, but look at the mountain, if it remains firm in its place -while falling down- then will you see me; but when his Lord manifested (His glory) to the mountain, He made it crumble and Mu`sa` fell down in a swoon; then when he recovered, he said: Glory be to You, I turn to You. He said: 'I have returned to my knowledge of You and (left) the ignorance of my people of You. I am the first of the believers in that none can see You.'"

Al-Ma'mun admired the Imam's talents and abundant knowledge, saying: "How good you are, Abu al-Hasan!"

Q9: "Tell me about these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: And certainly she made for him, and he would have made for her, were it not that he had seen the manifest evidence of his Lord. "

Ans. 9: "She made for him, were it not that he had seen the manifest evidence of his Lord, he would have made for her just as she made for him, but he was infallible, and the infallible did not think of sin; nor did he commit it. Indeed my father related to me on the authority of his father al-Sa`diq, who said: 'She intended to do, and he intended not to do.'"

Q10: "How good you are, Abu` al-Hasan! Tell me about these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: And Dha al-Nun when he departed in wrath; he imagined that We had no power over him. 2"

Ans. 10: "That was Yunus b. Matti. He departed in wrath to his people. He imagined, meaning that he was sure that We would not straiten him, namely We will not going to sustain him, and of it is these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: But when He tries him (differently), then straitens to him his means of subsistence.1 Or straitened and ordained. So he called out among the shadows, namely the shadows of the sea and of the stomach of the whale. There is no god but You! Glory belongs to You; I was indeed wrong through my leaving this worship to which You have given me free time in the stomach of the whale, so Allah answered him, and He, the Great and Almighty, said: But had it not that he was of those who glorify (Us), he would certainly have tarried in its stomach to the day when they are raised. "

Q11: "How good you are, Abu` al-Hasan! Tell me about these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: Till the apostles gave up hope and thought that they were surely accused of lying, Our help then came to them. "

Ans. 11: "Allah, the Great and Almighty, said: Till the apostles gave up hope (of their people) and (their people came to) think that they proved them to be liars, Our help then came to them."

Q12: "How good you are, Abu al-Hasan! Tell me about these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: That Allah may forgive your community their past faults and those to follow. "

Ans. 12: "The Meccan polytheists thought that there was none greater in sin than Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. That is because they worshipped three hundred and sixty idols other than Allah. When he (the Prophet), may Allah bless him and his family, came to them and summoned them to the Oneness of Allah, they regarded that as big and great, and then they said: What! makes he the gods a single God? A strange thing is this, to be sure! And the chief persons of them break forth, saying: Go and steadily adhere to your gods; this is most surely a thing sought after. We never heard of this in the former faith; this is nothing but a forgery.

"When Allah, the Great and Almighty, enabled His Prophet to conquer Mecca, He said to him: Mohammed, surely We have given to you a clear victory, that Allah may forgive your community their past faults and those to follow, (the faults) of the Meccan polytheists through your summoning (them) to the Oneness of Allah, their past faults and those to follow. That is because some Meccan polytheists became Muslims; some of them went out of Mecca; as for those of them who remained were not able to deny the Oneness of Allah against him (the Prophet) when he summoned the people to it, so their faults were forgiven because of his mastery over them."

Q13: "How good you are, Abu` al-Hasan! Tell me about these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: Allah pardon you! Why did you give them leave ? 1"

Ans. 13: "This is part of that which was revealed by the virtue of: I mean you and listen, O neighbor! Allah, the Great and Almighty, addressed His Prophet with that, but He meant by that his community. Similar to this (verse) is these words of Him, the Exalted: Surely if you associate (with Allah), your work would certainly come to naught and you would certainly be of the losers 2 , and these words of Him, the Great and Almighty: And had it not been that We had already established you, you would certainly have been near to incline to them a little."

Q14: "Allah's Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family, went to the house of Zayd b. Haritha b. Sharahïl al-Kalbi for a thing he wanted. He saw his wife washing and said to her: Glory belongs to Him who has created you!"

Ans. 14: "By that he meant to free the Creator, the Great and Almighty, from the statement of those who said: 'The angels are the daughters of Allah.' So Allah, the Great and Almighty, said: What! has then your Lord preferred to give you sons, and (for Himself) taken daughters from among the angels? Most surely you utter a grievous saying.

When Zayd returned to his house, his wife told him about the coming of Allah's Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family, and his saying to her: 'Glory belongs to Allah!' Zayd did not understand what the Prophet meant by that. He thought that the Prophet said that because he admired her beauty. So he came to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, and said to him: 'My wife is in her creation, and I want to divorce her.' 'Keep your wife to yourself,' said the Prophet to him, 'fear Allah.' Allah had made the Prophet know the number of his wives. As for this woman, she was one of them, but he concealed that in his own soul and did not show it to Zayd. He feared that the people would say that Mohammed said to his retainer: 'Your wife will be my wife,' and that they would criticized him for that. As a result Allah, the Great and Almighty, revealed:

And when you said to him to whom Allah had shown favor and to whom you had shown favor: Keep your wife to yourself and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; and you concealed in yourself (what) Allah would bring to light, and you feared men, and Allah had a greater right that you should fear Him.

"Then Zayd b. Ha`ritha divorced her, and she had completed her waiting period, so Allah, the Great and Almighty, married her to His Prophet Mohammed, may Allah bless him and his family, and with this regard He revealed (a verse in) the Qur'an, and He, the Great and Almighty, said:

But when Zayd had accomplished his want of her, We gave her to you as a wife, so that there should be no difficulty for the believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when they have accomplished their want of them; and Allah's command shall be performed.

"Then Allah, the Great and Almighty, knew that the hypocrites would criticize the Prophet for being married to her, so He, the Exalted revealed: There is no harm in the Prophet doing that which Allah has ordained for him. "

With this (answer) the Ima`m concluded this debate, which is evidence for his great scientific abilities and his comprehensive knowledge of the Great Book of Allah. The Ima`m freed the magnified prophets of Allah from committing transgression and established their infallibility through this explanation backed by undeniable proof and evidence.

Al-Ma'mun lauds the Imam Reza(A.S.)'s Talents

Al-Ma'mu`n lauded Ima`m al-Reza`'s talents and said: "You have quenched my thirst, son of Allah's Apostle, and explained what was hidden from me, may Allah reward you well on behalf of His prophets and of Islam."

Then al-Ma'mu`n left the session. He took Mohammed b. Ja'far, the Ima`m's uncle, by the hand and asked him: "How did you see your nephew?"

Showing his admiration toward the Ima`m, Mohammed said: "He (Ima`m al-Rida`) is a scholar; we have never seen him frequent any of the men of knowledge."

Al-Ma'mu`n agreed with him on this reality and said: "Surely, your nephew is from among the Household concerning whom the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, said: 'Verily, the pious of my family and the good ones of my offspring are the most forbearing of the people when they are young and the most knowledgeable of the people when they are old; therefore, do not teach them, for they are most learned than you. They do not bring you out of guidance; nor do they make you enter a door to error."

Then 'Ali b. al-Jahm related to the Ima`m al-Ma'mu`n's laudation and praise and what Mohammed b. Ja'far said concerning him. So the Ima`m smiled and said: "Do not be deceived by what you heard from him (al-Ma'mu`n), for he will assassinate me; and Allah, the Exalted, will take vengeance on him out of his (evil) deed toward me. "

The matter was just as the Ima`m, peace be on him, had predicted. That is because al-Ma'mu`n's harbored malice against him and was jealous of excellence and abundant knowledge given by Allah to him. Accordingly, al-Ma'mu`n committed the most horrible crime in the history of Islam when he put poison into food and gave it to the Ima`m to eat. In this manner he was able to assassinate the Imam, who was the Prophet's grandson, source of knowledge and wisdom on earth.

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Imam Reza's Account of Imamate

Abdul-Aziz-bin-Muslim related: We were accompanying Imam Reza(A.S.) in Marw. Once, we were in the central mosque when people discussed the matter of imamate and referred to the great variance of people's opinions in this regard. I then visited my master Ar-Reza(A.S.) to inform him of people's discussion.

He then smiled and said: O Abdul-Aziz, people are ignorant and unaware of their religion. Almighty Allah did not made his Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) die before He had perfected the religion for him. He revealed to him the Holy Quran in which there is the explanation of everything that people may need completely. Allah the Majestic says: Nothing is left without a mention in the Book.( Holy Qur'an 6:38).

During the Farewell Pilgrimage, which was the last days of the Holy Prophet's lifetime, Allah revealed to him: On this day I have perfected your religion, completed My favors to you, and have chosen Islam as your religion. (Holy Qur'an 5:3).

The imamate is a part of the perfection of the religion. The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) did not depart this world before he had manifested to his ummah the points of their religion, showed them the - right - courses that they should take, situated them on the right path, and assigned Ali(A.S.) as the leader and Imam for them. As a matter of fact, the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) did not leave anything without thorough manifestation. He whoever denies the Book is converting to atheism.

Do they acknowledge the true standing of Imamate and its position in the ummah, before they choose for themselves?

Allah gave Abraham the prophet(A.S.) imamate as a third rank after prophecy and intimacy and as a virtue by which He conferred honor upon him -Abraham- and praised him. Allah says: When his Lord tested Abraham's faith, (by His words) and he satisfied the test, He said, "I am appointing you as the imam of mankind." Abraham the prophet (A.S.) was highly delighted for gaining this rank; therefore, he hoped it would be passed to his descendants. Abraham asked Allah, "Will this imamate also continue through my descendants?" The Lord replied, "The unjust do not have the right to exercise my authority.( Holy Qur'an 2:124) This Verse cancels the imamate of any unjust one until the Day of Resurrection, and dedicates it to the choice ones exclusively. Then Allah honors this imamate when He decides it be in the offspring of the immaculate choice ones. He says: We granted him - Abraham - Isaac and Jacob as a gift and helped both of them to become righteous people. We appointed them as imams to guide the people through Our command and sent them revelation to strive for good deeds, worship their Lord, and pay retax. Both of them were Our worshipping servants. (Holy Qur'an 21:73-4) The successive generations kept on receiving the imamate in inheritance in that order until it reached the Holy Prophet Mohammed (S.A.W.). In this regard, Allah says: The nearest people to Abraham among mankind, are those who followed him, this prophet (Muhammad (S.A.W.)) and the true believers.( Holy Qur'an 3:68) In this manner, the imamate became exclusive for them Then the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) gave it to Ali(A.S.) to be successive in his choice offspring upon whom Allah conferred knowledge and faith. This is indicated in Allah's saying. Those who have received knowledge and have faith will say, "By the decree of Allah, you have remained for the exact period which was mentioned in the book of Allah about the Day of Resurrection. This is the Day of Resurrection, but you did not know. (Holy Qur'an 30:56) This Verse shows the decree of Allah regarding the question of imamate that will persist in the Holy Prophet's progeny until the Day of Resurrection, since there will be no prophet after the Holy Prophet Mohammed(S.A.W.).

After all, how can those ignorant people choose for imamate out of their opinions?

Imamate is the rank of the prophets and the heritage of the prophet's successors.

Imamate is the representation of Allah the Majestic and His Messenger (S.A.W.), the position of Amirul Muminin Ali(A.S.), and the succession of Al-Hasan(A.S.) and Al-Hussein(A.S.)

The Imam is the head of the religious affairs, the system of the Muslims, the goodness of the world, the stronghold of the believers.

The Imam is the rising principal and the noble branch of Islam.

The accomplishment of the prayers, zakat, fasting, hajj, jihad, the availability of spoils and alms, the execution of the doctrinal provisions and the rules, and the protections of the fronts and the borders -all these are achieved through the Imam.

The Imam legalizes whatever Allah deems legal, forbids whatever Allah deems illegal, executes the doctrinal provisions that Allah enacts, protects the religion of Allah, and calls to the path of Allah through wisdom, good advice, and strong evidence.

The Imam is as same as the shining sun whose light covers the whole world while it stands erect in the horizon and neither sights nor can hands catch it.

The Imam is the luminous full moon, the bright lamp, the rising light, the guiding star in tenebrous gloom, the guide to the right, and the savior from demise.

The Imam is the guiding fire on highlands, the heat to the seekers of warmth, and the rescuer from dangers. He whoever departs the Imam will surely perish.

The Imam is the raining clouds, the torrential downpour, the shady sky, the plain land, the abundant spring, the brook, and the garden.

The Imam is the lenient custodian, the humane father, the full brother, the like of the sympathetic mother to her baby, and the shelter of the servants.

The Imam is purified from sins, freed of defects, given knowledge exclusively, characterized with forbearance, the system of the religion, the stronghold of the believers, the punishment of the hypocrites, and the perdition of the disbelievers.

The Imam is the unique in his time. No one can catch up with him and no scholar can amount to him. There is no substitute for him and there are no like or match to him. The whole virtue is dedicated to him without seeking or acquisition. It is only the choice of the Favorer Endower Allah.

How is it then possible for any body to understand the reality and the quality of the Imam? How impossible this is! Minds are too astray, intellects are too lost, wits are too perplexed, the speakers are too mute, the poets are too unversed, the authors are too impotent, the eloquent are too wordless, and the scholars are too weak to describe a single feature or a single virtue of the Imam's features and virtues. As a consequence, they confessed of their shortcoming and inadequacy to do so. How is it then possible to describe of their shortcoming and inadequacy to do so. How is it then possible to describe him as a whole or portray his manners? How is this possible while the Imam is as far as stars from the reach of the debaters and the describers?

Do they think they can find imamate in anybody other than the Holy Prophet's family? Then are deceived by their opinions and they are indulging in the false hopes. They are surely climbing a rugged ascent and a slippery mount that will surely cause them to stumble to the rock bottom because they have intended to nominate an imam out of their opinions. How can they nominate an imam while the true Imam is permanently knowledgeable that ignorance never reaches him and a custodian that never betrays? He is the core of the prophecy whose lineage is too honorable to be criticized and no highborn individual can ever dare him.

The Imam's tribe is Quraish his clan is Hashim, his root is the Messenger of Allah(S.A.W.), the master of the celebrities, and he is the offspring of Abd-Manaf.

The Imam is that whose knowledge is increasing and whose forbearance is perfect. He is cognizant of policy and worthy of leadership. The obedience to him if obligatory. He is the executor of Allah's commandments and the adviser of Allah's servants.

Allah leads the prophets and their successors to success and the right, and gives them (a part of His stored) knowledge and wisdom exclusively so that they become the most knowledgeable of people. Allah the Majestic says: Is the one who guides to the Truth a proper guide or one who himself cannot find guidance unless he is guided (by others)? What is wrong with you that you judge (so unjustly)? (Holy Qur'an 10:35).

Relating the story of Saul, Allah says: Allah has chosen him as your ruler and has given him physical power and knowledge. Allah grants His authority to anyone whom He wants. (Holy Qur'an 2;247).

About David the prophet(A.S.), Allah says: David slew Goliath and Allah granted David the kingdom and wisdom and also taught him whatever He wanted. (Holy Qur'an 2:251).

Addressing to the Holy Prophet Mohammed (S.A.W.), Allah says: Allah has revealed the Book to you, has given you wisdom, and has taught you what you did not know. Certainly Allah's favor to you has been great. (Holy Qur'an 4:113).

About the Imams of the Prophet's family, progeny, and offspring, Allah says: Are they jealous of the favors that Allah has done to some people (the Imams)? We have given to the family of Abraham the Book, Wisdom, and a great Kingdom. Some have believed, others have disbelieved and tried to prevent people from believing. For these people, only the intense fire of hell is a sufficient punishment. (Holy Qur'an 4:54-5).

When Allah selects someone (the Imam) for managing the affairs of His servants, He grants him the inclination to do so, fills in his heart with springs of wisdom, and bestows upon him with fluency. Hence, he will have the ability to answer any question and will say nothing but the truth. The Imam is therefore granted successfulness, right guidance, and advocacy and will be saved from error and flaw.

He is given such characteristics so that he will be an argument against the creatures and a witness on the servants (of Allah). Can they then ensure such characters for the one they choose as imam out of their opinions?

:cry: :angel:

YA Allah HELP US TO KNOW OUR DEAR IMAMS BETTER THAN YESTERDAY :cry:

ELTEMASE DUA

fatemeh :cry:

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Imam Reza (A.S.) Debates a Man

A man, whose name the historians have not mentioned, came in to Imam al-Reza, peace be on him. When the man sat down, he turned to the Imam and asked him: "Son of Allah's Apostle, what is the evidence for the creation of the world?"

The Imam answered him with definite evidence: "You were not, then you have been. You know that you had not created yourself; nor had the like of you created you.

:angel: :cry:

ELTEMASE DUA

fatemeh

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Imam Reza's Wording on Selection

Imam Reza(A.S.) was attending a session that included the best scholars of Iraq and Khurasan when Al-Ma'mun asked them about the exegesis of Allah's saying: We gave the Book as an inheritance to Our chosen servants, among whom some are unjust against their souls, some are moderate, and some are exceedingly virtuous by the permission of Allah. This is indeed a great favor. (Holy Qur'an 35:32) They answered that the verse refers to all the ummah. Al-Ma'mun then turned to Imam Reza(A.S.) and asked for his opinion.

The Holy Imam answered: I do not agree with them. I say that Allah the Blessed refers to the immaculate progeny of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) exclusively.

Al-Ma'mun asked for an explanation.

The Holy Imam(A.S.) explained: If Allah referred to the ummah, they all should be in Paradise. This is for His saying: ... among whom some are unjust against permission of Allah. This is indeed a great favour. (Holy Qur'an 35:32).

Allah then informs that all of them will be in Paradise. He the Majestic said: They will enter the gardens of Eden. (Holy Qur'an 35:33). Thus, the verse refers to the immaculate progeny of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) exclusively.

Imam Reza(A.S.) then added: The immaculate progeny are those whom Allah describes:O' People of the house, Allah wants to keep away all kinds of uncleanness from you and to purify you thoroughly. (Holy Qur'an 33:33)

The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) said about them: "I am leaving among you the two weighty things - the Book of Allah and ,my progeny; my family. They will not depart each other until they will join me on the Divine Pool(Kawthar). Consider how will you regard me in treating them. O people, do not suggest to them, because they are more knowledgeable than you are.

The scholars asked Abul-Hasan(A.S.) whether the progeny of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and the Prophet's family are the same. The Imam(A.S.) said: They are the same.

The scholars claimed that the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) is related to have said, "My ummah is my family," and the Holy Prophet's companions agreed unanimously on the fact that Holy Prophet Mohammed's family is his ummah.

Imam Reza(A.S.) worded: Well, tell me whether it is lawful for Holy Prophet Mohammed's family to have any alms in possession. "No, it is unlawful," answered the scholars.

Then the Holy Imam(A.S.) asked: Tell me whether it is lawful for the ummah to have the alms in possession. "Yes, it is lawful for them," answered they.

The Holy Imam(A.S.) commented: This is one difference between Holy Prophet Mohammed's family and the ummah. Woe to you! Where are you misled? Do you ignore the Holy Quran or are you transgressing people? Have you not known that this narrative is obviously dedicated to the guided choice ones exclusively?

"How can you prove this, Abul-Hasan?" asked the scholars.

The Holy Imam(A.S.) answered: This is clear in Allah's saying: We sent Noah and Abraham and placed prophethood and the Book among their offspring, some of whom have the right guidance. However, most of them are evildoers. (Holy Qur'an 57:26) Hence, the inheritance of the Book is dedicated to the guided ones, not the evildoers In his supplication to his Lord, Noah said - as Allah relates in the Holy Quran -: Lord, my son is a member of my family. Your promise is always true and you are the best Judge. (Holy Qur'an 11:45). He said so after Allah had promised to save his family and him. However, Allah the Exalted answered him: He is not one of your family. He is a man of unrighteous deeds. Do not ask me about that which you have no knowledge. I advise you not to become an ignorant person. (Holy Qur'an 11:46).

Al-Ma'mun asked: "Did Allah give distinction to the Holy Prophet's progeny over people?"

The Holy Imam(A.S.); answered: Allah the Majestic the Omnipotent gave distinction of the Holy Prophet's progeny over people in the Wise Book.

Al-Ma'mun asked for examples from the Holy Quran.

The Holy Imam(A.S.) cited: Allah chose (and gave distinction to) Adam, Noah the family of Abraham, and Imran over all the people of the world. They were the offspring of one another. (Holy Qur'an 3:33-4) In another place in the Holy Quran, Allah says: Are they jealous of the favors that Allah has done to some people? We have given to the family of Abraham the Book, Wisdom, and a great Kingdom. (Holy Qur'an 4:54).

Then Allah refers this to the believers at whom he addressed: Believers, obey Allah, His messenger, and your (qualified) leaders. (Holy Qur'an 4:59). In the previous Verse, Allah refers to the Qualified leaders to whom He gave the Book and wisdom in inheritance, but people envied them for these two things as He affirms in His saying: "Are they jealous of the favors that Allah has done to some people? We have given to the family of Abraham the Book, Wisdom, and a great Kingdom. (Holy Qur'an 4:54). The favors stand for the (obligatory) obedience to the immaculate choice ones and the great kingdom stands for the obedience to them.

"Does Allah the Elevated explain this selection in the Book?" asked the scholars.

The Holy Imam(A.S.) answered: Allah explains this selection obviously in twelve Verses in the Holy Book and refers to it in many Verses whose meanings are hidden.

First, it is explained in Allah's saying: And warn your nearest relations.( Holy Qur'an 26:214) Ubay-bin-Ka'b adds 'and your selected family', to the previous verse, and the addition is recorded in Abdullah-bin-Mas'ud's copy of the Holy Quran. and that statement, which is certainly a sublime standing, a great excellence, and a grand honor for the Holy Prophet's family whom are exclusively stated in the previous Verse.

The second Verse of the selection is Allah's saying: people of the house, Allah wants to keep away all kinds of uncleanness from you and to purify you thoroughly. (Holy Qur'an 33:33) Except the obstinate, no one can deny this merit because it is obviously clear.

The third Verse of selection is that in which Allah gave distinction to the Immaculates over all others and ordered His Holy Prophet in His saying: If anyone disputes (your prophesy) after knowledge has come to you, say, "Let each of us bring our children, women, and ourselves to one place and pray to Allah to condemn the liars among us. (Holy Qur'an 3:61) The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) carried out this order when he brought Ali(A.S.), Al-Hasan(A.S.), Al-Hussein(A.S.), and Fatima(A.S.) for praying to Allah for condemning the lying party. Thus, Allah added them to the Holy Prophet. Do you know the indication of Allah's saying: "... and ourselves...?"

The scholars said: This is the Prophet's personality."

Imam Reza(A.S.) commented: This is not accurate. It is an indication to Ali (A.S.). This can be proved by the Holy Prophet's saying: "Let the Luhai' as keep on doing so and I will subjugate them to a man who is like myself - Ali(A.S.)." No one can precede this particularity, disagree about this virtue, or overtake this honor. Thus, the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) compared Ali's personality to his.

The fourth Verse of selection is that when the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) ordered everybody to leave the Mosque except his family. People showed dissatisfaction for such a procedure and Al-Abbas discussed with the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) about the question, but the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) answered: It was not I who dismissed you all except Ali(A.S.). It was Allah who did so." This is a clear explanation of the Holy Prophet's saying to Ali(A.S.): "Your relation to me is as same as Aaron's to Moses."

"What is the relation between this and the Quran?" asked the scholars.

Imam Reza(A.S.) answered: This is in the Holy Qur'an in Allah's saying: We sent a revelation to Moses and his brother to build houses for their people in the Pharaoh's town and to build them facing one another. (Holy Qur'an 10:87) This verse shows Aaron's relation to Moses. It also shows Ali's standing to the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). Besides, there is a clear evidence in the Holy Prophet's saying: "Except Mohammed(S.A.W.) and Mohammed's family, all the ceremonially impure and the menstruant are forbidden from entering this Mosque."

"This explanation and evidence cannot be found with anyone other than you, the Holy Prophet's family," said the scholars.

Imam Reza(A.S.) commented: Who can deny this fact? The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) said: I am the city of knowledge and Ali(A.S.) is its gate. He whoever betakes himself to the city of knowledge should first see its gate."

The previous clear explanation of the virtue, honor, preference, selection, and immaculacy cannot be denied by anyone except the obstinate. All praise belongs to Allah for so.

The fifth Verse of selection is Allah's saying: Give the relatives their dues. (Holy Qur'an 17:26) Almighty Allah gave this particularity to the Holy Prophet's family exclusively as a sign of their distinction over the ummah. When this Verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.), he summoned Fatima(A.S.), his daughter, and said to her, "Fadak is one of the territories that we did not exhaust our horses or camels to seize them; therefore, it is mine exclusively . Now, I gift it to you and your offspring according to Allah's instructions."

The sixth Verse of the selection is Allah's saying: (Muhammad(S.A.W.)), say, "I do not ask you for any payment for my preaching to you except (Your) love of (my near) relatives. (Holy Qur'an 42:23). This is a particularity for the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and his family exclusively.

Relating the sayings of Noah(A.S.), Allah the Majestic says: My people, I do not ask any payment for what I preach to you. No one except Allah has to give me any reward. I do not drive away those who have faith (in my teaching); they will all receive mercy from their Lord. I know that you are ignorant people. (Holy Qur'an 11:29).

Relating the sayings of Hood the prophet(A.S.), Allah says: My people, I do not ask any reward for what I have preached to you. No one can give me my reward except my Creator. Will you then not take heed?( Holy Qur'an 11:51).

For the Holy Prophet Mohammed (S.A.W.), Allah orders him: Say, "I do not ask you for any payment for my preaching to you except (your) love of (my near) relatives." Allah imposed the love of the Holy Prophet's relatives only when He knows that they will never apostatize and they will never deviate.

It happens that a man may bear any bit of malice in the heart for another, who is an intimate friend of him, when a member of the family of the previous is an opponent to the latter. On that account, Allah wants to make the Holy Prophet's heart completely free of malice against the believers; therefore, he ordered them to love the Prophet's family. The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) then will not hate anybody who loves his family and him. In the same manner, the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) will hate those who dislike his family, because they have ignored one of the duties of Allah, This is surely the most prominent honor.

When the previous Verse was revealed, the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) addressed a sermon before his companions. He said: All praise and gratitude is due to Allah. O people, Allah has imposed upon you a matter. Will you carry it out?" No one answered him, too. On the third day, he added: "O people, it is not gold, silver, food, or drink that you should pay." Thus, they asked what it was. The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) then recited the Verse-"(Muhammad), say, "I do not ask you for any payment for my preaching to you except (your) love of (my near) relatives.". They agreed to carry out this commandment. Unfortunately, most of them broke it.

My father related to me his fathers' relation that Al-Husain-bin-Ali(A.S.) had narrated the following:

Muhajirs and Ansar came to the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) to offer him their estates and souls since - as they claimed - he had to spend great sums of his own wealth for his personal expenditures in addition to the continuous visits of the delegations. As a result, Allah the Majestic sent the faithful Spirit - the Angel Gabriel - to convey to the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) His saying: "(Muhammad), say, "I do not ask you for any payment for my preaching to you except (your) love of (my near) relatives." This means that you should not hurt my relatives after my death. As they left, some of them murmured, "He rejected our offers only for urging us accepting (the leadership of) his relatives after his death. This was surely something he himself invented in that session. They also said horrible things that made Allah reveal His saying: They say, "(Muhammad) has invented it by himself." Say, "Had I invented it, you would not have been able to rescue me from Allah. He knows best what you say about it. He is our witness and He is All-Forgiving and All-Merciful. (Holy Qur'an 46:8).

Accordingly, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) summoned them and wondered whether they had done something due to which the Verse was revealed. They confessed that they had said horrible things. When the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) recited the Verse before them, they wept heavily. Hence, Allah revealed: It is He who accepts the repentance of His servants, forgives their evil deeds and knows all about what you do. (Holy Qur'an 42:25).

The seventh Verse of selection is Allah's saying: Allah Showers His blessings upon the Prophet and the angels seek forgiveness for him. believers, pray for the Prophet and greet him with, "Peace be with you. Holy Qur'an 33:56).

All the obstinate realized that when this Verse was revealed, some people came to the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and asked him to teach them how to pray for him. Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) instructed, "Say: O Allah, bless Mohammed(S.A.W.) and Mohammed's family the way you blessed Abraham and Abraham's family. You are surely Praiseworthy and Glorious." Can any one of you disagree to this?

"No, no one can," answered the scholars. Al-Ma'mun said, "This is a unanimous thing. However, we need something more evident about the Holy Prophet's family excerpted from the Holy Quran."

Imam Reza(A.S.) said: Allah says: Yasin, by the Quran, the Book of wisdom, you are a Messenger and you follow the right path. (Holy Qur'an 36:1-4) Who is that Yasin?

"Undoubtedly," said the scholars, "Yasin is Mohammed(S.A.W.)."

Imam Reza(A.S.) commented: Allah has given to Mohammed(S.A.W.) and his holy family a characteristic that, except the heedful, no one can attain its meaning. In the Holy Quran, Allah blesses no one save the prophets(A.S.). He the Exalted says:

"Peace be with Noah among all men in the worlds. Holy Qur"an 37:79)

"Peace be with Abraham. (Holy Qur"an 37:109) and

"Peace be with Moses and Aaron. (Holy Qur'an 37:120)

Allah, thus, does not bless the family of Noah, Abraham, or Moses. But He blesses Mohammed's family in His saying: Peace be with the family of Yasin. (Holy Qur'an 37:130) Yasin is Mohammed (S.A.W.).

Al-Ma'mun expressed, "I have already known that only the core of the prophecy can explain this clearly.

Imam Reza(A.S.) went on: The eighth verse of selection is Allah's saying: Know that whatever property you may gain, one fifth belongs to Allah, the Messenger, the kindred, orphans, the needy and those who need money while on a journey. (Holy Qur'an 8:41) In the previous Verse, Allah adds the share of the Holy Prophet's family to his share as well as the share of His Messenger. This is the distinction between the Holy Prophet's family and the ummah whom Allah has situated in a place and situated the Holy Prophet's family in another higher place. Besides, Almighty Allah chooses to the Holy Prophet's family what He chooses for Himself as He selected them. He begins with mentioning Himself, His Messenger, and then the kindred. This is operative not only in the distribution of the spoils of war, but also in everything that Allah accepts for Himself and for them. Allah says: Know that whatever property you may gain, one fifth belongs to Allah, the Messenger, the kindred... This holy saying is an affirmative declaration and an everlasting commandment for them in the Book of Allah that, "Falsehood can not reach it from any direction. It is the revelation from the All-Wise, Praiseworthy One.( Holy Qur'an 41:42).

Regarding Allah's reference to the orphans and the needy, it is natural that the share of the orphan should be stopped when the feature of orphanage ceases to exist. The same thing can be said about the share of the needy. While, on the other hand, the share of the Holy Prophet's kindred, whether they are needy or not, is incessant up to the Day of Resurrection, because no one is wealthier than Allah or the Holy Prophet; however, their shares are incessant. Allah the Majestic has decided for the Holy Prophet's family anything that He decides for Himself and His Messenger. As He decides for Himself and His Messenger a share in the spoils of war, He decides for the Holy Prophet's family a share. He begins with Himself, His Messenger, and then His Messenger's family.

The same thing can be said about the commandment of obedience. Allah the Exalted says: Believers, obey Allah, His Messenger, and your (qualified) leaders. (Holy Qur'an 4:59). In the previous Verse, Allah begins with Himself, His Messenger, and then His Messenger's family. The same thing occurs in the Verse of Wilayah. Allah says: Only Allah, His Messenger, and the true believers who are steadfast in prayer and pay alms while they kneel during prayer, are your guardians - leaders. (Holy Qur'an 5:55 In the previous Verse, Allah makes the leadership of the Holy Prophet's family and the obedience to the Holy Prophet connected to the obedient to Him. Likewise, His share as well as His Messenger's share of spoils of war connected to the shares of the Holy Prophet's family. All praise is due to Allah Who has given the Prophet's family the greatest grace.

As Allah refers to the classes to whom the alms should be given, He deems Himself, His Messenger, and the Holy Prophet's family far above them. He the Exalted says: Alms are only for the poor, the destitute, the tax collectors, those whose hearts are inclined (towards Islam), the slaves, those who cannot pay their debts, for the cause of Allah, and for those who have become needy on a journey. It is an obligation that Allah has decreed. Allah is All-knowing and All-wise. (Holy Qur'an 9:60).

You cannot find any indication to Allah, His messenger, and the Prophet's family with the above-mentioned classes. This is because Allah has deemed Himself, His Messenger, and the Messenger's family far above receiving the alms. Moreover, He has deemed unlawful for Mohammed (S.A.W.) and his family to receive anything of the alms, because alms are only the dirt of people, and it is unlawful for the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and his family to enjoy the dirt of people because they are purified against any dirt or filth. In fine, because Allah has purified and selected the Holy Prophet's family exclusively, He accepts for them only what He accepts for Himself and dislikes for them only what He dislikes for Himself.

The ninth verse of selection is Allah's saying: "Ask the people of the Reminder if you do not know.( Holy Qur'an 16:43) We -the Prophet's family-are the people of the Reminder.

"In this verse," spoke the scholars, "Allah refers to the Christians and the Jews.

Imam Reza(A.S.) answered: How is this acceptable? If is so, then Allah is asking us to follow their religion, and they can claim that their religion is better than Islam!

"O Abul-Hasan," said Al-Ma'mun, "Do you have an explanation opposing the scholars"?

Imam Reza(A.S.) spoke: The Reminder in the Verse is Allah's Messenger. We are his people. This is clear in the Book of Allah. See Allah's saying in Surs of At-Talaq: People of understanding and believers, have fear of Allah. Allah has certainly sent you a reminder - a Messenger who recites to you the illustrious revelations of Allah. (Holy Qur'an 65:10-1) Thus, the reminder is Allah's Messenger and we are his people.

The tenth Verse of selection is Holy Qur'an 4:23 (25).

Supposing the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) is alive, is it licit for him to marry my daughter, my grand-daughter, of my offspring? "No," answered they, "It is unlawful."

Imam Reza(A.S.) continued: Is it licit for him to marry the daughter of any of you?" "Yes," answered they, "It is lawful."

The Holy Imam(A.S.), then, said: This is sufficiently clear evidence that I am one of the Holy Prophet's family members while you are not. If you are the Holy Prophet's family, then it is unlawful for him to marry your daughters. It is unlawful for him to marry my daughter because I am one of his family members while you are members of his ummah. This is another distinction between the Holy Prophet's family and the ummah. The Holy Prophet's family is a part of him while the ummah members are not unless they are his family.

The eleventh Verse of selection is Allah's saying: A believing person from the people of the Pharaoh who concealed his faith said, "Would you kill a man just because he says Allah is my Lord? He has brought you illustrious miracles from your Lord. If he speaks lies, it will only harm him, but if he speaks the Truth, some of his warnings may affect you. Allah does not guide a transgressing liar. (Holy Qur'an 40:28) That man was the maternal cousin of the Pharaoh; therefore, Allah relates him to the Pharaoh due to this relation, not religion. The same thing can be said about us. We are the Holy Prophet's because we are his family, particularly, and followers of his religion, generally. This is another distinction between the Holy Prophet's family and the ummah.

The twelfth Verse of selection is Allah's saying. Instruct your family to pray and be steadfast in worship. (Holy Qur'an 20:132) In this Verse, Allah joins us with the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) in the same commandment. This is a distinction over the ummah. After the revelation of this Verse, the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) used to come near to the door of the house of Ali(A.S.) and Fatima(A.S.) five times a day for nine months. He was shouting: "The prayer! Allah's mercy be upon you."

Allah has not bestowed upon any of the prophets' progenies with such an honored virtue that He has given exclusively to us. This is another distinction between the Prophet's family and the ummah.

All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

All peace be with Mohammed(S.A.W.), the Holy Prophet of Allah.

ELTEMASE DUA

fatemeh :cry: :angel:

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(bismillah)

(salam)

The Noble Path of Imam Reza (A.S.)

‘Ali bin Shua’yb once visited Imam Ali al-Reza (A.S.) and the following conversation ensued:

Imam Reza (A.S.): “O ‘Ali! Do you know whose subsistence is the best?”

‘Ali replied, “Master, you know better than me.”

Imam Reza (A.S.): “It is that of one through whom the subsistence of others is improved. O ‘Ali! Do you know who has the worst subsistence?”

‘Ali replied, “Master, you know better than me.”

Imam Reza (A.S.): “It is that of the one who does not include others in it.”

Then the Imam (A.S.) continued and said, “O ‘Ali! Be thoughtful about the boons for they are wild. If they leave people, they never come back. O ‘Ali! The worst of men is he who stops his contributions to charity, eats by himself, and whips his slave.” (Bihar al-Anwaar)

Imam Reza (A.S.) was once asked about the good people and he (A.S.) said,

“They are those who:

-Are delighted when they do good

-Seek Allah’s forgiveness when they do evil

-Offer gratitude when they receive (Allah’s) favours

-Are patient when they are tried

-And pardon (others) when they are angry.” (Tuhaf al-‘Uqool)

Imam Reza (A.S.) has been reported to have said,

“Do not expect any good in this world and in the hereafter from a person who lacks five qualities:

-One whose lineage is known to be untrustworthy

-One whose nature lacks generosity

-One whose temper lacks balance

-One whose conduct is not noble

-And one who does not fear his Lord.” (Tuhaf al-‘Uqool)

Mamun al-Rasheed appointed Imam al-Reza (A.S.) as a heir apparent after him. Despite this title and status, Imam (A.S.) continued to exhibit his humility towards the people in different manners. It is reported that the Imam (A.S.) would mostly be seen having his meals with his slaves and attendants. Once somebody said, “O Master! If a separate arrangement is made for these attendants to have their meals, there will be no problem in it.” Imam (A.S.) responded by saying: “Our Creator is One. Our mother is Hawwa (Eve) and father Adam. Everyone of us shall be rewarded or punished according to our deeds (that we perform in life), then why the division?” (Ahsanul-Muqaal)

:angel: :cry:

YA Allah

ELTEMASE DUA

fatemeh :angel: :cry: :wub:

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Imam Reza(A.S.) Debates With A Catholic Priest and A Rabbi

www.imamreza.net

After the death of Ima`m Mu`sa` al-Ka`zim, peace be on him, Imam Reza(A.S.) traveled to Basrah in order to produce evidence in support of his Ima`mate and in order to disprove the vague errors of those who deviated from the truth. He stopped at the house of al-Hasan b. Mohammed al-'Alawi and held in it a session for a group of the Muslims among whom was 'Amru` b. Hadda`b, who deviated from the members of the House (ahl al-Bayt ), peace be on him, and showed stubbornness toward them. He also summoned to session the Catholic and the Rabbi. Then he turned and said to them: "I have summoned you in order that you may question me about the Prophet's traditions and the Ima`m's signs which you may not find with anyone except with us, the members of the House, so come and question me!"

'Amru` b. Hadda`b hastened and asked him: "Mohammed b. al-Fade al-Ha`shimi told us that you knew all that which Allah sent down, and that you knew all languages?"

The Ima`m, peace be on him, confirmed the statement of Mohammed b. al-Fadl concerning him, saying: "Mohammed b. al-Fadl is right; I told him about that."

'Amru hastened to say: "First of all I want test you through languages. This is a Roman; this is an Indian; this is a Persian; and this is a Turkish. We have brought them before you."

The Imam, peace be on him, said: "Let them say whatever they desire. I will answer each of them in his own language, Allah willing."

The non-Arabs stood before the Ima`m and questioned him, and he, peace be on him, answered them in their own languages. So they admired him. Then the Ima`m turned to 'Amru` and asked him: "Do you believe me when I tell you that you will be tried in these days by murdering one of your blood relations?"

"No," was the answer, "for none knows the unseen except Allah, the Most High."

The Imam disproved 'Amru`'s statement, saying: "Doesn't Allah, the Most High, say: The Knower of the unseen, so He does not reveal His secrets to any except to him whom He chooses as an apostle. Allah is pleased with His Messenger, may Allah bless him and his Household , and we are the inheritors of the Messenger whom Allah informed of whatever He willed of His secrets, and he (the Messenger) informed us of what was and what will be to the Day of Resurrection.

"What I have told you about, son of Hadda`b, will occur five days later on. When that has occurred, you will come to know that you oppose Allah and His Apostle."

The Imam added, saying: "As for you, you will lose your sight and become blind. So you will see neither a plain nor a mountain, and this will happen a few days later on. You will perjure and be infected with leprosy."

Mohammed b. al-Fadl swore by Allah that the matter was just as the Ima`m had predicted.

Then 'Amru` b. Hadda`b was asked: "Was al-Reza` truthful in what he had foretold?"

"By Allah I knew that he was truthful at the time when he told me," answered b. Hadda`b, "but I showed myself patient."

Then the Ima`m turned to the Catholic and asked him: "Has the Bible produced evidence in support of the prophecy of Mohammed, may Allah bless him and his family?"

"If the Bible has given proof of him ,we would not deny him," retorted the Catholic.

"Could you tell me about the sakana which you have in the third Book?" asked the Imam.

"It is one of Allah's attributes," replied the Catholic, "it is not permitted for us to reveal it."

"If your Lord acknowledges that it is the name of Mohammed, Jesus acknowledges him and gives good news to the children of Israïl of him, then you should acknowledge him and do not deny him."

The Catholic accepted that, saying: "I f you do, I will acknowledge, for I do not oppose the Bible; nor do I deny it.

The Imam continued establishing proof against him, saying: "Take (an example) from the third part in which Mohammed(S.A.W.) has been mentioned and Jesus given good news of him."

"Give me (an example of) what you have said," retorted the Catholic.

The Imam began reciting him the part of the Gospel in which the Messenger Mohammed(S.A.W.) has been mentioned. Then he asked the Catholic: "Who is this described one?"

"Describe him!" the Catholic demanded.

The Imam, peace be on him, began describing him, saying: "I will not describe him but through what Allah has described him. He is the owner of the she-camel, rod, and the cloak; the illiterate Prophet whom they find written down with them in the Torah and the Bible; (who) enjoins them (to do) good and forbids them (from doing) evil; makes lawful to them the good things and makes unlawful to them impure things; removes from them their burden and the shackles which were upon them; and guides (them) to the best path leading to (Allah), the most just way, and the most straight road.

"I ask you, O Catholic, by the right of Jesus, the Spirit of Allah and His Word, have you found this description of this Prophet (may Allah bless him and his family) (written) in the Gospel?"

The Catholic bowed his head, thought deeply and felt that the earth was narrow though it was wide. He could not deny the Bible, so he answered the Imam, saying: "Yes, this description is in the Bible. Jesus has mentioned this Prophet in the Bible, but the Christians have not proved true that he is your Prophet (S.A.W.)."

Then the Ima`m went on establishing arguments against him and disproving his imaginations, saying: "As you have not denied the Gospel and acknowledged the description in it concerning Mohammed(S.A.W.),then take the second Book, for it has mentioned him, his testamentary trustee (i.e. Imam 'Ali(A.S.), his daughter Fa`tima(A.S.) al-Hasan(A.S.), and al-Husayn(A.S.)."

The Catholic and the Rabbi came to know that the Ima`m was learned in the Torah and the Bible, and that he had knowledge of all that which was mentioned in both of them. They thought of a way to get rid of the Ima`m's arguments. They doubted the Prophet Mohammed(S.A.W.),of whom Moses and Jesus gave good news. They said: "Moses and Jesus gave good news of him, but we have not decided that he is this Mohammed(S.A.W.). It is not permitted for us to acknowledge his prophecy because of his name Mohammed(S.A.W.). We doubt whether he is your Mohammed(S.A.W.) or other than him!"

The Imam continued disproving their vague errors, saying: "You have regarded doubt as an argument. Has Allah appointed from among the children of Adam a prophet whose name is Mohammed(S.A.W.) other than (this) Mohammed(S.A.W.)? Have you found him (written) in one of the Books which Allah sent down upon all the prophets?"

They refrained from answering and found no vague error to cling to it. They insisted on obstinacy and denial, saying: "It is not permitted for us to confess before you that Mohammed(S.A.W.) is your Mohammed(S.A.W.). If we acknowledged Mohammed(S.A.W.), his testamentary trustee, his daughter and her two sons according to what you had mentioned, then you made us adopt Islam unwillingly!"

The Imam added, saying: "As for you, O Catholic, you are safe, in the protection of Allah and of His Apostle. Nothing which you hate will issue from us toward you."

The Catholic retorted: "As you have given my security, this Prophet whose name is Mohammed(S.A.W.), the testamentary trustee whose name is 'Ali(A.S.), this daughter whose name is Fa`tima(A.S.), these two grandsons whose names are al-Hasan(A.S.) and al-Husayn(A.S.) are in the Torah, the Bible, and the Zabur (David's Psalms)."

"Is this truthfulness and justice?" asked the Ima`m.

"Yes, it is truthfulness and justice," replied the Catholic.

The Catholic kept silent and acknowledged the truth, so the Ima`m turned to the Rabbi and said to him: "Listen, O Rabbi, to the Book so-and-so of David's Psalms."

The Rabbi said: "May Allah bless you and your father, give me (an example of) what you have."

The Ima`m began reciting to him the first Book of David's Psalms until he reached the names of Mohammed(S.A.W.), 'Ali(A.S.), Fa`tima(A.S.), al-Hasan(A.S.), and al-Husayn(A.S.). Then he asked him the following questions: "I ask you, O Rabbi, by the right of Allah, is this in the Zabur of Dawud (David's Psalms)?"

"Yes, this is itself and there names are in the Zabu`r," answered the Rabbi.

"By the right of the ten verses which Allah sent down upon Mu`sa` (Moses), have you found the description of Mohammed(S.A.W.), 'Ali(A.S.), Fa`tima(A.S.), al-Hasan(A.S.), and al-Husayn(A.S.) (written) in the Torah, and that they are ascribed to justice and excellence?"

The Rabbi acknowledge that. Then the Ima`m continued reciting another Book of the Torah. The Rabbi admired the Imam's abundant knowledge, eloquence, and his interpreting what was mentioned concerning the Prophet, 'Ali(A.S.), Fatima(A.S.), al-Hasan(A.S.), and al-Husayn(A.S.). Then he said: "By Allah, O (grand)son of Mohammed(S.A.W.), were it not for the presidency which I attained over all the Jews, I would have believed in Ahmed (i.e. Prophet Mohammed(S.A.W.)) and follow your order. By Allah Who sent down Torah upon Mu`sa` and Zabu`r upon Dawud, I have never seen anyone better than you in reciting the Torah, the Bible, and the Zabu`r; nor have I seen anyone better than you in interpreting these Books."

The Imam's debate with them lasted for a long time until the timing of the noon prayer came, so the Ima`m, peace be on him, stood and led the people in the noon prayer, and then he went to carry out his personal affairs. On the following day he returned to his assembly, and they brought a Roman slave-girl before the Ima`m, peace be on him, that they might test the Ima`m. The Ima`m spoke to her in her own language in the presence of the Catholic. He had knowledge of her own language, so he asked her: "Whom do you love more Mohammed(S.A.W.) or Jesus?"

"In the past I loved Jesus more," replied the slave-girl, "for I did not recognize Mohammed(S.A.W.). After I had come to know of Mohammed(S.A.W.), I loved him more than Jesus."

The Catholic turned to her and asked her: "You have adopted the religion of Mohammed(S.A.W.),then do you detest Jesus?"

The slave-girl opposed his statement and said: "I seek refuge in Allah; rather I love Jesus and believe in him, but I love Mohammed(S.A.W.) more than him."

The Imam turned to the Catholic and asked him to translate her words to the people, and he translated them to them. Then the Catholic asked the Ima`m to debate with a Christian from the Sind, for he had knowledge of Christianity and debates. The Ima`m debated with him in his own language.

Al-Sindi adopted Islam and acknowledged the Ima`mate of the Imam, peace be on him. Then the Imam, peace be on him, asked Mohammed b. al-Fadl to take the Christian to the bath-house, that he might bathe and purify his body from the dirt of polytheism. Mohammed took him to the bath-house and clothed him in clean clothes. Then the Ima`m ordered the Christian to be taken to Median (Yathrib) to learn some of his sciences. Then the Ima`m said farewell to his friend (the Catholic) and went to Medina al-Munawara.

imam_reza_5.jpg

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(bismillah)

(salam)

Words of Guidance from Imam Reza (A.S.)

By: Seyyed Ali Shahbaz

"If the caliphate is your right then it is not rightful for you to relinquish it and pass it on to anyone else. And if it is not your right then how can you give to others something which does not belong to you!"

This is how Imam Ali ibn Musa ar-Reza (as) replied to Ma’moun when the crafty Abbasid caliph thought of a ruse to make a display of his questionable claim to authority over the Muslims and to try to trap him in the tantalizing bait of temporal power.

The 8th infallible heir of Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) thus deftly unmasked an elaborately hatched plot of the forces of oppression who had usurped the temporal rights of the divinely-designated Imams.

Of course, the issue of Wilayat al-Mutlaqa was not at stake. No one could infringe upon that trust which had been given by Almighty Allah to Adam at the dawn of creation and which Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) by divine commandment had passed on to Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (as) at Ghadeer after the farewell pilgrimage.

It was now vested in the person of Imam Reza (as), and not even in their wildest dreams Ma’moun and his ilk could ever think of infringing upon it. Imamate was beyond the power of erring mortals, as God says in the Holy Qur'an after appointing Abraham as the Imam of mankind: "My covenant will not reach the unjust." (2:124)

It was because of this frustration that the divinely-designated Imams of the Prophet's blessed Household had been subjected to various forms of oppression by the unjust caliphs. The form of oppression chosen by Ma’moun for Imam Reza (as) was being disguised in the paraphernalia of statecraft.

More than half a century had passed since a popular movement in Khorasan in favor of the Ahl-ul-Bayt had been hijacked by the Abbasids. Although they had usurped the temporal rights of Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (as), they had failed in discrediting his popular appeal and that of his son and successor Imam Musa al-Kadhim (as), among the Muslim masses. Mansour and Haroun ar-Rashid had respectively poisoned the 6th and 7th infallible Imams, but their most gruesome acts of cruelty had been unable to drive a wedge between the Ummah and the Ahl-ul-Bayt. People's sentiments continued to beat high for the Prophet's heirs despite the opening up of state coffers to buy legitimacy for the Abbasids.

Thus, it was for this reason that Imam Ali ibn Musa ar-Reza (as) happened to be in Merv in Khurasan that day in the year 201 AH, faraway from his hometown Madinah. Ma’moun had forced him to come to his capital in Khurasan in the vain hope of tarnishing the image of Imamate through the offer of abdication of the caliphate in his favor. It was a plot to deceive public opinion. But the 8th Imam saw through the ruse and gave the answer which I have quoted at the beginning of the article. Officialdom was appalled, but the diplomat that Ma’moun was, forced on the Imam the ceremonial post of the heir-apparent by way of veiled threats.

Coins were immediately struck in the name of Imam Reza (as). The black state colors of the Abbasids were replaced with the green of the Bani Hashim. Poets were made to sing praises and gifts were distributed. The real intention, however, was to isolate the Imam from the Ummah by keeping him virtually confined in the caliph palace, not only to extinguish the light of guidance but to make the people disillusioned with the Prophet's heir, who would now be viewed as a willing accomplice of the Abbasids.

But Divine Providence had other plans, an indication of which had been given by Imam Reza (as) in Nayshabour before his arrival in Merv, when some 24,000 scribes surrounded his canopied camel requesting a hadith from Prophet Muhammad (SAWA). The Imam quoted on the chain of authority of his illustrious forefathers from the Prophet that the testimony of the Almighty Allah's indivisible unity (Tawhid) is a haven of bliss, and whoever enters it, is safe from divine wrath.

But, added the 8th Imam, as his camel began to rise: "It has certain conditions and stipulations and I am one of those conditions."

Imam Reza (as) thus spelled out the terms of faith which are inextricably bound to Wilaya of the Ahl-ul-Bayt, so vital for the journey of the soul in the Hereafter. His popularity soared, and no matter how articulate Ma’moun could be in trying to keep the 8th Imam out of reach of the people, at the least exposure to the public, as happened at the famous event of the Eid al-Fitr prayer at the Jame' Mosque of Merv, the caliphate appeared ready to fall apart whenever Imamate strode on the scene.

Ma’moun had utterly failed. He could no longer hide his wicked inner feelings. The curtain was coming full force on the drama he had orchestrated. Therefore, he conspired to poison Imam Reza (as), and after carrying out the foul deed, the Abbasid actor again tried to dupe the shocked people by attiring himself in black and marching with the funeral in a feigned state of grief.

The burial given was official, but it did not delay the Abbasid fall into oblivion. Those still in doubt should take a look at Mashhad in Khurasan, Northeastern Iran. The land has no vestiges of Haroun ar-Rashid and Ma’moun, while the person who pronounced the Hadith of the Golden Chain (Silsilat-udh-Dhahab) in Nayshabour, continues to exercise his rightful authority over Muslim hearts. Pilgrims to the shrine of the 8th Imam, salute the Ahl-ul-Bayt and heap curses on Haroun and Ma’moun.

:angel: :cry: :wub:

YA Allah

ELTEMASE DUA

fatemeh :angel: :wub: :cry:

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(salam)

I hope you will contribute generously.

Thanks.

Wasalaam.

Imam Ali bin Musa al Reza (as) said:

"The best and most respected virtue of a man is to do good and to fulfill the desires of the needy"

Edited by Umme_Abeeha

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Imam Reza( (as) )said,

"The honest man has not betrayed you,but you consider the betrayer as the honest one."

Edited by Umme_Abeeha

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(salam)

Intelligence is the gift of Allah while the ethics are obtained through exertion of efforts. Thus, he whoever exerts efforts for obtaining ethics will surely obtain them while those who exert efforts for obtaining intelligence will not obtain anything except increasing ignorance. - Imam Reza a.s

Fi-Amanillah

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