Jump to content
Salsabeel

Meaning of Malika & Mulk in verse 2:247

Rate this topic

Recommended Posts

:bismillah:

Surah Al-Baqara, Verse 247:

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا قَالُوا أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

And their prophet said to them: Surely Allah has raised Talut to be a king over you. They said: How can he hold kingship over us while we have a greater right to kingship than he, and he has not been granted an abundance of wealth? He said: Surely Allah has chosen him in preference to you, and He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique, and Allah grants His kingdom to whom He pleases, and Allah is Amplegiving, Knowing.

(English - Shakir)

What is the meaning of "malika" or "mulk" here in this verse?

It has been translated as king & kingship by Shakir, but it seems to me the correct translation here is "Authority" instead of king or kingship.

If we translate mulk as authority, let see how the translation looks like:

And their prophet said to them: Surely Allah has raised Talut to be a Authority over you. They said: How can he hold Authority over us while we have a greater right to Authority than he, and he has not been granted an abundance of wealth? He said: Surely Allah has chosen him in preference to you, and He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique, and Allah grants His Authority to whom He pleases, and Allah is Amplegiving, Knowing.

The following points in this verse dictates that the meaning of "malika" or "mulk" is authority:

1. Chosen by Allah

2. Knowledge & Strength (physical & mental)

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
7 hours ago, Salsabeel said:

and Allah grants His Authority to whom He pleases, and Allah is Amplegiving, Knowing.

Lets now see the ayah e wilayat:

Surah Al-Maeda, Verse 55:

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ

Only Allah is your Vali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.

(English - Shakir)

The "authority" (wilayat) granted by Allah to "those who believe" (walladhina aamanu) is in accordance with the 2 points mentioned earlier i.e., 

1. Choosen Ones

2. Knowledge & Strength

Ahlul Bayt (asws) are the chosen ones, ulil amr, sadiqeen & tahireen as per Quran & hadith.

It was Imam Ali asws who gave the poor-rate during ruku. It was he who is mentioned as bab-e-madinatul ilm. It was he who taken out the doors of Khyber. It was he who soled his nafs & got the pleasure of Allah. 

Surah Al-Baqara, Verse 207:

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

And among men is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is Affectionate to the servants.

(English - Shakir)

It was he who was introduced  by the Prophet (pbuh) as Mowla, at ghadir e khum after the last hajj (hajjatul wida). 

Edited by Salsabeel

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
7 hours ago, Salsabeel said:

:bismillah:

Surah Al-Baqara, Verse 247:

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا قَالُوا أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

And their prophet said to them: Surely Allah has raised Talut to be a king over you. They said: How can he hold kingship over us while we have a greater right to kingship than he, and he has not been granted an abundance of wealth? He said: Surely Allah has chosen him in preference to you, and He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique, and Allah grants His kingdom to whom He pleases, and Allah is Amplegiving, Knowing.

(English - Shakir)

What is the meaning of "malika" or "mulk" here in this verse?

It has been translated as king & kingship by Shakir, but it seems to me the correct translation here is "Authority" instead of king or kingship.

If we translate mulk as authority, let see how the translation looks like:

And their prophet said to them: Surely Allah has raised Talut to be a Authority over you. They said: How can he hold Authority over us while we have a greater right to Authority than he, and he has not been granted an abundance of wealth? He said: Surely Allah has chosen him in preference to you, and He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique, and Allah grants His Authority to whom He pleases, and Allah is Amplegiving, Knowing.

The following points in this verse dictates that the meaning of "malika" or "mulk" is authority:

1. Chosen by Allah

2. Knowledge & Strength (physical & mental)

For the above quoted verse (2;247) I mention that following translations  have been made by translators:

Pickthall: Their Prophet said unto them: Lo! Allah hath raised up Saul to be a king for you. They said: How can he have kingdom over us when we are more deserving of the kingdom than he is, since he hath not been given wealth enough? He said: Lo! Allah hath chosen him above you, and hath increased him abundantly in wisdom and stature. Allah bestoweth His Sovereignty on whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.

Yusuf Ali: Their Prophet said to them: "Allah hath appointed Talut as king over you." They said: "How can he exercise authority over us when we are better fitted than he to exercise authority, and he is not even gifted, with wealth in abundance?" He said: "Allah hath Chosen him above you, and hath gifted him abundantly with knowledge and bodily prowess: Allah Granteth His authority to whom He pleaseth. Allah careth for all, and He knoweth all things."

Shakir: And their prophet said to them: Surely Allah has raised Talut to be a king over you. They said: How can he hold kingship over us while we have a greater right to kingship than he, and he has not been granted an abundance of wealth? He said: Surely Allah has chosen him in preference to you, and He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique, and Allah grants His kingdom to whom He pleases, and Allah is Amplegiving, Knowing.

The translation by Yusuf Ali mentions the word authority as mentioned in its translation.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
1 hour ago, Salsabeel said:

Lets now see the ayah e wilayat:

Surah Al-Maeda, Verse 55:

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ

Only Allah is your Vali and His Apostle and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.

(English - Shakir)

The "authority" (wilayat) granted by Allah to "those who believe" (walladhina aamanu) is in accordance with the 2 points mentioned earlier i.e., 

1. Choosen Ones

2. Knowledge & Strength

Ahlul Bayt (asws) are the chosen ones, ulil amr, sadiqeen & tahireen as per Quran & hadith.

It was Imam Ali asws who gave the poor-rate during ruku. It was he who is mentioned as bab-e-madinatul ilm. It was he who taken out the doors of Khyber. It was he who soled his nafs & got the pleasure of Allah. 

The quran mentions in many verses the word  ) ا"  (  سلطن  ) that is translated as "Authority: by the translators. I quote few verses in this concern:

:For Musa and Haroon followers Quran mentions:

قَالَ سَنَشُدُّ عَضُدَكَ بِأَخِيكَ وَنَجْعَلُ لَكُمَا سُلْطَٰنًۭا فَلَا يَصِلُونَ إِلَيْكُمَا ۚ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَآ أَنتُمَا وَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَكُمَا ٱلْغَٰلِبُونَ

028:035 He said, ‘We will strengthen your arm by means of your brother, and invest both of you with such authority that they will not touch you. With the help of Our signs, you two, and those who follow the two of you, shall be the victors.’

ثُمَّ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَىٰ وَأَخَاهُ هَٰرُونَ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا وَسُلْطَٰنٍۢ مُّبِينٍ

023:045 Then We sent Moses and Aaron, his brother, with Our signs and a manifest authority.

In the light of Hadith Manzila Imam Ali has same relation to the Prophet as Haroon has to Musa

:The prophet saaw said in hadith manzila that"Ali ‘Your position to me is like the position of Harun to Musa, except that there will be no prophet after me".

For the Prophet Muhammad saww and Imam Ali AS (and 11 imams in his progeny) the following verses mention that they are wali and their followers will be victors.

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱلَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَهُمْ رَٰكِعُونَ

005:055 Your guardian is only Allah, His Messenger, and the faithful who maintain the prayer and give the zakat while bowing down.

وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلْغَٰلِبُونَ

005:056 Whoever takes for his guardians Allah, His Messenger and the faithful [should know that] the confederates of Allah are indeed the victorious.

The followers of Musa and Haroon were victorious like wise the verses of Quran state that the followers of the Prophet and Imam Ali will be victorious.

wasalam

Edited by skyweb1987

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
3 hours ago, skyweb1987 said:

The translation by Yusuf Ali mentions the word authority as mentioned in its translation.

Yes brother, but if you can see his translation of "malika", he has translated it as king.

3 hours ago, skyweb1987 said:

The quran mentions in many verses the word  ) ا"  (  سلطن  ) that is translated as "Authority: by the translators

You are correct, there are other meanings of Sultan too. I will try to discuss them too. 

I was discussing the use of word "malika" & "mulk" in verse 2:247. To further elaborate my point, I would like to share the verse 2:246

Surah Al-Baqara, Verse 246:

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الْمَلَإِ مِن بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِن بَعْدِ مُوسَىٰ إِذْ قَالُوا لِنَبِيٍّ لَّهُمُ ابْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًا نُّقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَالَ هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ أَلَّا تُقَاتِلُوا قَالُوا وَمَا لَنَا أَلَّا نُقَاتِلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِن دِيَارِنَا وَأَبْنَائِنَا فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ

Have you not considered the chiefs of the children of Israel after Musa, when they said to a prophet of theirs: Raise up for us a king, (that) we may fight in the way of Allah. He said: May it not be that you would not fight if fighting is ordained for you? They said: And what reason have we that we should not fight in the way of Allah, and we have indeed been compelled to abandon our homes and our children. But when fighting was ordained for them, they turned back, except a few of them, and Allah knows the unjust.

(English - Shakir)

Look at the request of chiefs of bani isra'el "Raise up for us an authority (or king)".

The response was:

"And their prophet said to them: Surely Allah has raised Talut to be an authority (or king) over you".

The chiefs objected:

"They said: How can he hold authority (or kingship) over us while we have a greater right to authority (or kingship) than he, and he has not been granted an abundance of wealth?"

And the reply was:

"He said: Surely Allah has chosen him in preference to you,and He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique"

There are many interesting points in this conversation. Why not the chiefs made that prophet their king? Why not they have elected any one as king from themselves?

They were requesting to a prophet to raise someone as their king, this means they were accepting his (prophet's) authority over themselves. And when the Prophet nominated or deligated the authority to a person, they raised objections against him. Agaist which their prophet told them the reason for the decision which is based on 2 points. 

I hope you can now understand why I am relating this story to ayah e wilayat & event of ghadir.

The Muslim ummah is not really pondering on these verses. These are not mere historical accounts, infact these stories possess guidance for us. Chiefs of bani isra'el were better than Majority of Muslims because although they abandoned Talut during the fight but they at least accepted the command of their Prophet and accepted Talut as their leader.

Can we not find the authority (or king) after the death of Prophet? Why not in saqifa, any one raised these 2 points that their caliph must be the chosen one & must possess knowledge & strength? Why they forgot the ghadir where Prophet said "mun kunto Mowla fahatha Aliyyun Mowla"?

Lets now get back to words "malika" & "mulk". Here is what lane's lexicon mentions:

1مَلَكَهُ

He possessed it, or owned it, [and particularly] with ability to have it to himself exclusively: (M, Ḳ:) [andhe exercised, or had, authority over it; for] مُلْكٌ signifies the exercise of authority to command and to forbid in respect of the generality of a people [&c.]: (Er-Rághib, TA:) or the having possession and command or authority: and thehaving power to exercise commandor authority. (TA.) مِلْكٌ, as inf. n. ofمَلَكَهُ meaning He possessed it, is more common than مَلْكٌ and مُلْكٌ.

 

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Furthermore, I am glad to see that my view point is in agreement with Agha Mehdi Poya, who has mentioned this in his tafseer:

"The essential qualities required in a leader are clearly discernible if careful attention is paid to the reply given by Samuel:

  1. Inallahas-tafahu alaykum-Allah has chosen him in preference to you. According to the divine law a

leader of the people (temporal or spiritual) is chosen by Allah, not by the people.

  1. Wa zadahu bastatan fil ilmi wal jism-And He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and

physique. The chosen leader is given knowledge and physical strength by Allah Himself. The true

leader possesses divinely endowed knowledge and strength to guide and protect the people whom

Allah loves and cherishes.

  1. Wallahu yuti mulkuhu man yasha - Allah grants His kingdom to whomever He pleases. The

sovereignty and the kingdom of the universe belong to Allah, therefore, on His behalf, the authority

to lead and guide the created beings, is with him whom Allah chooses. He chooses whomever He

likes, whether the people like it or not.

  1. Wallahu wasi-un alim-Verily Allah is vast (giver of ample bounties), all-knowing. The bounties the

people receive and use for the satisfaction of their needs and wants are given to them by Allah. No

human being can claim credit for providing them to the people. What is good and what is bad for

the people is known only to Allah. This knowledge is given to those leaders whom He Himself elects

to lead and guide the people.

Man's hypocrisy, doubt, denial, bickering and disagreement about leadership, in spite of clear and specific prophetic directions, arise in all religions. The same thing occurred among the Muslims after the departure of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet, in compliance with Allah's command, had appointed Ali as his vicegerent and successor in the open assembly of ashira and in the large gathering at Ghadir Khum. Ali's superiority over others in knowledge and physical strength is unquestionable. It is acknowledged by all. Please refer to pages I to 7, and the commentary of verses 2 to 5, 30 to 39 and 124 of this surah, to know the divine decrees and clear prophetic directions, according to which Ali alone was the true divinely chosen successor of the Holy Prophet. But, while the Holy Prophet was on his deathbed, the Muslims began to lobby for and squabble over power, following their limited and imperfect logic, intending to build a Muslim empire based upon heathen theories and practices, instead of following the guidance given by Allah and His last messenger. As long as man continues to passively remain under the influence of his baser tendencies, this state of chaos and confusion in the affairs of his life will continue, as it did after the departure of the Holy Prophet, when the Muslim ummah refused to obey the command of Allah (Ma-idah: 67), conveyed to them by the Holy Prophet at Ghadir Khum, in spite of the fact that total submission to the decisions of the Holy Prophet has been prescribed as the first fundamental condition of the faith, by the Quran, in verse 65 of al Nisa.

To avoid chaos, discord and confusion which would lead to the destruction of the foundation of the Islamic society, the Holy Prophet took special precautions, which no other prophet before him had ever taken, to guide the people through clear actions, statements and signs that, after him, they should remain attached to his Ahl ul Bayt and follow their leadership. Unfortunately, the people chose to follow policies which led them astray into the hands of the devil."
 

Edited by Salsabeel

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now


×