Jump to content
Qa'im

Imamate in the Quran

Rate this topic

Recommended Posts

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

Islam is the straight path and our Umma is the intermediate nation. Our religion was established to satisfy our needs in this world and the next. Out of His infinite majesty and mercy, Allah revealed His religion to humanity to give us a perfected means of organizing our lives and societies. As humans, we require systems in the spheres of politics and legislation, health and sanitation, social and familial relationships, and philosophical and spiritual fulfillment – and Islam has delivered all of that. Throughout the continual development of human civilizations, Allah has steadily built Islam through His communication with the nations.

Imamate is a contentious doctrine that has been debated among Muslims since the passing of the Prophet Muhammad (s). Imamate pertains to the issue of perpetual divine guidance and leadership after the sealing of prophethood. In Shiism, Allah selects a vicegerent (khalifa) for every era, who acts as the channel through which one knows his Lord and his religion. This vicegerent represents God's authority on Earth, and his obedience is obligatory. Allah raises such a leader from among us due to His lutf and His bounties.

Since the Qur'an is the last and final Book to be revealed to mankind, it must have explicit support for the concept of Imamate. Of course, this Imamate must be congruent with the fact that Allah had sealed His Books with the Qur'an and His prophethood with Muhammad (s).

Islam is complete

“This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen Islam for you as a religion.” (5:5)

At the end of the mission of our beloved Prophet, Allah revealed this verse to convey to the believers that our religion has been completed. Whatever the Prophet made halal will be halal until the Day of Resurrection, and whatever the Prophet made haram will be haram until the Day of Resurrection. The word for “perfected” here is akmaltu, which means that the religion has been finalized and it cannot further be perfected or completed. A full moon cannot be more than full – when full, it has reached its maximum potential.

However, the completion of our religion does not amount to cosmic despair. Allah has not cut Himself off from the creation and never will. He continually blesses us with favours (ni`am). The end of revelation (wahi) does not equal the end of appointed leadership (imamah), inspiration (ilham), and miracles (karamat). The word for “completed”, in reference to the verse above, is atmamtu, which refers to a favour that is given, but can be given again. If I pay a sum, I can still increase that sum thereafter. The order of Imamate is a further ni`ma that Allah has left amongst us so that we can better understand the Book and the Sunna.

If you believe that Allah will send the Mahdi in the End Times, then you have already accepted the Imamate, because the Mahdi is a divinely-appointed leader of the Muslim Umma, who is protected by Allah, who comes after the Seal of Prophets, who comes from his family, who interprets the religion of Allah and miraculously overcomes all injustices.

The Imam's authority is divinely mandated

"O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority (ulil amri minkum); and if you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if you are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end." (4:59)

Notice how both the Messenger and the Wali al-Amr share the same "obey" (obey the messenger and those in authority). This expression means that the obedience we give to the Wali al-Amr must be the same as that which we give to the Messenger (s). The Messenger has more rights over us than we have over ourselves (33:6), so someone with that same authority over the Umma cannot simply be a ruler, or a scholar. Allah would not make us follow something unless it was failsafe, and always on His path, much like the Prophet (s). This leader would be the universal leader of the Umma, just as the Prophet was.

The term ulil amr shows up again in the same Surah:

"Will they not then ponder on the Qur'an? If it had been from other than Allah they would have found therein much incongruity. And if any tidings, whether of safety or fear, come unto them, they noise it abroad, whereas if they had referred it to the messenger and those of them who are in authority, those among them who are able to think out the matter would have known it. If it had not been for the grace of Allah and His mercy you would have followed Satan, save a few (of you)." (4:82-83)

Here, we see that the Messenger (s) and the Ulil Amr are tied directly to the tidings of safety (heaven) and fear (hellfire), and given authority in the interpretation of the Qur'an. Again, a Wali al-Amr is not just a man with a crown - it is someone with a spiritual significance in the religion. So he heads the government, and he is the uppermost scholar in the religion.

Are these leaders selected by the people or by God? In the Qu'ran, individuals are appointed to divine ranks by divine mandate (ja`l ilahi). A prime example is the leadership of Talut (Saul), who was not a prophet, but a divinely-appointed king of the Children of Israel:

"Their prophet said to them, ‘Allah has appointed Talut as king for you.’ They said, ‘How can he have kingship over us, when we have a greater right to kingship than him, as he has not been given ample wealth?’ He said, ‘Indeed Allah has chosen him over you, and enhanced him vastly in knowledge and physique, and Allah gives His kingdom to whomever He wishes, and Allah is all-bounteous, all-knowing.’" (2:247)

The example above demonstrates that Allah elects whomever He wills to the seat of leadership. The people do not have a choice, and the mandate of Allah superior even if the people are averse. From the ayah above, we also know that there is a connection between the vicegerent and knowledge, as Talut would only be suited for this position had his knowledge been superior.

Rewind to the khilafa of Adam:

"When your Lord said to the angels, ‘Surely I am going to set a vicegerent (khalifa) on the Earth,’ they said, ‘Will You set in it someone who will cause corruption in it, and shed blood, while we celebrate Your praise and proclaim Your sanctity?’ He said, ‘Surely I know what you do not know.’ And He taught Adam the Names, all of them; then presented them to the angels and said, ‘Tell me the names of these, if you are truthful.’They said, ‘Immaculate are You! We have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Surely You are the All-knowing, the All-wise.’ He said, ‘O Adam, inform them of their names,’ and when he had informed them of their names, He said, ‘Did I not tell you that I indeed know the Unseen in the heavens and the earth, and that I know whatever you disclose and whatever you were concealing?’And when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate before Adam,’ they prostrated, but not Iblis: he refused and acted arrogantly, and he was one of the faithless." (2:30-34)

These verses demonstrate a number of key points: (1) The khalifa is mandated by God (ja`l ilahi). (2) The verse indicates no clear specificity to Adam. (3) The verse does not distinguish between political and spiritual authority. Rather, the two are intermingled. (4) Like the verse about Talut, this verse again makes a connection between the khilafa and knowledge, which implies that this position is only applicable to he who has the best knowledge. (5) Even after Adam taught the angels the names, the angels remained below the rank of Adam, due to his divine mandate. (6) There is an important connection between submission to Allah and subservience to His vicegerent, as the angels prostrated to Adam and sought his counsel in their service to Allah.

Imam as a rank

The actual rank of 'Imam' has been mentioned explicitly in the Qur'an.

"And when his Lord tested Abraham with certain words, and he fulfilled them, He said, ‘I am making you the Imam of mankind.’ Said he, ‘And from among my descendants?’ He said, ‘My covenant does not extend to the unjust.’" (2:124)

Again, there is a clear divine mandate in this verse. In other verses, Abraham is identified with prophethood (nubuwwa), messengership (risala), friendship (khulla), but in this verse, Imamate is a separate station. There is also a link between the Imamate and a covenant (`ahd), which belongs to Allah and not the people. Abraham asks about a continuity of this Imamate among his progeny, which partially occurs, on the condition that it does not reach the unjust (thalimeen). This means that injustice and Imamate cannot be combined (thulm is a mani` of khilafa), and therefore an Imam cannot be a doer of evil.

"The day We shall summon every group of people with their Imam, then whoever is given his book in his right hand —they will read it, and they will not be wronged so much as a single date-thread." (17:71)

All people will be raised on the Day of Resurrection with their leader and rolemodel. Whether the person is one of the Imams of Guidance, or one of the Imams of Disbelief, all will be raised in groups and sent to Paradise or Hell (see verses 39:71, 39:73, and 99:6). The verse is an allusion to the continuity of Imamate, as each people will have their Imam. While some will translate the word "Imam" here as "book" or "record", the verse says that every group will have a singular Imam. If the verse said "Imams" (a'imma), there would be a stronger case for "records", because every individual will receive their own personal record. However, this is not the case - the people will be gathered with whomever they followed in this life.

The Prophet Muhammad (s) and the Imams do not just play a role in this world, but rather, they are advocates and intercessors in the next world. Those who follow the obligations of Islam and fulfill the directives of the Imam of their time will be granted this intercession by Allah's mercy.

The Imam is a guiding sage

"It is He who has revealed the Scripture to you, wherein are clear revelations - they are the substance of the Book - and others [which are] allegorical. But those in whose hearts is a disease pursue that which is allegorical, seeking [to cause] dissension by seeking to explain it. None know its explanation except Allah and those who are firmly grounded in knowledge (rasikhuna fil `ilm). Say: We believe therein; the whole is from our Lord; but only men of understanding really heed." (3:7)

The verse above indicates that only Allah and those delved into knowledge have a firm understanding of the Qur'an. To argue that only Allah understood the Qur'an is to suggest that Allah would accompany His final messenger to humanity with an ambiguous message. It is imperative that the Prophet had full knowledge of the Qur'an, but this verse says that he shares this comprehensive knowledge with others. An investigation into history will conclude that no companion (sahabi) other than `Ali b. Abi Talib Úáíå ÇáÓáÇã claimed to know the interpretation to the entire book. He explicitly claimed and demonstrated that he had knowledge of every ayah, where it was revealed, and more. This article has already established that the khalifa is he who is superior in his knowledge, and as the phrase suggests, the rasikhuna fil `ilm are not just learned scholars (`ulema'), but individuals plunged into knowledge.

“So ask the People of the Reminder if you do not know.” (16:43, 21:7)

Furthermore, on the same theme of knowledge: Allah ordered the Muslims to ask the People of the Reminder about religious affairs. The alternative interpretation to this verse is that it is referring to the rabbis and priests, but would Allah ask the Muslims to seek religious knowledge from those who call to another religion? The Qur'an says that those who know are never equal with those who do not know (39:9).

"You are only a warner, and for every community there is a guide”. (13:7)

Every community will have its guide. The Messenger of Allah (s) was the one sent to the world as a warner, but there are communities and generations that would flourish after the passing of the Prophet from this world. There is absolutely no indication in the Qur'an that the sealing of prophethood would result in the cessation of divine guidance through vicegerents.

"And amongst them We appointed Imams to guide [the people] by Our command, when they had been patient and had conviction in Our signs." (32:24)

This verse refers to the leadership of the twelve sons of Israel. The Qur'an puts clear emphasis on the divine mandate of leaders in many verses, including this one. Furthermore, this verse establishes a relationship between the Imams and guidance (huda). Allah appoints a leader through whom He provides counsel and enlightenment to His subjects.

"Surely Allah chose Adam and Noah, and the Family of Abraham and the Family of Imran above all the nations" (3:33)

It is not the believers who uplifted and chose the families of Abraham and Imran above all people, but Allah. The chosen ones are not only the prophets, but other members of these divine families - and this will be made clear later in this article. Note the importance of familial succession in the stories of many prophets (Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Imran, Zecharia, John, and Jesus, peace be upon them all).

Sainthood in the Qur'an

"Whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger —they are with those whom Allah has blessed, including the prophets and the saints (siddiqeen), the martyrs and the righteous, and excellent companions are they!" (4:69)

A point pertinent to this verse is the presence of the saints (siddiqeen). A siddiq in Arabic is one who believes everything that a trustee has given to him. In the context of Islam, it would be one who has infallible certainty in the message. This ayah distinguishes the siddiq from the righteous (saliheen), which implies that these are two separate ranks or categories. All of the other groups referenced are distinct, and so it would be redundant if a siddiq and a salih were virtually the same.

Perhaps a better way to understand the Qur'an's usage of this word is to find other references to it. The word is never applied to ordinary believers.

"The Messiah, son of Mary, was no other than a messenger. Messengers had passed away before him. And his mother was a saintly woman (siddiqa)" (5:75)

This verse identifies Mary as a siddiqa. As a non-prophet, Mary had special qualities, including being chosen (istafa) above all the women of her time (3:42), being protected from the devil (3:36), giving birth to Jesus miraculously, and communicating with the angel. The siddiqeen therefore are not ordinary righteous believers, but protected, chosen believers with supernatural qualities - saints.

There are other appointed non-prophetic figures in the Qur'an who were given miraculous qualities, such as al-Khidr (whom the Qur'an only calls an `abd), Dhul Qarnayn, Luqman, and the Sleepers of the Cave.
This protection from Satan is significant, as it is also mentioned in the following verses:

“He said, ‘My Lord! As You have consigned me [Satan] to perversity, I will surely glamorize [evil] for them on the Earth, and I will surely pervert them, except Your pure ones (mukhlaseen).’” (15:39-40)

Satan's misguidance will reach all people except those whom Allah has selected. A noteworthy detail is the Qur'an's usage of the word mukhlas rather than mukhlis, which implies that these servants will be innately pure by design. Since Mary fits this description, this form of ikhlas (absolute protection from evil) cannot be exclusive to the prophets.

"And We have already written in the Psalms after the Reminder that the Earth will be inherited by My righteous servants." (21:105)

This verse is one of the few direct references in the Qur'an to the previous revelations, which plainly say that "The meek shall inherit the Earth" (Psalms 37:11, Matthew 5:5). The verse makes the most sense when it is combined with the concept of Imamate, who inherit the stewardship over Earth one-by-one. The khilafa is a divinely-mandated agency over the world, and inheritance is a trust that is passed down continually from one generation to the next. Without this doctrine, it begs the question: who is the righteous servant that inherited the Earth after the Prophet, and who is this person today?

Love of Ahl al-Bayt

The love and the authority of the Ahl al-Bayt is decreed explicitly in several places:

"Say: 'No reward do I ask of you for this except the love of those near of kin'" (42:23)

When looking at this ayah, compare it to other similar verses in the Qur'an. No other prophet asked for a reward from his community for relaying the revelation - on the contrary, the prophets explicitly asked for nothing at all: see 10:72, 11:29, 12:104, 25:57, 26:109, 26:127, 26:145, 26:164, 26:180, and 34:47. This formula was only changed in this verse for the Prophet Muhammad (s), adding that his reward is the love of his family. The word for love in this verse is muwadda, which implies a mutual love and not just a one-way love (hub). For one to have muwadda with the Ahl al-Bayt, the Ahl al-Bayt must be pleased with that person. This relationship cannot be half-hearted lip service. Loving those who rose up to fight the Ahl al-Bayt is, by definition, dishonouring this verse of the Qur'an.
Love for the Ahl al-Bayt is a fulfillment of the supplication of Abraham:

“(Abraham said) Our Lord, I have settled some of my descendants in an uncultivated valley near Your sacred House, our Lord, that they may establish prayer. So make hearts among the people incline toward them and provide for them from the fruits that they might be grateful.” (14:37).

Abraham settled Ishmael in the valley of Mecca, and prayed that the people would love his descendants. Of course, this would not apply to all of his descendants, as Allah's covenant does not encompass the thalimeen (2:124). Hence, the verse must refer to a select group of individuals from the descendants of Ishmael, including (but not limited to) the Prophet (s).

"Or do they envy people for what Allah has given them of His bounty? But we had already given the family of Abraham the Scripture and wisdom and conferred upon them a great kingdom (mulkan)." (4:54)

Continuing on the theme of familial succession, the mulk belongs to these chosen descendants of Abraham, who have been given the final revelation and the wisdom necessary to lead the Umma.
Lastly, there is the verse of purification:

"And abide in your houses and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance. And establish prayer and give zakah and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity, O Ahl al-Bayt, and to purify you with [extensive] purification." (33:33)

The grammatical inferences of this ayah must be noted. The first two sentences concern the wives of the Prophet, and they are written in the feminine form. The last sentence, however, is written in the masculine plural form. This means that the individuals in the third sentence are not the same as those in the first two sentences, who are exclusively female. A masculine plural can include women as a part of the group, but several sahih ahadith infer that the wives of the Prophet are not included in the Ahl al-Bayt. The verse therefore sets the inner circle of the Prophet's blood relatives (his bayt) as a pure example that his wives' households (buyut) should look up to.

Allah actively wishes to remove all impurity from the Ahl al-Bayt. One of our ahadith indicate that the chief impurity that the Ahl al-Bayt have been guarded from is doubt (shak). This ties to the idea that the Ahl al-Bayt are the mukhlaseen of 15:39-40, whom Satan can never deviate.

Conclusion

There are many other ayat, exoteric and esoteric, that establish the concept of Imamate in the Qur'an, alongside the many proofs in the hadith literature. The purpose of this article is to understand the Qur'an's intricate logic regarding leadership. Leadership in the Qur'an is intimately tied to knowledge, appointment, purity, family, supernatural qualities, and love.

Future articles will explore more primary sources on the topic of Imamate, God-willingly. May Allah grant the readers with the intercession of the Ahl al-Bayt.

Part 2: The Virtues of Imam Ali

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Salam excellent article!

I use to always believe Talut [as] was not a Messenger, and would bring the same point, but recently having read ahadith about him, it seems he became a Prophet.  This is also perhaps stated in Quran when it says "These Messengers that we recite to you about...." after the mentioning Samuel, Talut, and Dawood....

This doesn't change it bring a proof of Imammate.

Edited by LinkZelda

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
"I asked Abu 'AbdAllaah (as-Sadiq) (عليه السلام) about the words of Allaah (عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ): 'Believers, obey Allah, His Messenger, and your leaders (who possess Divine Authority). . . .' (4:59) "
 
The Imam said, 'This was sent from the heavens about `Ali ibn Abi Taalib, Al-Hasan and Al-Hussain (عليه السلام).' I then said, 'People say, "Why did He not specify Ali and his family by their names in the Book of Allaah (عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ)?'
 
"The Imam said, 'Say to them, "The command for prayer came to the Messenger of Allah but He has not specified (the number of the Rak'ats) for them as being three or four. It, in fact, was the Messenger of Allah who explained to them this matter. The command for Zakat (a form of income tax) came to the Messenger of Allah and there was no specific taxable number such as one Dirham on every forty Dirham. It was the Messenger of Allah who explained it for them. The command for Hajj came to the Messenger of Allah. It did not say walk seven times around the Ka'ba. It was the Messenger of Allah who explained it for them...."

Source: al-Kulayni in his al-Kafi, volume 1, pages 286–288, hadeeth #1

Grading: al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is SaHeeH (authentic) in his Mir'aat Al-`Uqool, volume 3, page 213

[Translation taken from former ShiaChat threads]

Edited by E.L King

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 11/4/2016 at 6:19 PM, Qa'im said:

The Imam's authority is divinely mandated

"O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority (ulil amri minkum); and if you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if you are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end." (4:59)

Notice how both the Messenger and the Wali al-Amr share the same "obey" (obey the messenger and those in authority). This expression means that the obedience we give to the Wali al-Amr must be the same as that which we give to the Messenger (s). The Messenger has more rights over us than we have over ourselves (33:6), so someone with that same authority over the Umma cannot simply be a ruler, or a scholar. Allah would not make us follow something unless it was failsafe, and always on His path, much like the Prophet (s). This leader would be the universal leader of the Umma, just as the Prophet was.

Assalam O Alaikum brother.

But this was not the belief, concept and point of view of Imam Ali  a.s.

Nahjul Balagha. Letter 53. An order to Malik al-Ashtar

وَارْدُدْ إِلَى الله وَرَسُولِهِ مَا يُضْلِعُكَ مِنَ الْخُطُوبِ، وَيَشْتَبِهُ عَلَيْكَ مِنَ الاْمُورِ، فَقَدْ قَالَ اللهُ سبحانه لِقَوْم أَحَبَّ إِرْشَادَهُمْ: (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الاْمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْء  فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللهِ وَالرَّسُولِ)، فَالرَّدُّ إِلَى اللهِ: الاْخْذُ بِمُحْكَمِ كِتَابِهِ، وَالرَّدُّ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ: الاْخْذُ بِسُنَّتِهِ الْجَامِعةِ غَيْرِ الْمُفَرِّقَةِ.

Refer to Allah and His Prophet the affairs which worry you and matters  which appear confusing to you, because, addressing the people whom  Allah the Sublime, wishes to guide, He said:

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Prophet and those vested  with authority from among you: and then if you quarrel about anything  refer it to Allah and the Prophet if you believe in Allah and in the  Last Day (of Judgement). . . (Qur'an, 4:59)

Referring to Allah means to act according to what is clear in His Book  and referring to the Prophet means to follow his unanimously agreed  Sunnah in regard to which there are no differences.


Imam Ali a.s could have said in case of any dispute refer to divinely appointed Imam that is to me. But he a.s did not say anything like this. Here Imam Ali a.s appointed Malik ashtar over egpyt so he was the ulil amr (authority over people of egypt) in this case and advice him to refer to Allah and to His Prophet s.a.w.w whenever you face any dispute.

You highlighted and emphasized only first part of ayah while ignored the other. Full, correct and practical explanation is there in Letter 53 of nahjul balagha.

May Allah guide all of us to true path of ahlebait. Ameen

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 1/3/2017 at 8:07 AM, Fahad Sani said:

Assalam O Alaikum brother.

But this was not the belief, concept and point of view of Imam Ali  a.s.

Nahjul Balagha. Letter 53. An order to Malik al-Ashtar

وَارْدُدْ إِلَى الله وَرَسُولِهِ مَا يُضْلِعُكَ مِنَ الْخُطُوبِ، وَيَشْتَبِهُ عَلَيْكَ مِنَ الاْمُورِ، فَقَدْ قَالَ اللهُ سبحانه لِقَوْم أَحَبَّ إِرْشَادَهُمْ: (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الاْمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَإنْ تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْء  فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللهِ وَالرَّسُولِ)، فَالرَّدُّ إِلَى اللهِ: الاْخْذُ بِمُحْكَمِ كِتَابِهِ، وَالرَّدُّ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ: الاْخْذُ بِسُنَّتِهِ الْجَامِعةِ غَيْرِ الْمُفَرِّقَةِ.

Refer to Allah and His Prophet the affairs which worry you and matters  which appear confusing to you, because, addressing the people whom  Allah the Sublime, wishes to guide, He said:

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Prophet and those vested  with authority from among you: and then if you quarrel about anything  refer it to Allah and the Prophet if you believe in Allah and in the  Last Day (of Judgement). . . (Qur'an, 4:59)

Referring to Allah means to act according to what is clear in His Book  and referring to the Prophet means to follow his unanimously agreed  Sunnah in regard to which there are no differences.


Imam Ali a.s could have said in case of any dispute refer to divinely appointed Imam that is to me. But he a.s did not say anything like this. Here Imam Ali a.s appointed Malik ashtar over egpyt so he was the ulil amr (authority over people of egypt) in this case and advice him to refer to Allah and to His Prophet s.a.w.w whenever you face any dispute.

You highlighted and emphasized only first part of ayah while ignored the other. Full, correct and practical explanation is there in Letter 53 of nahjul balagha.

May Allah guide all of us to true path of ahlebait. Ameen

Ulil amr would logically have authority over "All People" As does Allah swt and Rasulillah (pbuh@hf) have authority over all people, Furthermore, Malik ashter was still under Imam Ali (as) authority, if Malik ashter came across any disputes then he would had to refer back to Imam Ali (as) as he had authority over all people.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

There is no contradiction between what Nahj al-Balagha and Imam as-Sadiq have said about the verse. They are focusing on two different aspects of the verse. (1) The verse establishes the binding leadership of the wali al-amr, and (2) The verse establishes the Quran and Sunna as the ultimate authority in this religion. The Book and the Shari`a were completed with Prophet Muhammad (s), and we still return to the Quran and the Sunna as the ultimate authority in our religion. The Wali al-Amr's authority is justified through the Quran and the Sunna.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 1/3/2017 at 10:03 AM, power said:

Ulil amr would logically have authority over "All People" As does Allah swt and Rasulillah (pbuh@hf) have authority over all people, Furthermore, Malik ashter was still under Imam Ali (as) authority, if Malik ashter came across any disputes then he would had to refer back to Imam Ali (as) as he had authority over all people.

Right. Malik Akhtar was under authority of Imam Ali a.s. As all  governors are under the post of caliph. And Malik Ashtar being the  governor of egypt had authority over the people of egypt. In other words  we can say Imam Ali a.s was ulil  amr for Malik ashtar and Malik  ashtar was ulil amr for people of egypt. As per Nisa 59 ulil amr  minkum (those in authority amongst you over you).

But Imam Ali a.s didnt say this to Malik Ashtar. Indeed Imam Ali a.s  said in case of any dispute refer to Allah and to His Prophet s.a.w.w,  not to him. Exactly what is mentioned in Nisa 59.

Assumption is not a substitute of what is not clearly mentioned neither in Quran nor in letter 53. In this way anyone can assume anything.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
21 hours ago, Qa'im said:

There is no contradiction between what Nahj al-Balagha and Imam as-Sadiq have said about the verse. They are focusing on two different aspects of the verse. (1) The verse establishes the binding leadership of the wali al-amr, and (2) The verse establishes the Quran and Sunna as the ultimate authority in this religion. The Book and the Shari`a were completed with Prophet Muhammad (s), and we still return to the Quran and the Sunna as the ultimate authority in our religion. The Wali al-Amr's authority is justified through the Quran and the Sunna.

Where are words of Imam Jafar Sadiq a.s in the OP??

Thus it means the final and absolute authority is only for Allah and for  His Prophet s.a.w.w. While the obedience of ulil amr is not ultimate  or absolute, in other words obedience is conditional in case of ulil  amr. Thats why Allah said in the same verse "if you quarrel about  anything  refer it to Allah and the Prophet". There is no mention of referring to ulil amr neither in Quran nor in the words of Imam Ali a.s in  letter 53.

While you said the opposite in OP to what Allah and Imam Ali a.s  are saying.

You said:

On 11/4/2016 at 6:19 PM, Qa'im said:

"O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority (ulil amri minkum); and if you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if you are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end." (4:59)

Notice how both the Messenger and the Wali al-Amr share the same "obey" (obey the messenger and those in authority). This expression means that the obedience we give to the Wali al-Amr must be the same as that which we give to the Messenger (s). The Messenger has more rights over us than we have over ourselves (33:6), so someone with that same authority over the Umma cannot simply be a ruler, or a scholar. Allah would not make us follow something unless it was failsafe, and always on His path, much like the Prophet (s). This leader would be the universal leader of the Umma, just as the Prophet was.


If obedience to ulil amr is same as to Prophet s.a.w.w as you have written then it should have been like this in Quran "and if you have a  dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger and to ulil amr among you".

But this is not the case. Therefore obedience to ulil amr and to  Prophet s.a.w.w is not of same nature. Obedience to Prophet s.a.w.w is  absolute while to ulil amr its conditional. The condition which is also there in the same verse i.e case of dispute/quarrel.

Moreover you only highlighted and explained the first part of the verse and thus made a wrong conclusion.

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Here is the narration of Imam as-Sadiq, which is more established than the reference in Nahj al-Balagha:

A man asked Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq [a] about the verse, "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you" (4:59). The Imam replied, "This was revealed regarding `Ali b. Abi Talib, al-Hasan, and a-Husayn." The man said, "The people say, 'Then why weren't `Ali and his Ahl al-Bayt mentioned by name in the Book of Allah?'" The Imam replied, "Say to them: The command for prayer was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (s), but Allah did not specifically mention [in the Quran] three or four units. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) who detailed that for them. The command to give alms was revealed to him, but He did not mention that it was applied to 1/40 dirhams. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) who detailed for them. The command for Hajj was revealed, but He does not say, 'Circle [the Ka`ba] seven times'. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) detailed that for them. He revealed, 'Obey Allah and obey the Messenger those in authority among you' (4:59), and it was revealed regarding `Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. The Messenger of Allah (s) said, regarding `Ali, 'Whoever takes me as a Master, then `Ali is his Master.' And he (s) said, 'I leave you with the Book of Allah and my Ahl al-Bayt, so I asked Allah to never separate them from one another until they return to me at the Pond [of Paradise], and He granted my prayer.' And he said, 'Do not lecture them, for they are more knowledgeable than you.' And he said, 'They will not lead you away from the gate of guidance, and they will not make you enter the gate of misguidance.' Had the Messenger of Allah (s) kept quiet, it would not be clear who his Ahl al-Bayt would be, and the dynasties would have claimed it (that title). But Allah revealed it in in a Book, clarifying it to His Prophet (s). 'Surely, Allah wishes to remove uncleanliness from you, Ahl al-Bayt, and purify you with a thorough purification.' (33:33)"  ( علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس وعلي بن محمد، عن سهل ابن زياد أبي سعيد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن ابن مسكان، عن أبي بصير قال سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عز وجل: " أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول وأولي الامر منكم (2) " فقال: نزلت في علي بن أبي طالب والحسن والحسين عليهم السلام: فقلت له: إن الناس يقولون: فما له لم يسم عليا وأهل بيته عليهم السلام في كتاب الله عز و جل؟ قال: فقال: قولوا لهم: إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله نزلت عليه الصلاة ولم يسم الله لهم ثلاثا ولا أربعا، حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزلت عليه الزكاة ولم يسم لهم من كل أربعين درهما درهم، حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزل الحج فلم يقل لهم: طوفوا اسبوعا حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزلت " أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول واولي الامر منكم " - ونزلت في علي والحسن والحسين - فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: في علي: من كنت مولاه، فعلي مولاه، وقال صلى الله عليه وآله اوصيكم بكتاب الله وأهل بيتي، فإني سألت الله عز وجل أن لا يفرق بينهما حتى يوردهما علي الحوض، فأعطاني ذلك وقال: لا تعلموهم فهم أعلم منكم، وقال: إنهم لن يخرجوكم من باب هدى، ولن يدخلوكم في باب ضلالة، فلو سكت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فلم يبين من أهل بيته، لادعاها آل فلان وآل فلان، لكن الله عز وجل أنزله في كتابة تصديقا لنبيه صلى الله عليه وآله " إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا (1) " )

Secondly, in the letter you referenced, Amir al-Mu'mineen is writing to Malik al-Ashtar, who would have known about the rights of the Wali al-Amr.

The Wali al-Amr uses the Quran and the Sunna as his foundation and his reference point, because that is the source of his authority. He does not only quote himself. So in terms of obedience, the Prophet and the Wali are the same, but in terms of nass, the Prophet is given additional fadl.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
7 hours ago, Fahad Sani said:

Right. Malik Akhtar was under authority of Imam Ali a.s. As all  governors are under the post of caliph. And Malik Ashtar being the  governor of egypt had authority over the people of egypt. In other words  we can say Imam Ali a.s was ulil  amr for Malik ashtar and Malik  ashtar was ulil amr for people of egypt. As per Nisa 59 ulil amr  minkum (those in authority amongst you over you).

But Imam Ali a.s didnt say this to Malik Ashtar. Indeed Imam Ali a.s  said in case of any dispute refer to Allah and to His Prophet s.a.w.w,  not to him. Exactly what is mentioned in Nisa 59.

Assumption is not a substitute of what is not clearly mentioned neither in Quran nor in letter 53. In this way anyone can assume anything.

Nope! Malik Ashter wasnt ulil amr of Egypt, he was only a governor of Egypt nothing more than that. Now, if we exam the verse of the Quran logically then conclusion is very simple. 

"O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority"

It is pretty much clear in the above verse, those who are vested in authority, must have authority "OVER ALL RELIGION AND PEOPLE" I don't see there is any stipulation in the verse which states categorically that : Ulil amr can only have part of Authority over people! The verse is stating: O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger,  It is referring to "ALL BELIEVERS" and those who are vested with authority would also have the obedience all people (believers) Where in case of Malik ashter, he did not have the obedience of all believers did he  now!  

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 1/4/2017 at 11:30 AM, Qa'im said:

Here is the narration of Imam as-Sadiq, which is more established than the reference in Nahj al-Balagha:

A man asked Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq [a] about the verse, "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you" (4:59). The Imam replied, "This was revealed regarding `Ali b. Abi Talib, al-Hasan, and a-Husayn." The man said, "The people say, 'Then why weren't `Ali and his Ahl al-Bayt mentioned by name in the Book of Allah?'" The Imam replied, "Say to them: The command for prayer was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (s), but Allah did not specifically mention [in the Quran] three or four units. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) who detailed that for them. The command to give alms was revealed to him, but He did not mention that it was applied to 1/40 dirhams. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) who detailed for them. The command for Hajj was revealed, but He does not say, 'Circle [the Ka`ba] seven times'. It was the Messenger of Allah (s) detailed that for them. He revealed, 'Obey Allah and obey the Messenger those in authority among you' (4:59), and it was revealed regarding `Ali, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. The Messenger of Allah (s) said, regarding `Ali, 'Whoever takes me as a Master, then `Ali is his Master.' And he (s) said, 'I leave you with the Book of Allah and my Ahl al-Bayt, so I asked Allah to never separate them from one another until they return to me at the Pond [of Paradise], and He granted my prayer.' And he said, 'Do not lecture them, for they are more knowledgeable than you.' And he said, 'They will not lead you away from the gate of guidance, and they will not make you enter the gate of misguidance.' Had the Messenger of Allah (s) kept quiet, it would not be clear who his Ahl al-Bayt would be, and the dynasties would have claimed it (that title). But Allah revealed it in in a Book, clarifying it to His Prophet (s). 'Surely, Allah wishes to remove uncleanliness from you, Ahl al-Bayt, and purify you with a thorough purification.' (33:33)"  ( علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس وعلي بن محمد، عن سهل ابن زياد أبي سعيد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن ابن مسكان، عن أبي بصير قال سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عز وجل: " أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول وأولي الامر منكم (2) " فقال: نزلت في علي بن أبي طالب والحسن والحسين عليهم السلام: فقلت له: إن الناس يقولون: فما له لم يسم عليا وأهل بيته عليهم السلام في كتاب الله عز و جل؟ قال: فقال: قولوا لهم: إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله نزلت عليه الصلاة ولم يسم الله لهم ثلاثا ولا أربعا، حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزلت عليه الزكاة ولم يسم لهم من كل أربعين درهما درهم، حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزل الحج فلم يقل لهم: طوفوا اسبوعا حتى كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله هو الذي فسر ذلك لهم، ونزلت " أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول واولي الامر منكم " - ونزلت في علي والحسن والحسين - فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: في علي: من كنت مولاه، فعلي مولاه، وقال صلى الله عليه وآله اوصيكم بكتاب الله وأهل بيتي، فإني سألت الله عز وجل أن لا يفرق بينهما حتى يوردهما علي الحوض، فأعطاني ذلك وقال: لا تعلموهم فهم أعلم منكم، وقال: إنهم لن يخرجوكم من باب هدى، ولن يدخلوكم في باب ضلالة، فلو سكت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فلم يبين من أهل بيته، لادعاها آل فلان وآل فلان، لكن الله عز وجل أنزله في كتابة تصديقا لنبيه صلى الله عليه وآله " إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا (1) " )

Secondly, in the letter you referenced, Amir al-Mu'mineen is writing to Malik al-Ashtar, who would have known about the rights of the Wali al-Amr.

The Wali al-Amr uses the Quran and the Sunna as his foundation and his reference point, because that is the source of his authority. He does not only quote himself. So in terms of obedience, the Prophet and the Wali are the same, but in terms of nass, the Prophet is given additional fadl.

How it is more established?

It also focuses only on the first part of verse. How can you understand a verse properly if you neglect rest of it. Then obviously you will make wrong conclusions. I also doubt the authenticity of this narration. Because  the analogy mentioned there is not valid. So I can not attribute such  words to Imam Jafar Sadiq a.s.

Invalid because Quran established clear argument regarding the principle of the  prayers, saum, hajj etc. There are hundreds of verses on these topics.  Is there similar argument for principle of Imamate/caliphate in Quran?  No. There is'nt. Baqrah 124, Maida 55, Nisa 59 etc are not explicit  verses from which principle of imamate can be deduced. Such verses can  be interpreted in many ways. A clear argument and indisputable  evidence has not been established on the principle of Imamate.

Moreover Prayer, Hajj etc are matters of Furu while Imamate is usul e  deen. Analogy will be valid only when you compare one usul to another.  Here you are comparing apples to oranges and making wrong conclusions.  Read Kitab Al-kafi Prayer and Hajj are mentioned under Furu e din  section while Imamate is Usul e din.

Right, who would have known about the rights of wali amr than Imam Ali a.s himself. But as you have seen in nahjul balagha he never attributed such right to himself in the way as you are explaining.

Therefore, such verse can not be used as a nass for imamate.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 1/4/2017 at 11:35 AM, power said:

Nope! Malik Ashter wasnt ulil amr of Egypt, he was only a governor of Egypt nothing more than that. Now, if we exam the verse of the Quran logically then conclusion is very simple. 

"O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority"

It is pretty much clear in the above verse, those who are vested in authority, must have authority "OVER ALL RELIGION AND PEOPLE" I don't see there is any stipulation in the verse which states categorically that : Ulil amr can only have part of Authority over people! The verse is stating: O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger,  It is referring to "ALL BELIEVERS" and those who are vested with authority would also have the obedience all people (believers) Where in case of Malik ashter, he did not have the obedience of all believers did he  now!  

In arabic we have word Ulil amr (those in authority) and in english we can call it governor or minister etc. One who governs or one whose job is to implement the order (in arabic amr). Governor of egypt had  authority over only people of egypt. While the governor himself was  under the order of caliph.

Again you are neglecting the rest part of ayah and emphasizing on the  part which is even not mentioned there "OVER ALL RELIGION AND PEOPLE".

If Ali a.s considered himself to be a divinely appointed ulil amr/Imam  whose Job is to guide people and solve issues, then He a.s would have said Malik Ashtar to consult him in cases of dispute.

And today even Maula Ali a.s is not here or have any authority over  people i.e today he can not give any orders and implement them. Then  who is ulil amr today? Brother Qaim has shared a narration which says  this verse was revealed for Imam Ali a.s, Hassan a.s and Hussain a.s. It also does not include rest of the Imams.

Its also not mentioned in the verse that to be an ulil amr you have to be infallible. This was also the understanding of many esteemed shia scholars like  Ayatullah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr who was one of the main supporter of  Khomieni.

iqtisaduna-baqir-alsadr-01.png

Download the book here: http://shiamultimedia.com/englishbooks4.html

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
23 minutes ago, Fahad Sani said:

How it is more established?

It also focuses only on the first part of verse. How can you understand a verse properly if you neglect rest of it. Then obviously you will make wrong conclusions. I also doubt the authenticity of this narration. Because  the analogy mentioned there is not valid. So I can not attribute such  words to Imam Jafar Sadiq a.s.

Invalid because Quran established clear argument regarding the principle of the  prayers, saum, hajj etc. There are hundreds of verses on these topics.  Is there similar argument for principle of Imamate/caliphate in Quran?  No. There is'nt. Baqrah 124, Maida 55, Nisa 59 etc are not explicit  verses from which principle of imamate can be deduced. Such verses can  be interpreted in many ways. A clear argument and indisputable  evidence has not been established on the principle of Imamate.

Moreover Prayer, Hajj etc are matters of Furu while Imamate is usul e  deen. Analogy will be valid only when you compare one usul to another.  Here you are comparing apples to oranges and making wrong conclusions.  Read Kitab Al-kafi Prayer and Hajj are mentioned under Furu e din  section while Imamate is Usul e din.

Right, who would have known about the rights of wali amr than Imam Ali a.s himself. But as you have seen in nahjul balagha he never attributed such right to himself in the way as you are explaining.

Therefore, such verse can not be used as a nass for imamate.

The arrangement of 'furu' and 'usul' is not mentioned in the Hadiths. It is a scholarly arrangement.

And also, denial of Salat, which is part of the Furu, is kufr (without confusion and jahl). Same thing for Hajj, Sawm and other Arkan.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
16 hours ago, E.L King said:

The arrangement of 'furu' and 'usul' is not mentioned in the Hadiths. It is a scholarly arrangement.

And also, denial of Salat, which is part of the Furu, is kufr (without confusion and jahl). Same thing for Hajj, Sawm and other Arkan.

Yes brother I know this.

Main point is that prayer, hajj etc are furu e din while divine imamate is usul e din. And those furu e din plus many of their rules are very clearly mentioned in Quran in much detail. Even there are some dedicated surahs on such furus e.g Surah Hajj, Surah Jumah etc. Based on that much detail and clear explicit principles/arguments on such furus we refer to ahadith for more details. While the same is not true for divine imamate. Thus comparison is not valid between the two.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
On 1/6/2017 at 10:54 AM, Fahad Sani said:

Yes brother I know this.

Main point is that prayer, hajj etc are furu e din while divine imamate is usul e din. And those furu e din plus many of their rules are very clearly mentioned in Quran in much detail. Even there are some dedicated surahs on such furus e.g Surah Hajj, Surah Jumah etc. Based on that much detail and clear explicit principles/arguments on such furus we refer to ahadith for more details. While the same is not true for divine imamate. Thus comparison is not valid between the two.

And what I am saying is the application of kufr is on the same level here, someone who denies the Furu knowingly is no different to someone who denied the Usul knowingly, both result in kufr.

I am not here to discuss the Hadith which brother Qa'im brought forth, that is his discussion, I am merely speaking about this specific topic.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
15 hours ago, Fahad Sani said:

How it is more established?

It also focuses only on the first part of verse. How can you understand a verse properly if you neglect rest of it. Then obviously you will make wrong conclusions. I also doubt the authenticity of this narration. Because  the analogy mentioned there is not valid. So I can not attribute such  words to Imam Jafar Sadiq a.s.

Invalid because Quran established clear argument regarding the principle of the  prayers, saum, hajj etc. There are hundreds of verses on these topics.  Is there similar argument for principle of Imamate/caliphate in Quran?  No. There is'nt. Baqrah 124, Maida 55, Nisa 59 etc are not explicit  verses from which principle of imamate can be deduced. Such verses can  be interpreted in many ways. A clear argument and indisputable  evidence has not been established on the principle of Imamate.

Moreover Prayer, Hajj etc are matters of Furu while Imamate is usul e  deen. Analogy will be valid only when you compare one usul to another.  Here you are comparing apples to oranges and making wrong conclusions.  Read Kitab Al-kafi Prayer and Hajj are mentioned under Furu e din  section while Imamate is Usul e din.

Right, who would have known about the rights of wali amr than Imam Ali a.s himself. But as you have seen in nahjul balagha he never attributed such right to himself in the way as you are explaining.

Therefore, such verse can not be used as a nass for imamate.

It's a very simple explanation, I'm not sure why you are still arguing.

The hadith of Imam as-Sadiq has a more established isnad than the letter in Nahj al-Balagha, but in my view you can take both, because they do not actually contradict one another. They are highlighting two different aspects of the same verse - when you reconcile them, you conclude (1) the obedience to the Wali al-Amr is wajib, and (2) the Wali al-Amr's authority depends upon his loyalty to the Quran and the Sunna. If the obedience to the Wali al-Amr is conditional, then the verse would also tell us how to replace a bad Wali al-Amr and elect a new one, but no such system was established by the Prophet. Instead, leadership in the Quran is based on divine appointment, familial succession, and superiority in knowledge. There is no precedent for democracy or shura in the Quran on the question of Caliphate, nor is there a precedent in the Quran that someone who is clearly not the best in the community should be the leader (such as Uthman, the Umayyads, etc.)

The concept of Imamate is based on the principles of leadership in the Quran and the direct instructions of the Sunna.

حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا الضحاك بن مخلد عن ثور عن خالد بن معدان عن عبد الرحمن بن عمرو السلمي عن عرباض بن سارية قال : صلى لنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم الفجر ثم أقبل علينا فوعظنا موعظة بليغة ذرفت لها الأعين ووجلت منها القلوب قلنا أو قالوا يا رسول الله كان هذه موعظة مودع فأوصنا قال اوصيكم بتقوى الله والسمع والطاعة وان كان عبدا حبشيا فإنه من يعش منكم يرى بعدي اختلافا كثيرا فعليكم بسنتي وسنة الخلفاء الراشدين المهديين وعضوا عليها بالنواجذ وإياكم ومحدثات الأمور فان كل محدثة بدعة وان كل بدعة ضلالة

The Messenger of Allah (s) led his companions in Fajr prayer. Then, he faced them and delivered an eloquent sermon, which caused their eyes to shed tears and their hearts to move. They said, "O Messenger of Allah, this is a farewell sermon, so advise us." The Messenger (s) said, "I advise you to be conscious of Allah, and to listen and obey [authority], even if it were an Ethiopian slave. Some of you shall live to witness many disputes after me, so follow my Sunna and the Sunna of the Guided and Upright Vicegerents (al-khulafa' ar-rashideen al-mahdiyeen). Hold on to it with all of your might, and beware of innovations in religion, for every innovation is a bid`a, and every bid`a is misguidance."

This narration speaks of upright guiding successors who will come after the Prophet. The only indication in the literature as to whom these might be are the 12 Caliphs of Quraysh, mentioned in many hadiths in Sahih Muslim. The hadith also instructs us to hold onto their Sunna, and then it considers the Prophet's Sunna and their Sunna to be singular ("hold onto it") and therefore the same. This does not sound like ordinary rulers.

"So be patient for the decision of your Lord and do not obey from among them a sinner or ungrateful [disbeliever]." (76:24)

As for the question on usul vs furu`, walayah is the first and the best of the five pillars of Islam in our hadith books.

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الصَّلْتِ جَمِيعاً، عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسى، عَنْ حَرِيزِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ زُرَارَةَ:
عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ عليه السلام، قَالَ: «بُنِيَ الْإِسْلَامُ عَلى خَمْسَةِ أَشْيَاءَ: عَلَى الصَّلَاةِ، وَالزَّكَاةِ، وَالْحَجِّ، وَالصَّوْمِ «1»، وَالْوَلَايَةِ».
قَالَ زُرَارَةُ: فَقُلْتُ: وَأَيُ «2» شَيْءٍ مِنْ «3» ذلِكَ أَفْضَلُ؟
فَقَالَ «4»: «الْوِلَايَةُ أَفْضَلُ؛ لِأَنَّهَا مِفْتَاحُهُنَّ، وَالْوَالِي «5» هُوَ الدَّلِيلُ عَلَيْهِنَّ».
2/ 19
قُلْتُ: ثُمَّ الَّذِي يَلِي ذلِكَ فِي الْفَضْلِ؟
فَقَالَ «6»: «الصَّلَاةُ؛ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله قَالَ: الصَّلَاةُ عَمُودُ «7» دِينِكُمْ».
قَالَ «8»: قُلْتُ: ثُمَّ الَّذِي يَلِيهَا «9» فِي الْفَضْلِ؟
قَالَ: «الزَّكَاةُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ قَرَنَهَا بِهَا، وَبَدَأَ بِالصَّلَاةِ قَبْلَهَا، وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله: الزَّكَاةُ تُذْهِبُ الذُّنُوبَ «10»».
قُلْتُ: وَالَّذِي «11» يَلِيهَا «12» فِي الْفَضْلِ؟
قَالَ: «الْحَجُّ؛ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «وَ لِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعالَمِينَ» «13»؛ وَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله: لَحَجَّةٌ مَقْبُولَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ
عِشْرِينَ صَلَاةً نَافِلَةً، وَمَنْ طَافَ بِهذَا الْبَيْتِ طَوَافاً أَحْصى فِيهِ أُسْبُوعَهُ وَأَحْسَنَ رَكْعَتَيْهِ، غَفَرَ اللَّهُ «1» لَهُ؛ وَقَالَ فِي يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ وَيَوْمِ الْمُزْدَلِفَةِ مَا قَالَ «2»».
قُلْتُ: فَمَا ذَا «3» يَتْبَعُهُ «4»؟ قَالَ: «الصَّوْمُ».
قُلْتُ: وَمَا بَالُ الصَّوْمِ صَارَ آخِرَ ذلِكَ أَجْمَعَ؟
قَالَ: «قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وآله: الصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ «5» مِنَ النَّارِ».
قَالَ: ثُمَّ قَالَ «6»: «إِنَّ أَفْضَلَ الْأَشْيَاءِ مَا إِذَا «7» فَاتَكَ لَمْ تَكُنْ «8» مِنْهُ تَوْبَةٌ دُونَ أَنْ تَرْجِعَ «9» إِلَيْهِ فَتُؤَدِّيَهُ «10» بِعَيْنِهِ، إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ وَالزَّكَاةَ وَالْحَجَّ وَالْوِلَايَةَ لَيْسَ يَنْفَعُ «11» شَيْءٌ «12» مَكَانَهَا «13» دُونَ أَدَائِهَا، وَإِنَّ الصَّوْمَ إِذَا فَاتَكَ أَوْ قَصَّرْتَ «14»
»أَوْ سَافَرْتَ فِيهِ، أَدَّيْتَ مَكَانَهُ أَيَّاماً غَيْرَهَا «15»، وَجَزَيْتَ «16» ذلِكَ الذَّنْبَ بِصَدَقَةٍ، وَلَا قَضَاءَ عَلَيْكَ، وَلَيْسَ مِنْ تِلْكَ الْأَرْبَعَةِ شَيْءٌ يُجْزِيكَ مَكَانَهُ غَيْرُهُ».
قَالَ: ثُمَّ قَالَ «1»: «ذِرْوَةُ «2» الْأَمْرِ وَسَنَامُهُ «3» وَمِفْتَاحُهُ وَبَابُ الْأَشْيَاءِ وَرِضَا «4» الرَّحْمنِ الطَّاعَةُ لِلْإِمَامِ بَعْدَ مَعْرِفَتِهِ «5»، إِنَّ اللَّهَ- عَزَّ وَجَلَّ- يَقُولُ: «مَنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطاعَ اللَّهَ وَمَنْ تَوَلَّى فَما أَرْسَلْناكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظاً» «6» أَمَا لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلًا قَامَ لَيْلَهُ وَصَامَ نَهَارَهُ «7» وَتَصَدَّقَ بِجَمِيعِ مَالِهِ وَحَجَّ جَمِيعَ دَهْرِهِ وَلَمْ يَعْرِفْ وَلَايَةَ وَلِيِّ اللَّهِ فَيُوَالِيَهُ وَيَكُونَ «8» جَمِيعُ أَعْمَالِهِ بِدَلَالَتِهِ إِلَيْهِ «9»، مَا كَانَ لَهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ حَقٌّ فِي ثَوَابِهِ «10»، وَلَا كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْإِيمَانِ». ثُمَّ قَالَ: «أُولئِكَ الْمُحْسِنُ مِنْهُمْ يُدْخِلُهُ اللَّهُ الْجَنَّةَ بِفَضْلِ رَحْمَتِهِ «

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir [a] said, "Islam has been built upon five things: upon salat, and zakat, and the Hajj, and fasting, and wilaya."

Zurara asked, "And which is the most preferred amongst those things?"

The Imam replied, "The wilaya, because it is the key to the others, and the wali is the indicator to them."

Zurara asked, "After that, which is more preferred?"

The Imam replied, "Salat, for the Messenger of Allah (s) said: Salat is the pillar of your religion."

Zurara asked, "After that, what is more preferred?"

Imam replied, "Zakat; He has mentioned it thereafter and started with salat before that. And the Messenger of Allah (s) said: Zakat removes the sins."

Zurara asked, "After that, what is more preferred?"

The Imam replied, "The Hajj; Allah says, “And pilgrimage to the House is a duty unto Allah for mankind, for him who can find a way there. As for him who disbelieve, then verily, Allah is needless of the worlds” (3:97). And the Messenger of Allah (s) said: An accepted Hajj is better than twenty nafila prayers, and whoever circumambulates this House seven times and performs two units of prayer [thereafter], Allah will forgive him. And he said on the Day of `Arafa and on the Day of Muzdalifa what he said."

Zurara asked, "And what follows it?"

The Imam replied, "Fasting."

Zurara asked, "And why is fasting the last of them?"

The Imam replied, "Fasting is a protection from the Fire. The best of things are those that if you were to miss them, repentance cannot be sought until you return to them and fulfill them. Verily, no thing can replace salat, zakat, the Hajj, and wilaya, but if a fast is missed or shortened, or if one travels during it, other days can be used to substitute it, and the sin [of missing a fast] will be replaced with a righteous deed without a need for atonement. The other four cannot be replaced with any thing."

Then, the Imam said, "The topmost and uppermost affair, the key and door to the things and the pleasure of the Beneficient is obedience to the Imam after recognizing him. Allah says “He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah, and for he who turns away, we have not sent you as a protector” (4:80). If a man were to pray during his night, fast during his day, spend all of his wealth in righteousness, and perform Hajj every year without recognizing the wilaya of the wali of Allah – through which all of his actions are performed by his indication to them – then he has no right upon Allah in his deeds, and he is not from the people of the right." 

(al-Kafi, Volume 2, Book of Belief and Disbelief, page 54-56)

The concept of wilaya is so unbelievably mutawatir, that there is no room to deny that the Ahl al-Bayt taught it.

I also suggest you read this, where I talk about more verses and hadiths on the topic:

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
12 hours ago, Hassan- said:

@Student_of_Deen what is your opinion on this? Read Qa'ims post.

What can I say brother. I can debate his interpretation/claim but it will lead to very long time and energy consuming but most probably inclusive discussion. 

The real question is if Imamate was really a Pillar of Islam (without which a person cannot become Muslim) then why isn`t it explicitly mentioned even once throughout the Qu`ran ? We find other pillars explicitly mentioned several times but we don`t find the belief in divinely appointed Imams anywhere in the Book of Allah. 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Check/Verify/clarify  his/her understanding of Prophethood. Before getting into to Imamate discussion.

If he/she repeats the slogan of the Tragedy of Thursday, Book is enough for us. Which meant Thank you very much, we will take it(The Governance of the people and the Authority to interpret the book ) from here.

He/she does not understand the concept of Prophethood/ nor the Status/Authority of the Prophet. Meaning does not properly understand Tawheed.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Quote

“وَ الله وَلِيُّ الْمُوْمِنينَ

Allah is the Wali of the Faithful.

We have pondered over the verses that have the word Wali or Walis in them and have studied them all briefly. We have observed that God is Islamic Society's Wali, there is no helper for the faithful other than God and God should be the Ruler over all affairs of mankind is a subject that is consistently upheld in the Glorious Qur'an.

The meanings may be confusing to some people and we want to remind them that our discussion is not about Lord of the Worlds' Innate Rule i.e., Rule by Creation. It is a fact that the Lord manages the movement of the earth and the skies with His Controlling Will. Our talk relates to the fact that the laws in the peoples' lives and the individual and the community relationships in the Islamic society should be based on the Commandments from God. In other words the legal Ruler of the Islamic and Qur'anic society under the Islamic system and that of Imam Ali could only be God and only God.

Now a question arises, "what is meant by the Ruler is God?"

The Sublime Lord is not going to come to the people to implement His commandments.

Furthermore, only a human being can rule over other humans. It is vital that the control of people's affairs should be in the hands of a person. However, when we talk about a person, it does not imply that we are emphasizing a single individual and negating plural leadership. What we are saying is that there is a need for an individual who can take the reins of people's affairs in his hands, otherwise, if there is law in a society - it may even be God's law - but there is no commander, ruler or a committee; in short, if there is no administrator to implement the law in a human society, its systems will not function.

Who can such an individual be?

Who is that individual or individuals with the right to rule over the society; who have been recognized as the Wali of the society; who have to take the responsibility of Wilayat.

There have been several answers to this question. Historical facts also give several answers.

Some have said, اَلْمُلْکُ لَمِنْ غَلَب - whoever takes charge will be the ruler of the state. In other words, rule of the jungle. Some have stated whoever is shrewd deserves to rule. Others have decreed one who has support of people should rule. Still others have declared one who belongs to a certain tribe is eligible to rule. Some other people have expressed other logic and ideas.

The religion and school of thought has answered,

اِنَّمَا وَلِيُّکُمُ الله وَ رَسُوْلُہ

verily Allah and His Prophet are your Walis.

So practically speaking the one who has been given the responsibility of enforcing the law and enjoining good and forbidding evil in the society is the Prophet. So when a Prophet arrives in a society, there is no room for anyone else to rule in his presence. Prophet is the one who should have the power in the society.

However, when the Prophet passes away just like others, who will be the next ruler?

The Qur'anic verse responds, وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - the believers are your walis.

What believers?

Can every faithful who believes in the religion and the school of thought be the Wali and the ruler of the Islamic society? In this situation there will be as many rulers as the believers.

The Qur'anic verse in addition to identifying a known and appointed individual according to legislation as the rightful ruler, rationalizes the selection and provides a measure. It says, وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - those who believe. And who really believe. These words are for those who have validated their belief through action. So وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - the first condition is that they are truly believers. There are other conditions too. الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ - those who establish prayer. It does not say, "those who pray." It is one thing to pray and another to establish prayer. If the objective was to just pray, then يصلّون - pray would have been a short message. Establishing prayer in a society means that the soul of the prayer in the society is alive; praying is common in the society. And you know that praying society implies a society in which remembrance of God is present in all its corners.

You know that in a society that is filled with remembrance of God, no crime or evil happens. In such a society the human values are not debased. A society that has all its members remembering God has its compass pointed towards God and all peoples' deeds are for God.

The only reason for the presence of evil in a society and bowing to tyranny and oppression is forgetting God. A society in which God is remembered, has its ruler like Ali Ibn Abi Talib who does not oppress, rather eradicates oppression. It has commoners like Abu Dharr Ghaffari who do not bow to subjugation in spite of physical abuse, deportation, terrorization and helplessness. They do not leave the path of God. This is a society that remembers God. This is a society where prayer is established. A believer who establishes prayer in the society, i.e, directs the society towards God and fosters remembrance of God in the society is among الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ -those who establish prayer.

The discourse does not stop here. Next وَ يُوتُوْنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ - they pay alms; they spend in the way of Allah; they distribute wealth justly. Then He says, وَ ہُمْ رَاکِعُوْنَ - in the state of bowing (pay alms). This is an allusion towards a special event and an anecdote. Some commentators say that وَ ہُمْ رَاکِعُوْنَ - means that these people are always kneeling and it does not refer to any special incident.

However, knowledge of Arabic language discards this conjecture and tells us that this phrase means that someone likes equality so much; he is so eager to give in the way of God; it pains him so much to see poverty and a needy that he just cannot wait to finish his prayer. This person is so intensely inclined towards spending in the way of God and he is so involved in this activity that he just cannot wait; has no patience. When he looks at a poor person, he sees a picture that is not appreciated by God and he himself does not like it; at that moment all he has is a ring, so he just takes it off in the state of prayer and hands it over to the needy. This is a known historical incident that occurred in the hands of the Commander of the believers, Imam Ali: while he was praying, a needy person came and the Imam gave him his ring, at this point this verse was revealed.

So as you observed, this verse is hinting towards appointing Ali Ibn Abi Talib as the Wali. It is not doing it the same way as some individuals in history were forced upon people. As an example, when Mu’awiyyah wants to appoint his son as his successor, he says, "My successor is my son and he is going to rule after me." The sublime Lord is not appointing the successor of the Prophet the same way. However, since the qualities in a head of the government - total faith in God, establishment of prayer and the fondness for charity to the extent of forgetting oneself - are found in Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the magnificent Lord, while selecting the Imam as the Caliph, is explaining the yardstick and the wisdom behind the criterion for the caliphate. On these grounds the Wali in Islam is an individual sent by God and chosen by God.

The concept is that according to the makeup of this world no one individual has the right to rule over another individual and the only entity that has this right is God; so He can delegate this right to someone based on what is good for the people. And we know that God's work is for the welfare of human beings and not based on force. So He appoints and we should accept His appointments.

The Lord of the worlds appoints the Prophet and the Imams. He also defines certain characteristics for the rulers to come after the Imams and says that those who bear these qualities will be the rulers of Islamic society after the infallible Imams. So He appoints Walis. He Himself is a Wali; his Prophet is a Wali and the twelve Imams coming after the Prophet are Walis. The Imams have been appointed from the family of the Prophet and their count is twelve. For later time periods those who meet the specific criteria have been appointed as rulers.

This was one verse that we described for you. There are other verses in Glorious Qur'an, some of them we have referred to in our speeches and the others you should look for yourselves. There are scores of such verses.

Islam underscores the fact that the reign of people should not be in the hands of such people who would push the ordinary people into hell.”

http://www.al-islam.org/wilayat-guardianship-ayatullah-sayyid-ali-khamenei/speech-4-practical-establishment-wilayat#different-aspects-wilayat

 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now


×