Jump to content
Islamic Salvation

A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations


Lots of time and effort has been made on this list. Thanks for creating this collection.

Message added by Reza

Rate this topic

Recommended Posts

3.162. Mualla b. Khunays



Mualla b. Khunays (d. 133 AH) was a Mawla [client] of Imam al-Sadiqعليه السلام  serving him in Madina. He was originally from Kufa and in the clothes trade. He seems to have associated with extremist circles and there is evidence that he believed at one point in time that the Imams were prophets or super-human [before possibly changing his position].

محمد بن الحسن البراني و عثمان، قالا حدثنا محمد بن يزداد، عن محمد بن الحسين، عن الحجال، عن أبي مالك الحضرمي، عن أبي العباس البقباق قال: تدارأ ابن أبي يعفور و معلى بن خنيس، فقال ابن أبي يعفور الأوصياء علماء أبرار أتقياء، و قال ابن خنيس الأوصياء أنبياء، قال: فدخلا على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: فلما استقر مجلسهما، قال: فبدأهما أبو عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: يا عبد الله ابرأ ممن قال إنا أنبياء

Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Barani and Uthman – Muhammad b. Yazdad – Muhammad b. al-Husayn – al-Hajjal – Abi Malik al-Hadhrami – Abi al-Abbas al-Baqabaaq: Abdallah b. Abi Ya’fur and Mualla b. Khunays disputed with each other. Ibn Abi Ya’fur said: the Awsiya (i.e. Imams) are Ulama (knowledgeable), Abrar (good doers) and Atqiya (God - fearing). Ibn Khunays said: the Awsiya are Anbiya (prophets). They both entered upon Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, so when they had taken their seats, Abu Abdillah عليه السلام began saying (i.e. without being informed of their dispute): O Abdallah (b. Abi Ya’fur) - disassociate from the one who says that we are prophets.

The later Ghulat consider him one of their pillars and claim that he was killed because he exposed the secret which the Imam initiated him into.

أبو علي أحمد بن علي السلولي المعروف بشقران، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن عبيد الله القمي، عن محمد بن أورمة، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن سيف بن عميرة، عن المفضل بن عمر الجعفي قال: دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام يوم صلب فيه المعلى، فقلت: يا ابن رسول الله ألا ترى هذا الخطب الجليل الذي نزل بالشيعة في هذا اليوم؟ قال: ما هو؟ قال: قلت: قتل المعلى بن خنيس، قال: رحم الله المعلى، قد كنت أتوقع ذلك، لأنه أذاع سرنا، وليس الناصب لنا حربا بأعظم موبقة علينا من المذيع علينا سرنا، فمن أذاع سرنا إلى غير أهله لم يفارق الدنيا حتى يعضه السلاح، أو يموت بخبل

Abu Ali Ahmad b. Ali al-Saluli Shaqran – al-Husayn b. Ubaydallah al-Qummi – Muhammad b. Awrama – Ya’qub b. Yazid – Sayf b. Umayra – al-Mufadhal b. Umar al-Ju’fi: I entered in to see Abi Abdillah عليه السلام on the day in which Mualla was crucified. I said: O the son of the Messenger of Allah - do you not see the grave matter that has befallen the Shia on this day? He said: what is that? I said: Mualla b. Khunays has been killed. He said: May Allah have mercy on Mualla. I expected that to happen because he divulged our secret. The one who fights us because of hating us is not more of a danger to us than the one who divulges our secret. Whoever divulges our secret to the undeserving will not leave this world without being torn by a weapon or dying mad.    

The Ghulat attributed a lot of spurious material to him. Perhaps it was by looking at this that some early Rijal authorities were scathing in their assessment of him.

al-Najashi says of him:

ضعيف جدا، لا يعول عليه

Very weak. Not to be turned to [depended on].

Ibn al-Ghadhairi says:

كان أول أمره مغيريا، ثم دعا إلى محمد بن عبد الله، وفي هذه الظنة أخذه داود ابن علي، فقتله، والغلاة يضيفون إليه كثيرا، ولا أرى الاعتماد على شئ من حديثه

He was at first one of the Mughiriyya, then he called for Muhammad b. Abdallah [Nafs al-Zakiyya]. It is in this context that Dawud b. Ali took him and killed him. The Ghulat attribute quite a lot [of material] to him. I do not see how any of his narrations can be relied upon.

It is al-Tusi who mounts a defense of him. He does this by noting Mualla’s closeness to al-Sadiq and the Imam’s reaction to his killing.

كان من قوام أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، وإنما قتله داود بن علي بسببه، وكان محمودا عنده، ومضى على منهاجه وأمره مشهور، فروى عن أبي بصير، قال: لما قتل داود ابن علي، المعلى بن خنيس فصلبه، عظم ذلك على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام واشتد عليه، وقال له: يا داود، على ما قتلت مولي وقيمي في مالي وعلى عيالي ...

He [Mualla] was one of the servants of Abi Abdillah عليه السلام. Dawud b. Ali killed him for this reason. He [Mualla] had a praise-worthy station in his [the Imam’s] eyes. He passed away on the same path [was steadfast in his faith]. His affair [story] is well-known. It is narrated from Abi Basir who said: When Dawud b. Ali killed al-Mualla b. Khunays and crucified him - Abi Abdillah considered it to be a grave and serious. He [the Imam] said to him: O Dawud, why did you kill my client and my care-taker over my wealth and family …

It is because of this that most modern scholars reject the opinions of al-Najashi and Ibn al-Ghadhairi and consider him Thiqa. They ask: How can the death of a corrupt individual have evinced such an emotional reaction from the Imam! [See a number of authentic narrations below]. The Imam even declares that he is ‘in paradise’ having died a death of martyrdom [See No. 1/261]    

Mualla was killed by the governor of Madina called Dawud b. Ali who instructed al-Sayrafi [the money-changer] the head of his guards [Sahib al-Shurta] to do the deed. al-Sayrafi took him and crucified him in the public square.

A final point which must be made is that some details in the narrations below, which recount Mualla’s killing, the Imam’s conversations with Dawud b. Ali, the fate of al-Sayrafi and Dawud [against whom the Imam supplicated] are contradictory. This cannot be avoided and are a natural consequence of faulty human memory and oral transmission.


[1/261] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن العبيدي، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج، عن إسماعيل بن جابر قال: كنت مع أبي عبد الله عليه السلام مجاورا بمكة، فقال لي: يا إسماعيل اخرج حتى تأتي مرة أو عسفان، فسل هل حدث بالمدينة حدث، قال: فخرجت حتى أتيت مرة فلم ألق أحدا، ثم مضيت حتى أتيت عسفان فلم يلقني أحد، فارتحلت من عسفان فلما خرجت منها لقيني عير تحمل زيتا من عسفان، فقلت لهم: هل حدث بالمدينة حدث؟ قالوا: لا، إلا قتل هذا العراقي الذي يقال له المعلى بن خنيس، قال: فانصرفت إلى أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فلما رءاني قال لي: يا إسماعيل قتل المعلى بن خنيس فقلت: نعم، قال: فقال: أما و الله لقد دخل الجنة

[1/261] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from al-Ubaydi from Ibn Abi Umayr from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj from Ismail b. Jabir who said: I was with Abi Abdillah عليه السلام in the vicinity of Makka when he said to me: O Ismail, proceed until you reach Marra or Usfan [two stations on the road between Makka and Madina] and ask [anyone you encounter on the way] - is there any incident which has occurred in Madina. He [Ismail] said: I went out until I reached Marra but did not encounter anyone. Then I proceeded until I reached Usfan but did not encounter anyone. I decided to turn around. When I began leaving Usfan I encountered a caravan carrying olives from Usfan. I said to them: Is there any incident which has occurred in Madina? They said: No, except the killing of this Iraqi called al-Mualla b. Khunays. He [Ismail] said: I returned to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام so when he saw me he said to me: O Ismail - al-Mualla b. Khunays has been killed? I said: Yes. He said: by Allah he has entered paradise.       


[2/262] رجال الكشي: ابن أبي نجران، عن حمّاد الناب، عن المسمعى قال: لما أخذ داود بن علي المعلّى بن خنيس حبسه، وأراد قتله، فقال له معلّى بن خنيس: أخرجني إلى الناس، فإنّ لي ديناً كثيراً ومالاً، حتى أشهد بذلك، فأخرجه إلى السوق فلما اجتمع الناس، قال: ياأيها الناس أنا معلّى بن خنيس فمن عرفني فقد عرفنى، اشهدوا أنّ ما تركت من مال، من عين، أو دين، أو أمة، أو عبد، أو دار، أو قليل، أو كثير، فهو لجعفر بن محمد عليه السلام، قال: فشدّ عليه صاحب شرطة داود فقتله. قال: فلما بلغ ذلك أبا عبد اللّه عليه السلام خرج يجرّ ذيله حتى دخل على داود بن على، وإسماعيل ابنه خلفه، فقال: ياداود قتلت مولاي وأخذت مالى. فقال: ما أنا قتلته ولا أخذت مالك. فقال: واللّه لادعون اللّه على من قتل مولاي وأخذ مالى. قال: ما قتلته ولكن قتله صاحب شرطتى. فقال: بإذنك أو بغير أذنك. قال: بغير إذني. فقال: ياإسماعيل شأنك به. قال: فخرج إسماعيل والسيف معه حتى قتله في مجلسه

حماد، عن المسمعي، عن معتب قال: فلم يزل أبو عبد الله عليه السلام ليلته ساجدا و قائما، قال: فسمعته في آخر الليل و هو ساجد ينادي: اللهم إني أسألك بقوتك القوية و بمحالك الشديد و بعزتك التي خلقك لها ذليل أن تصلي على محمد و آل محمد و أن تأخذه الساعة، قال: فو الله ما رفع رأسه من سجوده حتى سمعنا الصائحة فقالوا: مات داود بن علي فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إني دعوت الله عليه بدعوة بعث الله إليه ملكا فضرب رأسه بمرزبة انشقت منها مثانته 

[2/262] Rijal al-Kashshi: Ibn Abi Najran from Hammad al-Nab from al-Mismai who said: When Dawud b. Ali [the governor of Madina] arrested al-Mualla b. Khunays, imprisoned him, and wanted to kill him - Mualla b. Khunays said to him: take me out to the people first, for I have a lot of debts and wealth which I want to declare, so he took him out to the market. When the people had gathered he [Mualla] said: O people, I am Mualla b. Khunays, whoever knows me has known me. I bear witness that what I leave of wealth, or debt, or slave-girl, or house, or less or more, then it is is for Ja`far b. Muhammad عليه السلام. He [al-Mismai] said: then Dawud’s head of security struck him and killed him. When the news reached Aba Abdillah عليه السلام he came out dragging his cloak [on the ground - in his hurry] until he entered upon Dawud b. Ali with his son Ismail behind him and said: Dawud you killed my Mawla [client] and usurped my property?! He said: I did not kill him nor have I taken your property. He said: By Allah I am going to pray to Allah against the one who killed my Mawla and took my property! He [Dawud] said: I did not kill him - it was the head of my guards. He [the Imam] said: by your permission or without? He [Dawud] said: without my permission. He [al-Sadiq] said: O Ismail have your way with him! he [al-Mismai] said: so Ismail came out with a sword and killed him in his seating place. 

Hammad from al-Mismai from Muattib who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام remained standing in worship and in prostration the whole night. I heard him calling out near the end of the night whilst in prostration: O Allah, I ask you by your irrepressible strength, and your over-powering awe, and by your might in the face of which your creatures are abased, that you bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and that you take him this moment! He [Muattib] said: by Allah he [the Imam] had not raised his head from the prostration when we heard a cry and they said Dawud b. Ali has died.  Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: I supplicated against him to Allah with a supplication due to which Allah sent him an angel who struck his head with a hammer and caused his bladder to split.


[3/263] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن إبراهيم بن عبد الحميد، عن الوليد بن صبيح قال: قال داود بن علي لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما أنا قتلته يعني معلى قال: فمن قتله؟ قال: السيرافي و كان صاحب شرطته، قال: أقدنا منه قال: قد أقدتك، قال: فلما أخذ السيرافي و قدم ليقتل جعل يقول: يا معشر المسلمين يأمروني بقتل الناس فأقتلهم لهم ثم يقتلوني، فقتل السيرافي

[3/263] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Ibrahim b. Abd al-Hamid from al-Walid b. Sabih who said: Dawud b. Ali said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: I am not the one who killed him - that is Mualla [b. Khunays]. He [the Imam] said: then who killed him? he said: al-Sayrafi - who was the man in charge of his guards. He [the Imam] said: grant us retaliation. He [Dawud] said: I have. So when al-Sayrafi was taken and was about to be killed he began saying: O masses of the Muslims, they order me to kill people so I kill them for them then they kill me. al-Sayrafi was then executed.  


[4/264] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن الفضل، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن إبراهيم بن عبد الحميد، عن إسماعيل بن جابر قال: قدم أبو إسحاق عليه السلام من مكة، فذكر له قتل المعلى بن خنيس قال: فقام مغضبا يجر ثوبه، فقال له إسماعيل ابنه: يا أبة أين تذهب قال: لو كانت نازلة لأقدمت عليها، فجاء حتى دخل على داود بن علي، فقال له: يا داود لقد أتيت ذنبا لا يغفره الله لك، قال: و ما ذاك الذنب؟ قال: قتلت رجلا من أهل الجنة ثم مكث ساعة ثم قال: إن شاء الله، فقال له داود: و أنت قد أتيت ذنبا لا يغفره الله لك قال: و ما ذاك الذنب؟ قال: زوجت ابنتك فلانا الأموي، قال: إن كنت زوجت فلانا الأموي فقد زوج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عثمان، و لي برسول الله أسوة، قال: ما أنا قتلته، قال: فمن قتله؟ قال: قتله السيرافي، قال: فأقدنا منه قال: فلما كان من الغد غدا إلى السيرافي فأخذه فقتله، فجعل يصيح: يا عباد الله يأمروني أن أقتل لهم الناس و يقتلوني  

[4/264] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from al-Fadhl from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibrahim b. Abd al-Hamid from Ismail b. Jabir who said: Abu Ishaq [al-Sadiq] عليه السلام arrived from Makkah and the killing of Mualla b. Khunays was mentioned to him. He [Ismail] said: So he stood up in anger - dragging his garment [on the ground i.e. moving in a hurry]. Ismail - his son - said to him: O father - where are you going? He said: even if it were a calamity [that be in front of me] - I would still head out towards it! so he went until he entered upon Dawud b. Ali [i.e. the Abbasid governor of Madina]. He [the Imam] said to him: O Dawud - you have committed a sin for which Allah will never forgive you! He [Dawud] said: and what is that sin? He said: you have killed a man from the people of Jannah - then he paused for a bit - then he added: if Allah wills. Dawud said to him: and you have also committed a sin for which Allah will never forgive you! He [the Imam] said: and what is that sin? He [Dawud] said: you married off your daughter to so and so - the Ummayad. He [the Imam] said: if I have married her off to so and so - the Umayyad - then the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم had given in marriage to Uthman, and I have in the Messenger of Allah an example [to follow]. He [Dawud] said: it is not me who killed him. He [the Imam] said: then who killed him? He [Dawud] said: al-Sayrafi killed him. He [the Imam] said: then retaliate on our behalf over him. So when it was the morrow - he [Dawud] came to him [al-Sayrafi] first thing in the morning - took him and had him killed. He [al-Sayrafi] began to cry out [before his execution]: O slaves of Allah! they order me to kill people for them and then they kill me!


The Imam knew that Dawud was the one ultimately responsible for killing Mualla. When Dawud was confronted by the Imam - he took the easy way out as any tyrant would and got rid of the lackey after using him. Since the Imam knew that there is no way Dawud would admit to his own guilt, he took the second best option which was to demand justice for Mualla by demanding Qisas from the one who actually carried out the killing. May this be a lesson to those who are used and discarded that they are not totally absolved of responsibility and cannot claim that they are just following instructions.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.163. Ma’mar b. Abdallah



[-/1] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن معاوية بن عمار، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: الذي كان على بدن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ناجية بن جندب الخزاعي الاسلمي والذي حلق رأس النبي صلى الله عليه وآله في حجته معمر بن عبدالله بن حراثة بن نصر بن عوف بن عويج بن عدي بن كعب، قال: ولما كان في حجة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وهو يحلقه، قالت قريش أي معمر! اذن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله في يدك وفي يدك الموسى، فقال معمر: والله إني لاعده من الله فضلا عظيما علي، قال: وكان معمر هو الذي يرحل لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقال رسول الله: يا معمر إن الرحل الليلة المسترخى، فقال معمر: بأبي أنت وامي لقد شددته كما كنت أشده ولكن بعض من حسدني مكاني منك يارسول الله أراد أن تستبدل بي، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: ما كنت لافعل

[1/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father and Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Ibn Abi Umayr from Muawiya b. Ammar from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: The one looking after the sacrificial animal of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله [while going for the farewell Hajj] was Najiya b. Jundab al-Khuzai al-Aslami. The one who shaved the hair of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله in his Hajj was Ma’mar b. Abdallah b. Haratha b. Nasr b. Awf b. Uwayj b. Adi b. Ka’b. He [the Imam] said: When he [Najiya] was shaving the hair of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله during the Hajj - the Quraysh said: O Ma’mar! the ears [i.e. head] of the Messenger of Allah is between your hands and you have a blade in your hand [i.e. you could do anything to him]! Ma’mar said: by Allah I consider it a great favour of Allah on me [that he trusted me so]. He [the Imam] said: Ma’mar was the one who used to saddle the camel for the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله. One time the Messenger of Allah said to him: O Ma’mar the saddle is slack this night, Ma’mar said: May my father and mother be ransomed for you, I had tightened the reigns [of the saddle] as I always do, but one of those who is jealous of my position with you [and your preference for me] - O Messenger of Allah - wished that you substitute me with another [give this work to someone else], so the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: I will never do that.  


Ma’mar b. Abdallah al-Adwi al-Qurashi was an early convert to Islam and was part of the second batch of those who made the Hijra to Abysinnia. He later returned to Makka and spent quite some time there before making the Hijra to Madina. This narration makes clear that he had an estimable standing with the prophet who held him dear. The prophet trusted him to perform some private duties for him because of his simple but strong faith. Not much else is known about his life.

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.164. al-Mughira b. Sai’d



[1/265] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه و الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار القمي، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن - أن بعض أصحابنا سأله و أنا حاضر - فقال له: يا أبا محمد ما أشدك في الحديث و أكثر إنكارك لما يرويه أصحابنا فما الذي يحملك على رد الأحاديث؟ فقال: حدثني هشام بن الحكم أنه سمع أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: لا تقبلوا علينا حديثا إلا ما وافق القرآن و السنة أو تجدون معه شاهدا من أحاديثنا المتقدمة، فإن المغيرة بن سعيد لعنه الله دس في كتب أصحاب أبي أحاديث لم يحدث بها أبي، فاتقوا الله و لا تقبلوا علينا ما خالف قول ربنا تعالى و سنة نبينا صلى الله عليه و آله ...

[1/265] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh and al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman: One of our companions asked him [Yunus] while I [Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd] was present saying: O Aba Muhammad - how stringent you are in the matter of Hadith and how great is your repudiation of what is narrated by our companions - so what leads you to reject the narrations? He [Yunus] said: Hisham b. al-Hakam narrated to me that he heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: Do not accept a Hadith on our authority except that which agrees with the Qur’an and the Sunna or you find for it a witness [corroboration] from our past narrations, for al-Mughira b. Said - may Allah curse him - has interpolated into the books of the companions of my father [i.e. al-Baqir عليه السلام] narrations which were not narrated by my father. Therefore fear Allah, and do not accept on our authority that which opposes the words of our Lord the Exalted and the Sunna of our prophet صلى الله عليه و آله …


[1/266] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه و الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار القمي، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سمع أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: كان المغيرة بن سعيد يتعمد الكذب على أبي، و يأخذ كتب أصحابه و كان أصحابه المستترون بأصحاب أبي يأخذون الكتب من أصحاب أبي فيدفعونها إلى المغيرة فكان يدس فيها الكفر و الزندقة و يسندها إلى أبي ثم يدفعها إلى أصحابه فيأمرهم أن يثبتوها في الشيعة، فكلما كان في كتب أصحاب أبي من الغلو فذاك ما دسه المغيرة بن سعيد في كتبهم

[1/266] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh and al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Yunus from Hisham b. al-Hakam - that he heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: al-Mughira b. Sa’id used to lie purposely about my father and take the books of his [al-Baqir’s] companions - and his [Mughira’s] companions were under cover [indistinguishable] among the companions of my father - they would take the books from the companions of my father and send them to al-Mughira - so he used to interpolate into them Kufr [disbelief] and Zanadiqa [heresy] and attribute it to my father, then he would send them [the books] back to his companions and order them to establish them among the Shia, so whatever is in the books of the companions of my father - of Ghulu [exaggeration of the status of the ‘Aimma] - then that is what was interpolated by al-Mughira b. Sa’id in their books.


We see how critical this Mughira was in circulating fabricated Hadith by attributing them to al-Baqir and even inserting them into the books of our companions. A lot of these tainted beliefs [which he took from previous religious traditions and repackaged them in a new Islamic language] entered our corpus because of him.

al-Mughira b. Sai’d al-Bajali was a blind Mawla (non-Arab origin) of Khalid al-Qasri the governor of Iraq under the Umayyads. He claimed to be a follower of Imam al-Baqir but perverted the latter’s teachings and drew a personal following around himself. Mughira’s success in this can be explained in part because of his abilities as a sorcerer. He is said to have demonstrated wondrous illusions and tricks.

He rose in revolt in 119 AH with another Ghali called Bayan b. Sam’an against the aforementioned Umayyad governor of Iraq. The rebellion was quickly put down and the leaders as well as some of their followers were crucified. In this way the Imam’s curse against him was answered.

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.165. al-Mufadhal b. Umar



[1/267] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم وحماد بن عثمان، عن إسماعيل بن جابر قال: قال أبو عبد الله: ايت المفضل قل له: يا كافر يا مشرك ما تريد إلى ابني تريد أن تقتله

[1/267] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from Ya’qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam and Hammad b. Uthman from Ismail b. Jabir who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: Go to Mufadhal and say to him - O Kafir, O Mushrik, what do you want for my son Ismail? Do you want to kill him!?


[2/268] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن يونس بن يعقوب قال: أمرني أبو عبد الله عليه السلام أن آتي المفضل واعزيه باسماعيل وقال: اقرأ المفضل السلام وقل له: إنا قد اصبنا بإسماعيل فصبرنا، فاصبر كما صبرنا، إنا أردنا أمرا وأراد الله عزوجل أمرا، فسلمنا لامر الله عزوجل

[2/268] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Hakam from Yunus b. Ya’qub who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام ordered me to go to Mufadhal and condole him for [the death of] Ismail. He [the Imam] said: Convey my greetings of peace to Mufadhal and say to him: We have been tried through Ismail and have remained patient, so be patient the way we have been patient. We wanted something but Allah Mighty and Majestic wanted something else so we have submitted to the command of Allah Mighty and Majestic.   


Abu Abdallah Mufadhal b. Umar al-Ju’fi (d. before 179), a money-changer by profession, was a Kufan companion of the two Imams, al-Sadiq and al-Kadhim. He was charged with performing certain tasks for them.

No. 1/267 above has the Imam using very harsh language with Mufadhal in the context of the latter’s ‘grooming’ of Ismail which al-Sadiq felt was dangerous. No. 2/268 on the other hand is much more warm, with Ismail being the theme once again. The Imam condoles Mufadhal on the occasion of Ismail’s death [the two must have been especially close] and commends him to be patient in emulation of the Imam’s own patience.   How can we explain this difference in tone?

It seems that one way to reconcile between them is to posit that Mufadhal had a period of estrangement from the Imam - because of his involvement with the Khattabis and their intentions for Ismail, however, he later repented from this and broke away with Abu al-Khattab, consequently the relation with the Imam improved.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.166. al-Mufadhal b. Qays b. Rumana



[1/269] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن مفضل بن قيس بن رمانة قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: إن أصحابنا يختلفون في شيء وأقول: قولي فيها قول جعفر بن محمد عليه السلام فقال: بهذا نزل جبرئيل 

[1/269] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Mufadhal b. Qays b. Rumana who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: Our companions may differ about something but I say: my opinion in it is the verdict of Ja’far b. Muhammad, so he [the Imam] said: this is what Jibril came down with [revealed].  


The true religion revealed by Jibril is to submit to the judgments of the Prophet and the ‘Aimma, and not to speak by personal opinion.

Ibn Abi Umayr comments on the status of this Mufadhal when giving the chain saying: وكان خيرا (he was righteous).

Not much is known about him, except this other instance of interaction with al-Sadiq as reproduced below:

علي بن محمد وأحمد بن محمد، عن علي بن الحسن، عن العباس بن عامر، عن محمد بن إبراهيم الصيرفي، عن مفضل بن قيس بن رمانة قال: دخلت على أبي عبدالله عليه السلام فذكرت له بعض حالي، فقال: يا جارية هات ذلك الكيس، هذه أربعمائة دينار وصلني بها أبوجعفر فخذها وتفرج بها قال: فقلت: لا والله جعلت فداك ما هذا دهري ولكن أحببت أن تدعوا الله عزوجل لي، قال: فقال: إني سأفعل ولكن إياك أن تخبر الناس بكل حالك فتهون عليهم

al-Kafi: Ali b. Muhammad and Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ali b.al-Hasan from al-Abbas b. Amir from Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Sayrafi from Mufadhal b. Qays b. Rumana who said: I entered in to see Abi Abdillah عليه السلام and mentioned to him my difficult [material] condition. He [the Imam] said: O servant bring that pouch, [then he said to me:] this is four hundred gold coins given to me by Abu Ja’far [al-Dawaniqi, the Abbasid Caliph] take them and relieve yourself through it. He [Mufadhal] said: I said: No by Allah, may I be made your ransom, this is not my desire [to beg] but I wished that you supplicate to Allah Mighty and Majestic for me. He [the Imam said]: I will do that, but be wary of sharing all that you go through with people for they will look down on you.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.167. Nasr b. Qabus



[1/270] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن الحسن بن موسى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر، عن سعيد بن أبي الجهم، عن نصر بن قابوس قال: قلت لأبي الحسن الأول عليه السلام: إني سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن الإمام من بعده فأخبرني أنك أنت هو فلما توفي ذهب الناس عنك يمينا و شمالا و قلت فيك أنا و أصحابي، فأخبرني عن الإمام من ولدك قال: ابني علي عليه السلام

[1/270] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Hasan b. Musa from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr from Sa’id b. Abi al-Jahm from Nasr b. Qabus who said: I said to Abi al-Hasan the first [al-Kadhim] عليه السلام: I had asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the identity of the Imam after him and he informed me that it was going to be you, so when he [al-Sadiq] died the people turned away from you and went to the right and to the left [i.e. in confusion] but I and my companions stuck to you, so inform me about the Imam from your children - who is it going to be? He [the Imam] said: my son Ali عليه السلام


al-Kashshi comments:

فدل هذا الحديث على منزلة الرجل من عقله و اهتمامه بأمر دينه إن شاء الله

This narration indicates the high station of the man in terms of his intellect and his scrupulousness in the matter of his religion, if Allah wills.

I say: Without a doubt Nasr must have been a very close companion of al-Sadiq to have been told the identity of the successor. This led him to avoid falling into error when the Fitna of the Fathiyya occurred.

Another narration in al-Kashshi has the same theme:

حدثني حمدويه قال: حدثني الحسين بن موسى، عن سليمان الصيدي، عن نصر بن قابوس قال: كنت عند أبي الحسن عليه السلام في منزله، فأخذ بيدي فوقفني على بيت من الدار، فدفع الباب فإذا علي عليه السلام ابنه، وفي يده كتاب ينظر إليه، فقال لي: يا نصر تعرف هذا؟ قلت: نعم هذا علي عليه السلام ابنك، قال: يا نصر، أتدري ما هذا الكتاب الذي ينظر فيه؟ فقلت: لا، قال: هذا الجفر الذي لا ينظر فيه إلا نبي أو وصي

قال الحسن بن موسى: فلعمري ما شك نصر فيه ولا ارتاب حتى أتاه وفاة أبي الحسن عليه السلام

Hamduwayh – al-Hasan b. Musa – Sulayman al-Saydi – Nasr b. Qabus who said: I was with Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام in his house when he took me by the hand and made me stand outside a room in the house, then he opened the door and there was Ali his son [inside] with a book in his hand which he was perusing. He [al-Kadhim] said to me: O Nasr - do you know this one? I said: Indeed, it is your son Ali. He said: O Nasr - do you know what that book which he is looking into is? I said: No, he said: that is the Jafr which no one can read except a prophet or a successor.

al-Hasan b. Musa [the sub-narrator] comments: By my life! Nasr never doubted concerning him [al-Ridha] nor did he waver until news about the death of Abi al-Hasan [al-Ridha] came to him i.e. he believed in the Imam all his life.

al-Najashi says about this Nasr b. Qabus:

روى عن أبي عبد الله وأبي إبراهيم وأبي الحسن الرضا عليهم السلام وكان ذا منزلة عندهم

He narrated from Abi Abdillah, Abu Ibrahim and Abi al-Hasan al-Ridha عليهم السلام and had a position of great merit in their eyes

al-Tusi says:

وروى أنه كان وكيلا لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام عشرين سنة ولم يعلم أنه وكيل وكان خيرا فاضلا

It is narrated that he [Nasr] was a Wakil of Abi Abdillah عليه السلام for a period of twenty years without it being known that he was a Wakil. He was both good and meritorious.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.168. Harun b. Sa’d



[1/271] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن عبد الله بن محمد بن خالد، عن الحسن بن علي الخزاز، عن علي بن عقبة، عن داود بن فرقد قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: عرضت لي إلى ربي تعالى حاجة فهجرت فيها إلى المسجد، و كذلك كنت أفعل إذا عرضت لي الحاجة، فبينا أنا أصلي في الروضة إذا رجل على رأسي، فقلت: ممن الرجل قال: من أهل الكوفة، قال: فقلت: ممن الرجل فقال: من أسلم، قال: فقلت: ممن الرجل قال: من الزيدية، قلت: يا أخا أسلم من تعرف منهم قال: أعرف خيرهم و سيدهم و أفضلهم هارون بن سعد، قال: قلت: يا أخا أسلم رأس العجلية، أما سمعت الله عز و جل يقول: إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ سَيَنالُهُمْ غَضَبٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَ ذِلَّةٌ فِي الْحَياةِ الدُّنْيا ...

[1/271] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Abdallah b. Muhammad b. Khalid from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Khazzaz from Ali b. Uqba from Dawud b. Farqad who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: I had a need which I wanted my Lord the Elevated to fulfill, so I set out to the Masjid with that purpose in mind, and this is how I used to do whenever I had a need of something. While I was praying in the Rawdha a man approached and lurked overhead. I said: where is the man from? he said: from the residents of Kufa, I said: where is the man from? He said: from the tribe of Aslam, I said: where is the man from? He said: the Zaydiyya, I said: O brother of Aslam - who do you know among them [the Zaydiyya]? he said: I know the best of them and their leader Harun b. Sa’d. I said: O brother of Aslam that one is the head of the Ijliyya! Have you not heard Allah Mighty and Majestic saying: “those who took the calf (Ijl) (for worship) will only obtain anger from their Lord and humiliation in the life of this world” (7:152) …


[2/272] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، قال حدثنا أيوب بن نوح، قال حدثنا صفوان، عن داود بن فرقد، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: ما أحد أجهل منهم يعني العجلية، إن في المرجئة فتيا و علما و في الخوارج فتيا و علما، و ما أحد أجهل منهم

[2/272] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Ayyub b. Nuh from Safwan from Dawud b. Farqad from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: there is no one more ignorant than them - that is the Ijliyya - among the Murjia there is [found] jurisprudence [legal opinions] and knowledge, and among the Khawarij there is jurisprudence and knowledge, but there is no one more ignorant than them [the Ijliyya].


[3/273] غيبة الطوسي: الكليني، عن سعد، عن اليقطيني، عن علي بن الحكم وعلي ابن الحسن بن نافع، عن هارون بن خارجة قال: قال لي هارون بن سعد العجلي: قد مات إسماعيل الذي كنتم تمدون إليه أعناقكم وجعفر شيخ كبير يموت غدا أو بعد غد، فتبقون بلا إمام، فلم أدر ما أقول، فأخبرت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام بمقالته فقال: هيهات هيهات أبى الله والله أن ينقطع هذاالامر حتى ينقطع الليل والنهار فاذا رأيته فقل له: هذا موسى بن جعفر يكبر ونزوجه ويولد له فيكون خلفا إنشاء الله

[3/273] Ghayba of al-Tusi: al-Kulayni from Sa’d from al-Yaqtini from Ali b. al-Hakam and Ali b. al-Hasan b. Nafi from Harun b. Kharija who said: Harun b. Sa’d al-Ijli said to me: Ismail [the son of al-Sadiq] towards whom you were stretching out your necks [i.e. expecting to be the next Imam] is dead, furthermore, Ja’far is an old man, he will die tomorrow or the day after, then you will remain without an Imam! I did not know what to say in reply, so I informed Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about what he [al-Ijli] had said. He [the Imam] said: how far, how far [is al-Ijli’s wish] - by Allah - Allah has refused to allow this matter to stop [Imama to discontinue] until the day and night also stop, so if you see him again say to him: this is Musa b. Ja’far - he will grow up, we will marry him off, and he will have a child as his successor - if Allah wills.



Harun b. Sa’d al-Ijli was the leader of a Zaydi faction called the Ijliyya [See also section 3.50. - 3.51]. The Ijliyya were very similar to Batri Zaydis. They were known for accepting the legitimacy of Abu Bakr and Umar even whilst claiming to prefer Ali. They would consider any descendant of Ali who unsheathes the sword and confronts the corrupt temporal rulers to be an Imam.

Harun participated in the revolts of Zayd b. Ali and Ibrahim b. al-Hasan against the Umayyad and Abbasid regimes respectively. He must have had quite an influence over his followers. The Imam uses a play on words - comparing his tribal affiliation [Ijli] to the golden calf [Ijl] worshiped by the Israelites [See No. 1/271].

Harun had a low opinion of al-Sadiq and his followers because they were queitist and did not participate in armed struggle. He taunts them by prematurely predicting that there will be no successor to al-Sadiq after the death of the elder favourite Ismail [See No. 3/273]. The preoccupation of the Ijliyya with warfare meant that they had no firm grounding in learning. al-Sadiq declares that even the Murjia and Khawarij have some semblance of knowledge, despite being wrong, when compared to the Ijliyya [See No. 2/272].

Below is part of a poem attributed to Harun as quoted by Ibn Qutayba in his Uyun and Ta’wil Ikhtilaf al-Hadith:


ألم تر أن الرافضين تفرقوا      فكلهم في جعفر قال منكرا

فطائفة قالت إمام ومنهم   طوائف سمته النبي المطهرا

فإن كان يرضى ما يقولون جعفر   فإني إلى ربي أفارق جعفرا

ومن عجب لم أقضه جلد جفرهم   برئت إلى الرحمن ممن تجفرا

برئت إلى الرحمن من كل رافض   بصير بباب الكفر في الدين أعورا

Don’t you see that the Rawafid are divided … For everyone of them has believed about Ja’far something abominable

There is a group which says ‘he is an Imam’ … yet other groups consider him a purified prophet

If it is true that Ja’far agrees with what they say … Then I renounce Ja’far before my Lord

What causes my unceasing wonder is this skin-parchment of their so-called ‘Jafr’ … I disassociate to Allah from every one who becomes a follower of Ja’far

I have disassociated myself to the All-Merciful from every Rafidi … who is insightful about the doors of disbelief but blind regarding true religion


I include this because some western academics cast doubt about the origins of Tashayyu and its links to al-Sadiq. They reject evidence from heresiographical works which they consider late and biased. In spite of this, most of them admit poetry as one of the most reliable historical testaments for early Islam. This poem is clear that there were some who considered Ja’far as an Imam and also speaks of the ‘Jafr’. More about the famed Jafr and its contents at the appropriate place.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.169. Hisham b. Ibrahim al-Abbasi




An Iranian actor playing the role of Hisham b. Ibrahim in the famous Iranian Serial on Imam al-Ridha عليه السلام called Wilayat-e-Ishq


[1/284] قرب الاسناد: الريان بن الصلت قال: قلت للرضا عليه السلام: إن العباسي أخبرني أنك رخصت في سماع الغناء فقال: كذب الزنديق، ما هكذا كان، إنما سألني عن سماع الغناء فأعلمته أن رجلا أتى أبا جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين عليهم السلام فسأله عن سماع الغناء، فقال له: أخبرني إذا جمع الله تبارك وتعالى بين الحق والباطل، مع أيهما يكون الغناء؟ فقال الرجل: مع الباطل، فقال له أبوجعفر عليه السلام: حسبك فقد حكمت على نفسك، فهكذا كان قولي له

[1/284] Qurb al-Isnad: al-Rayyan b. al-Salt reported: I said to al-Ridha عليه السلام: al-Abbasi informs me that you have permitted the listening of music? He [the Imam] said: the Zindiq has lied! This was not how it [i.e. our conversation] was. He asked me about listening to music so I informed him that a man came to Aba Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn عليهم السلام and asked him about listening to music, he [al-Baqir] said to him: inform me - when Allah Blessed and Elevated will gather the truth [on one side] and the falsehood [on the other] - on which side will music be? the man said: with the falsehood, then Abu Ja’far عليه السلام said to him: that is sufficient [as an answer] for you, for you have judged for your own self. [al-Ridha said:] This was my conversation with him [i.e. al-Abbasi].


al-Muhsini does not accept Qurb al-Isnad as a source for reliable narrations, however, the same Hadith is also found in al-Saduq’s Uyun and al-Kashshi’s Rijal with suitable chains.

Hisham b. Ibrahim al-Abbasi turned traitor to the Imam. At first he was a loyal servant of the Imam working as his secretary. Later he hankered after the world and accepted to become an informant who spied on the Imam and restricted access to him. This is documented by al-Saduq in his Uyun Akhbar al-Ridha:

الهمداني، عن علي بن إبراهيم، عن الريان بن الصلت قال: أكثر الناس في بيعة الرضا عليه السلام من القواد والعامة ... وكان هشام بن إبراهيم الراشدي الهمداني من أخص الناس عند الرضا عليه السلام من قبل أن يحمل وكان عالما أديبا لبيبا وكانت امور الرضا عليه السلام تجري من عنده وعلى يده، ويصير الاموال من النواحي كلها إليه قبل حمل أبي الحسن عليه السلام فلما حمل أبوالحسن عليه السلام اتصل هشام بن إبراهيم بذي الرئاستين فقربه ذو الرئاستين وأدناه ، فكان ينقل أخبار الرضا عليه السلام إلى ذي الرئاستين والمأمون فحظي بذلك عندهما وكان لا يخفي عليهما من أخباره شيئا فولاه المأمون حجابة الرضا عليه السلام وكان لا يصل إلى الرضا عليه السلام إلا من أحب، وضيق على الرضا عليه السلام فكان من يقصده من مواليه لا يصل إليه، وكان لا يتكلم الرضا عليه السلام في داره بشئ إلا أورده هشام على المأمون وذي الرئاستين وجعل المأمون العباس ابنه في حجر هشام، وقال: أدبه، فسمي هشام العباسي لذلك ...

al-Hamdani – Ali b. Ibrahim – al-Rayyan b. al-Salt who said: The number of people pledging allegiance to al-Ridha عليه السلام both among the commoners and the dignitaries kept on increasing … Hisham b. Ibrahim al-Rashidi al-Hamdani was one of the closest of people to al-Ridha عليه السلام before he [the Imam] was summoned [ordered to leave Madina]. He [Hisham] was an intelligent scholar and a litterateur. All the affairs of al-Ridha عليه السلام used to proceed from him and at his hands. The wealth from the different localities [sent to the Imam] would pass through him. This was all before Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام was summoned. After Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام was called [to Khurasan] this Hisham [who had accompanied him as his secretary] became acquainted with Dhu al-Riasatayn ‘the man of the two commands’ [i.e. Fadhl b. Sahl] who brought him close to himself. He [Hisham] began reporting all the activities of al-Ridha عليه السلام to Fadhl and Ma’mun. He became esteemed in their eyes because of this. He used not to hide any of his [the Imam’s] activities from them. Because of this Ma’mun raised him to the position of chamberlain to al-Ridha عليه السلام. No one could gain access to al-Ridha عليه السلام except one pre-selected by Ma’mun [as controlled by Hisham]. He constrained al-Ridha’s عليه السلام freedom such that those who wished to meet him from among his true followers could not do so. al-Ridha عليه السلام would not speak anything in his house except that Hisham would relay it to Ma’mun and Fadhl. Ma’mun placed his son Abbas in the room of Hisham and said to Hisham: ‘instruct him’. That is why Hisham was called al-Abbasi [because of being a teacher to one of the scions of Banu Abbas called Abbas].   

Hisham continued his intrigue even after the poisoning of al-Ridha.

محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن على بن مهزيار، عن يحيى بن أبي عمران الهمداني قال: كتبت إلى أبي جعفر عليه السلام: جعلت فداك ما تقول في رجل ابتدأ ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم في صلاته وحده في ام الكتاب فلما صار إلى غير ام الكتاب من السورة تركها، فقال العباسي: ليس بذلك بأس؟ فكتب بخطه يعيدها مرتين على رغم أنفه يعني العباسي

Muhammad b. Yahya – Ahmad b. Muhammad – Ali b. Mahziyar – Yahya b. Abi Ibrahim al-Hamdani who said: I wrote to Abi Ja’far [al-Jawad]: ‘May I be made your ransom, what do you say about a man who begins with clause - In the Name of Allah the Compassionate the Merciful - in his prayer before reciting the Mother of the Book [al-Fatiha] but when he comes to the other Sura he does not recite it? for al-Abbasi says: there is no harm in that’. He [the Imam] wrote in his own hand: He repeats the prayer, he repeats the prayer, even if he - meaning al-Abbasi - dislikes it.   

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.170. Hisham b. al-Hakam




Hisham b. al-Hakam (d. 179) was a very close companion of al-Sadiq and al-Kadhim [See No. 1/278 for a demonstration of his intimacy with the latter]. He was an unmatched polemicist and an expert in theology. This he learnt from the Imams [See No. 4/- for an example of how he was personally instructed]. He spent his life defending Imami theology being one of the few companions of the Imams who were allowed to debate [See No. 5/278]. He was so effective at this that he even raised the ire of the political authorities [See No. 2/276 where the Imam asked him to abstain from talking for it was putting his life in danger].


 [1/275] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن علي بن يقطين قال: كان أبو الحسن عليه السلام إذا أراد شيئا من الحوائج لنفسه أو مما يعني به من أموره كتب إلى أبي يعني عليا اشتر لي كذا و كذا و اتخذ لي كذا و كذا و ليتول ذلك لك هشام بن الحكم، فإذا كان غير ذلك من أموره كتب إليه اشتر لي كذا و كذا، و لم يذكر هشاما إلا فيما يعني به من أمره، و ذكر أنه بلغ من عنايته به و حاله عنده أنه سرح إليه خمسة عشر ألف درهم، و قال له: اعمل بها و كل أرباحها و رد إلينا رأس المال، ففعل ذلك هشام رحمه الله، و صلى الله على أبي الحسن

[1/275] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Ali b. Yaqtin who said: Whenever Abu al-Hasan [al-Kadhim] عليه‌ السلام wanted some necessities for himself, or something of a personal nature, he would write to my father Ali: ‘purchase for me this and that or acquire for me such and such and let Hisham b. al-Hakam be the one to undertake that’. But if it had to do with his [the Imam’s] more general responsibilities he would just write: ‘purchase for me this and that’ and not mention Hisham unless it was personal.

It is also said that his [the Imam’s] favour towards him [Hisham] and his [Hisham’s] status in his [the Imam’s] estimation reached such a level that he [the Imam] sent him [Hisham] fifteen thousand gold coins and said to him: ‘do business with them and keep the profits thereof returning to us only the capital’. Hisham did as instructed. May Allah bless Abi al-Hasan.


[2/276] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس قال: قلت لهشام: أصحابك يحكون أن أبا الحسن عليه السلام سرح إليك مع عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج أن أمسك عن الكلام و إلى هشام بن سالم قال: أتاني عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج و قال لي: يقول لك أبو الحسن عليه السلام: أمسك عن الكلام هذه الأيام، و كان المهدي قد صنف له مقالات الناس و فيه مقالة الجواليقية هشام بن سالم، و قرأ ذلك الكتاب في الشرقية و لم يذكر كلام هشام، و زعم يونس أن هشام بن الحكم قال له: فأمسكت عن الكلام أصلا حتى مات المهدي، و إنما قال لي هذه الأيام فأمسك حتى مات المهدي

[2/276] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus who said: I said to Hisham: Your companions relate that Aba al-Hasan عليه السلام sent a message to you and Hisham b. Salim via Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj saying: ‘abstain from speaking [making theological disputations]’.

He [Hisham] said: Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj came to me and said: Abu al-Hasan عليه السلام says to you: ‘abstain from speaking in these days’ - because it had been authored for al-Mahdi [the Caliph] [a treatise containing] the theological positions of the people. In it were the theological positions of the Jawaliqiyya [followers] of Hisham b. Salim. This treatise was publicly read in Sharqiyya [a district in Baghdad] but the position of Hisham [b. al-Hakam] was not mentioned.

Yunus claims that Hisham b. al-Hakam said to him: I abstained from speaking totally until al-Mahdi died, for he [the Imam] had said ‘in these days’ - so he stopped until al-Mahdi died.


Hisham b. al-Hakam has been accused of having a part in the arrest and murder of al-Kadhim because he did not stop from speaking [debating] in Baghdad, in the theological debate circle of the Abbasid vizier Yahya b. Khalid al-Barmaki, until he let out the secret of the Imama and the extent of the authority of this Imam [who was other than the temporal Caliph]. This is the import of the narration No. 3/277 below.

Hisham defends himself from this accusation in the narration under discussion. A more detailed variant of this narration is provided below:

 و حدثني محمد بن مسعود العياشي، قال حدثنا جبريل بن أحمد الفاريابي، قال حدثني محمد بن عيسى العبيدي، عن يونس، قال: قلت لهشام: إنهم يزعمون أن أبا الحسن عليه السلام بعث إليك عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج يأمرك أن تسكت و لا تتكلم فأبيت أن تقبل رسالته، فأخبرني كيف كان سبب هذا؟ و هل أرسل إليك ينهاك عن الكلام أو لا؟ و هل تكلمت بعد نهيه إياك؟ فقال هشام: إنه لما كان أيام المهدي شدد على أصحاب الأهواء، و كتب له ابن المقعد صنوف الفرق صنفا صنفا، ثم قرأ الكتاب على الناس، فقال يونس: قد سمعت هذا الكتاب يقرأ على الناس على باب الذهب بالمدينة و مرة أخرى بمدينة الوضاح، فقال: إن ابن المقعد صنف لهم صنوف الفرق فرقة فرقة، حتى قال في كتابه: و فرقة منهم يقال لهم الزرارية و فرقة منهم يقال لهم العمارية أصحاب عمار الساباطي و فرقة يقال لها اليعفورية و منهم فرقة أصحاب سليمان الأقطع و فرقة يقال لها الجواليقية، قال يونس: و لم يذكر يومئذ هشام بن الحكم و لا أصحابه فزعم هشام ليونس أن أبا الحسن عليه السلام بعث إليه فقال له: كف هذه الأيام عن الكلام فإن الأمر شديد قال هشام: فكففت عن الكلام حتى مات المهدي و سكن الأمر فهذا الذي كان من أمره و انتهائي إلى قوله

Muhammad b. Masud al-Ayyashi – Jibril b. Ahmad al-Fariyabi – Muhammad b. Isa al-Ubaydi – Yunus who said: I said to Hisham: They claim that Aba al-Hasan عليه السلام sent Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj to you ordering you to keep silent and not to speak [in defense of the Madhhab] but you refused to accept his message to you. Inform me what was the reason for this? and did he really send to you prohibiting you from speaking or not? and did you speak after his prohibition?

Hisham said: back in the days of al-Mahdi - he [the Caliph] severely restricted those considered heterodox. Ibn al-Maq’ad wrote for him a treatise outlining all the different sects one after the other, this treatise was then read to the people.

Yunus said: I heard this treatise being read to the people at the Golden Gate of the city [Baghdad] and also another time in the town of Wadhah.

He continued: Ibn al-Maq’ad authored for them [the authorities] the classification of all sects one after the other, such that he even said in his treatise: ‘a sect among them called Zurariyya, and a sect among them called Ammariyya the companions of Ammar al-Sabati, and a sect called Ya’furiyya, a sect consisting of the companions of Sulayman al-Aqta, and a sect called the Jawaliqiyya’.

Yunus said: He did not name Hisham b. al-Hakam or his companions at that time.

Hisham asserted to Yunus that Aba al-Hasan عليه السلام had sent to him a message saying ‘abstain from speaking in these days for the matter is serious’.

Hisham said: I stopped speaking until al-Mahdi died and the matter became settled, this then is what he had ordered me to do and my abiding with his command.  

This confirms that the order was temporal and not for all time. Furthermore, the immediate cause which lead to al-Kadhim’s detention was his nephew Muhammad b. Ismail b. Ja’far [see No. 3.132]


[3/277] رجال الكشي: محمد بن نصير، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن أبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام قال: أما كان لكم في أبي الحسن عليه السلام عظة؟! ما ترى حال هشام بن الحكم فهو الذي صنع بأبي الحسن ما صنع و قال لهم و أخبرهم أترى الله يغفر له ما ركب منا!

[3/277] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Nusayr from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Husayn b. Sai’d from Ahmad b. Muhammad [b. Abi Nasr] from Abi al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام who said: Is there not for you in [the case of] Abi al-Hasan [al-Kadhim] عليه السلام a warning! What do you think is the state of Hisham b. al-Hakam? For he is the one who did to Abi al-Hasan what he did, and he informed them and divulged to them [the secrets of the Madhhab]. Do you think Allah will forgive him what he has perpetrated on us!


[-/4] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سأل أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن أسماء الله واشتقاقها: الله مما هو مشتق؟ قال: فقال لي: يا هشام الله مشتق من إله والاله يقتضي مألوها والاسم غير المسمى، فمن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر ولم يعبد شيئا، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد كفر وعبد اثنين، ومن عبد المعنى دون الاسم فذاك التوحيد أفهمت يا هشام؟ قال: فقلت: زدني قال: إن لله تسعة وتسعين اسما فلو كان الاسم هو المسمى لكان كل اسم منها إلها ولكن الله معنى يدل عليه بهذه الاسماء وكلها غيره، يا هشام الخبز اسم للمأكول والماء اسم للمشروب والثوب اسم للملبوس والنار اسم للمحرق أفهمت يا هشام فهما تدفع به وتناضل به أعداءنا والمتخذين مع الله عزوجل غيره؟ قلت: نعم، قال: فقال: نفعك الله به وثبتك يا هشام، قال هشام فوالله ما قهرني أحد في التوحيد حتى قمت مقامي هذا

[4/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from al-Nadhr b. Suwayd from Hisham b. al-Hakam - that he asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the Names of Allah and their derivation saying: What is Allah derived from? He [Hisham] said: so he [the Imam] said to me: O Hisham, ‘Allah’ is derived from ‘ilah’ and ‘al-ilah’ connotes ‘the one who is worshipped’. 

The name is other than the named. Whoever worships the name without the meaning then he has disbelieved and has not worshipped anything. Whoever worships the name and the meaning then he has disbelieved and worshipped two [distinct things]. Whoever worships the meaning without the name then that is true monotheism. Have you understood O Hisham? 

He [Hisham] said: I said: increase for me. He said: Allah has ninety nine names, if the name was identical to what is named then every name among these [ninety-nine] would be a god, rather Allah is a meaning to which these names point to, and each one of them is other than him. 

O Hisham, ‘bread’ is a name for what is eaten, ‘water’ is a name for what is drunk, ‘clothes’ is a name for what is worn, ‘fire’ is a name for what burns, have you understood Hisham? an understanding through which you can repel and defeat our enemies and those who betake others apart from Allah Mighty and Majestic [alone]. 

I said: Yes. He said: May Allah benefit you by it and make you firm O Hisham.

Hisham said: by Allah no one has defeated me on the subject of Tawhid to this day when I stand in the position I do.   


This narration proves that the name ‘Allah’ (الله) is derived from ‘al-Ilah’ (الاله) which was contracted because of frequent usage.

‘al-Ilah’ is a verbal-noun from the verb ‘alaha’ (اله) - ‘he worshipped’

It works on the paradigm of al-fi’al (الفعال) with meaning of al-maf’ul (المفعول)

Thus ‘al-Ilah’ (الاله) has the meaning of the object-noun ‘al-Ma’luh’ (المألوه) i.e. ‘worshipped one’


[5/278] ارشاد المفيد: جعفر بن محمد بن قولويه، عن محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، عن علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن جماعة من رجاله، عن يونس بن يعقوب قال: كنت عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فورد عليه رجل من أهل الشام ... ثم قال: يا هشام لا تكاد تقع تلوي رجليك إذا هممت بالأرض طرت، مثلك فليكلم الناس، فاتق الزلة والشفاعة من ورائها إن شاء الله

[5/278] Irshad al-Mufid: Ja’far b. Muhammad b. Qulawayh from Muhammad b. Ya’qub al-Kulayni from Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from a number of his men from Yunus b. Ya’qub who said: I was at Abi Abdillah’s عليه السلام when a man from the people of Sham came … then he [the Imam] said: O Hisham, you never fall flat [settle on the ground], every time it seems that you are about to come to ground [i.e. be defeated] you just bend your legs [to able to leap] and off you fly away again. The likes of you should debate the people. Therefore be wary of slipping and you will find that succor is around the corner if Allah wills.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites
4 hours ago, MustafaMc said:

Is the translation into English available for purchase in hard copy book form?

The Brother @Islamic Salvation is translating the ahadith himself from Arabic to English, because there is no English translation yet. May Allah bless him. 

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.171. Hisham b. Salim




Hisham b. Salim was one of the closest companions of al-Sadiq and al-Kadhim. One only needs to look at the extant narrations under his name (they reach 663 in number) to get a sense of his prolific nature. He was a first rate theologian in the same caliber as Hisham b. al-Hakam, Zurara b. A’yan and Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Nu’man Mu’min al-Taq. His importance can be gleamed by noting that his theological positions are recorded in several proto-Sunni heresiographical works.

al-Najashi had this to say about him:

مولى بشر بن مروان، أبو الحكم، كان من سبي الجوزجان، روى عن أبي عبد الله وأبي الحسن عليهما السلام. ثقة ثقة، له كتاب يرويه جماعة

A client of Bishr b. Marwan. Abu al-Hakam. He was one of the captives from Jurjan [who were enslaved and then freed]. He narrated from Abi Abdillah and Abi al-Hasan عليهما السلام. Thiqa Thiqa. He has a book which is transmitted by a number.

Other titles attributed to him include:

كتابه الحج، وكتابه التفسير، وكتابه المعراج

A book on Hajj, a book of Tafsir and a book on the Mi’raj (heavenly journey).

له أصل، الجعفي، مولاهم، كوفي، أبو محمد

al-Tusi identifies him as an author of a jurisprudential Asl (primary notebook), gives his residence as Kufa, makes him out to be a client of the Shi’i-oriented tribe Ju’fi and declares his agnomen to be Abu Muhammad.

al-Barqi gives his profession when he says:

يقال له الجواليقي، ثم صار علافا

He is called al-Jawaliqi (the maker of sacks) then he became an Allaf (merchant in fodder).


[1/279] رجال الكشي: محمد بن الحسن البراني و عثمان بن حامد، عن محمد بن يزداد، عن محمد بن الحسين، عن الحجال، عن هشام بن سالم قال: كلمت رجلا بالمدينة من بني مخزوم في الإمامة، قال: فقال: فمن الإمام اليوم؟ قال: قلت: جعفر بن محمد قال: فقال: و الله لأقولنها له قال: فغمني بذلك غما شديدا خوفا أن يلعني أبو عبد الله أو يتبرأ مني، قال: فأتاه المخزومي فدخل عليه، فجرى الحديث، قال: فقال له مقالة هشام، قال: فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: أفلا نظرت في قوله فنحن لذلك أهل، قال: فبقي الرجل لا يدري أيش يقول و قطع به، قال: فبلغ هشاما قول أبي عبد الله عليه السلام ففرح بذلك و انجلت غمته

[1/279] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Barani and Uthman b. Hamid from Muhammad b. Yazdad from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from al-Hajjal from Hisham b. Salim who said: I debated a man in Madina from the tribe of Makhzum about the Imama. He [the man] said to me: so who is the Imam today then? I [Hisham] said: Ja’far b. Muhammad. He [the man] said to me: by Allah - I am going to tell him this! He [Hisham] said: this threat of his grieved me greatly for I was afraid that Abu Abdillah would curse me and disassociate from me [for divulging the secret of the Imama in the heat of the debate]. The Makhzumi went to him, entered in to see him and they began conversing. He [al-Hajjal] says: He [the Makhzumi] relayed to him the words of Hisham. Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: Have you not considered his words - for we are worthy of that [Imama]. The man began crying and did not know what to say and had no words [remained silent]. He [al-Hajjal] said: When the words of Abu Abdillah عليه السلام to that man were reported to Hisham he became happy and his grief abated.


Taqiyya meant that one could not talk about the identity of the Imam and indeed the whole affair of Wilaya to any average person on the street. The moral responsibility for this lifting of general guidance falls on the Umma as a whole who had turned their backs on the Wasiyya of their prophet and sidelined the Aimma from positions of authority. They had to withdraw and safeguard Islam by educating an elite who could preserve the original version of the religion. 


[2/280] ارشاد المفيد: ابن قولويه، عن الكليني، عن محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن أبي يحيى الواسطي، عن هشام بن سالم قال: كنا بالمدينة بعد وفاة أبي عبد الله عليه السلام أنا ومحمد بن النعمان صاحب الطاق، والناس مجتمعون عند عبد الله بن جعفر أنه صاحب الامر بعد أبيه، فدخلنا عليه والناس عنده فسألناه عن الزكاة في كم تجب؟ قال: في مائتين درهم خمسة دراهم، فقلنا ففي مائة درهم؟ قال: درهمان ونصف، قلنا: والله ما تقول المرجئة هذا فقال: والله ما أدري ما تقول المرجئة، قال: فخرجنا ضلالا ما ندري إلى أين نتوجه أنا وأبو جعفر الاحول، فقعدنا في بعض أزقة المدينة ناكسين لا ندري أين نتوجه وإلى من نقصد، نقول: إلى المرجئة أم إلى القدرية أم إلى المعتزلة أم إلى الزيدية. فنحن كذلك إذ رأيت رجلا شيخا لا أعرفه يومئ إلي بيده، فخفت أن يكون عينا من عيون أبي جعفر المنصور، وذلك أنه كان له بالمدينة جواسيس على من تجتمع بعد جعفر الناس إليه، فيؤخذ ويضرب عنقه، فخفت أن يكون ذلك منهم فقلت للاحول: تنح فاني خائف على نفسي وعليك، وإنما يريدني ليس يريدك فتنح عني لا تهلك فتعين على نفسك، فتنحى بعيدا، وتبعت الشيخ وذلك أني ظننت أني لا أقدر على التخلص منه فما زلت أتبعه وقد عزمت على الموت، حتى ورد بي على باب أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام ثم خلاني ومضى، فإذا خادم بالباب قال لي: ادخل رحمك الله، فدخلت فإذا أبو الحسن موسى عليه السلام فقال لي ابتدءا منه: إلي إلي لا إلى المرجئة ولا إلى القدرية ولا إلى المعتزلة ولا إلى الزيدية ولا إلى الخوراج. قلت: جعلت فداك مضى أبوك؟ قال: نعم، قلت: مضى موتا قال: نعم، قلت: فمن لنا من بعده ؟ قال: إن شاء الله تعالى أن يهديك هداك، قلت: جعلت فداك إن عبد الله أخاك يزعم أنه الامام بعد أبيه فقال: عبد الله يريد أن لا يعبد الله، قلت: جعلت فداك فمن لنا بعده ؟ قال: إن شاء الله أن يهديك هداك، قلت: جعلت فداك أنت هو؟ قال: لا أقول ذلك، قال: فقلت في نفسي: لم اصب طريق المسألة، ثم قلت له: جعلت فداك عليك إمام؟ قال: لا فدخلني شئ لا يعلمه إلا الله إعظاما له وهيبة ثم قلت له: جعلت فداك أسألك كما كنت أسأل أباك؟ قال: اسأل تخبر ولا تذع فان أذعت فهو الذبح فسألته، فإذا هو بحر لا ينزف. فقلت: جعلت فداك شيعة أبيك ضلال فالقي إليهم هذا الامر وأدعوهم إليك فقد أخذت علي الكتمان؟ قال: من آنست منهم رشدا فألق إليه وخذ عليه الكتمان فإن أذاع فهو الذبح، وأشار بيده إلى حلقه قال: فخرجت من عنده ولقيت أبا جعفر الاحول فقال لي: ما وراك؟ قلت: الهدى وحدثته بالقصة، ثم لقينا زرارة وأبا بصير فدخلا عليه وسمعا كلامه وسألاه وقطعا عليه، ثم لقينا الناس أفواجا و كل من دخل إليه قطع عليه الا طائفة عمار الساباطي، وبقي عبد الله لا يدخل إليه من الناس إلا قليل

[2/280] Irshad al-Mufid: Ibn Qulawayh from al-Kulayni from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Abi Yahya al-Wasiti from Hisham b. Salim who said: Muhammad b. al-Nu’man Sahib al-Taq and I were in Madina after the death of Abi Abdillah عليه السلام and the people had gathered around Abdallah b. Ja’far - considering him to be the Master of the Affair after his father. We entered in to meet him while the people were with him. We asked him about the Zakat - at what amount is it to be levied? He said: five silver coins for every two hundred. We said: what about in a hundred silver coins? He said: two and a half silver coins. We said: by Allah this is what the Murjia say! he said: by Allah I do not even know what the Murjia say! 

He [Hisham] said: So I and Abu Ja’far al-Ahwal came out feeling lost not knowing where to go. We sat down in one of the streets of Madina, with our heads lowered, not knowing where to head or whom to seek. We kept saying to ourselves: Should we join the Murjia, or the Qadariyya, or the Mu’tazila or the Zaydiyya? We were still mulling over this when I saw an old man whom I did not recognize gesturing at me with his hand [to follow him]. I feared that he would turn out to be one of the spies of Abi  Ja’far al-Mansur, for he [the Abbasid Caliph] had spies in Madina ready to inform him the identity of the one around whom the people unite after Ja’far so that he [the successor] can be taken and killed. I feared that this was one such spy. I therefore said to al-Ahwal: Depart [from this place] for I fear for both of us, but he only wants me not you, so get away from me to save your life and escape death. He [al-Ahwal] withdrew far away while I followed the old man. I did this because I felt that I could not escape him. I kept following him having readied myself to meet death. He led me until we reached the door of Abi al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام whereupon he left me and departed.  

Suddenly a servant appeared at the door and said to me: Enter may Allah have mercy on you. I entered and found Abu al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام who said to me without being prompted: To me! To me! Not to the Murjia, nor the Qadariyya, nor the Mu’tazila, nor the Zaydiyya or the Khawarij. 

I said: May I be made your ransom - has your father passed on? He said: Yes. I said: passed away in death? He said: Yes. I said: Who do we have after him? He said: If Allah the Elevated wishes to guide you He will. I said: May I be made your ransom - your brother Abdallah claims to be the Imam after his father. He said: Abdallah wishes that Allah not be worshipped. I said: May I be made your ransom - who is for us after him [your father]? He said: If Allah wishes to guide you He will. I said: May I be your ransom - is it you? He said: I do not say that. 

He [Hisham] said: I said to myself [in my heart]: I am not putting the question appropriately. Then I said to him: May I be made your ransom - is there an Imam over you? He said: No. There entered me a feeling of  awe and reverence towards him which no one knows about except Allah.                

Then I said to him: May I be made your ransom - can I ask you the way I used to ask your father? He said: Ask and you will be informed but do not publicize it for if you do that then it will be slaughter. [Hisham says:] I asked him and found him to be an ocean [of knowledge] which does not dry up [is not exhausted]. 

I said: May I be made your ransom - the Shia of your father are lost should I avail them of this matter and call them to accept you [as the Imam] for you have binded me to secrecy? He said: The one in whom you detect signs of receptivity to guidance then inform him of this and bind him to secrecy for if he publicizes it then it will be slaughter - and he pointed with his hand to his throat. 

He [Hisham] said: I left his presence and met Aba Ja’far al-Ahwal. He said to me: What is behind you? I said: Guidance! and relayed to him the whole story. Then we encountered Zurara and Aba Basir who both entered in to see him [al-Kadim] and heard his talk and asked him and believed in him. Then we met the people in droves, whoever enters in to meet him [al-Kadhim] believes in him, except for the group led by Ammar al-Sabati [who were Fathis], and the people abandoned Abdallah and no one entered in to see him except very few.  


There are a number of issues which call into question this narrations authenticity despite the reliability of its chain.

- How are we to understand the claim that these great companions of al-Sadiq who were his foremost students did not have a clue about the identity of  the successor? And if this is the case with them then what hope for other ordinary lay people?

- What sense does it make for two great companions - Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Nu’man Mu’min al-Taq and Hisham b. Salim - to be considering converting to another sect merely because they have had one failed attempt to identify the successor? These were great theologians who had deep knowledge of all the different sects and had debated with other scholars to prove the superiority of the true Madhhab and expose the falsity of others.

What if al-Kadhim had remained in Taqiyya for longer - would this mean that they would have left the true Madhhab? Where is the duty of Intidhar (waiting for the Faraj)?

Perhaps this can be seen as a narrative device (embellishments to the story) to describe the magnitude of their feelings of hopelessness and despair.

- The narration describes Zurara entering in to meet al-Kadhim before accepting him as the Imam. This is a clear contradiction with several reliable narrations about Zurara being bed-ridden in Kufa at this time and having to send his son Ubayd to ascertain the situation in Madina [See Nos. 7/163, 8/164, and 9/165 in this collection]

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.172. Yahya b. (Abi) al-Qasim Abu Basir



[1/281] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن شعيب العقرقوفي قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: ربما احتجنا أن نسأل عن الشي‏ء فمن نسأل؟ قال: عليك بالأسدي، يعني أبا بصير

[1/281] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Ya’qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from Shuayb al-Aqraqufi who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: It may happen that we require to ask about something - so whom should we ask? He said: upon you is al-Asadi - meaning by it - Aba Basir.


This Abu Basir (d. 150) was a companion of the fifth and sixth Imams and was blind from birth.

Allamah Hilli quotes in his Khulasat al-Aqwal from the now lost Kitab al-Rijal of Sayyid Ali b. Ahmad al-Uqayqi as follows:

وقال علي بن أحمد العقيقي: يحيى بن القاسم الأسدي، مولاهم، ولد مكفوفا، رأى الدنيا مرتين، مسح أبو عبد الله عليه السلام على عينيه، وقال: انظر ما ترى؟ قال: أرى كوة في البيت وقد أرانيها أبوك من قبلك

Yahya b. al-Qasim al-Asadi, their client [of Bani Asad]. He was born blind. He saw the world twice. Abu Abdillah عليه السلام wiped his hands over his eyes and said: look - what do you see? He [Abu Basir] said: I see a window in the room. Your father had shown it to me before you.

That al-Baqir عليه السلام had already done a miracle of this nature once before has come in al-Kafi as below: 

عن عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن علي بن الحكم، عن مثنى الحناط، عن أبي بصير قال: دخلت على أبي جعفر عليه السلام فقلت له: أنتم ورثة رسول الله ص؟ قال: نعم، فقلت رسول الله ص وارث الأنبياء علم كل ما علموا؟ قال لي: نعم، قلت: فأنتم تقدرون على أن تحيوا الموتى وتبرءوا الأكمه والأبرص؟ قال: نعم بإذن الله، ثم قال لي: ادن مني يا أبا محمد، فدنوت منه فمسح على وجهي وعلى عيني فأبصرت الشمس والسماء والأرض والبيوت، وكل شيء في البلد، ثم قال لي: أتحب أن تكون هكذا، ولك ما للناس، وعليك ما عليهم يوم القيامة، أو تعود كما كنت ولك الجنة خالصا؟ قلت: أعود كماكنت، فمسح على عيني فعدت كما كنت، قال: فحدثت ابن أبي عمير بهذا، فقال: أشهد أن هذا حق، كما أن النهار حق

A numer of our companions – Ahmad b. Muhammad – Ali b. al-Hakam – Muthanna al-Hannat – Abi Basir who said: I entered in to see Abi Ja’far عليه السلام and said to him: Are you the successors of the Messenger of Allah? He said: Yes. I said: The Messenger of Allah is the inheritor of all the prophets – he knows all that which they knew? He said: Yes. I said: So you are capable of giving life to the dead and curing the blind and the leper? He said: Yes, with the permission of Allah. Then he [the Imam] said to me: Come closer to me O Aba Muhammad. I approached near him and he wiped over my face and my eyes so I could see the sun, and the sky, and the ground and the houses, and everything in the town. Then he said to me: Do you wish to remain like this, and for you is what is for the people [you enjoy the same rights], and on you is what is on them [of responsibility] on the day of judgment or do you wish to revert back to how you were and for you be paradise? I said: I revert back to how I was. He wiped over my eyes and I returned back to my former state.

I [Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa] narrated this to Ibn Abi Umayr so he said: I bear witness that this is true just as the day is true.

This blindness did not act as an obstacle in his way and Abu Basir became one of the greatest narrators and scholars of Shi’i Islam.

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.173. Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman



Biographical Synopsis

The fact that Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman (d. 208) was a Mawla (non-Arab) has naturally led to speculation about his origins. His lineage is unknown beyond his first and last names. Both of these - Yunus (Jonah) the son of Abd al-Rahman (Servant of the All-Merciful)  - are generic and typical of new converts to Islam. Beyond this nothing can be said.

Indeed there was early speculation as to him being a foundling (orphaned boy with missing parents) who was adopted by the family of Yaqtin.

 علي بن محمد القتيبي قال سالت الفضل بن شاذان عن الحديث الذي روي في يونس انه لقيط آل يقطين قال كذب، ولد يونس في آخر زمان هشام بن عبد الملك ويقطين لم  يكن في ذلك الزمان انما كان في زمن ولد العباس

Ali b. Muhammad al-Qutaybi asked al-Fadhl b. Shadhan concerning what is reported about Yunus that he was a foundling of the family of Yaqtin. He (Fadhl) said: It is lies! Yunus was born towards the end of the reign of Hisham b. Abd al-Malik and Yaqtin was not there in those days, he was in the age of the descendants of Abbas.

While Fadhl denies the patronage of Yaqtin over Yunus from the earliest times, he does not dispute the basic fact of Yunus being a foundling. The fact that such a question could be asked shows how obscure his ancestry was.

It is only the egalitarian nature of Islam that allowed someone without any pedigree whatsoever to rise to the peak of society based on his intellectual abilities and devotion to the religion.      

This is what we find in al-Najashi’s entry on him:

يونس بن عبد الرحمن، مولى علي بن يقطين بن موسى، مولى بني أسد، أبو محمد: كان وجها في أصحابنا متقدما، عظيم المنزلة، ولد في أيام هشام بن عبد الملك، ورأى جعفر بن محمد عليه السلام بين الصفا والمروة ولم يرو عنه، وروى عن أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام، والرضا عليه السلام، وكان الرضا عليه السلام يشير إليه في العلم والفتيا، وكان ممن بذل له على الوقف مال جزيل، فامتنع من أخذه وثبت على الحق ...

Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman. A Client of Ali b. Yaqtin b. Musa - himself a Client of the Bani Asad. Abu Muhammad. He was notable among our companions and possessed seniority. He had a great status. He was born in the reign of Hisham b. Abd al-Malik (reigned 105-125). He saw Ja’far b. Muhammad عليه السلام (d.148) between Safa and Marwa (from a distance) but did not narrate from him. He narrated from Abi al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام and al-Ridha عليه السلام. al-Ridha عليه السلام used to direct people to him as an authority in knowledge and jurisprudential reponsa. He was one of those who was sent a considerable amount to support Waqf (stopping at al-Kadhim and rejecting al-Ridha) but he refused to take it and remained firm upon the truth …         

و مدائح يونس كثيرة ليس هنا موضعها، وإنما ذكرنا هذا حتى لا نخليه من بعض حقوقه رحمه الله

The narrations in praise of Yunus are many but this not the place to enumerate them all. We have included this so that we do not fall short in fulfilling some of what is due to him. May Allah have mercy on him.       

Al-Tusi says:

له أكثر من ثلاثين كتابا

He authored more than thirty books. 

He occurs in the chains of at least 263 narrations accessible to us.


[1/282] مصابيح النور للمفيد: أبو القاسم جعفر بن محمد بن قولويه، عن علي بن الحسين بن بابويه، عن عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري، عن ابي هاشم داود بن القاسم الجعفري قال: عرضت على أبي محمد صاحب العسكر عليه السلام كتاب يوم وليلة ليونس، فقال لي: تصنيف من هذا؟ فقلت: تصنيف يونس مولى آل يقطين، فقال: أعطاه الله بكل حرف نورا يوم القيامة

[1/282] Masabih al-Nur of al-Mufid: Abu al-Qasim Ja’far b. Muhammad b. Qulawayh from Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babawayh from Abdallah b. Ja’far al-Himyari from Abi Hashim Dawud b. al-Qasim al-Ja’fari who said: I presented the book “Yawm wa Layla” of Yunus to Abi Muhammad al-Askari عليه السلام. He [the Imam] said to me: Who authored this? I said: It has been authored by Yunus the client of the family of Yaqtin. He said: May Allah give him for every letter a light on the day of judgment.


[2/283] رجال الكشي: إبراهيم بن المختار بن محمد بن العباس، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن أبيه، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام (في حق كتاب يونس): هذا ديني و دين آبائي و هو الحق كله

[2/283] Rijal al-Kashshi: Ibrahim b. al-Mukhtar b. Muhammad b. al-Abbas from Ali b. al-Hasan b. Fadhal from his father from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام (who said about the book of Yunus): This is my religion and the religion of my forefathers and it is the whole truth.


[3/284] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن اليقطيني، عن يونس قال: العبد الصالح عليه السلام: يا يونس ارفق بهم، فإن كلامك يدق عليهم قال: قلت: إنهم يقولون لي: زنديق، قال لي: ما يضرك أن تكون في يديك لؤلؤة فيقول لك الناس: هي حصاة، وما كان ينفعك إذا كان في يدك حصاة فيقول الناس: هي لؤلؤة

[3/284] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Yaqtini from Yunus who said: The Righteous Servant [al-Kadhim] عليه السلام said: O Yunus - be more lenient towards them for your words are hard-hitting on them. I said: but they call me Zindiq! He said to me: What will it harm you if you have in your hands a pearl but the people say to you ‘it is a stone’, and what will it benefit you if you have in your hand a stone but the people say ‘it is a pearl’.


[4/285] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن أبو هاشم داود بن القاسم الجعفري، عن أبي جعفر بن الرضا عليهما السلام قال: سألته عن يونس، فقال: مولى آل يقطين؟ قلت: نعم، فقال لي: رحمه الله كان عبدا صالحا

[4/285] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Abu Hashim Dawud b. al-Qasim al-Ja’fari from Abi Ja’far b. al-Ridha عليهما السلام. He [Dawud] said: I asked him about Yunus so he said: the client of the family of Yaqtin? I said: Yes. He said to me: May Allah have mercy on Him, he was a righteous servant.


[5/286] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن محمد بن نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن عبد العزيز ابن المهتدي قال: قلت لأبي الحسن الرضا عليه السلام: جعلت فداك لا أكاد أصل إليك لأسألك عن كل ما أحتاج إليه من معالم ديني، أفيونس بن عبد الرحمن ثقة آخذ عنه ما أحتاج إليه من معالم ديني فقال: نعم

[5/286] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Muhammad b. Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Abd al-Aziz b. al-Muhtadi who said: I said to Abi al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام: May I be made your ransom - I cannot always reach you to ask you all that which I need from the teachings of my religion, is Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman Thiqa (trustworthy) and can I take from him what I need from the teachings of my religion? He said: Yes.   


[6/287] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم ابنا نصير، عن العبيدي، عن هشام بن إبراهيم الختلي و هو المشرقي قال: قال لي أبو الحسن الخراساني عليه السلام: كيف تقولون في الاستطاعة بعد يونس؟ فذهب فيها  مذهب زرارة و مذهب زرارة هو الخطاء! ...

[6/287] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim the sons of Nusayr from al-Ubaydi from Hisham b. Ibrahim al-Khatli [al-Mashriqi] who said: Abu al-Hasan al-Khurasani عليه السلام said to me: What do you say regarding Istita’a (Human capacity to act) after Yunus? For he (Yunus) has subscribed to the opinion of Zurara while the opinion of Zurara is wrong! ... 


[7/288] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن هشام المشرقي إنه دخل على أبي الحسن الخراساني عليه السلام فقال: إن أهل البصرة سألوا عن الكلام، فقالوا: إن يونس يقول إن الكلام ليس بمخلوق فقلت لهم: صدق يونس إن الكلام ليس بمخلوق، أما بلغكم قول أبي جعفر عليه السلام حين سئل عن القرآن أخالق هو أو مخلوق؟ فقال لهم ليس بخالق و لا مخلوق إنما هو كلام الخالق، فقويت أمر يونس، و قالوا: إن يونس يقول إن من السنة أن يصلي الإنسان ركعتين و هو جالس بعد العتمة؟ فقلت: صدق يونس

[7/288] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Hisham al-Mashriqi - that he entered in to see Abi al-Hasan al-Khurasani عليه السلام who said: The people of Basra asked about ‘the divine speech’ and said: Yunus says that ‘the divine speech’ is not created. I said to them: Yunus has spoken the truth - ‘the divine speech’ is not created. Has the statement of Abi Ja’far عليه السلام not reached you when he was asked about the Qur’an ‘is it creator or created?’ He said to them: It is not creator nor created, rather it is the speech of the creator. In this way the position of Yunus was strengthened. They also said: Yunus says that it is from the Sunna for a man to pray two units while seated after the final Isha prayer? I said: Yunus has spoken the truth.  


[8/289] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن محمد بن نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى قال: أخبرني يونس أن أبا الحسن عليه السلام ضمن لي الجنة من النار

[8/289] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Muhammad b. Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa who said: Yunus informed me that Aba al-Hasan عليه السلام had guaranteed protection from the fire for him.


[9/290] امالي الصدوق: محمد بن الحسن بن الوليد، عن محمد بن الحسن الصفار، عن العباس بن معروف، عن علي بن مهزيار قال: كتبت إلى أبي جعفر الثاني عليهما السلام: جعلت فداك اصلي خلف من يقول بالجسم ومن يقول بقول يونس، يعني ابن عبد الرحمن؟ فكتب عليه السلام: لا تصلوا خلفهم، ولا تعطوهم من الزكاة، وابرؤوا منهم، برئ الله منهم

[290/9] Amali of al-Saduq: Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. al-Walid from Muhammad b. al-Hassan al-Saffar from al-Abbas b. Ma’ruf from Ali b. Mahziyar who said: I wrote to Abi Ja’far the Second عليه السلام: May I be made your ransom - should I pray behind the one who believes in ‘a corporeal body (for God)’ and the one who follows the position of Yunus, that is the son of Abd al-Rahman? He عليه السلام wrote: Do not pray behind them nor give them anything of the Zakat. Disassociate from them - Allah has disassociated from them.


Yunus was a controversial figure because he was one of the few Shi’i practitioners of Kalam (associated with the school of Hisham).

ضعفه القميون، وهو ثقة

al-Tusi notes that the Qummis had weakened him while he (and later consensus) considers him Thiqa.

What lies at the root of this controversy was the differential attitude of the Imams towards engagement in Kalam (speculative theology). The early Shīʿī mutakallimūn were constantly challenged by the overwhelming majority of their co-religionists who defined their role as unquestioningly receiving and transmitting what they had learned from the Imams alone and thus refraining from engaging in theological debates. These traditionists blamed the mutakallimūn for challenging the authority of the Imams when expressing independent views.

Sometimes the way in which the mutakallimūn expressed certain ideas was not understood by the majority [See No. 3/284] which led to suspicion towards them.

It is important to note however that the prominent Shīʿī mutakallimūn were at the same time disciples of the Imams and their faithful transmitters. They derived their doctrinal notions by and large from the teachings of the Imams, whom they considered as the ultimate source of knowledge.  They relegated reason to the role of a means in dialectic. Doctrinally, the mutakallimūn were thus in basic agreement with their opponents among the traditionists as to the authority of the Imam and the need to submit to them when corrected.

As to the particular accusation against the school of Hisham and Yunus regarding their positions on Tawhid and whether the ‘Aimma excommunicated them as this Hadith suggests then it needs a separate monograph which is forthcoming God willing.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

3.174. Yunus b. Dhabayn



[1/291] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه القمي، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس قال: سمعت رجلا من الطيارة يحدث أبا الحسن الرضا عليه السلام عن يونس بن ظبيان أنه قال: كنت في بعض الليالي و أنا في الطواف فإذا نداء من فوق رأسي يا يونس إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لا إِلهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَ أَقِمِ الصَّلاةَ لِذِكْرِي فرفعت رأسي فأذا ج فغضب أبو الحسن عليه السلام غضبا لم يملك نفسه ثم قال للرجل: اخرج عني لعنك الله و لعن من حدثك و لعن يونس بن ظبيان ألف لعنة يتبعها ألف لعنة كل لعنة منها تبلغك قعر جهنم اشهد ما ناداه إلا شيطان أما إن يونس مع أبي الخطاب في أشد العذاب مقرونان و أصحابهما إلى ذلك الشيطان مع فرعون و آل فرعون في أشد العذاب سمعت ذلك من أبي عليه السلام قال يونس: فقام الرجل من عنده فما بلغ الباب إلا عشر خطا حتى صرع مغشيا عليه و قد قاء رجيعه و حمل ميتا، فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: أتاه ملك بيده عمود فضرب على هامته ضربة قلب فيها مثانته حتى قاء رجيعه و عجل الله بروحه إلى الهاوية و ألحقه بصاحبه الذي حدثه، بيونس بن ظبيان، و رأى الشيطان الذي كان يتراءى له

[1/291] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus who said: I heard a man from the Tayyara recounting for Abi al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام that Yunus b. Dhabyan had said: I was making the Tawaf in one of the nights when I heard a call coming from above my head saying: ‘O Yunus - it is I who am Allah there is no god except Me - so worship Me and establish the prayer for my remembrance’ (20:14). I raised my head to look up and lo and behold it was “J” (alluding to Jibril). 

Abu al-Hasan عليه السلام became furious at hearing this, a fury such that he could barely control himself and said to the man: Get away from me may Allah curse you, may He curse the one who reported this to you, and may He curse Yunus b. Dhabyan a thousand curses followed by another thousand curses, each curse sufficient to expel you to a pit of Hell. I bear witness that no one called out to him except a Shaytan. Verily Yunus is together with Abi al-Khattab in the severest of punishments, bound together with their followers unto that Shaytan, together with Firaun and the people of Firaun in the severest of punishments. I heard this from my father عليه السلام 

Yunus [b. Abd al-Rahman] said: The man stood up to depart, he had not reached the door and made but ten steps when he fell unconscious, vomited out his excrement and was carried away dead. Abu al-Hasan عليه السلام said: An angel bearing a column came to him and struck him on the head such a blow that his bladder reversed [upside down] and he vomited excretion. Allah hastened his soul to the Hawiya and joined him with his fellow who informed him of this, with Yunus b. Dhabyan, and he saw the Shaytan who used to appear to him.  


Look at the report below to get a sense of the perversity of this Yunus.

و عن أحمد بن عليّ، عن الآدمي، عن أبي القاسم عبد الرحمن بن حمّاد، عن ابن فضّال، عن غالب بن عثمان، عن عمّار بن أبي عتيبة قال: هلكت بنت لأبي الخطّاب، فلمّا دفنها أطلع يونس بن ظبيان في قبرها، فقال: السلام عليك يا بنت رسول اللّه

Ahmad b. Ali – al-Adami – Abi al-Qasim Abd al-Rahman b. Hammad  - Ibn Fadhal – Ghalib b. Uthman – Ammar b. Abi Utayba who said: A daughter of Abi al-Khattab died. When she had been buried Yunus b. Dhabyan looked at the grave and said: Peace be upon you O daughter of the Messenger of Allah!

This indicates that he considered Abu al-Khattab to be a prophet.

This is how Yunus b. Dhabyan is described in the works of the early Rijal scholars.

ذكر الفضل في بعض كتبه: من الكذّابين المشهورين: أبو الخطّاب و يونس بن ظبيان

al-Fadhl [b. Shadhan] mentioned in one of his books: Among the infamous liars are Abu al-Khattab and Yunus b. Dhabyan.

كوفي غال وضّاع للحديث، روى عن أبي عبد اللّه عليه السّلام لا يلتفت إلى حديثه

Ibn al-Ghadhairi: Kufan. Ghali. Fabricator of narrations. He narrated from Abi Abdillah عليه السّلام. No consideration is given to his narrations.

مولى ضعيف جدّا، لا يلتفت إلى ما رواه، كلّ كتبه تخليط

al-Najashi: Client. Very weak. No consideration is given to what he transmitted. All his books are full of corrupt material.

al-Muhsini says: Despite this, the same Yunus b. Dhabyan appears in the chains of the narrations found in Kamil al-Ziyarat and Tafsir al-Qummi. What is baffling is that the teacher Sayyid al-Khoei believes in the Wathaqa of all those who occur in the chains of these two books except the one who has explicit Jarh. He believes that the two authors do not narrate in their respective books except from those they consider Thiqa. 

By my life! Isn’t the presence of such an individual in the chains of the two books a strong enough evidence to disprove what the teacher had postulated. I had previously written to him from Islamabad the capital of Pakistan that ‘your book Mu’jam Rijal al-Hadith is a useful and insightful book which has no parallel but if only it did not contain these Tawthiqat which are based on the occurrence of narrators in the chains of Kamil al-Ziyarat and Tafsir al-Qummi!’

He did in the end retract his opinion with regards Tawthiqat from Kamil al-Ziyarat. 

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites
On 3/18/2018 at 12:19 AM, Islamic Salvation said:

He did in the end retract his opinion with regards Tawthiqat from Kamil al-Ziyarat. 


Did Sayyed al-Khoei retracted from Tafsir al-Qummi opinion, I read somewhere in this forum that he did.

Wa aleykumsalaam

Share this post

Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now