Jump to content
Islamic Salvation

A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

Reza

Lots of time and effort has been made on this list. Thanks for creating this collection.

Message added by Reza

Rate this topic

Recommended Posts

2.19. Some Rulings which are Time-Bound

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/some-rulings-which-are-time-bound

 

al-Muhsini: The default position as far as the rulings of the Shar`ia are concerned is that they are permanent. This is true for all of them except those which are proven to be temporary. One can infer from some narrations that the rulings they propound are not permanent. We will include three examples of these though there may be more instances.

 

[-/1] الفقيه: باسناده عن عمر بن أذينه عن زرارة عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سألته عن المريض كيف يسجد؟ فقال: على خمرة أو على مروحة أو على سواك يرفع إليه وهو أفضل من الايماء، إنما كره من كره السجود على المروحة من أجل الاوثان التي كانت تعبد من دون الله وإنا لم نعبد غير الله قط فاسجدوا على المروحة وعلى السواك وعلى عود 

[1/-] al-Faqih: Via his chain to Umar b. Udhayna from Zurara from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام, he (Zurara) said: I asked him about the sick person - how does he prostrate? He said: on a small palm-leaf mat or on a hand-held fan or on a tooth-stick which is raised to him [made to touch his forehead], and it is better than gesturing [without the forehead touching anything], verily the one who dislikes prostrating on the hand-held fan dislikes it because of the idols which used to be worshiped apart from Allah, and we never worship anything besides Allah ever - so prostrate on the fan and on the tooth-stick and on a piece of wood.

NOTES:

خمرة “Khumra” - a small mat made from palm tree leaves.

المروحة “Mirwah” - a hand-held fan made mostly from palm tree leaves. Could also have a wooden handle. They were usually rectangular or round in shape and used for both airing and swatting away flying insects.

سواك “Siwak” - a stick from the Arak tree used to brush teeth.

عود “Uwd” - a piece of wood; a wooden stick stemming from a tree branch.

The Imam is asked about the specifics of the prostration of a sick person [who is lying on his back]. There is an opinion which says that he should gesture using his head, or even his eyes if his head cannot move, but this Hadith indicates that it is preferable that he - either by himself or through assistance - raise certain items to his forehead. The items mentioned herein are those which would normally be found in a house. Note that a key feature of all the house-hold items mentioned like the small palm-leaf mat or the palm-leaf fan or the piece of wood (wooden stick) is that they all fulfill the condition of being from the earth.

In my research I came across some narrations proving that the `Amma did indeed dislike if not outright prohibit the indisposed to prostrate on such items. 

عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنِ الثَّوْرِيِّ، عَنْ جَبَلَةَ بْنِ سُحَيْمٍ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ عَمْرَ يُسْأَلُ: أَيُصَلِّي الرَّجُلُ عَلَى الْعُودِ وَهُوَ مَرِيضٌ؟ فَقَالَ: لا آمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْثَانًا، مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ قَائِمًا فَلْيُصَلِّ قَائِمًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَجَالِسًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَمُضْطَجِعًا يُومِي إِيمَاءً

Ibn Umar was asked: does a man pray on a piece of wood when he is sick? he said: I do not order you to set up apart from Him idols, whoever is able to pray standing let him pray standing, the one who cannot should pray seated, and if he cannot then lying on his side and making gestures [Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq]

أبو عبد الله الحافظ، أنبأ أبو عمرو بن مطر، ثنا يحيى بن محمد، ثنا عبيد الله بن معاذ، ثنا أبي، ثنا شعبة عن جبلة قال: سئل ابن عمر - وأنا أسمع - عن الصلاة على المروحة، فقال: لا تتخذ مع الله إلها آخر، أو قال: لا تتخذ لله أندادا، صل قاعدا واسجد على الأرض، فإن لم تستطع فأومئ إيماء، واجعل السجود أخفض من الركوع

Ibn Umar was asked about prostrating on a hand-held fan - so he said: do not set up besides Allah another god, or he said: do not set up for Allah rivals, pray while sitting and prostrate on the earth, but if you cannot then make gestures, and make your prostration lower than your bowing (your prostration gesture should be lower than bowing one) [Sunan al-Bayhaqi]

نَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ، عَنِ الْأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ قَالَ: دَخَلَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ عَلَى أَخِيهِ عُتْبَةَ يَعُودُهُ فَوَجَدَهُ عَلَى عُودٍ يُصَلِّي فَطَرَحَهُ، وَقَالَ: إِنَّ هَذَا شَيْءٌ عَرَّضَ بِهِ الشَّيْطَانُ، ضَعْ وَجْهَكَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَسْتَطِعْ فَأَوْمِئْ إِيمَاءً

Abdallah entered upon his brother Utba visiting him [in his sickness], so he found him praying upon a piece of wood, he tossed it away and said: this is a thing which the Shaytan appeared with, put your face upon the earth, but if you cannot then make gestures [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba]

In another variant of the above, Utba was prostrating on a tooth-stick.

عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنِ الثَّوْرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ، عَنْ عَلْقَمَةَ، وَالْأَسْوَدَ، أَنَّ ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ دَخَلَ عَلَى عُتْبَةَ أَخِيهِ، وَهُوَ يُصَلِّي عَلَى مِسْوَاكٍ يَرْفَعُهُ إِلَى وَجْهِهِ، فَأَخَذَهُ فَرَمَى بِهِ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: أَوْمِ إِيمَاءً وَلْتَكُنْ رَكْعَتُكَ أَرْفَعَ مِنْ سَجْدَتِكَ

Abdallah entered upon his brother Utba and found him prostrating on a tooth-stick raising it to his forehead, so he took it and threw it away and then said: make gestures and your bowing should be higher than your prostration [Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq]

This position is also attributed to Zayd b. Ali

قَالَ زَيْدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: يُصَلِّي الْمَرِيضُ قَائِمًا، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَجَالِسًا، وَيَرْكَعُ وَيَسْجُدُ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ أَوْمَأَ إِيمَاءً، قَالَ : لَا يَسْجُدُ عَلَى عُودِهِ ، وَلَا مُرُوحَةٍ ، وَلَا وِسَادَةٍ

Zayd b. Ali said: the sick person prays while standing, if he cannot he does so seated, and he bows and prostrates on the earth, if he cannot do so he makes gestures, he also said: one does not prostrate on his wooden stick, nor hand-held fan nor cushion [Musnad Zayd b. Ali]

As can be seen from the above, the aversion to prostrating on these items is connected in some way to idolatry. A clue as to what this could be is found in the words of Ibn Mas`ud below:

عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ ، عَنْ حَمَّادٍ ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ، عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ : أَوَّلُ مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْعُودِ الَّذِي يَسْجُدُ عَلَيْهِ إِبْلِيسُ ، وَكَانَ يَكْرَهُهُ مِنْ أَجْلِ النَّصَارَى وَصُلُبِهِمْ

Ibn Mas`ud: the first one to come with the wood which they prostrate on is Iblis, and it is disliked because of the Christians and their wooden crosses [al-Athar of Abu Yusuf

Apparently, prostrating on wood was linked to the christian veneration of wooden crosses (which they touch on their foreheads) and thus in turn with polytheistic trinity.

Another possible reason could be the fact that the idols in the time of Jahiliyya were mostly constructed using wood and also palm leaves [Ref. to Kitab al-Asnam of al-Kalbi]. 

This is as far as the proto-Sunnis are concerned, as for us, the Imam makes clear that we never worship idols and any such aversion does not exist, because any association in these items with idolaters has ceased.

It is based on such an argument that Sayyid al-Khumayni legalized chess as it is played in the modern period because he considered the `Illa for its prohibition to be intimately related to the culture in which it was played in the early period [i.e. in gatherings of music, wine-drinking, gambling and dancing among the libertines]. Thus it became a symbol of being lax in the Shar`ia.

 

[-/2] كمال الدين: عن جماعة منهم علي بن عبدالله الوراق عن أبوالحسين محمدبن جعفر الاسدي قال: كان فيما ورد علي من الشيخ أبي جعفر محمدبن عثمان قدس الله روحه في جواب مسائلي إلي صاحب الزمان عليه السلام: ... وأما ماسألت عنه من أمر المصلي والنار والصورة والسراج بين يديه هل تجوز صلاته فإن الناس اختلفوا في ذلك قبلك، فإنه جائز لمن لم يكن من أولاد عبدة الاصنام أو عبدة النيران أن يصلي والنار والصورة والسراج بين يديه، ولايجوز ذلك لمن كان من أولاد عبدة الاصنام والنيران

[2/-] Kamal al-Diin:  From a number - among them Ali b. Abdallah al-Warraq - from Abu al-Husayn Muhammad b. Ja`far al-Asadi who said: among that which reached me from the Shaykh Abi Ja`far Muhammad b. Uthman قدس الله روحه in reply to my questions to the Master of the Age عليه السلام … as for that which you have asked about in regards the one who prays while the fire, or an image, or a lamp is in front of him - is his prayer accepted? [you ask this] because the people in your midst have differed about that - then - it is permissible for the one who is not a direct descendant of the idol-worshipers or fire-worshipers to pray while the fire, or an image, or a lamp is in front of him, and it is not permissible for the one who is a direct descendant of the idol and fire worshipers.

NOTES:

al-Muhsini: The reason for this difference in treatment is because of the differences in people’s up-bringing as well as mental states. Some of the rulings were issued having certain circumstances in mind, this being the case, the ruling lapses with the lapse of the concomitant circumstances, and this is a very wide door [which the Fuqaha can use in their Istinbat] but only for those who expend efforts on the `Ahadith and scrutinize all their different aspects thoroughly.  

I say: most of the converts who came to Islam in the newly conquered lands, like the melting pot of different traditions that was Iraq, continued to have an intimate attachment to their former religions. A lot of converts at the time converted only for reasons of political expediency and to improve their lot in life, this phenomenon was compounded by the fact that the temporal rulers were not from the Ahl al-Bayt and could not impress upon the people the authentic teachings of Islam. In such scenarios, one can easily see why a hybridized religion could be born which borrows practices from both Islam and the ancient pre-Islamic creeds. It is to avoid this that strict demarcations had to be in place so that the corruption of religion is minimized.

 

[-/3] العلل : عن محمد بن الحسن بن الوليد، عن محمد بن الحسن الصفار، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران، عن محمد بن حمران، عن محمد ابن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: كان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله نهى أن تحبس لحوم الاضاحي فوق ثلاثة أيام من أجل الحاجة ، فأما اليوم فلا بأس به 

[3/-] al-Ilal: From Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. al-Walid from Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Saffar from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Najran from Muhammad b. Humran from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام who said: the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله had prohibited that the meat of the sacrificed animals (in the Id festival) be kept for more than three days because of the prevailing need, as for today then there is no harm in doing so.

NOTES:

The same ruling has also been narrated in Sunni sources which again demonstrates the convergence between our two sects in terms of the prophetic legacy. 

They quote Ali عليه السلام as saying: 

  حدثني حرملة بن يحيى أخبرنا ابن وهب حدثني يونس عن ابن شهاب حدثني أبو عبيد مولى ابن أزهر أنه شهد العيد مع عمر بن الخطاب قال ثم صليت مع علي بن أبي طالب قال فصلى لنا قبل الخطبة ثم خطب الناس فقال إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قد نهاكم أن تأكلوا لحوم نسككم فوق ثلاث ليال فلا تأكلوا

“The messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم prohibited you from eating the meat of your sacrifices beyond three nights, so do not eat it [after that]” [Sahih Bukhari & Muslim]

Some of their scholars rule based on this, they claim that the Khutba of Ali was after the death of the prophet and thus this command did not change.

However, the famous and stronger opinion is that the command was only a temporary one and was later abrogated, although there remains a question whether it was abrogated forever or whether the ruling returns if the situation changes.

The position that it was abrogated is based on the narration of Burayda quoted below (among others):

حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة ومحمد بن المثنى قالا حدثنا محمد بن فضيل قال أبو بكر عن أبي سنان وقال ابن المثنى عن ضرار بن مرة عن محارب عن ابن بريدة عن أبيه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ... نهيتكم عن لحوم الأضاحي فوق ثلاث فأمسكوا ما بدا لكم ...

“The messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: … I had prohibited you from eating the meat of the sacrificed animals (on the Id festival) beyond three days but now store it for as long as you want …” [Sahih Muslim]

It is because of this apparent contradiction that al-Shafi’i said:

وقال الشافعي : من قال بالنهي عن الادخار بعد ثلاث لم يسمع الرخصة . ومن قال بالرخصة مطلقا لم يسمع النهي عن الادخار . ومن قال بالنهي والرخصة سمعهما جميعا فعمل بمقتضاهما والله أعلم 

“Whoever prohibits storing it beyond three days did not hear the permission [to do so – from the prophet], and whoever rules about its absolute permissibility did not hear the prohibition of storing [from the prophet], but the one who has both prohibited it [under certain circumstances] and allowed it [otherwise] heard both statements [from the prophet] and acted upon its collective import. And Allah knows better” [al-Jami li Ahkam al-Qur’an of al-Qurtubi]

And this reveals an important point, recall that in another Hadith the Imam had said that the Sahaba did not lie about the prophet, but the main cause of their divergences was the phenomenon of abrogation. There can be no better case in point than this one.

Perhaps the best narrations to shed light on the matter and resolve it come from Aisha as follows:

حدثنا خلاد بن يحيى حدثنا سفيان عن عبد الرحمن بن عابس عن أبيه قال قلت لعائشة أنهى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن تؤكل لحوم الأضاحي فوق ثلاث قالت ما فعله إلا في عام جاع الناس فيه فأراد أن يطعم الغني الفقير وإن كنا لنرفع الكراع فنأكله بعد خمس عشرة قيل ما اضطركم إليه فضحكت قالت ما شبع آل محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم من خبز بر مأدوم ثلاثة أيام حتى لحق بالله

Abis said to Aisha: the prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم prohibited the eating of the sacrificial meat [of the Id festival] beyond three? She said: he did not do that except the year in which the people went hungry, because he wished that the rich feed the poor, we used to keep the sheep’s trotters (of the sacrificed animal) and eat it after fifteen days, it was said: what made you do that (for it is a lowly part)? so she laughed and said: the family of Muhammad never satiated themselves from the bread of wheat with meat for three consecutive days ever until he returned to meet Allah [Sahih Bukhari]

حدثنا إسحق بن إبراهيم الحنظلي أخبرنا روح حدثنا مالك عن عبد الله بن أبي بكر عن عبد الله بن واقد قال نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن أكل لحوم الضحايا بعد ثلاث قال عبد الله بن أبي بكر فذكرت ذلك لعمرة فقالت صدق سمعت عائشة تقول دف أهل أبيات من أهل البادية حضرة الأضحى زمن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ادخروا ثلاثا ثم تصدقوا بما بقي فلما كان بعد ذلك قالوا يا رسول الله إن الناس يتخذون الأسقية من ضحاياهم ويجملون منها الودك فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وما ذاك قالوا نهيت أن تؤكل لحوم الضحايا بعد ثلاث فقال إنما نهيتكم من أجل الدافة التي دفت فكلوا وادخروا وتصدقوا

Abdallah b. Waqid: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم prohibited eating the sacrificial meat after three [days], Abdallah b. Abi Bakr said: so I mentioned that to Umra - she said: he is right, I heard Aisha saying: some families the desert-dwellers [bedouins] came to Madina close to Id al-Adhha in the time of the messenger of Allah, so the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: store it only for three days then give as charity whatever remains, but when it (the Id) occurred again (the next year) they said: O messenger of Allah - the people are used to making water-bags out of their sacrificed animals (curing the skins) and also melting fat out of them! So the messenger of Allah said: what about it? they said: you prohibited eating (and making use) of the sacrificed animals after three [days]? He said: I prohibited you then because of the bedouins who had come - so (as for now) you can eat of it and store it (as long as you want) and give it out as charity. 

دافة “Dafa” - the poor people who have migrated temporarily to the urban centers to find provisions to sustain life because of the suffering in the desert as a result of drought.

The explanation given by Aisha is the same one given by our Imams.

أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن أبيه ، عن محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب، عن محمد بن إسماعيل بن بزيع، عن يونس، عن جميل بن دراج قال : سألت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن حبس لحوم الاضاحي فوق ثلاثة أيام بمنى ، قال : لا بأس بذلك اليوم ، إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله إنما نهى عن ذلك أولا لان الناس كانوا يومئذ مجهودين، فأما اليوم فلا بأس

Ahmad b. Muhammad  b. Yahya al-Attar from his father from Muhammad b. al-Husayn b. Abi al-Khattab from Muhammad b. Ismail b. Baz`i from Yunus from Jamil b. Darraj who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about storing the meat of the sacrificed animals (in the Id festival) in Mina beyond three days, he said: there is no problem in doing that today, the messenger of Allah  صلى الله عليه وآله had only prohibited doing that at first because the people at that time were struggling, as for in our times then there is no impediment [in doing that]

قال الصدوق: وقال أبو عبدالله عليه السلام: كنا ننهي عن إخراج لحوم الاضاحي بعد ثلاثة أيام لقلة اللحم وكثرة الناس، فأما اليوم فقد كثر اللحم وقل الناس، فلا بأس بإخراجه

al-Saduq quotes Abu Abdillah عليه السلام as saying: we were forbidden to take out (continue to use) the sacrificial meat after three days because of the paucity of meat and the abundance of people, as for today then the meat has increased and the people have decreased so there is no problem with taking it out [after three days].

al-Muhsini: Know that the prophet  issued some commands that were temporary and he contradicted it later [with an opposite command] either with a clear explanation from him about the changed circumstance or without. And such instances exist in our narrations and in the narrations of the `Amma, whoever is able to research this and gather all such instances together in one book then he would have done good.

The commands and prohibitions are sometimes issued in the sense of a Fatwa, that is a permanent ruling which is established in the Shar`ia, and sometimes it is issued in the sense of a ruling that is dependent on certain external conditions [on the ground], thus the ruling will lapse with their [the conditions which led to the rulings] lapsing.

And the latter type of rulings, just as it is right that they issue from the prophet and the Awsiya, because of them being administrators of human affairs, similarly it is also appropriate if they are issued on the part of the Mujtahidin.   

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

2.20. Precedence is Given to what has been Established by the Qur’an over the Sunna

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/precedence-is-given-to-what-has-been-established-by-the-quran-over-the-sunna

 

[-/1] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن معاوية بن عمار، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: قلت له: رجل نسي أن يرمي الجمار حتى أتي مكة قال: يرجع فيرميها ... قلت: فاته ذلك وخرج؟ قال: ليس عليه شئ، قال: قلت: فرجل نسي السعي بين الصفا والمروة؟ فقال: يعيد السعي، قلت: فاته ذلك حتى خرج؟ قال، يرجع فيعيد السعي إن هذا ليس كرمي الجمار إن الرمي سنة والسعي بين الصفا والمروة فريضة

[1/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Muawiya b. Ammar from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Muawiya) said: I said to him: a man forgets to throw pebbles at the pillars [in the Hajj] and departs for Makka, he said: he goes back and throws them [makes up for it] … I said: he misses doing that and leaves [departs back to his land], he said: there is nothing further upon him [he does not have to do anything], I said: what if a man forgets the Sa`i [brisk walk] between Safa and Marwa? He said: he repeats the Sa`i, I said: he misses doing that and leaves? He said: he has to come back and make the Sa`i, this (Sa`i) is not like throwing pebbles at the pillars, throwing is a Sunna while Sa`i between Safa and Marwa is a Faridha.

NOTES:

Rami al-Jamarat [stoning the pillars] is Wajib, but it is a Wajib which has been established by the Sunna of the prophet [it is not mentioned in the Qur`an], Sa`i between Safa and Marwa is also Wajib but it is a Wajib which has been established from the Qur`an and thus called Faridha. 

al-Muhsini: other narrations which will be brought in their appropriate place indicate that the Fardh [that which has been proven from the Qur`an] is given precedence over the Sunna - assuming that they vie with each other [you only have time to perform one or the other].

And this Hadith also gives another difference between the two [i.e. Wajib Faridha and Wajib Sunna] - that is - what is derived from the Sunna will not need to be repeated in cases of forgetfulness while the Faridha remains as it is and still demands to be performed even if someone forgets.  

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

2.20. One of the Reasons for Differences between Narrations

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/one-of-the-reasons-for-differences-between-narrations

 

[1/112] التهذيب: محمد بن يحيى عن محمد بن الحسين عن عبدالرحمن بن أبي هاشم البجلي عن سالم أبي خديجة عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: سأل انسان وأنا حاضر فقال: ربما دخلت المسجد وبعض أصحابنا يصلي العصر وبعضهم يصلي الظهر فقال: انا أمرتهم بهذا لو صلوا على وقت واحد لعرفوا فأخذوا برقابهم

[1/112] al-Tahdhib: Muhammad b. Yahya from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Hashim al-Bajali from Salim Abi Khadija from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Salim) said: a man asked [him] while I was present: I happen to enter the Masjid and one of our companions is praying the Asr prayer while another is praying Dhuhr [why this divergence]? He said: I ordered them to do that, if they were all to pray at one time they would be known and it would be off with their necks.

NOTES:

Taqiyya was so crucial that the `Aimma gave their Ashab different orders so that they do not stand out as a separate group leading to persecution. The amount of secrecy needed especially in the Abbasid time who were on the lookout for any threat to their rule cannot be overstated. 

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

2.22. Principle of Impartiality

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/principle-of-impartiality

 

[1/113] الفقيه: محمد بن علي بن الحسين باسناده المعتبر عن عبدالله بن المغيرة عن غير واحد من أصحابنا عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام في رجلين كان معهما درهمان فقال أحدهما: الدرهمان لي، وقال الآخر: هما بيني وبينك، فقال: أما الذي قال: هما بيني وبينك فقد أقر بأن أحد الدرهمين ليس له وأنه لصاحبه ويقسم الآخر بينهما

[1/113] al-Faqih: Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn via his reliable chain to Abdallah b. al-Mughira from more than one of our companions from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام in regards two men who have two Dirhams between them, one of them says: they are both mine, while the other says: they are between me and you (one is mine and the other is yours), he said: as for the one who says: ‘they are between me and you’ then he has acknowledged that one of the Dirhams is not his and that it belongs to his fellow (he has already abandoned his claim over one of the Dirhams), and the remaining one is divided between them (i.e. each one gets a half). 

 

[-/2] الفقيه: باسناده عن السكوني عن الصادق جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه عليهما السلام في رجل استودع رجلا دينارين واستودعه آخر دينارا فضاع دينار منهما، فقال: يعطى صاحب الدينارين دينارا ويقتسمان الدينار الباقي بينهما نصفين

[2/-] al-Faqih: Via his chain to al-Sakuni from al-Sadiq Ja`far b. Muhammad from his father عليهما السلام in regards someone who gives a man two Dinars for safekeeping while another gives the man one Dinar (they become three), then one of the Dinars is lost, he said: the one who had two Dinars is given a Dinar and the remaining Dinar is divided between the both of them equally.

NOTES:

The principle of impartiality entails treating the two parties in an identical manner relative to their claim. What this means in this particular case is that the 2:1 ratio is maintained, since one Dirham has been lost and two remain, the one who had two Dirhams is is given one and a half and the one who had one Dirham is given a half (i.e. the difference remains one). 

 

[-/3] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن محمد بن أحمد، عن الخشاب، عن غياث بن كلوب، عن إسحاق بن عمار، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام أن رجلين اختصما إلى أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام في دابة ... فقيل له: فلو لم تكن في يد واحد منهما وأقاما البينة؟ قال: أحلفهما فأيهما حلف ونكل الآخر جعلتها للحالف، فإن حلفا جميعا جعلتها بينهما نصفين ...

[3/-] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Muhammad b. Ahmad from al-Khashshab from Ghiyath b. Kalub from Ishaq b. Ammar from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام that: two men disputed with each other in front of the commander of the faithful عليه السلام about an animal (each one laid a claim to it) ... it was said to him: what if it is not in the hands of either one of them [no one has possession of it] but both produce evidence [have witnesses for it]? he said: I make them both to swear an oath and I rule in favor of the one who swears and against the one who reneges, but if both of them swear I rule for each of them to have one-half of it … 

NOTES:

Generally speaking such disputes are solved by producing evidence, and this in the Islamic context means admissible witnesses. It may happen that both sides are able to produce such conflicting witnesses, when this happens, the judge makes both parties to take a solemn oath affirming their ownership, it is hoped here that the false claimant shall fear God as is required and not swear falsely, the judgment is in favor of the one who can take the oath.

However, if both swear the oath, the Imam makes clear that prior possession [in whose hands it is] trumps all and the one in whose possession it is takes it, but if it is jointly possessed or no one has it in his possession and if they both swear the oath then it is divided equally between the both of them.

 

[-/4] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد عن محمد بن يحيى، عن غياث بن إبراهيم، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام أن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام اختصم إليه رجلان في دابة وكلاهما أقام البينة أنه انتجها فقضى بها للذي هي في يده وقال: لو لم تكن في يده جعلتها بينهما نصفين

[4/-] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Muhammad b. Yahya from Ghiyath b. Ibrahim from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام that: two people disputed about an animal in front of the commander of the faithful عليه السلام and both were able to produce evidence [witnesses] that they foaled it, so he ruled in favor of the one in whose hands it was [possessed it already], and he said: if it was not in his possession I would have divided it equally between them.

NOTES:

Note that such Ahadith indicate that Islam gives some value to the legal maxim "possession is nine-tenths of the law". In a property dispute (whether real or personal), in the absence of clear and compelling testimony or documentation to the contrary, the person in actual, custodial possession of the property is presumed to be the rightful owner. The rightful owner shall have their possession returned to them; if taken or used. The shirt or blouse you are currently wearing is presumed to be yours, unless someone can prove that it is not.

 

[-/5] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال، عن أبي جميلة، عن سماك بن حرب، عن تميم بن طرفة أن رجلين عرفا بعيرا فأقام كل واحد منهما بينة فجعله أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام بينهما

[5/-] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Fadhal from Abi Jamila from Simak b. Harb from Tamim b. Tarafa that: two men laid claim to a camel and each one of them produced evidence (to back up his claim) so the commander of the faithful عليه السلام made it out to both of them.

NOTES:

This same narration is found in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shayba with the same upper chain [Simak > Tamim]. It is also found in the Ilal of Ibn Hanbal where he narrates it from Waki’i from Sufyan from Simak from Tamim. Except that in the Sunni sources it is the prophet who makes this judgment instead of Ali.

 

[6/114] التهذيب: عن علي بن الحسن، عن محمد بن الوليد، عن يونس بن يعقوب، عن ابى عبدالله عليه السلام في امرأة تموت قبل الرجل او رجل قبل المرأة قال: ما كان من متاع النساء فهو للمرأة وما كان من متاع الرجل والنساء فهو بينهما ...

[6/114] al-Tahdhib: From Ali b. al-Hasan from Muhammad b. al-Walid from Yunus b. Ya`qub from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام in regards a woman who dies before her husband or the man dies before his wife - he said: whatever of the possessions which [conventionally] belong to women then it is for the wife and whatever of the possessions which [conventionally] belong to both men and women then it is to be divided between them ...

NOTES:

Obviously if the man or the woman is dead then what is meant here is that the part of his/her estate will go to his/her inheritors.

 

[-/7] التهذيب: عن محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى عن محمد بن الحسين عن الحسن بن مسكين عن رفاعة النخاس عن ابي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: إذا طلق الرجل امرأته وفي بيتها متاع فادعت ان المتاع لها وادعى الرجل ان المتاع له كان له ما للرجال ولها ما للنساء وما يكون للرجال والنساء قسم بينهما

[7/-] al-Tahdhib: From Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from al-Hasan b. Miskin from Rifa`a al-Nakhas from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: if a man divorces his wife and in her house are possessions which she claims are hers while the man claims are his then for him is what belongs to men [conventionally] and for her are what belongs to women [conventionally] and those which can belong to either of them are divided between the two. 

NOTES:

Something that conventionally belongs to men can be a sword while something that conventionally belongs to women can be a mirror.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

2.23. What has been Lifted from the Umma

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-principles-of-jurisprudence/what-has-been-lifted-from-the-umma

 

[1/115] الخصال: عن العطار، عن سعد، عن ابن يزيد، عن حماد، عن حريز، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله: رفع عن امتي تسعة: الخطأ، والنسيان، وما اكرهوا عليه، ومالا يعلمون، وما لا يطيقون، وما اضطروا إليه، والحسد، والطيرة، والتفكر في الوسوسة في الخلق ما لم ينطق بشفة

[1/115] al-Khisal: From al-Attar from Sa’d from Ibn Yazid from Hammad from Hariz from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله said: my Umma are absolved of nine things: error, forgetfulness, what they are compelled to do, what they do not know, what they do not have the strength for, what they have to do out of necessity, jealousy, bad omen, and thinking over the whispered doubts in regards creation so long as it is not voiced aloud.

NOTES:

The clause “what they do not know” seems to be absolute, but the Fuqaha have limited it to specific instances like praying in clothes having Najis, or in a place which is usurped, or not raising the voice in a prayer which requires the voice to be raised like Maghrib and the like, more elaborate discussion is found in the books of Usul al-Fiqh.

The clause “thinking over the whispered doubts in regards creation” most likely refers to doubts along the lines of how could He have created something from nothing, or doubts about Him creating things that do not have any apparent benefit or harm, or questioning the diversity present in creation etc.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

BOOK OF NARRATORS

3.1 Aban b. Taghlib

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/aban-b-taghlib

 

[1/116] رجال الكشي: عن حمدويه، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن علي بن إسماعيل بن عمار، عن ابن مسكان، عن أبان بن تغلب قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: إني أقعد في المسجد فيجي‏ء الناس فيسألوني فإن لم أجبهم لم يقبلوا مني و أكره أن أجيبهم بقولكم وما جاء عنكم فقال لي انظر ما علمت أنه من قولهم فأخبرهم بذلك

[1/116] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Hamduwayh from Ya`qub bin Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ali bin Ismail bin Ammar from Ibn Muskan from Aban bin Taghlib who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: I do sit in the Masjid - and the people come and ask me questions, so if I do not answer them they do not accept from me (i.e. they insist on answers), and I dislike answering them based on your verdicts and according to what has come from you (i.e. since they are not Shia), so he عليه السلام said to me: look at what you know is from their own verdicts and inform them about that (i.e. answer them using their own sources and scholars).

 

[2/117] رجال الكشي: عن حمدويه، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن أبان ابن تغلب قال: قال لى أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: جالس أهل المدينة فاني أحب أن يرى في شيعتنا مثلك

[2/117] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Hamduwayh from Ya`qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from Aban b. Taghlib who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: sit and attend to the people of Madina (answer their questions) - for I like it that someone like you be seen amongst our Shia.

NOTES:

The Imam is proud to have someone like Aban among the Shia and even wants him to be known by the masses. And why not? Aban was a multi-dimensional character.

What follows below is adapted from al-Najashi.

Aban was was a Qari (a specialist of the Qur’an) and among the most notable of them, a jurisprudent, and a linguist (indeed he was a foremost authority in Grammar in his time - having reported a lot of reports (mostly poems) of the early pre-islamic Arabs which together with the Qur’an formed the basis of the Kufan school to which he belonged in their efforts to codify the rules of the language). He even transmitted his own Qira’a which was unique to him.

(ã) Aban b. Muhammad b. Aban b. Taghlib said: I heard my father say: I entered with my father (Aban b. Taghlib) to meet Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, so when he عليه السلام saw him he ordered a cushion to be placed for him which was laid down, and he shook his hand, and embraced him, and inquired about his health, and welcomed him. And he also said: when Aban used to enter Madina, the existing study circles (in the Masjid of the prophet) were all broken up (so that they could all attend to Aban’s teaching) and the pillar of the prophet was vacated for him (the pillar inside the Masjid which the prophet used to lean on while delivering instruction).

(b) Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj said: we were in the Majlis of Aban b. Taghlib when a young man came and said: O Aba Said (Aban) inform me: how many companions of the prophet were with Ali عليه السلام (in his wars)? So Aban said to him: it is as though you want to discern the merit of Ali by looking at who followed him from among the companions of the messenger of Allah? he said: it is so, he said: by Allah, we did not discern their (the companions’) merits except by their following of him (Ali) … Aban said: Do you know who are the Shia? The Shia are those who - if the people disagree on something from the messenger of Allah follow the verdict of Ali in it, and if the people disagree about something attributed to Ali they follow the ruling of Ja’far b. Muhammad in it.

(c) Aban b. Uthman said: Abi Abdillah عليه السلام said: Indeed Aban b. Taghlib has narrated from me thirty thousand narrations - so narrate them from him (on his authority).

(d) Abdalla b. Khafaqa said: Aban b. Taghlib said to me: I passed by a group who blamed me because of my narrating from Ja’far (al-Sadiq) عليه السلام, so I said: you blame me for narrating from a man whom I have never asked about anything except that he said about it - the messenger of Allah said.

I say: this last proves that all the Ahadith of the `Aimma are traceable back to the prophet.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.2 Ibrahim b. Abi Mahmud

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ibrahim-b-abi-mahmud

 

[1/118] رجال الكشي: عن حمدويه، عن الحسن بن موسى الخشاب، عن إبراهيم بن أبي محمود قال: دخلت على أبي جعفر عليه السلام و معي كتب إليه من أبيه، فجعل يقرؤها و يضع كتابا كبيرا على عينيه و يقول: خط أبي و الله، ويبكي حتى سألت دموعه على خديه، فقلت له: جعلت فداك قد كان أبوك ربما قال لي في المجلس الواحد مرات: أسكنك الله الجنة أدخلك الله الجنة قال: فقال: و أنا أقول: أدخلك الله الجنة فقلت: جعلت فداك تضمن لي عن ربك أن تدخلني الجنة؟ قال: نعم، قال: فأخذت رجله فقبلتها

[1/118] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Hasan b. Musa al-Khashab from Ibrahim b. Abi Mahmud who said: I entered upon Abi Ja’far (i.e. al-Jawad) عليه السلام and with me were letters to him from his father, he began reading them and placing the bigger letters upon his eyes and saying: ‘the handwriting of my father - by Allah!’ and crying until his tears reached his cheeks, so I said to him: may I be made your ransom, your father would sometimes say to me, in a single seating, numerous times: ‘may Allah lodge you in Jannah - may Allah make you enter Jannah’, he (Ibrahim) said: so he said: and I also say: ‘may Allah make you enter Jannah’. Then I said: may I be made your ransom, do you guarantee for me from your lord that you will make me enter the Jannah? he said: yes, he (Ibrahim) said: so I took his legs and kissed them.

NOTES:

Ibrahim b. Abi Mahmud was a Khurasani Mawla who was given Tawthiq by both Najashi and Tusi.

قال نصر بن الصباح: إبراهيم بن أبي محمود كان مكفوفا، روى عنه أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى مسائل موسى عليه السلام قدر خمس وعشرين ورقة، وعاش بعد الرضا عليه السلام

Nasr b. al-Sabah said: Ibrahim b. Abi Mahmud was blind, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa transmitted his Masail [Fiqhi questions] to Musa عليه السلام of about twenty five pages, he outlived al-Ridha عليه السلام

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.3. Ibrahim b. Abda

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ibrahim-b-abda

 

[-/1] رجال الكشي: حكى بعض الثقات بنيسابور: أنه خرج لإسحاق بن إسماعيل من أبي محمد عليه السلام توقيع: يا إسحاق بن إسماعيل ... و على إبراهيم بن عبدة سلام الله و رحمته ... و كل من قرأ كتابنا هذا من موالي من أهل بلدك ... فليؤد حقوقنا إلى إبراهيم بن عبدة، و ليحمل ذلك إبراهيم بن عبدة إلى الرازي رضي الله عنه، أو إلى من يسمى له الرازي، فإن ذلك عن أمري و رأيي إن شاء الله ...

[1/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: One of the Thiqat in Naysabur relayed to us that: there came out a signed rescript from Abi Muhammad عليه السلام to Ishaq b. Ismail saying: O Ishaq b. Ismail … and upon Ibrahim b. Abda be peace from Allah and His mercy … and whoever reads this letter of ours from among our followers who are denizens of your town … they should hand over our dues to Ibrahim b. Abda, and Ibrahim b. Abda should carry that to al-Razi may Allah be pleased with him, or to the one al-Razi names for him, for that is by my command and my choice - if Allah wills …

NOTES:

This is sufficient praise for Ibrahim being part of a long signed rescript (Tawqi) in which are also mentioned Ishaq b. Ismail, Muhammad b. Musa al-Naysaburi, al-Razi, al-Bilali, al-Mahmudi, al-Dihqan and al-Amri.    

All of them were agents in a complex financial network set up by the `Aimma. The Tawqi sets out a hierarchy that is geographically structured and resolves sub-divisions of the areas of control. 

According to Dr. Jassim: According to this Tawqi: al‑ `Askari appointed Ishaq b. Muhammad as his agent in Nisapur, commanding him to pay the dues to Ibrahim b. `Abda, his agent in Bayhaq and its districts. The latter in turn was commanded to hand the dues to the agent of Rayy, Muhammad b. Ja’far al‑Razi or to the person appointed by al‑Razi. At the end of his letter the Imam pointed out that all the Khums and other taxes which were sent by his followers should be given to `Uthman b. Said, who would then hand them to him.  Such a statement reveals that `Uthman b. Said was at the top of the organization before the death of al‑`Askari in 260/874.

 

[2/119] رجال الكشي: قال أبو عمرو: حكى بعض الثقات أن أبا محمد صلوات الله عليه كتب إلى إبراهيم بن عبدة: و كتابي الذي ورد على إبراهيم بن عبدة بتوكيلي إياه لقبض حقوقي من موالي هناك نعم هو كتابي بخطي، أقمته أعني إبراهيم بن عبدة لهم ببلدهم حقا غير باطل، فليتقوا الله حق تقاته و ليخرجوا من حقوقي و ليدفعوها إليه، فقد جوزت له ما يعمل به فيها، وفقه الله ومن عليه بالسلامة من التقصير برحمته

[2/119] Rijal al-Kashshi: Abu Amr (al-Kashshi) said: one of the Thiqat relayed to me that Aba Muhammad صلوات الله عليه wrote to Ibrahim b. Abda [to show it to his doubters]: ‘and my letter which was issued to Ibrahim b. Abda [previously] appointing him as my agent to collect my dues from my followers over there - then yes - it is indeed by my own handwriting, I have appointed him - that is Ibrahim b. Abda - for them in their town - this a truth and it is not a falsehood, so they should fear Allah the way He ought to be feared and they should take out my dues and hand it over to him, for I have permitted him what he uses from it, may Allah enable him and favor him with protection from short-coming by His mercy.

NOTES:

Allama Tustari being ever observant in his usual way notices the incongruity of the Imam having written a letter to Ibrahim b. Abda and then speaking about him in the third person, he suggests that the letter could have been to Abdallah b. Hamduwayh al-Bayhaqi [looking at the succeeding Hadith]:

أمّا الأوّل: فلأنّه لا معنى لأن يقال: «كتب إلى إبراهيم الخ» فيكتب إلى إبراهيم في إبراهيم، و يكتب كتابي إليه كتابي، فالأوّل: كتوصية الشخص بنفسه، و الثاني: كاثبات الشي‏ء لنفسه و الظاهر أنّ الأصل «كتب إلى عبد اللّه بن حمدويه، و الكتاب الّذي ورد على إبراهيم بن عبدة»

However, in my interpretation there is no need for such a postulation as one can take it to have been written with the purpose of Ibrahim b. Abda showing the letter himself to his doubters and reading it out to them.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.4. - 3.5. Ahmad b. Hammad al-Marwazi and his son Muhammad

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ahmad-b-hammad-al-marwazi-and-his-son-muhammad

 

[1/120] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن أبو علي المحمودي محمد بن أحمد بن حماد المروزي قال: كتب أبو جعفر عليه ‌السلام إلى أبي في فصل من كتابه، فكان توفي من يوم أو غد: ثم وُفِّيَتْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ أما الدنيا فنحن فيها متفرجون في البلاد ولكن من هوى هوى صاحبه ودان بدينه فهو معه، وإن كان نائيا عنه، وأما الآخرة هِيَ دَارُ الْقَرَارِ

[1/120] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Mas`ud from Abu Ali al-Mahmudi Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Hammad al-Marwazi who said: Abu Ja`far (al-Jawad) عليه ‌السلام wrote to my father in a part of his letter - and he (my father) went on to die on the same day or the next: then “every soul will be recompensed for that which it earned and they will not be dealt with unjustly” (3:25), as for this world then we are in it separated [far away from each other] in different lands, but whoever inclines to the inclination of his fellow (Imam) and takes as a religion his [fellow’s] religion, then he is with him even if he is [geographically] distant from him, and as for the next world then “it is the everlasting abode” (40:39) [where we will be physically together].

NOTES:

Marwazi is a Nisba to Marw, the locality in greater Khorasan that was al-Ma`mun’s base of power and to which he summoned the Imam.

It is as though the Imam was announcing Ahmad b. Hammad's impending death in this letter.

I was puzzled about the wordمتفرجون  and how to interpret it. Unfortunately, this narration has been severely distorted in the different manuscripts of al-Kashshi, and each version has a different text, and this is something that plagues the book a lot, however, I found a variant that greatly helped me to decode what it means in the book Tanzih al-Khawatir of Ibn Abi Firas al-Hilli [fl. 6th Islamic Century] of all places. 

محمد بن عيسى قال كتب أحمد بن حماد أبو محمود إلى أبي جعفر ع كتابا طويلا فأجابه في بعض كتابه أما الدنيا فنحن فيها مفترقون في البلاد و لكن من هوي هوى صاحبه و دان بدينه فهو معه و إن كان نائيا عنه و أما الآخرة فهي دار القرار

This made it clear that it should be understood as مفترقون

 

[2/121] رجال الكشي: وقال المحمودي: قد كتب إلي الماضي عليه السلام بعد وفاة أبي: قد مضى أبوك رضي الله عنه وعنك، وهو عندنا على حالة محمودة، ولن تبعد من تلك الحال

[2/121] Rijal al-Kashshi: and al-Mahmudi said: the past one عليه السلام [al-Jawad] wrote to me after the death of my father: your father has passed away - may Allah be pleased with him and with you - and he [your father] has with us a praiseworthy position, and you are not far-off from that position.

NOTES:

al-Madhi الماضي here should be understood to be al-Jawad and not a reference al-Kadhim [who was famously known as Abu al-Hasan al-Madhi to differentiate him from Abu al-Hasan al-Ridha], this is because al-Mahmudi was in the age of the latter day `Aimma and not the seventh Imam therefore when he says “the past one” he means the previous Imam [al-Jawad] before al-Hadi whose companion he was. 

Ahmad b. Hammad al-Marwazi was called al-Mahmudi because of the Imam’s saying about him:

وهو عندنا على حالة محمودة

It was a Laqab that was then also used for his son Muhammad.

The Ashab were so attentive to the Aimma’s speech that not a word was spoken by them except that they considered it significant. A casual word in a letter becomes the cause of pride and changes someone’s name.

The Imam al-Askari also says about Muhammad al-Mahmudi in the long Tawqi which we drew attention to in the entry of Ibrahim b. `Abda.

... و أقرأه يعني التوقيع على المحمودي عافاه اللّه، فما أحمدنا له لطاعته ...

<<… and read it out  - that is the Tawqi - to al-Mahmudi, may Allah pardon him - and what we have praised him by then it is because of his obedience …>>

Abu Ali al-Mahmudi was also blessed to see the Sahib al-Zaman in a Hajj in the Ghaybat al-Sughra, the anecdote of this meeting is very interesting and left for another day.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.6. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ahmad-b-muhammad-b-abi-nasr-al-bazanti

 

[1/122] رجال الكشي: محمد بن الحسن البراثي و عثمان بن حامد الكشيان عن محمد بن يزداد، عن أبو زكريا، عن إسماعيل بن مهران. محمد بن يزداد عن الحسن بن علي بن نعمان، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر قال: كنت عند الرضا عليه السلام فأمسيت عنده، قال: فقلت: أنصرف فقال لي: لا تنصرف فقد أمسيت، قال: فأقمت عنده، قال: فقال لجاريته هاتي مضربتي و وسادتي فأفرشي لأحمد في ذلك البيت، قال: فلما صرت في البيت دخلني شي‏ء فجعل يخطر ببالي من مثلي في بيت ولي الله و على مهاده فناداني يا أحمد إن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام عاد صعصعة بن صوحان، فقال يا صعصعة لا تجعل عيادتي إياك فخرا على قومك و تواضع لله يرفعك الله

[1/122] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Burathi and Uthman b. Hamid al-Kashshiyan from Muhammad b. Yazdad from Abu Zakariyya from Ismail b. Mihran; Muhammad b. Yazdad from al-Hasan b. Ali b. Nu`man from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr who said: I was at al-Ridha’s عليه السلام place and the evening entered while I was with him, I said: I should leave, he said to me: do not leave for it is evening, he said: so I remained at his place, he said to a slave-girl of his: bring out my sleeping tent and my pillow and lay it out for Ahmad in that room, he said: so when I was in the room I began to feel something [of pride] and I kept on thinking ‘who is like me? I am in the room of the  intimate of Allah and on his bed’ so he called out to me: O Ahmad - the commander of the faithful عليه السلام visited Sa`sa`a b. Suhan and then said: O Sa`sa`a do not make me visiting you a source of pride held over your kin, and lower yourself in front of Allah and Allah will raise you.

NOTES:

What is al-Bazanti a Nisba to? 

Allama Mamaqani notes in his Tanqih the troubles he went through to pinpoint what exactly al-Bazanti is referring to. He knows from Ibn Idris’s Mustatrafat al-Sarair that it is a geographical Nisba i.e. referring to a location, but where would that be? 

He was about to leave it at that when after several months he came across the solution while reading a historical book which briefly mentioned the various ancient empires like the Romans and the Greeks.

The Answer? The Byzantine empire which extended over greater Syria including Damascus. 

To someone from the Western tradition, it might seem strange that a scholar had not heard of the Byzantine empire. Greco-Roman culture is such a critical part of Western civilization and consequently much studied in history, but alas it seems that it is not an important part of the syllabus in the Orient.

Clearly, the first Muslims would have known about the Byzantine empire, having participated in the conquests, similarly, the earliest Ashab must have known of the Byzantine empire the conquest being fresh in their memory and encountering former subjects directly.

Why is such knowledge not widely available to scholars who come later? It has to be said that a well-rounded scholar should encounter it when studying Early Islamic History in Late Antiquity.

Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr seems to be a Mawla who was subsumed in the Islamic polity after the first wave of conquests to the East. 

This same incident has been narrated in two other books. A better example of the effect of Riwaya bil Ma`na [transmitting by meaning] can nary be found. All the three variants have the same event at its core, and they essentially preserve the same warning against pride, however, what stands out is the difference in detail even if some are inconsequential, the narration in al-Kashshi is quite clear-cut and free of embellishments, but the two below flesh it out and paint a more exquisite picture. This should demonstrate the range of variation that can occur when for example - people depend on memory for narration. 

حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد عن محمد بن الحسن الصفار عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى عن أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى بن أبي نصر البزنطي قال: بعث الرضا عليه السلام إلي بحمار فركبته واتيته فاقمت عنده بالليل إلى أن مضى منه ما شاء الله فلما أراد أن ينهض قال لي: لا أراك تقدر على الرجوع إلى المدينة قلت: أجل جعلت فداك قال: فبت عندنا الليلة واغد على بركة الله عز وجل قلت: أفعل جعلت فداك قال: يا جاريد إفرشي له فراشي واطرحي عليه ملحفتي التي أنام فيها وضعي تحت رأسه مخدتي قال: فقلت في نفسي من أصاب ما اصبت في ليلتي هذه لقد جعل الله لي من المنزلة عنده واعطاني من الفخر ما لم يعطه أحدا من أصحابنا بعث إلي بحماره فركبته وفرش لي فراشه وبت في ملحفته ووضعت لي مخدته ما أصاب مثل هذا أحد من اصحابنا قال وهو قاعد معي وأنا أحدث نفسي فقال عليه السلام لي: يا أحمد أن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أتى زيد بن صوحان في مرضه يعود فافتخر على الناس بذلك فلا تذهبن نفسك إلى الفخر وتذلل لله عز وجل واعتمد على يده فقام عليه السلام. 

Uyun al-Akhbar: Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Ahmad b. al-Walid from Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Saffar from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Yahya b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti who said: al-Ridha عليه السلام sent for me with a donkey, so I rode it and came to him, and was with him for a part of the night until such a time as Allah willed, so when I wanted to depart he said to me: I don’t think you can go back to Madina now, I said: indeed, may I be made your ransom, he said: so sleep at our place and leave in the morning with the blessings of Allah Mighty and Majestic, I said: I will do so may I be made me your ransom, he said: O slave-girl spread out for him my bedding and cover it with my bed-wrap on which I sleep on, and put under his head my own pillow, he said: so I said to myself in my heart: who has attained what I have attained this night of mine? Allah his given me a status with him and has given me a reason to be proud which he has given no other from among our companions [fellow Shias], he [the Imam] sent for me with his own donkey which I rode, and spread out for me his bedding, and I have slept on his own wrap and it was put for me his own pillow, no one has attained the like of this among our companions, he [the Imam] عليه السلام said to me while he was standing with me and while I was speaking to myself: O Ahmad, the commander of the faithful عليه السلام came to visit Zayd b. Suhan (sic) in his illness, and he flaunted to the people because of that, so do not let yourself fall into pride, humble yourself in front of Allah Mighty and Majestic and depend on His strength, then he عليه السلام stood [and left].              

قال البزنطي: وبعث إلي الرضا عليه السلام بحمار له فجئته إلى صريا، فمكثت عامة الليل معه، ثم اوتيت بعشاء، ثم قال:  افرشوا له  ثم اوتيت بوسادة طبرية ومرداع وكساء قياسري وملحفة مروي، فلما أصبت من العشاء قال لي: ما تريد أن تنام؟  قلت: بلى جعلت فداك. فطرح علي الملحفة والكساء ثم قال: بيتك الله في عافية. وكنا على سطح، فلما نزل من عندي قلت في نفسي: قد نلت من هذا الرجل كرامة ما نالها أحد قط، فإذا هاتف يهتف بي: يا أحمد، ولم اعرف الصوت حتى جاءني مولى له فقال: أجب مولاي، فنزلت فإذا هو مقبل إلي فقال: كفك فناولته كفي فعصرها، ثم قال: ان أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أتى صعصعة بن صوحان عائدا له، فلما أراد أن يقوم من عنده قال: يا صعصعة بن صوحان، لا تفتخر بعيادتي إياك وانظر لنفسك، فكأن الامر قد وصل إليك، ولا يلهينك الامل، استودعك الله وأقرأ عليك السلام كثيرا  

Qurb al-Isnad: al-Bazanti said: al-Ridha عليه السلام sent for me with a donkey of his and I came to him in Surya and spent most of the night with him, then the night meal was brought, he then said: lay the bedding for him, I was given a saffron dyed Tiberian pillow and a Caesarean blanket and a bed-wrap from Marw, so when I had finished the meal he said to me: don’t you want to sleep? I said: yes, may I be made your ransom, so he covered me with the bed-wrap and the blanket and then said: may Allah make you pass the night in safety, and we were on the roof-top, so when he had descended I said in my heart: I have attained from this man an honor that no one else has ever attained, when suddenly a caller was calling me - O Ahmad - and I did not recognize the voice, until a client of his came and said: respond to the call of my master, so I descended and found him facing me, he said: your palm, so I gave him my palm, he took it and then said: the commander of the faithful عليه السلام came to visit Sa`sa`a b. Suhan in his illness, so when he was about to depart he said to him: O Sa`sa`a b. Suhan do not exult yourself because of me coming to visit you, and be on guard of your own self, for it is as though the matter [pride] has crept up on you, do not let hope divert you, I leave you in Allah’s hands and I send you lots of salutations of peace.    

Surya is a small farming estate about three miles outside Madina, it was built up by al-Kadhim عليه السلام and inherited by al-Ridha عليه السلام 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.7. Usama b. Zayd

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/usama-b-zayd

 

[-/1] التهذيب: عن المفيد، عن أبي القاسم جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن إسماعيل بن بزيع، عن علي بن النعمان، عن أبي مريم الانصاري قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: ... إن الحسن بن علي عليهما السلام كفن اسامة بن زيد في برد حبرة ...

[1/-] al-Tahdhib: From al-Mufid from Abi al-Qasim Ja`far b. Muhammad from his father from Sa`d b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Muhammad b. Ismail b. Bazi` from Ali b. al-Nu`man from Abi Maryam al-Ansari who said: I heard Aba Ja`far عليه السلام saying: ... al-Hasan b. Ali عليهما السلام enshrouded Usama b. Zayd in a Hibara cloak ...

NOTES:

قال ابن بطال: هي من برود اليمن، تصنع من قطن، وكانت أشرف الثياب عندهم

Hibara refers to a type of fine cloth made of cotton in the Yaman.

Usama was a freed slave of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله, thus, Usama became a Mawla [client] of Banu Hashim. Manumission creates a not very well understood bond between the master and the former slave [this is the bond of Wala - which is also the name given to the relation between the `Aimma and their followers]. It was a way to subsume large numbers of foreign people into the traditional hierarchy of a society which gave the utmost importance to tribal links.

This bond of Wala is reciprocal. It gives certain rights to the former slave, such as patronage from his former Master’s clan [he is considered one of them and takes their name], but it also gives certain duties to be fulfilled by the no-longer slave. It is on this basis that Usama entered into the washing [Ghusl] of the prophet which was being carried out by Ali, Fadhl and Abbas [close blood relations].

This report indicates a rapprochement between the Ahl al-Bayt and Usama at the end of the latter’s life i.e. his burial was conducted by al-Hasan [then the head of the family]. This begs the question, what created the distance between Usama - the son of the beloved of the prophet i.e. Zayd, whom he appointed as the youngest commander to lead the Muslim army before his death - in the first place?

It was his refusal to give a pledge of allegiance to Ali.

محمد بن مسعود، قال حدثني أحمد بن منصور، عن أحمد بن الفضل، عن محمد بن زياد، عن سلمه بن محرز، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: ألا أخبركم بأهل الوقوف قلنا بلى قال أسامة بن زيد و قد رجع فلا تقولوا إلا خيرا، و محمد بن مسلمة، و ابن عمر مات منكوبا

Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud who said: narrated to me Ahmad b. Mansur from Ahmad b. al-Fadhl from Muhammad b. Ziyad from Salama b. Muhriz from Abi Ja`farعليه السلام  who said: should I not inform you about the people of abstention [who did not pledge allegiance]? we said: yes, he said: Usama b. Zayd, but he returned from that so do not say anything [against him] except good, however, Muhammad b. Maslama and Ibn Umar died ruined [they did not repent].

Why did Usama refuse the pledge of allegiance to Ali?

It is said that this was because of his disinclination to participate in the wars which would necessarily follow Ali's accession to the leadership. Bay`a to a leader means a binding commitment to aid him against his enemies. Usama claimed that the prophet had prohibited him to raise his sword against a fellow Muslim who says “there is no god but Allah” under any circumstance.

The background incident to this is as narrated in al-Bukhari below:

حَدَّثَنِي عَمْرُو بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا حُصَيْنٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو ظَبْيَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أُسَامَةَ بْنَ زَيْدٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ يَقُولُ بَعَثَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى الْحُرَقَةِ، فَصَبَّحْنَا الْقَوْمَ فَهَزَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَحِقْتُ أَنَا وَرَجُلٌ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ رَجُلاً مِنْهُمْ، فَلَمَّا غَشِينَاهُ قَالَ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ‏.‏ فَكَفَّ الأَنْصَارِيُّ، فَطَعَنْتُهُ بِرُمْحِي حَتَّى قَتَلْتُهُ، فَلَمَّا قَدِمْنَا بَلَغَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ يَا أُسَامَةُ أَقَتَلْتَهُ بَعْدَ مَا قَالَ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ ‏"‏ قُلْتُ كَانَ مُتَعَوِّذًا‏.‏ فَمَا زَالَ يُكَرِّرُهَا حَتَّى تَمَنَّيْتُ أَنِّي لَمْ أَكُنْ أَسْلَمْتُ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ‏

Amr b. Muhammad – Hushaym – Husayn – Abu Dhabyan – Usama b. Zayd: The messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله sent us towards al-Huraqa (a sub-tribe of Juhayna), we attacked them in the morning and defeated them, a man from the Ansar and I confronted a man from among them, so when we had overcome him he said: ‘there is no god but Allah’, the Ansari stopped his attack while I plunged my spear into him until I killed him, so when we returned – this matter was conveyed to the prophet – he said: O Usama – did you kill him after he had said ‘there is no god but Allah’ I said: he just wanted to save his life, so he صلى الله عليه وآله kept on repeating it until I wished that I had not converted into Islam before that day (i.e. I wished I could convert anew and wash away my sins).

It is after this incident, that Usama made an oath never to fight against someone who says “there is no god but Allah” as we find in Tafsir Ali b. Ibrahim:

فحلف أسامة بعد ذلك أن لا يقتل أحدا شهد ان لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله فتخلف عن أمير المؤمنين ع في حروبه

Ali was apparently aware of this oath of his and excused him from not pledging the allegiance.

قال أبو عمرو الكشي وجدت في كتاب أبي عبد الله الشاذاني، قال حدثني جعفر بن محمد المدايني، عن موسى بن القاسم البجلي عن صفوان عن عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج، عن أبي عبد الله، عن آبائه عليهم السلام قال: كتب علي عليه السلام إلى والي المدينة لا تعطين سعدا و لا ابن عمر من الفي‏ء شيئا، فأما أسامة بن زيد فإني قد عذرته في اليمين التي كانت عليه

Abu Amr al-Kashshi said: I found in the book of Abi Abdillah al-Shadhani – narrated to me Ja`far b. Muhammad al-Madaini from Musa b. al-Qasim al-Bajali from Safwan from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj from Abi Abdillah from his forefathers عليهم السلام who said: Ali عليه السلام wrote to his governor of Madina: do not give Sa`d [b. Abi Waqqas] nor Ibn Umar anything of the Fayy, as for Usama b. Zayd then I have excused him [you can give him of the Fayy even if he chose not to fight] because of the oath which was upon him.

This is one way to harmonize these narrations. 

However, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin in A`yan al-Shia remains skeptical.

واما اعتذاره عن عدم الجهاد مع أمير المؤمنين ع بالعهد الذي عاهده فعذر غير مقبول لأن العهد لا ينعقد على ترك واجب واما ما كتبه أمير المؤمنين ع إلى والي المدينة مما تقدم بأنه عذر فهو ع اعرف بوجه المصلحة في اظهار انه عذره ان صح الحديث والا فظاهر الحال يوجب عدم عذره ولو عذرنا في ترك الجهاد مع علي ع وهو غير معذور فبما نلتمس له العذر في تأخره عن انفاذ امر رسول الله ص يوم امره على الجيش كما ستعرف وبما ذا نعذره بعدم بيعته لعلي ع هو وسعد وابن عمر الا ان يكون قد تاب كما مر

As for his [Usama’s] excuse for not participating in Jihad with the commander of the faithful عليه السلام because of the oath which he had taken - then - it is an unacceptable excuse, an oath cannot be made to abandon a Wajib [like Jihad], as for that which the commander of the faithful عليه السلام had written to his governor of Madina - excusing him - then he [Ali] is more knowledgeable of the Masliha [public interest] there was in appearing to excuse him outwardly, this is if that report [of the Imam excusing him] is authentic, and if it is not authentic then it is incumbent on us not to excuse him, and if we were to excuse him for abandoning Jihad with Ali عليه السلام - and he is not to be excused for it, then what excuse can we find for him for delaying to obey the order of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله when he ordered him to march with the army? And what excuse can we find for him for refusing to pledge allegiance to Aliعليه السلام together with Sa`d and Ibn Umar, unless he later repented, assuming that particular report [of him having repented] to also be authentic.

I say: this is a very skeptical way of looking at Usama. Admittedly the two reports included here in the commentary are weak, but they can be used for historical reconstruction. Most likely he felt that pledging the oath would lead him to infringe his oath and thus abstained. This was a mistake which he realized and repented for. As for not marching under the order of the prophet then he clearly wanted to do so but the machinations of the “elders” of Quraysh must have stymied him because of his youth.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.8. Ishaq b. Ammar

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ishaq-b-ammar

 

[1/123] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم، عن أيوب، عن ابن المغيرة، عن علي بن إسماعيل بن عمار، عن إسحاق قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام إن لنا أموالا و نحن نعامل الناس، و أخاف إن حدث حدث أن تغرق أموالنا قال: فقال له: اجمع مالك في كل شهر ربيع، قال علي بن إسماعيل: فمات إسحاق في شهر ربيع

[1/123] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim from Ayyub from Ibn al-Mughira from Ali b. Ismail b. Ammar from Ishaq who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - we have some wealth and we deal with the people [lend it to them], and I fear that if an event occurs [I die] our wealth will perish [in the hands of the people], he said: recover [re-collect] your wealth every month of Rabi`, Ali b. Ismail said: and Ishaq died in the month of  Rabi` [thus the wisdom of the Imam’s instruction was comprehended]. 

NOTES:

This Ishaq is Ishaq b. Ammar b. Hayyan, by virtue of the fact that the one narrating from him is his nephew Ali b. Ismail b. Ammar i.e. the son of his brother Ismail b. Ammar b. Hayyan.

إسحاق بن عمار بن حيان، مولى بنى تغلب، أبو يعقوب الصيرفي، شيخ من أصحابنا، ثقة، وإخوته يونس، ويوسف، وقيس، وإسماعيل، وهو في بيت كبير من الشيعة، وابنا أخيه، علي بن إسماعيل، وبشير بن إسماعيل، كانا من وجوه من روى الحديث

al-Najashi says: Ishaq b. Ammar b. Hayyan, the client of the Bani Taghlib, Abu Ya`qub al-Sayrafi, a Shaykh (chief) from among our companions, Thiqa, and his brothers Yunus, Yusuf, Qays and Ismail, he is part of a big family of the Shia, and the sons of his brother - Ali b. Ismail and Bashir b. Ismail were both Wujuh (eminent) among those who narrate the Hadith.

Ishaq seems to have been pretty wealthy. This is confirmed not only in the main report above but two others as follow:

جعفر بن معروف قال: حدثنا أبو الحسن الرازي قال: حدثني إسماعيل بن مهران قال: حدثني سليمان الديلمي قال: قال إسحاق بن عمار: لما كثر مالي أجلست على بابي بوابا يرد عني فقراء الشيعة ...

Ja`far b. Ma`ruf who said: Abu al-Hassan al-Razi narrated to us saying: Ismail b. Mihran narrated me saying: Sulayman al-Daylami narrated to me saying: Ishaq b. Ammar said: when my wealth increased I put on my door a gate-keeper to drive away from me the poor among the Shia …

محمد بن مسعود قال: حدثني محمد بن نصير قال: حدثني محمد بن عيسى، عن زياد القندي قال: كان أبو عبد الله عليه السلام إذا رأى إسحاق بن عمار  وإسماعيل بن عمار قال: وقد يجمعهما الله لأقوام يعني: الدنيا والآخرة

Muhammad bin Masud who said: Muhammad bin Nusayr narrated to me saying: Muhammad bin Isa narrated to me from Ziyad al-Qandi who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام used to say when he saw Ishaq b. Ammar and Ismail b. Ammar: Allah may sometimes unite them both for some people - that is - (unite good in) the Dunya (i.e. wealth) and also the Akhira.

Does the Imam know how long his Shia are going to live? This question requires a full and exhaustive study best left for another day.

It is my hunch however that the Ghulat took this idea [the kernel found in the Hadith] including the notion of Ishaq’s wealth and used it as a template [embellishing details to the above basic version] for their own motives of establishing a high Imamology.

Look at the report below found in Rijal al-Kashshi:

نصر بن الصباح قال حدثنى سجادة قال حدثنى محمد بن وضاح عن اسحاق بن عمار قال كنت عند أبى الحسن عليه السلام جالسا حتى دخل عليه رجل من الشيعة فقال له: يا فلان جدد التوبة واحدث عبادة فانه لم يبق من عمرك الا شهر قال اسحاق: فقلت في نفسى: واعجباه! كأنه يخبرنا انه يعلم آجال الشيعة، او قال: آجالنا قال: فالتفت إلى مغضبا وقال: يا اسحاق وما تنكر من ذلك وقد كان رشيد الهجرى مستضعفا، وكان عنده علم المنايا والامام اولى بذلك من رشيد الهجرى. يا اسحاق قد بقى من عمرك سنتان، اما انه يتشتت اهل بيتك تشتتا قبيحا ويفلس عيالك افلاسا شديدا

Nasr b. al-Sabbah who said: al-Sajjada narrated to me saying: Muhammad b. Wadhah narrated to me from Ishaq b. Ammar who said: I was seated with Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام when a man from the Shia came and entered, he [the Imam] said to him: O so and so, renew your repentance and begin worship for it is not left from your life except one month, Ishaq said: so I said in my heart (to myself): how strange! as though he wants to convey to us that he knows the life-spans of his Shia [or he said: our life-spans], he [Ishaq] said: so he [the Imam] turned to me in anger and said: O Ishaq, what do you find strange in that, Rushayd al-Hajari was just a weak person [not an Imam] and he had the knowledge of predicting fates, the Imam is more worthy of that than Rushayd al-Hajari, O Ishaq there remains from your life two years, verily the people of your house will undergo most grievous circumstances [after you] and your family will be totally bankrupt.

al-Sajjada [in the chain] - upon him be the curse of Allah - was one the of the worst of the Ghulat and was accused of lying. Muhammad b. Wadhah only occurs in this single chain in our whole corpus which is another red flag.

A variant of the Sajjada narration is also found in Usul al-Kafi where it is narrated by one of the less scrupulous of al-Kulayni’s teachers i.e. Ahmad b. Mihran who is weakened by Ibn al-Ghadhairi [I can only imagine that this was in al-Kulayni’s more immature days in Rayy].

احمد بن مهران عن محمد بن على عن سيف بن عميرة عن اسحاق نحوه من تفاوت وزاد في آخره: فكان هذا في نفسك فقلت: فانى استغفر الله بما عرض في صدرى، فلم يلبث اسحاق بعد هذا المجلس الا يسيرا حتى مات، فما أتى عليهم الا قليل حتى قام بنو عمار بأموال الناس فأفلسوا

The chain contains Muhammad b. Ali (Abu Samina) > Sayf.

Abu Samina was a Ghali who is arguably the most notorious liar we had. He cannot have narrated directly from Sayf without there being at least one intermediary between them because of the time-gap. [So much for the claim that al-Kafi is wholly authentic!]

A variant is  also found in Basair:

حدثنا عبدالله بن محمد عن ابراهيم بن محمد قال حدثنا على بن معلى قال حدثنا ابن ابى حمزة عن سيف بن عميرة عن اسحق بن عمار قال سمعت العبد الصالح ابا الحسن عليه السلام ينعى إلى رجل نفسه فقلت في نفسى وانه ليعلم متى يموت الرجل من شيعته فقال شبه المغضب يااسحق قد كان رشيد الهجرى يعلم علم المنايا والبلايا فاالامام اولى بذلك

This time the chain has al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Hamza [al-Bataini] > Sayf.

al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Hamza was also a prominent Ghali accused of lying.

What are the odds that three men accused of lying each occur in one of the chains narrating variations of the same report?

If forced to venture, I would accuse al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Hamza for fabricating this [because of being earlier in the Tabaqa] and al-Sajjada and Abu Samina for stealing it from him because of how amenable it would be for circulation in their circles.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.9. - 3.10. Ismail b. Ja`far and Abdallah b. Sharik

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ismail-b-jafar-and-abdallah-b-sharik

 

[1/124] رجال الكشي: عبدالله بن محمد، عن الحسن بن علي الوشاء، عن أحمد بن عائذ، عن أبي خديجة الجمال قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: إني سألت الله في إسماعيل أن يبقيه بعدي فأبى ولكنه قد أعطاني فيه منزلة أخرى إنه يكون أول منشور في عشرة من أصحابه ومنهم عبدالله بن شريك وهو صاحب لوائه

[1/124] Rijal al-Kashshi: Abdallah b. Muhammad from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Washsha from Ahmad b. A`idh from Abi Khadija the Cameleer who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: I asked Allah about Ismail – that he should preserve him to remain after me – but He refused, however, He has given me another position for him, he (Ismail) will be the first one to be resurrected with ten of his companions, among them Abdallah b. Sharik, and he (Abdallah) will be the man who carries his banner. 

NOTES:

Ismail died before al-Sadiq. He was never to be the Imam after al-Sadiq. However, he will be resurrected in the Raj`a [Eschatological Return] together with ten of his closest companions, with Abdallah b. Sharik at their head. Abdallah b. Sharik was among the Tabi`ina who participated in Mukhtar's revolt [he was sent by Mukhtar to send a message to Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya] and lived a long life to the time of al-Sadiq.

Ibn Uyayna said: I heard [narrations] from Abdallah when he was a hundred years old.

al-Sa`di said about him: مختاري كذاب - A lying Mukhtari

Ibn Hibban said about him:  كان غاليا في التشيع يروي عن الأثبات ما لا يشبه حديث الثقات - He was extreme in his Tashayyu, narrating from the established narrators what does not resemble the Hadith of the Thiqat. [Note: this accusation is purely subjective, just because they did not like what he was narrating]. 

Ahmad b. Hanbal said that he was Thiqa

al-Muhsini: al-Sayyid al-Khoei postulated that the Abdallah b. Muhammad with whom the chain begins here is the son of Muhammad b. Khalid al-Tayalisi, the Thiqa, and it is not a far-fetched postulation. The Ismail here is the son of Imam al-Sadiq to whom the Ismailiyya are attributed.

 

[2/125] كمال الدين: الحسن بن احمد بن إدريس رضي الله عنه، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن احمد الاشعري، عن ابن يزيد والبرقي، عن احمد بن محمد بن ابي نصر البزنطي، عن حماد، عن عبيد بن زرارة قال: ذكرت إسماعيل عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: لا والله لا يشبهني ولا يشبه أحدا من آبائي

[2/125] Kamal al-Diin: al-Hasan b. Ahmad b. Idris - may Allah be pleased with him - from his father from Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ash`ari from Ya`qub b. Yazid and al-Barqi from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti from Hammad from Ubayd b. Zurara who said: I mentioned Ismail to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام so he said: no by Allah - he does not resemble me or any one of my forefathers.

NOTES:

al-Muhsini: It is very likely that al-Hasan in the chain is a scribal error and it should be al-Husayn, for there isn’t anyone such named (al-Hasan b. Ahmad b. Idris) in the books of Rijal, while al-Husayn b. Ahmad b. Idris exists and is deemed Thiqa.

Even if for the sake of argument we maintain that it is al-Hasan then the Tarradhi of al-Saduq [al-Saduq asking God to be pleased with him] is enough to establish his soundness as is discussed in the books of Rijal.

The narration should not be taken as censuring Ismail or casting aspersions on his character, for it is possible that the Imam while denying resemblance is referring to the matter of Imama alone [i.e. he is not an Imam like the `Aimma] and not anything further than that.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.11. - 3.14. Bazi`, al-Sarri, Bashshar and Bayan

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/bazi-al-sarri-bashshar-and-bayan

 

[1/126] رجال الكشي: عن محمد بن مسعود، عن الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار ومحمد بن قولويه القميان، عن سعد بن عبد الله بن أبي خلف، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: إن بيانا و السري و بزيعا لعنهم الله تراءى لهم الشيطان في أحسن ما يكون صورة آدمي من قرنه إلى سرته قال: فقلت: إن بيانا يتأول هذه الآية وَ هُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّماءِ إِلهٌ وَ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلهٌ، أن الذي في الأرض غير إله السماء، و إله السماء غير إله الأرض، و أن إله السماء أعظم من إله الأرض، و أن أهل الأرض يعرفون فضل إله السماء و يعظمونه فقال: و الله ما هو إلا الله وحده لا شريك له إله من في السماوات و إله من في الأرضين، كذب بنان عليه لعنة الله، لقد صغر الله جل و عز و صغر عظمته

[1/126] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Muhammad b. Masud from al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi and Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi from Sa`d b. Abdallah b. Abi Khalaf from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Husayn b. Sa`id from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the Devil appeared to Bayan, al-Sarri and Bazi` - may Allah curse them - in the most handsome form that a human can have from the top of his head to the navel, I [Hisham] said: Bayan interprets this verse “and He is the one who is God in Heaven and God on Earth” (43:84) that the one on Earth is not the God of Heaven, and the God of Heaven is not the God of Earth, and that the God of Heaven is greater than the God of Earth, and that the people of the Earth recognize [only] the merit of the God of Heaven and magnify Him, so he said: by Allah! He is not but Allah alone having no partner, the God of the those in the Heavens and the God of those on the Earths, Bayan has lied - may Allah curse him - he has belittled Allah Majestic and Mighty and His greatness.     

NOTES:

This narration in which Hisham b. al-Hakam (d. 179/795) is asking the Imam about heretical figures is consistent with the fact that he was the first to author a work on Muslim sects ‘Kitāb ikhtilāf al-nās fī él-imāma’. It was devoted to the description of the divisions in Šhi’ism in the late second/eighth century. His original is no longer extant but it has been preserved in Firaq al-Šhia of Nawbakhtī (d. ca. 310/923).

Most manuscripts of al-Kashshi  have the name as Bunan ((بنان instead of Bayan (بيان), but this is probably a manuscriptal error [The only difference between the two names being mere dot number and placement].  

Bayan b. Sam`an (most likely from the South Arabian tribe of Nahd) was a Ghali who is said to have associated himself with Hamza b. `Ammara, a speculator about the divinity of Ibn al-Hanafiyya [heading a splinter of the Kaysaniyya]. Bayan later attached himself to the claim of Abu Hashim the son of Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya.

The following were some of the ideas held by the Bayaniyya [themes also shared by other Ghulat with some important variations]:

i. The Bayaniyya, as is clear from the Hadith above, were influenced by the concept of the Demiurge in their cosmology. This owes its origins to Gnosticism which had a long pre-Islamic pedigree in the melting pot that was Kufa. Gnosticism presents a distinction between the highest, unknowable God and the demiurgic lesser power [second divine heavenly being] that was pre-existing with the unknowable God. The latter is the ilah al-ard [lesser god] in Bayan’s terminology. The real unknown God is so distant and incomprehensible to humans that they can only know him through a lesser being which can interact with matter.

ii. Who is this lesser god on the earth? The Bayaniyya held that it was a man housing the indwelling of the demiurgic light particle. This transmigrated (Tanasukh) i.e. passed down - from the Biblical patriarchs, to the Prophet Muammad, to the Shiʿi Imams.

هذا بيان بن سمعان النهدي ظهر بالعراق بعد المائة وقال: بالهية علي عليه السلام، وأن جزءا إلهيا متحد بناسوته، ثم من بعده في ابنه محمد بن الحنفية ثم في أبي هاشم ولد محمد بن الحنفية، ثم من بعده  في بيان هذا

In other words the bodies of prophets and `Aimma were just receptacles/vessels to be filled with a divine spark or Spirit. This I term a “possessionist” Imamology. This particle is said to have passed through Ali > Ibn al-Hanafiyya > Abu Hashim and potentially Bayan himself.

Al-Baghdadi says in al-Farq bayn al-Firaq:

ان بَيَانا قَالَ لَهُم ان روح الْإِلَه تناسخت فى الانبياء والائمة حَتَّى صَارَت الى ابى هَاشم عبد الله ابْن مُحَمَّد بن الْحَنَفِيَّة ثمَّ انْتَقَلت اليه مِنْهُ يعْنى نَفسه فَادّعى لنَفسِهِ الربوبية على مَذْهَب الحلولية

Bayan said: the Divine Spirit transfused into the prophets and the `Aimma until it reached Abi Hashim Abdallah b. Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya then it went into me [i.e. he deified himself].

al-Shahristani says in al-Milal wa al-Nihal:

قال بيان:  حل في علي جزء إلهي، واتحد بجسده، فيه كان يعلم الغيب اذا اخبر عن الملاحم وبه قلع باب خيبر

The divine particle transfused into Ali, and united with his physical body, with it [in this divine particle] did he know the knowledge of the Unseen when he used to inform others about the trials [at the end of times] and by it [not his physical body] was he able to uproot the door of Khaybar.

iii. The continuation of prophecy. The Ghulati groups did not believe that access to the divine realm ended with the prophet Muhammad. Since they deified the Imams, anyone who is a legitimate deputy of this Imam-god would be a “prophet”. Bayan saw himself as the “prophet” of the one with the divine spark, or even possessing the spark himself according to others, in this way he had access to special kind of knowledge which enabled him to predict the future [as a corollary] among other powers.

iv. The Ghulat in general are characterized by dabbling in Ta`wil [esoteric interpretation of the Qur`an]. The Bayaniyya in particular developed a literalist anthropomorphic interpretation of the Qur`an. They considered the unknowable God as being  a Man of Light based on Q. 24:35. This Man of Light has various constituent parts e.g. having a hand based on Q. 48:10. In this vein, they considered that all will be destroyed [including God’s other parts] except for His face based on Q. 28:88.

v. A key feature of most of these groups is the belief in the return of the dead before the day of judgment initiated by the eschatological return of of the expected messianic deliverer. The Bayaniyya believed in the Raj`a of Abu Hashim as the Mahdi. 

In 119/737 AD Bayan and another Ghali al-Mughira b. Sa`id joined forces and rose in revolt against the Umayyad governor of Iraq, Khalid b. `Abdallah al-Qasri. The rebellion was quickly put down and the leaders as well as some of their followers were executed and then burned.

As the Imam says:

كان بيان يكذب على علي بن الحسين عليه السلام، فأذاقه الله حرَّ الحديد، وكان المغيرة بن سعيد يكذب على أبي جعفر عليه السلام فأذاقه الله حرَّ الحديد

Bayan used to lie about al-al-Sajjad عليه السلام and al-Mughira b. Sa`id used to lie about al-Baqir عليه السلام so Allah made to taste of the heat of the iron [put to the sword].

 

 [2/127] رجال الكشي: عن محمد بن مسعود عن الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار و محمد بن قولويه القميان، عن سعد بن عبد الله بن أبي خلف، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن ابن بكير، عن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سمعته يقول لعن الله بيان التبان و إن بيانا لعنه الله كان يكذب على أبي أشهد أن أبي علي بن الحسين كان عبدا صالحا

[2/127] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Muhammad b. Masud from al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi and Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi from Sa`d b. Abdallah b. Abi Khalaf from Ya`qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Bukayr from Zurara from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام, he (Zurara) said: I heard him saying: may Allah curse Bayan the straw seller, and also [saying]: Bayan - may Allah curse him - used to lie about my father, I bear witness that my father Ali b. al-Husayn was [naught but] a righteous slave.

NOTES:

This Hadith gives us the occupation of Bayan i.e. selling straw, as well as indicating that apart from his association with Ibn al-Hanafiyya and Abu Hashim, he also claimed things [deification] for the former’s junior contemporary Ali Zayn al-Abidin who must have repudiated him.

Sa`d b. Abdallah says in his al-Maqalat that this Bayan sent a letter to al-Sadiq announcing his prophethood and commanding him among other things “to surrender himself so as to be safe … for you cannot know where God will place his prophethood .. and whoever warns has been excused”. The Imam ordered the messenger who brought the letter, a hapless man called Umar b. Abi Afif al-Azdi, to eat the letter in front of him, and that was his reply.

 

[3/128] رجال الكشي: عن محمد بن مسعود، عن الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار ومحمد بن قولويه القميان، عن سعد، عن العبيدي، عن يونس، عن العباس بن عامر القصباني؛ و أيوب بن نوح و الحسن بن موسى الخشاب و الحسن بن عبد الله بن المغيرة، عن العباس بن عامر، عن حماد بن أبي طلحة، عن ابن أبي يعفور قال: دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: ما فعل بزيع فقلت له: قتل، فقال: الحمد لله، أما إنه ليس لهؤلاء المغيرية شي‏ء خيرا من القتل لأنهم لا يتوبون أبدا 

[3/128] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Muhammad b. Masud from al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi and Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi from Sa`d from al-Ubaydi from Yunus from al-Abbas bin A’mir al-Qasbani AND Ayyub b. Nuh and al-Hasan b. Musa - the wood seller - and al-Hasan b. Abdallah b. al-Mughira from al-Abbas b. A`mir from Hammad b. Abi Talha from Ibn Abi Ya’fur who said: I entered upon Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - so he said to me: what has happened to Bazi`? I said: he has been killed, he said: All praise is due to Allah - for there is nothing more appropriate for these Mughiriyya than being killed - this is because they will never repent ever.

NOTES:

The Mughiriyya are the followers of al-Mughira b. Sa`id (it has already been pointed out above that he died with his followers in the same rebellion as that of Bayan; more about him in his own independent entry). Bazi` would be one of the Mughiriyya who died in the same incident.

It would seem that this Bazi` also claimed prophethood in the same way as Mughira [his teacher] had done i.e. they considered the Imam to be divine and themselves to be legitimate deputies (“prophets”).

  محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال، عن حماد بن عثمان، عن ابن أبي يعفور قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: إن بزيعا يزعم أنه نبي فقال: إن سمعته يقول ذلك فاقتله، قال: فجلست له غير مرة فلم يمكني ذلك

Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Fadhal from Hammad b. Uthman from Ibn Abi Ya`fur who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - Bazi` claims that he is a prophet, he said: if you hear him saying that then kill him, he [Ibn Abi Ya`fur] said: so I sat in his sessions more than once but he did not give me any chance [he did not repeat those words]. 

It has been attributed to Bazi`that he claimed to have made a heavenly ascent at the culmination of which Allah the Elevated Himself wiped on his head [anointed him] and spat into his mouth, which was the source of his knowledge. He also believed that any one who perfects his recognition will not die in reality but be “raised” to the spiritual domain directly. The idea of ascension through the heavenly spheres was not new in the Near Eastern societies and even Paul of Tarsus claims this in the NT.

 

[4/129] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن يعقوب، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن علي بن يقطين، عن المدايني، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال، قال لي: يامرازم من بشار؟ قلت بياع الشعير، قال: لعن الله بشارا، قال، ثم قال لي: يا مرازم قل لهم ويلكم توبوا إلى الله فانكم كافرون مشركون

[4/129] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Ya`qub from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ali b. Yaqtin from al-Madaini from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he [Abi Abdillah] said to me: O Murazim - who is Bashshar? I said: the seller of barley, he said: may Allah curse Bashshar, then he said to me: O Murazim - say to them: woe on you! repent to Allah for you are indeed disbelieving polytheists! 

 

[5/130] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم ابنا نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن صفوان، عن مرازم قال: قال لي أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: تعرف مبشر بشير، بتوهم الاسم، الشعيري، فقلت: بشار قال: بشار قلت: نعم جار لي، قال: إن اليهود قالوا و وحدوا الله و إن النصارى قالوا و وحدوا الله و إن بشارا قال عظيما، إذا قدمت الكوفة فأته و قل له يقول لك جعفر يا كافر يا فاسق يا مشرك أنا بري‏ء منك، قال مرازم: فلما قدمت الكوفة فوضعت متاعي جئت إليه فدعوت الجارية فقلت قولي لأبي إسماعيل هذا مرازم فخرج إلي فقلت له: يقول لك جعفر بن محمد يا كافر يا فاسق يا مشرك أنا بري‏ء منك، فقال لي: و قد ذكرني سيدي قال: قلت: نعم ذكرك بهذا الذي قلت لك فقال: جزاك الله خيرا و فعل بك و أقبل يدعو لي 

[5/130] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim the sons of Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Safwan from Murazim who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: do you know Mubashir or Bashir - [mistaking the name] - the barley seller? I said: Bashshar? he said: Bashshar! I said: yes I do, he is a neighbor of mine, he (al-Sadiq) said: the Jews said (what they said) but they (still) monothized Allah, and the Christians said (what they said) but they (still) monothized Allah, but Bashshar has said (i.e. professed) a mighty thing! if you reach Kufa go to him and say to him: Ja’far says to you - ‘O Kafir, O Fasiq, O Mushriq, I am disassociated from you’, Murazim said: so when I reached Kufa and had put down my provisions (of the journey) - I came to his place and called the maid servant and said: say to Abi Ismail (Bashshar) that this is Murazim (at the door), so he came out to me, I said to him: Ja’far b. Muhammad says to you - ‘O Kafir, O Fasiq, O Mushriq, I am disassociated from you’, so he (Bashshar) said to me: and has my master mentioned (i.e. remembered) me? he (Murazim) said: I said: yes - he has mentioned you with what I have just said to you! so he said: may Allah reward you with good, and may he do (so and so) for you, and he began supplicating for me!

NOTES:

al-Mamaqani says: he (the Imam) wishes by naming him Mubashar and then Bashir [which are derivations of Bishr] and not getting his name right - to do as though he does not know him, and this is to belittle the one named, and not that he does not know his name in actuality, and this is something well known even in our usage, when we want to demean a man we show as if we do not know his actual name (i.e. get it wrong purposely).

What were the beliefs of Bashshar the barley seller that the Imam had such a visceral reaction against him. Al-Kashshi elaborates that he held similar beliefs to the Ulyawiyya and the Mukhammisa as follows:

ومقالة بشار هي مقالة العلياوية يقولون إن عليا رب وظهر بالعلوية الهاشمية وأظهر عبده ورسوله بالمحمدية، فوافق أصحاب أبي الخطاب في أربعة أشخاص علي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين وأن معنى الأشخاص الثلاثة فاطمة والحسن و الحسين تلبيس و الحقيقة شخص علي لأنه أول هذه الأشخاص في الإمامة و أنكروا شخص محمد وزعموا أن محمدا عبد وعلي رب وأقاموا محمدا مقام ما أقامت المخمسة سلمان و جعلوه رسولا لعلي، فوافقوهم في الإباحات و التعطيل و التناسخ والعلياوية سمتها المخمسة العليائية و زعموا أن بشارا الشعيري لما أنكر ربوبية محمد وجعلها في علي و جعل محمدا عبد علي و أنكر رسالة سلمان مسخ في صورة الطير يقال له علياء يكون في البحر فلذلك سموهم العليائية

And the belief of Bashshar is that of the Ulyawiyya - they say: Indeed Ali is the Deity, and he appeared [incarnated] in the Alawi and Hashimi form (as a human), and He [Ali] made his slave and messenger [pre-existent right-hand lesser power] to appear [incarnate] in the Muhammadi form (as a human). In this, he (Bashshar) agreed with the companions of Abi al-Khattab (i.e. the Khattabiyya) in four personas (being complete embodiments of the Divine) - Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, maintaining however that the meaning [independent essence] of the three personas - Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn is a deception, and the reality is only the persona of Ali [who alone is true and integral - reappearing as these other persons in successive incarnations], because he is the first among these personas in the Imama, and they denied the persona of Muhammad (as Lord), and they held that Muhammad was slave and that Ali Lord, and they placed Muhammad in the station (position) that the Mukhammisa (Pentadists) had placed Salman in [i.e. that of a slave and messenger], and they made him (Muhammad) a messenger to Ali, and he (Bashshar) also agreed with them in anti-nomian libertinism (considering licit what is forbidden), in denying (negating the attributes of Allah), and transmigration (of souls).

And the Ulyawiyya were called by the Mukhammisa - ‘Ulya`iyya’, and they held that Bashshar - the barley seller - when he rejected the deification of Muhammad, and placed it in Ali, and made Muhammad a slave to Ali, and rejected the messenger-ship of Salman - was transformed into the shape of a bird which is called Ulya, found by the sea, so this is why they called them Ulya`iyya (i.e. pejoratively).

I say: Allah is Elevated above this, in their esoteric derangement they consider the curse of the Imam a secret coded blessing! This is because they considered their doctrine “secret knowledge” which is Gnosis, and that the Imam was maintaining Taqiyya with the laity while they were the elite who were initiated into this, so they had to maintain the facade in front of those who do not have this salvific knowledge .

Note that there is a difference in belief between the Bayaniyya [followers of Bayan] who considered this to happen as a result of the transfer of the divine particle, and what I consider be a later evolution of this belief into the more mature Mukhammisa and Ulyawaiyya who believed in a complete reincarnation (Hulul) of God [on the Earth] “Divine became Flesh” where the human figure is a complete embodiment of the divine. This is “incarnationist” Imamology.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.15. Bukayr

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/bukayr

 

[1/131] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن الفضيل و إبراهيم ابني محمد الأشعريين قالا: إن أبا عبد الله عليه السلام لما بلغه وفاة بكير بن أعين قال: أما و الله لقد أنزله الله بين رسول الله و أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليهما

[1/131] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Ya`qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from al-Fudhayl and Ibrahim the two sons of Muhammad al-Ash`ari who said: when the news of the death of Bukayr b. A`yan reached Aba Abdillah عليه السلام, he said: by Allah - Allah has brought him down [placed him] between the messenger of Allah and the commander of the faithful صلوات الله عليهما [as his station in the world to come].

 

[2/132] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن، عن أبيه، عن إبراهيم بن محمد الأشعري، عن عبيدة بن زرارة؛ و الحسن بن جهم بن بكير، عن عمه عبد الله بن بكير، عن عبيد بن زرارة قال: كنت عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فذكر بكير بن أعين فقال: رحم الله بكيرا و قد فعل، فنظرت إليه و كنت يومئذ حديث السن، فقال: إني أقول إن شاء الله

[2/132] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud who said: narrated to me Ali b. al-Hasan from his father from Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Ash`ari from Ubayd b. Zurara; and [al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal from] al-Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr from his uncle Abdallah bin Bukayr from Ubayd bin Zurara who said: I was with Abi Abdillah عليه السلام when Bukayr bin A`yan was mentioned, so he عليه السلام said: may Allah have mercy on Bukayr, and He has done it [already], so I (Ubayd) looked at him [in disbelief, as to how could one speak for Allah in such a way], and I (i.e. Ubayd) was then - young in age [excusing himself], so he عليه السلام said: I do say ‘If Allah wills’.

NOTES:

The Banu A`yan were a very famous and large family of the Shia producing a lot of worthy scholars. A`yan himself was a slave of Roman ancestry purchased by a man from the Bani Shayban who brought him up in Kufa and later set him free. The sons of A`yan included Humran, Zurara and this Bukayr.

Bukayr was a companion of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq and he died in the lifetime of the latter as the above reports prove. He narrated a large number of narrations, about one hundred and twenty of them can still be found in our books.

The second strain in the last narration is a kind of family chain, being reported by his grandson al-Hasan b. Jahm from his son Abdallah b. Bukayr from his nephew Ubayd b. Zurara [all three of whom were prolific narrators].

More about the family can be discovered by studying the Risala of one Abu Ghalib al-Zurari, a scholar who was a contemporary to Shaykh al-Mufid and a direct descendant of Bukayr.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.16. - 3.20. al-Hakam, Salama, Kathir, Salim and Abu al-Miqdam

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-hakam-salama-kathir-salim-and-abu-al-miqdam

 

[1/133] رجال الكشي: علي بن الحسن، عن العباس بن عامر و جعفر بن محمد، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن أبي بصير قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: إن الحكم بن عتيبة و سلمة و كثيرا و أبا المقدام و التمار يعني سالما، أضلوا كثيرا ممن ضل من هؤلاء، و إنهم ممن قال الله عز و جل وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَ بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَ ما هُمْ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

[1/133] Rijal al-Kashshi: Ali b. al-Hasan from al-Abbas b. A`mir and Ja`far b. Muhammad from Aban b. Uthman from Abi Basir who said: I heard Aba Ja`far عليه السلام saying: al-Hakam b. Utayba, Salama, Kathir, Aba al-Miqdam and al-Tammar - that is Salim - have misguided a lot of those who are misguided from among these [non-Imamis], and they are those about whom Allah Mighty and Majestic said: “and among people are those who say: we have believed in Allah and the last day while they are not believers” (2:8).

NOTES:

The chain is Mu`tabar only if the intermediary between al-Kashshi and Ali b. al-Hasan is a Thiqa narrator like Muhammad b. Masud, as is likely, looking at the Isnad statistics throughout the book.

All those mentioned here can be considered of the Batriyya. This is how al-Nawbakhti describes them in his Kitab al-Firaq [undoubtedly he was inspired by this narration when putting them together under one heading]: The people of Hadith, like al-Hasan b. Salih b. Hayy (d. 168), Kathir al-Nawwa, Salim b. Abi Hafsa (d. 137), al-Hakam b. Utayba (d. 114), Salama b. Kuhayl (d. 121), Abu al-Miqdam Thabit al-Haddad, and their followers. They called for loyalty to Ali, peace be upon him, then they mixed it with loyalty to Abu Bakr and Umar. They agreed that Ali was the best and superior among the Umma. Nevertheless, they accept the judgment of Abu Bakr and Umar and allow the wiping of shoes [Mash ala al-Khuffayn in Wudhu], and permit drinking intoxicating drink [Nabidh], and eating catfish [which does not have scales].

Why were they called Batriyya? There is a difference of opinions about the origin of this term, but one possible reason is given by the narration below [though it is clearly polemical and weak in chain].

Sa`d b. Janah al-Kashshi - Ali b. Muhammad b. Yazid al-Qummi - Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa - al-Husayn b. Sa`id - Fadhala b. Ayyub - al-Husayn b. Uthman al-Ruwasi - Sadiyr who said: I entered upon Abi Ja’far عليه السلام and with me were Salama b. Kuhayl, Abu al-Miqdam Thabit al-Haddad, Salim b. Abi Hafsa, Kathir al-Nawwa and a group together with them, and with Abi Ja’far عليه السلام was his brother Zayd b. Ali عليهم السلام, so they said to Abi Ja’far عليهم السلام - we consider as a guardian Ali, Hasan and Husayn, and we disassociate from their enemies, he said: yes (do that), they said: we consider Abu Bakr and Umar as guardians, and disassociate from their enemies, he (Sadiyr) said: so Zayd b. Ali turned towards them and said: do you disassociate from Fatima!? you have cut off our affair - may Allah cut you off. [And from that day on they were known as the Batriyya (those who cut off part of the thing)].

In other words they had political Tashayyu in them, in so far as they considered Ali more merituous [a concept that was further elaborated on by the Zaydiyya]. This was enough for a lot of Nasibi scholars to view as “Tashayyu”. At the same time, they accepted the Jamai conception that Abu Bakr and Umar were Just leaders and did not condemn the Sahaba wholesale.

They did not have any concept of the Nass, whereby the true leader [in both temporal and spiritual terms] is one man from the Ahl al-Bayt who has been designated by a prior man from the same lineage.

They respected al-Baqir and al-Sadiq and considered them authorities. This can be evidenced by the fact that they did narrate from them more than your average Hadith narrator among the Proto-Sunnis. Despite this, they did not know of a concept of Isma, nor did they restrict authority to just these Imams, thus, they could mix freely and take Ilm from others which even contradicted what the `Aimma of Ahl al-Bayt were preaching to their closest followers in Non-Taqiyya mode.

What is also worthy of note is how al-Hakam was seen as much more of a key player in early Imami circles, over and beyond his status in what has become Sunnism [he is a very marginal figure]. Maybe this was because Zurara studied under him first before beginning to follow the Imams.

Muhammad b. Masud - Ali bin Muhammad b. Fayruzan al-Qummi - Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya - al-Abbas b. Ma`ruf - al-Hajjal - Abi Maryam al-Ansari who said: Abi Ja`far عليه السلام said to Salama b. Kuhayl and al-Hakam b. Utayba - (go) east or west, you will not find correct knowledge except something that has originated from us - the Ahl al-Bayt.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.21. - 3.24. Abu Sasan, Ammar, Shatira and Abu Amra

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/abu-sasan-ammar-shatira-and-abu-amra

 

[1/134] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن العباس بن عامر و جعفر بن محمد بن حكيم، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن الحارث بن المغيرة النصري قال: سمعت عبد الملك بن أعين يسأل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فلم يزل يسأله حتى قال له: فهلك الناس إذا فقال: إي و الله يا ابن أعين هلك الناس أجمعون قلت: من في الشرق و من في الغرب قال: فقال: إنها فتحت على الضلال إي و الله هلكوا إلا ثلاثة ثم لحق أبو ساسان و عمار و شتيرة و أبو عمرة فصاروا سبعة

[1/134] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan b. Fadhal from al-Abbas b. Amir and Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Hukaym from Aban b. Uthman from al-Harith b. Mughira al-Nasri who said: I heard Abd al-Malik b. A`yan asking Aba Abdillah عليه السلام - and he did not cease asking him - until he said to him: so the people were destroyed then (after the messenger of Allah)? he said: yes, by Allah, O the son of A`yan, all the people were destroyed, I (Abd al-Malik) said: whomever was in the east and the west? he said: it (the whole earth) was opened up to misguidance, yes, by Allah, they were all destroyed, except three, then joined Abu Sasan, Ammar, Shatira and Abu Umra, so they became seven.

NOTES:

The three pillars are Miqdad, Salman and Abu Dhar as other narrations make clear.

Abu Amra al-Ansari [Bashir b. Amr b. Mihsan] was a very early convert to Islam who participated in Badr, Uhud and the rest of the battles. He was a faithful follower of Ali in his Khilafa and fought with him in Jamal and was killed in Sifffin.

Ammar b. Yasir needs no introduction.

Most scholars have identified Abu Sasan as al-Hudhayn b. al-Mundhir al-Raqqashi, a companion of Ali and the man who carried his banner in the Siffin war [See: al-Tusi in al-Rijal]. The problem with this identification is that there are reports that he was quite young at this time, indeed the Sunni scholars have place him in the Tabaqa of the Tabi`in and he lived on to the Marwanid era. This being the case - how could he have been among the foremost to return back to Ali at the time of the prophet’s death? This point raises doubt about this identification and over-rules it.

al-Tustari proposes that it could be Abu Sinan (أبو سنان) al-Ansari instead of Abu Sasan (أبو ساسان), their names are quite close to each other in the Arabic script. al-Tusi includes Abi Sinan al-Ansari among the companions of Ali and al-Barqi considers him to be among the select (Asfiya) of his companions. The problem again is that he has not been listed among the companions of the prophet by any scholar, and we do not even know his personal name. At the same time, it is possible that it is Abu Sinan which is a corruption of Abu Sasan.

Shatira (Shatir) is most probably Shatira b. Shakal al-Absi al-Kufi. Al-Barqi enumerated him among the close (Khawas) companions of Ali from Mudhar. Ibn Athir says that he witnessed the time of Jahiliyya, though he did not narrate from the prophet directly, but from his father and other companions. Nothing more is known about him.

Despite all the above, there is an enigmatic narration in al-Ikhtisas as follows:

و روى الاختصاص باسناده، عن عليّ بن إسماعيل بن عيسى، عن حمّاد بن عيسى، عن الحسين بن مختار القلانسي، عن الحارث بن المغيرة النضري، قال: قال لي أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: أيّ شي‏ء تقولون أنتم؟ فقال: نقول هلك الناس إلّا ثلاثة، فقال أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: فأين ابن ليلى و شتير؟ فسألت حمّاد بن عيسى عنهما، قال: كانا موليين أسودين لعليّ بن أبي طالب

Al-Ikhtisas: pseudo-al-Mufid by his chain to Ali b. Ismail b. Isa from Hammad b. Isa from al-Husayn b. Mukhtar al-Qulanasi from al-Harith b. al-Mughira al-Nadhri who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said to me: what do you (pl.) say? I said: we say that the people were destroyed except for three, so Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said: so where is Ibn Abi Layla and Shatir? So I (Ali b. Ismail) asked Hammad b. Isa about them, he said: they were two black slaves of Ali b. Abi Talib.

Assuming this is authentic, then it is possible that Abu Sasan (= Ibn Abi Layla) and Shatir are two obscure slaves of Ali who got such an eminent position as to become among the seven because of their loyalty to him.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

3.25. - 3.26. The two Jabirs

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/jabir-b-abdallah-al-ansari-and-jabir-b-yazid-al-jufi

 

[1/135] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي نجران، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: حدثني جابر عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ولم يكذب جابر ...

[1/135] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Najran from A`sim b. Humayd from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام who said: Jabir [b. Abdallah] narrated to me from the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله - and Jabir did not lie - …

NOTES:

For the Imam to be narrating from a companion is nothing of the extraordinary, provided the words of the companion are true. It may also be done to show the status of the companion. There is a weak-chained apologetic narration trying to explain away this phenomenon by noting that al-Baqir used to visit Jabir not to take Ilm from him but to honour him.

... جابر يأتيه طرفي النهار فكان أهل المدينة يقولون وا عجباه لجابر يأتي هذا الغلام طرفي النهار و هو آخر من بقي من أصحاب رسول الله، فلم يلبث أن مضى علي بن الحسين (عليهما السلام) فكان محمد بن علي يأتيه على وجه الكرامة لصحبته برسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) قال، فجلس فحدثهم عن أبيه فقال أهل المدينة ما رأينا أحدا قط أجرا من ذا قال : فلما رأى ما يقولون حدثهم عن رسول الله، قال أهل المدينة ما رأينا أحدا قط أكذب من هذا يحدث عمن لم يره، قال فلما رأى ما يقولون حدثهم عن جابر بن عبد الله فصدقوه، و كان جابر و الله يأتيه يتعلم منه

It adds that when al-Baqir used to narrate from his father, the people of Madina used to say - we have not seen someone bolder than him [acting as though the words of his father are a final authority], when the Imam heard what they said he began to narrate directly from the messenger of Allah so the people of Madina said - we have not seen someone more lying than him for he narrates from someone he has not met, when the Imam heard that he decided to narrate to them on the authority of Jabir and they considered him truthful, while in fact it was Jabir who used to gain knowledge from al-Baqir.

 

[2/136] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن زياد بن أبي الحلال قال: اختلف أصحابنا في أحاديث جابر الجعفي، فقلت لهم: أسأل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام، فلما دخلت ابتدأني فقال: رحم الله جابر الجعفي كان يصدق علينا، لعن الله المغيرة بن سعيد كان يكذب علينا 

[2/136] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Hakam from Ziyad b. Abi al-Hilal who said: our companions differed about accepting the narrations of Jabir al-Ju`fi, I said to them: I will ask Aba Abdillah عليه السلام, so when I entered upon him, he عليه السلام began saying [without me asking]: may Allah have mercy on Jabin al-Ju`fi - he used to tell the truth about us, may Allah curse al-Mughira bin Sa`id, he used to lie about us.

NOTES:

This narration is used to confirm Jabir’s truthfulness. Despite this, it cannot be overlooked that Jabir was seen as a controversial figure from very early on, indeed, this is why the Imam is asked about him in the first place.

روى عنه جماعة غمز فيهم و ضعّفوا ... و كان في نفسه مختلطا. و كان شيخنا أبو عبد اللّه محمّد بن محمّد بن النعمان رحمه اللّه ينشد أشعارا كثيرة في معناه يدلّ على الاختلاط، ليس هذا موضعا لذكرها. و قلّما يورد عنه شي‏ء في الحلال و الحرام

al-Najashi points out that a number of weak and censured individuals narrate from him. They include some prominent Ghalis. He goes further and accuses Jabir himself of having corrupt “syncretist i.e. mixed with esoteric elements” beliefs. He cites a large number of poems [of Jabir] that were recited to him by al-Mufid which evidence him having such beliefs. He also accuses him of not concerning himself with the narrations of Halal and Haram [i.e. Fiqh] [which may be alluding to the fact that the Ghulat saw themselves as the elite above outward ritual]. This tallies with Jabir’s claims to have secret intitiatic knowledge that should be hidden from the “masses”.

و يضاف إليه رسالة أبي جعفر إلى أهل البصرة و غيرها من الأحاديث و الكتب، و ذلك موضوع، و اللّه أعلم

al-Najashi concludes by stating that a number of fabricated books and narrations are attributed to him including a supposed letter from Abi Ja`far al-Baqir to the people of Basra. 

ثقة في نفسه، و لكن جلّ من روى عنه ضعيف فممّن أكثر عنه من الضعفاء: عمرو بن شمر الجعفي، و مفضّل بن صالح السكوني، و منخل بن جميل الأسدي و أرى الترك لما روى هؤلاء عنه و الوقف في الباقي، إلّا ما خرج شاهدا

Ibn al-Ghadhairi on the other hand sums him up by considering him Thiqa in of himself. This would rule him out of being personally responsible for disseminating esoterically corrupt material. He concedes, however, that weak narrators made use of his name to spread spurious material [he was almost the go-to person to attribute material to as anyone who studies the Jabirean corpus will tell you - which brings up the question, if he was so un-involved with these circles why did they consider him one of their pillars?]

In any case, Jabir is a complex character who is also known to Sunni Rijal scholars and a full study on him is needed [perhaps a monograph that treats him in-depth will be forthcoming].

 

[3/137] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم ابنا نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن ابن بكير، عن زرارة قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن أحاديث جابر فقال: ما رأيته عند أبي قط إلا مرة واحدة و ما دخل علي قط

[3/137] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim the two sons of Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Hakam from Ibn Bukayr from Zurara who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the narrations of Jabir, he said: I never saw him with my father - ever - except for one time, and he never entered upon me [to take Hadith] ever.

NOTES:

This narration would seem to conflict with the one above it, and open up the possibility of mass deception on the part of Jabir!

وأما قول الصادق عليه السلام، في موثقة زرارة (بابن بكير): ما رأيته عند أبي إلا مرة واحدة، وما دخل علي قط، فلابد من حمله على نحو من التورية، إذ لو كان جابر لم يكن يدخل عليه سلام الله عليه، وكان هو بمرأى من الناس ، لكان هذا كافيا في تكذيبه وعدم تصديقه، فكيف اختلفوا في أحاديثه، حتى احتاج زياد، إلى سؤال الإمام عليه السلام عن أحاديثه على أن عدم دخوله على الإمام عليه السلام لا ينافي صدقه في أحاديثه، لاحتمال أنه كان يلاقي الإمام عليه السلام في غير داره: فيأخذ منه العلوم والاحكام، ويرويها، إذن لا تكون الموثقة معارضة للصحبة الدالة على صدقه في الأحاديث المؤيدة بما تقدم من الروايات الدالة على جلالته ومدحه، وأنه كان عنده من أسرار أهل البيت سلام الله عليهم

al-Khoei tries to explain it away by claiming that it could be Tawriya [a form of dissimulation] from the Imam. He reconciles it with Ziyad’s narration by noting that Jabir could be meeting the Imam and taking knowledge from him in other than his house [since the Imam said: ‘and he never entered upon me ever i.e. in my house’]. While this is indeed possible, it does not answer the question why the Imam would need to do this with Zurara, a student with whom he was freer than others.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
11 hours ago, E.L King said:

I am a little confusrd brother, so the top bit is about Jabir ibn Abdillah, the rest is about Al-Ju'fi? Or?

Yes, the first narration is about the Sahabi Jabir b. Abdallah al-Ansari, the second and third are about Jabir b. Yazid al-Ju`fi, the companion of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

2.27. - 2.29. al-Ash`ath, Jarir and Simak

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-ashath-jarir-and-simak

 

[1/138] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن عمرو بن عثمان، عن محمد بن عذافر، عن أبي حمزة أو عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: إن بالكوفة مساجد ملعونة و مساجد مباركة ... فأما المساجد الملعونة فمسجد ثقيف ومسجد الاشعث ومسجد جرير ومسجد سماك ومسجد بالخمراء بني على قبر فرعون من الفراعنة

[1/138] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Amr b. Uthman from Muhammad b. Udhafir from Abi Hamza and Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام who said: In Kufa there are accursed mosques and blessed mosques … among the accursed mosques include the mosque of Thaqif, the mosque of al-Ash`ath, the mosque of Jarir, the mosque of Simak and the mosque in al-Khamra which was built on the grave of one Pharaoh among the Pharaohs. 

NOTES:

The accursed mosques are those that were tainted by their connection to either (i) hostile personalities (mainly partisans of Uthman and Mua`wiya) or (ii) unfriendly tribes (to the Shia and Ali).

A similar narration in al-Kafi has the following five:

عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: إن أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليه نهى بالكوفة عن الصلاة في خمسة مساجد: مسجد الاشعث بن قيس ومسجد جرير بن عبدالله البجلي ومسجد سماك بن مخرمة ومسجد شبث بن ربعي ومسجد التيم

Abi Abdillah عليه السلام said: The commander of the faithful صلوات الله عليه prohibited praying in five mosques in Kufa: Masjid al-Ash`ath b. Qays, Masjid Jarir b. Abdallah al-Bajali, Masjid Simak b. Makhrama, Masjid Shabath b. Rib`i and Masjid al-Taym.

Note that a Masjid Shabath b. Rib`i (someone who supported Ali at first but turned Khariji) and a Masjid Taym (to whom belonged Abu Bakr) are added in this narration.

عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: جددت أربعة مساجد بالكوفة فرحا لقتل الحسين عليه السلام: مسجد الاشعث ومسجد جرير ومسجد سماك ومسجد شبث بن ربعي

It seems that one of the main reasons why these mosques were cursed is because they were renovated just to celebrate the killing of al-Husayn! (this shows their Nasibi influence).

Who are the individuals mentioned in the narration?

al-Ash‘ath b. Qays (d. 40/661) fought with ‘Alı in the Battle of Siffın before pressuring him to accept arbitration and appoint Abu Musa al-Ash‘arı as one of the arbiters. This made Ali remind him that he was the same person who participated in the ridda (apostasy) revolts after the death of the Prophet, and was eventually pardoned when he payed a humbling price making use of his Ashrafi connections. What the daughter Jo`da bt. al-Ash`ath did in poisoning al-Hasan and his son’s involvement in the incident of the arrest of Muslim b. Aqil show that the rotten fruits did not fall far from the tree.

Jarır b. ‘Abdallah b. Jabir al-Bajalı (d. 51-6/671-6) was entrusted by ‘Alı to carry a letter to Mu’awiya (to call upon him to submit) but he secretly pledged loyalty to the Umayyads, and began wasting time in Syria, his prevarication worked to sap the energy of Ali’s forces. He finally abdicated at which point Ali ordered his house in Kufa to be destroyed.

Simak b. Makhrama b. Humayn al-Asadı (d. mid- to late 1st/7th century) lived in an area of Kufa known for the pro-‘Uthman beliefs of its inhabitants (as late as the 4th/10th century), where he built a mosque in which ‘Alı famously refused to offer prayers.

Masjid Khamra (or Hamra in al-Tahdhib of al-Tusi) is built on the grave of “one of the Pharaohs”. It is not clear whom this is referring to.

A similar dynamic characterized Masjid Thaqıif given the tribe’s adversarial relationship with ‘Alı and his partisans. Note that Mughira b. Shu`ba the famous Munafiq was from Thaqif and he was critical in perpetuating Umayyad rule as a governor in Kufa.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

2.30. – 2.32. Ja`far b. Isa, Salih and Abu al-Asad

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/jafar-b-isa-salih-and-abu-al-asad

 

[1/139] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم، عن أبو جعفر محمد بن عيسى العبيدي قال: سمعت هشام بن إبراهيم الختلي و هو المشرقي يقول: استأذنت لجماعة على أبي الحسن عليه السلام في سنة تسع و تسعين و مائة، فحضروا و حضرنا ستة عشر رجلا على باب أبي الحسن الثاني عليه السلام، فخرج مسافر فقال: يتخلف آل يقطين و يونس بن عبد الرحمن و يدخل الباقون رجلا رجلا، فلما دخلوا و خرجوا خرج مسافر فدعاني و موسى و جعفر بن عيسى و يونس، فأدخلنا جميعا عليه و العباس قائم ناحية بلا حذاء و لا رداء، و ذلك في سنة أبي السرايا، فسلمنا ثم أمرنا بالجلوس، فلما جلسنا، قال له جعفر بن عيسى: يا سيدي نشكو إلى الله و إليك ما نحن فيه من أصحابنا فقال: و ما أنتم فيه منهم فقال جعفر: هم و الله يا سيدي يزندقونا و يكفرونا و يتبرءون منا، فقال: هكذا كان أصحاب علي بن الحسين و محمد بن علي و أصحاب جعفر و موسى صلوات الله عليهم و لقد كان أصحاب زرارة يكفرون غيرهم، و كذلك غيرهم كانوا يكفرونهم، فقلت له: يا سيدي نستعين بك على هذين الشيخين يونس و هشام و هما حاضران، فهما أدبانا و علمانا الكلام، فإن كنا يا سيدي على هدى ففزنا، و إن كنا على ضلال فهذان أضلانا، فمرنا نتركه و نتوب إلى الله منه، يا سيدي فادعنا إلى دين الله نتبعك فقال عليه السلام: ما أعلمكم إلا على هدى، جزاكم الله عن الصحبة القديمة و الحديثة خيرا، فتأولوا القديمة علي بن يقطين، و الحديثة خدمتنا له، و الله أعلم. فقال جعفر: جعلت فداك، إن صالحا و أبا الأسد ختن علي بن يقطين حكيا عنك أنهما حكيا لك شيئا من كلامنا فقلت لهما ما لكما و الكلام يثنيكم إلى الزندقة فقال عليه السلام: ما قلت لهما ذلك، أنا قلت ذلك و الله ما قلت لهما. و قال يونس: جعلت فداك إنهم يزعمون أنا زنادقة و كان جالسا إلى جنب رجل و هو متربع رجلا على رجل و هو ساعة بعد ساعة يمرغ وجهه و خديه على باطن قدمه الأيسر، فقال له: أ رأيتك لو كنت زنديقا فقال لك هو مؤمن ما كان ينفعك من ذلك، و لو كنت مؤمنا فقالوا هو زنديق ما كان يضرك منه. و قال المشرقي له: و الله ما تقول إلا ما يقول آباؤك عليهم السلام عندنا كتاب سميناه كتاب الجامع فيه جميع ما تكلم الناس فيه عن آبائك عليهم السلام و إنما نتكلم عليه، فقال له جعفر شبيها بهذا الكلام، فأقبل على جعفر فقال: فإذا كنتم لا تتكلمون بكلام آبائي عليهم السلام فبكلام أبي بكر و عمر تريدون أن تتكلموا؟

[1/139] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim from Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Isa al-Ubaydi who said: I heard Hisham b. Ibrahim al-Khatli - and he is al-Mashraqi - say: I sought permission for a number of people to enter upon Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام in the year one hundred and ninety nine, so they attended and we attended, a total of sixteen men, waiting at the door of Abi al-Hasan the Second عليه السلام. Then Musafir (a Mawla of al-Ridha) came out and said: The family of Yaqtin and Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman should wait while the rest should enter one by one, so when they had all entered and exited, Musafir came out and called me, Musa [b. Salih], Ja`far b. Isa and Yunus, and allowed us to enter to meet him, and al-Abbas (another Mawla of al-Ridha) was stood in a corner without footwear and without having worn a cloak, and that was in the year of Abu al-Saraya (i.e. his coming out in revolt). 

He (al-Ridha) saluted us and ordered us to sit, so when we had sat - Ja`far b. Isa said to him: O my master - we complain to Allah and to you in regards what we are in from our companions [the treatment which we receive from them]. He said: and what are you in from them? Ja`far said: they - by Allah - denounce us as heretics, deem us disbelievers, and disassociate from us, so he (i.e. the Imam) said: like this were the companions of Ali b. al-Husayn, Muhammad b. Ali, Ja`far and Musa عليهم السلام, for the companions of Zurara used to consider as disbelievers all the others (apart from themselves), and likewise, the others used to consider them as disbelievers. 

I said to him: O my master - we seek assistance in you from these two old men, Yunus and Hisham, and they are both present, for they are the ones who have trained us and taught us theological disputation, so if we are - O my master - upon guidance, then we have succeeded, and if we are upon misguidance, then these two are the ones who have misguided us, so order us to leave it (i.e. Kalam) and turn to Allah in repentance from it, O my master - call us to the religion of Allah, for we will follow you, so he عليه السلام said: I do not know you except as being upon guidance, may Allah recompense you goodly for the former companionship and for the recent one. [They interpreted the former companionship to mean Ali b. Yaqtin, and the recent one to be our service to him, and Allah knows better].

Then Ja`far said: may I be made your ransom, Salih and Aba al-Asad the son-in-law of Ali b. Yaqtin relate from you that they quoted to you some of our theological arguments - so you said to them both: what is with you and theological disputations [what do you have to do with it?] - it is dragging you to heresy! so he عليه السلام said: I did not say that to them! did I say that?! - by Allah - I did not say that to them! 

Yunus said: may I be made your ransom - they assert that we are heretics, and he was sat beside a man, and he had placed one leg over the other (was seated cross legged), and time after time (every now and then) was rolling his face and his two cheeks upon the interior of his left foot, so he (al-Ridha) said to him: assume that you were indeed a heretic and they say about you - he is a believer - what would that benefit you? and if you were a believer and they said: he is a heretic - what would that harm you? 

al-Mashriqi said to him: by Allah - you do not speak except that which was also spoken by your forefathers. We do have a book, we have called it the ‘comprehensive book’ (Kitab al-Jami), in it is all that which the people have spoken about [what they have disputed with each other in regards theology] on the authority of your forefathers [with the decisive judgment from the `Aimma], and we debate based on it, and Ja`far said to him something similar to this, so he turned to Ja`far and said: if you were not speaking by [in accordance with] the words of my forefathers then with the words of Abi Bakr and Umar do you want to speak!?

NOTES:

Alı b. Yaqtın was a high ranking Shı‘ite official of the early ‘Abbasid administration. Son of a chief organizer of the ‘Abbasid revolution, he was born in 124 in Kufa and appointed in 168 by the caliph Mahdı as his chief of staff and in 169 by the caliph Hadı as the keeper of the caliphal seal. He remained a high ranking official of the ‘Abbasid government for the rest of his life until his death in 182 whereupon the crown prince Muhammad al-Amin led the funeral prayer. He was a loyal follower of, and a fairly prolific transmitter from, Musa al-Kazim, and even secretly acted as his financial agent.

Yaqtin b. Musa (d. 185), his father, was a Persian client of the Banu Asad, his name (meaning pumpkin) must be an Arabicization of Abu Muslim`s appellation for him, yak din ([man of] one religion), designed to attest the sincerity and pure monotheism of a new convert. He was a committed veteran of the ‘Abbasid cause, so much so that his son, ‘Alı, worried that a curse possibly uttered by Ja‘far al-Sadiq upon those who brought the ‘Abbasids to power may fall on Yaqtın and his descendants.

Ali b. Yaqtin was allowed to work for the tyrannical rulers by the Imam, in Taqiyya, so that he could assist the believers and ward of danger from them. The descendants of Ali b. Yaqtin and the wider family became very strong followers of the Imams. They produced prolific narrators, chief among them, Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd b. Yaqtin. An even more important honour for the family is that they were the patrons of a great scholar like Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman [the foremost student of Ali b. Yaqtin’s friend Hisham b. al-Hakam].

As al-Najashi says: يونس بن عبد الرحمان، مولى علي بن يقطين بن موسى

What this narration shows is that the Al Yaqtin were firm proponents of Kalam, under the leadership of Hisham b. al-Hakam and Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman. This caused a backlash from the traditionist faction which did not see a need for employing any degree of independent reasoning even to defend the faith. This is why Yunus and Hisham before him came under attack in Qum. They were deemed as outright heretics. Such a narration was used by the Al Yaqtin as a defense for their position and to claim the sanction of the Imam for what they were doing. There is some evidence that the `Aimma had a very tolerant attitude to all factions [apart from the Ghulat], because different people were on different levels of insight. Thus, the Imam points out that this rivalry was common to the Ashab of several Imams including those who supported Zurara’s position on various theological points and those who were against. This reached such a level that they made Takfir against each other!  

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

2.33. al-Harith b. al-Mughira

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-harith-b-al-mughira

 

[1/140] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن عبد الله بن محمد الحجال، عن يونس بن يعقوب قال: كنا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: أما لكم من مفزع أما لكم من مستراح تستريحون إليه ما يمنعكم من الحارث بن المغيرة النصري

[1/140] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh from Sa`d b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Abdallah b. Muhammad al-Hajjal from Yunus b. Ya`qub who said: we were at Aba Abdillah عليه السلام's place when he عليه السلام said: do you not have a secure shelter? do you not have a comforter that you can seek comfort in? what prevents you from [referring to] al-Harith b. al-Mughira al-Nasri.

NOTES:

al-Harith b. al-Mughira al-Nasri was a narrator from al-Baqir, al-Sadiq and al-Kadhim who has more than 40 narrations in our corpus as it survives today. He was highly esteemed by the Imam as indicated in this authentic narration which points to his lofty status.

It is not surprising therefore to find al-Najashi saying about him <<Thiqatun Thiqa>> which is a doubly strong endorsement of his moral probity.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Create an account or sign in to comment

You need to be a member in order to leave a comment

Create an account

Sign up for a new account in our community. It's easy!

Register a new account

Sign in

Already have an account? Sign in here.

Sign In Now


  • Recent Posts on ShiaChat!

    • New poll is up on the homepage! Or use this link: Poll #11
    • Ok, let me ask you this: Is this the kind of Quran alone where we forsake hadith entirely or are you telling us that we should accept hadiths that only supported by the Quran? Because we can all agree that the Quran is the ultimate hadith, alhamdullilah. If it is the latter, I have no problem with it, I try to uphold that principle myself but it is the former that I take issue with. Because you are only stripping away the history but also the context of the Quran and it's message.
    • Is it ok to work on a political campaign for a politician whose views you mostly agree with, except of course the LGBT factor and of course abortion? Engaging politically is one of the best ways to make an impact, the problem is the people us muslims identify with more in the West tend to be on the left-side of the spectrum, and there have been movements to reform the democratic party so that you can weed out the corporatist stooges and the people that bow to special interests and get people who represent the people more. These tend to be mostly progressives, a lot of whom are atheists but believe in humanistic principles. Would it be ok to campaign for them in some way or another even if there are issues you don't necessarily agree with them on for religious reasons? 
    • I need strong coffee in the morning.  To get my heart started.
    • Fake News Alert l just watched Geo. W. Bush's complete speech on C-Span. Quo Vide. The parts shown on Nutwork news are at the beginning at the closing comment. The beginning welcomed the Clinton group, Madeline Albright, Condi Rice and people from repressive regimes. The part at the beginning about the uncivilized nature of current American politics can be applied to a lot of people, not just to Democrats and Republicans. There was nothing l heard about "blood and soil" and other fascist elements, anything that could be applied to Trump except from the Diatribes of Radical Democrats assumptions and assertions. l recommend watching it if for no other reason that this was one of Bush 43's better talks. OPINE: Lying Nutworks and Misleading Media.     "Stop the Lies"
×