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A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

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3.4. - 3.5. Ahmad b. Hammad al-Marwazi and his son Muhammad

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ahmad-b-hammad-al-marwazi-and-his-son-muhammad

 

[1/120] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن أبو علي المحمودي محمد بن أحمد بن حماد المروزي قال: كتب أبو جعفر عليه ‌السلام إلى أبي في فصل من كتابه، فكان توفي من يوم أو غد: ثم وُفِّيَتْ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ أما الدنيا فنحن فيها متفرجون في البلاد ولكن من هوى هوى صاحبه ودان بدينه فهو معه، وإن كان نائيا عنه، وأما الآخرة هِيَ دَارُ الْقَرَارِ

[1/120] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Mas`ud from Abu Ali al-Mahmudi Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Hammad al-Marwazi who said: Abu Ja`far (al-Jawad) عليه ‌السلام wrote to my father in a part of his letter - and he (my father) went on to die on the same day or the next: then “every soul will be recompensed for that which it earned and they will not be dealt with unjustly” (3:25), as for this world then we are in it separated [far away from each other] in different lands, but whoever inclines to the inclination of his fellow (Imam) and takes as a religion his [fellow’s] religion, then he is with him even if he is [geographically] distant from him, and as for the next world then “it is the everlasting abode” (40:39) [where we will be physically together].

NOTES:

Marwazi is a Nisba to Marw, the locality in greater Khorasan that was al-Ma`mun’s base of power and to which he summoned the Imam.

It is as though the Imam was announcing Ahmad b. Hammad's impending death in this letter.

I was puzzled about the wordمتفرجون  and how to interpret it. Unfortunately, this narration has been severely distorted in the different manuscripts of al-Kashshi, and each version has a different text, and this is something that plagues the book a lot, however, I found a variant that greatly helped me to decode what it means in the book Tanzih al-Khawatir of Ibn Abi Firas al-Hilli [fl. 6th Islamic Century] of all places. 

محمد بن عيسى قال كتب أحمد بن حماد أبو محمود إلى أبي جعفر ع كتابا طويلا فأجابه في بعض كتابه أما الدنيا فنحن فيها مفترقون في البلاد و لكن من هوي هوى صاحبه و دان بدينه فهو معه و إن كان نائيا عنه و أما الآخرة فهي دار القرار

This made it clear that it should be understood as مفترقون

 

[2/121] رجال الكشي: وقال المحمودي: قد كتب إلي الماضي عليه السلام بعد وفاة أبي: قد مضى أبوك رضي الله عنه وعنك، وهو عندنا على حالة محمودة، ولن تبعد من تلك الحال

[2/121] Rijal al-Kashshi: and al-Mahmudi said: the past one عليه السلام [al-Jawad] wrote to me after the death of my father: your father has passed away - may Allah be pleased with him and with you - and he [your father] has with us a praiseworthy position, and you are not far-off from that position.

NOTES:

al-Madhi الماضي here should be understood to be al-Jawad and not a reference al-Kadhim [who was famously known as Abu al-Hasan al-Madhi to differentiate him from Abu al-Hasan al-Ridha], this is because al-Mahmudi was in the age of the latter day `Aimma and not the seventh Imam therefore when he says “the past one” he means the previous Imam [al-Jawad] before al-Hadi whose companion he was. 

Ahmad b. Hammad al-Marwazi was called al-Mahmudi because of the Imam’s saying about him:

وهو عندنا على حالة محمودة

It was a Laqab that was then also used for his son Muhammad.

The Ashab were so attentive to the Aimma’s speech that not a word was spoken by them except that they considered it significant. A casual word in a letter becomes the cause of pride and changes someone’s name.

The Imam al-Askari also says about Muhammad al-Mahmudi in the long Tawqi which we drew attention to in the entry of Ibrahim b. `Abda.

... و أقرأه يعني التوقيع على المحمودي عافاه اللّه، فما أحمدنا له لطاعته ...

<<… and read it out  - that is the Tawqi - to al-Mahmudi, may Allah pardon him - and what we have praised him by then it is because of his obedience …>>

Abu Ali al-Mahmudi was also blessed to see the Sahib al-Zaman in a Hajj in the Ghaybat al-Sughra, the anecdote of this meeting is very interesting and left for another day.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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3.6. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ahmad-b-muhammad-b-abi-nasr-al-bazanti

 

[1/122] رجال الكشي: محمد بن الحسن البراثي و عثمان بن حامد الكشيان عن محمد بن يزداد، عن أبو زكريا، عن إسماعيل بن مهران. محمد بن يزداد عن الحسن بن علي بن نعمان، عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر قال: كنت عند الرضا عليه السلام فأمسيت عنده، قال: فقلت: أنصرف فقال لي: لا تنصرف فقد أمسيت، قال: فأقمت عنده، قال: فقال لجاريته هاتي مضربتي و وسادتي فأفرشي لأحمد في ذلك البيت، قال: فلما صرت في البيت دخلني شي‏ء فجعل يخطر ببالي من مثلي في بيت ولي الله و على مهاده فناداني يا أحمد إن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام عاد صعصعة بن صوحان، فقال يا صعصعة لا تجعل عيادتي إياك فخرا على قومك و تواضع لله يرفعك الله

[1/122] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Burathi and Uthman b. Hamid al-Kashshiyan from Muhammad b. Yazdad from Abu Zakariyya from Ismail b. Mihran; Muhammad b. Yazdad from al-Hasan b. Ali b. Nu`man from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr who said: I was at al-Ridha’s عليه السلام place and the evening entered while I was with him, I said: I should leave, he said to me: do not leave for it is evening, he said: so I remained at his place, he said to a slave-girl of his: bring out my sleeping tent and my pillow and lay it out for Ahmad in that room, he said: so when I was in the room I began to feel something [of pride] and I kept on thinking ‘who is like me? I am in the room of the  intimate of Allah and on his bed’ so he called out to me: O Ahmad - the commander of the faithful عليه السلام visited Sa`sa`a b. Suhan and then said: O Sa`sa`a do not make me visiting you a source of pride held over your kin, and lower yourself in front of Allah and Allah will raise you.

NOTES:

What is al-Bazanti a Nisba to? 

Allama Mamaqani notes in his Tanqih the troubles he went through to pinpoint what exactly al-Bazanti is referring to. He knows from Ibn Idris’s Mustatrafat al-Sarair that it is a geographical Nisba i.e. referring to a location, but where would that be? 

He was about to leave it at that when after several months he came across the solution while reading a historical book which briefly mentioned the various ancient empires like the Romans and the Greeks.

The Answer? The Byzantine empire which extended over greater Syria including Damascus. 

To someone from the Western tradition, it might seem strange that a scholar had not heard of the Byzantine empire. Greco-Roman culture is such a critical part of Western civilization and consequently much studied in history, but alas it seems that it is not an important part of the syllabus in the Orient.

Clearly, the first Muslims would have known about the Byzantine empire, having participated in the conquests, similarly, the earliest Ashab must have known of the Byzantine empire the conquest being fresh in their memory and encountering former subjects directly.

Why is such knowledge not widely available to scholars who come later? It has to be said that a well-rounded scholar should encounter it when studying Early Islamic History in Late Antiquity.

Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr seems to be a Mawla who was subsumed in the Islamic polity after the first wave of conquests to the East. 

This same incident has been narrated in two other books. A better example of the effect of Riwaya bil Ma`na [transmitting by meaning] can nary be found. All the three variants have the same event at its core, and they essentially preserve the same warning against pride, however, what stands out is the difference in detail even if some are inconsequential, the narration in al-Kashshi is quite clear-cut and free of embellishments, but the two below flesh it out and paint a more exquisite picture. This should demonstrate the range of variation that can occur when for example - people depend on memory for narration. 

حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد عن محمد بن الحسن الصفار عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى عن أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى بن أبي نصر البزنطي قال: بعث الرضا عليه السلام إلي بحمار فركبته واتيته فاقمت عنده بالليل إلى أن مضى منه ما شاء الله فلما أراد أن ينهض قال لي: لا أراك تقدر على الرجوع إلى المدينة قلت: أجل جعلت فداك قال: فبت عندنا الليلة واغد على بركة الله عز وجل قلت: أفعل جعلت فداك قال: يا جاريد إفرشي له فراشي واطرحي عليه ملحفتي التي أنام فيها وضعي تحت رأسه مخدتي قال: فقلت في نفسي من أصاب ما اصبت في ليلتي هذه لقد جعل الله لي من المنزلة عنده واعطاني من الفخر ما لم يعطه أحدا من أصحابنا بعث إلي بحماره فركبته وفرش لي فراشه وبت في ملحفته ووضعت لي مخدته ما أصاب مثل هذا أحد من اصحابنا قال وهو قاعد معي وأنا أحدث نفسي فقال عليه السلام لي: يا أحمد أن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أتى زيد بن صوحان في مرضه يعود فافتخر على الناس بذلك فلا تذهبن نفسك إلى الفخر وتذلل لله عز وجل واعتمد على يده فقام عليه السلام. 

Uyun al-Akhbar: Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Ahmad b. al-Walid from Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Saffar from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Yahya b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti who said: al-Ridha عليه السلام sent for me with a donkey, so I rode it and came to him, and was with him for a part of the night until such a time as Allah willed, so when I wanted to depart he said to me: I don’t think you can go back to Madina now, I said: indeed, may I be made your ransom, he said: so sleep at our place and leave in the morning with the blessings of Allah Mighty and Majestic, I said: I will do so may I be made me your ransom, he said: O slave-girl spread out for him my bedding and cover it with my bed-wrap on which I sleep on, and put under his head my own pillow, he said: so I said to myself in my heart: who has attained what I have attained this night of mine? Allah his given me a status with him and has given me a reason to be proud which he has given no other from among our companions [fellow Shias], he [the Imam] sent for me with his own donkey which I rode, and spread out for me his bedding, and I have slept on his own wrap and it was put for me his own pillow, no one has attained the like of this among our companions, he [the Imam] عليه السلام said to me while he was standing with me and while I was speaking to myself: O Ahmad, the commander of the faithful عليه السلام came to visit Zayd b. Suhan (sic) in his illness, and he flaunted to the people because of that, so do not let yourself fall into pride, humble yourself in front of Allah Mighty and Majestic and depend on His strength, then he عليه السلام stood [and left].              

قال البزنطي: وبعث إلي الرضا عليه السلام بحمار له فجئته إلى صريا، فمكثت عامة الليل معه، ثم اوتيت بعشاء، ثم قال:  افرشوا له  ثم اوتيت بوسادة طبرية ومرداع وكساء قياسري وملحفة مروي، فلما أصبت من العشاء قال لي: ما تريد أن تنام؟  قلت: بلى جعلت فداك. فطرح علي الملحفة والكساء ثم قال: بيتك الله في عافية. وكنا على سطح، فلما نزل من عندي قلت في نفسي: قد نلت من هذا الرجل كرامة ما نالها أحد قط، فإذا هاتف يهتف بي: يا أحمد، ولم اعرف الصوت حتى جاءني مولى له فقال: أجب مولاي، فنزلت فإذا هو مقبل إلي فقال: كفك فناولته كفي فعصرها، ثم قال: ان أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أتى صعصعة بن صوحان عائدا له، فلما أراد أن يقوم من عنده قال: يا صعصعة بن صوحان، لا تفتخر بعيادتي إياك وانظر لنفسك، فكأن الامر قد وصل إليك، ولا يلهينك الامل، استودعك الله وأقرأ عليك السلام كثيرا  

Qurb al-Isnad: al-Bazanti said: al-Ridha عليه السلام sent for me with a donkey of his and I came to him in Surya and spent most of the night with him, then the night meal was brought, he then said: lay the bedding for him, I was given a saffron dyed Tiberian pillow and a Caesarean blanket and a bed-wrap from Marw, so when I had finished the meal he said to me: don’t you want to sleep? I said: yes, may I be made your ransom, so he covered me with the bed-wrap and the blanket and then said: may Allah make you pass the night in safety, and we were on the roof-top, so when he had descended I said in my heart: I have attained from this man an honor that no one else has ever attained, when suddenly a caller was calling me - O Ahmad - and I did not recognize the voice, until a client of his came and said: respond to the call of my master, so I descended and found him facing me, he said: your palm, so I gave him my palm, he took it and then said: the commander of the faithful عليه السلام came to visit Sa`sa`a b. Suhan in his illness, so when he was about to depart he said to him: O Sa`sa`a b. Suhan do not exult yourself because of me coming to visit you, and be on guard of your own self, for it is as though the matter [pride] has crept up on you, do not let hope divert you, I leave you in Allah’s hands and I send you lots of salutations of peace.    

Surya is a small farming estate about three miles outside Madina, it was built up by al-Kadhim عليه السلام and inherited by al-Ridha عليه السلام 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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3.7. Usama b. Zayd

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/usama-b-zayd

 

[-/1] التهذيب: عن المفيد، عن أبي القاسم جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن إسماعيل بن بزيع، عن علي بن النعمان، عن أبي مريم الانصاري قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: ... إن الحسن بن علي عليهما السلام كفن اسامة بن زيد في برد حبرة ...

[1/-] al-Tahdhib: From al-Mufid from Abi al-Qasim Ja`far b. Muhammad from his father from Sa`d b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Muhammad b. Ismail b. Bazi` from Ali b. al-Nu`man from Abi Maryam al-Ansari who said: I heard Aba Ja`far عليه السلام saying: ... al-Hasan b. Ali عليهما السلام enshrouded Usama b. Zayd in a Hibara cloak ...

NOTES:

قال ابن بطال: هي من برود اليمن، تصنع من قطن، وكانت أشرف الثياب عندهم

Hibara refers to a type of fine cloth made of cotton in the Yaman.

Usama was a freed slave of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله, thus, Usama became a Mawla [client] of Banu Hashim. Manumission creates a not very well understood bond between the master and the former slave [this is the bond of Wala - which is also the name given to the relation between the `Aimma and their followers]. It was a way to subsume large numbers of foreign people into the traditional hierarchy of a society which gave the utmost importance to tribal links.

This bond of Wala is reciprocal. It gives certain rights to the former slave, such as patronage from his former Master’s clan [he is considered one of them and takes their name], but it also gives certain duties to be fulfilled by the no-longer slave. It is on this basis that Usama entered into the washing [Ghusl] of the prophet which was being carried out by Ali, Fadhl and Abbas [close blood relations].

This report indicates a rapprochement between the Ahl al-Bayt and Usama at the end of the latter’s life i.e. his burial was conducted by al-Hasan [then the head of the family]. This begs the question, what created the distance between Usama - the son of the beloved of the prophet i.e. Zayd, whom he appointed as the youngest commander to lead the Muslim army before his death - in the first place?

It was his refusal to give a pledge of allegiance to Ali.

محمد بن مسعود، قال حدثني أحمد بن منصور، عن أحمد بن الفضل، عن محمد بن زياد، عن سلمه بن محرز، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: ألا أخبركم بأهل الوقوف قلنا بلى قال أسامة بن زيد و قد رجع فلا تقولوا إلا خيرا، و محمد بن مسلمة، و ابن عمر مات منكوبا

Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud who said: narrated to me Ahmad b. Mansur from Ahmad b. al-Fadhl from Muhammad b. Ziyad from Salama b. Muhriz from Abi Ja`farعليه السلام  who said: should I not inform you about the people of abstention [who did not pledge allegiance]? we said: yes, he said: Usama b. Zayd, but he returned from that so do not say anything [against him] except good, however, Muhammad b. Maslama and Ibn Umar died ruined [they did not repent].

Why did Usama refuse the pledge of allegiance to Ali?

It is said that this was because of his disinclination to participate in the wars which would necessarily follow Ali's accession to the leadership. Bay`a to a leader means a binding commitment to aid him against his enemies. Usama claimed that the prophet had prohibited him to raise his sword against a fellow Muslim who says “there is no god but Allah” under any circumstance.

The background incident to this is as narrated in al-Bukhari below:

حَدَّثَنِي عَمْرُو بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا حُصَيْنٌ، أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو ظَبْيَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أُسَامَةَ بْنَ زَيْدٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ يَقُولُ بَعَثَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِلَى الْحُرَقَةِ، فَصَبَّحْنَا الْقَوْمَ فَهَزَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَحِقْتُ أَنَا وَرَجُلٌ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ رَجُلاً مِنْهُمْ، فَلَمَّا غَشِينَاهُ قَالَ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ‏.‏ فَكَفَّ الأَنْصَارِيُّ، فَطَعَنْتُهُ بِرُمْحِي حَتَّى قَتَلْتُهُ، فَلَمَّا قَدِمْنَا بَلَغَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ يَا أُسَامَةُ أَقَتَلْتَهُ بَعْدَ مَا قَالَ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ ‏"‏ قُلْتُ كَانَ مُتَعَوِّذًا‏.‏ فَمَا زَالَ يُكَرِّرُهَا حَتَّى تَمَنَّيْتُ أَنِّي لَمْ أَكُنْ أَسْلَمْتُ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ‏

Amr b. Muhammad – Hushaym – Husayn – Abu Dhabyan – Usama b. Zayd: The messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله sent us towards al-Huraqa (a sub-tribe of Juhayna), we attacked them in the morning and defeated them, a man from the Ansar and I confronted a man from among them, so when we had overcome him he said: ‘there is no god but Allah’, the Ansari stopped his attack while I plunged my spear into him until I killed him, so when we returned – this matter was conveyed to the prophet – he said: O Usama – did you kill him after he had said ‘there is no god but Allah’ I said: he just wanted to save his life, so he صلى الله عليه وآله kept on repeating it until I wished that I had not converted into Islam before that day (i.e. I wished I could convert anew and wash away my sins).

It is after this incident, that Usama made an oath never to fight against someone who says “there is no god but Allah” as we find in Tafsir Ali b. Ibrahim:

فحلف أسامة بعد ذلك أن لا يقتل أحدا شهد ان لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله فتخلف عن أمير المؤمنين ع في حروبه

Ali was apparently aware of this oath of his and excused him from not pledging the allegiance.

قال أبو عمرو الكشي وجدت في كتاب أبي عبد الله الشاذاني، قال حدثني جعفر بن محمد المدايني، عن موسى بن القاسم البجلي عن صفوان عن عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج، عن أبي عبد الله، عن آبائه عليهم السلام قال: كتب علي عليه السلام إلى والي المدينة لا تعطين سعدا و لا ابن عمر من الفي‏ء شيئا، فأما أسامة بن زيد فإني قد عذرته في اليمين التي كانت عليه

Abu Amr al-Kashshi said: I found in the book of Abi Abdillah al-Shadhani – narrated to me Ja`far b. Muhammad al-Madaini from Musa b. al-Qasim al-Bajali from Safwan from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj from Abi Abdillah from his forefathers عليهم السلام who said: Ali عليه السلام wrote to his governor of Madina: do not give Sa`d [b. Abi Waqqas] nor Ibn Umar anything of the Fayy, as for Usama b. Zayd then I have excused him [you can give him of the Fayy even if he chose not to fight] because of the oath which was upon him.

This is one way to harmonize these narrations. 

However, Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin in A`yan al-Shia remains skeptical.

واما اعتذاره عن عدم الجهاد مع أمير المؤمنين ع بالعهد الذي عاهده فعذر غير مقبول لأن العهد لا ينعقد على ترك واجب واما ما كتبه أمير المؤمنين ع إلى والي المدينة مما تقدم بأنه عذر فهو ع اعرف بوجه المصلحة في اظهار انه عذره ان صح الحديث والا فظاهر الحال يوجب عدم عذره ولو عذرنا في ترك الجهاد مع علي ع وهو غير معذور فبما نلتمس له العذر في تأخره عن انفاذ امر رسول الله ص يوم امره على الجيش كما ستعرف وبما ذا نعذره بعدم بيعته لعلي ع هو وسعد وابن عمر الا ان يكون قد تاب كما مر

As for his [Usama’s] excuse for not participating in Jihad with the commander of the faithful عليه السلام because of the oath which he had taken - then - it is an unacceptable excuse, an oath cannot be made to abandon a Wajib [like Jihad], as for that which the commander of the faithful عليه السلام had written to his governor of Madina - excusing him - then he [Ali] is more knowledgeable of the Masliha [public interest] there was in appearing to excuse him outwardly, this is if that report [of the Imam excusing him] is authentic, and if it is not authentic then it is incumbent on us not to excuse him, and if we were to excuse him for abandoning Jihad with Ali عليه السلام - and he is not to be excused for it, then what excuse can we find for him for delaying to obey the order of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله when he ordered him to march with the army? And what excuse can we find for him for refusing to pledge allegiance to Aliعليه السلام together with Sa`d and Ibn Umar, unless he later repented, assuming that particular report [of him having repented] to also be authentic.

I say: this is a very skeptical way of looking at Usama. Admittedly the two reports included here in the commentary are weak, but they can be used for historical reconstruction. Most likely he felt that pledging the oath would lead him to infringe his oath and thus abstained. This was a mistake which he realized and repented for. As for not marching under the order of the prophet then he clearly wanted to do so but the machinations of the “elders” of Quraysh must have stymied him because of his youth.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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3.8. Ishaq b. Ammar

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ishaq-b-ammar

 

[1/123] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم، عن أيوب، عن ابن المغيرة، عن علي بن إسماعيل بن عمار، عن إسحاق قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام إن لنا أموالا و نحن نعامل الناس، و أخاف إن حدث حدث أن تغرق أموالنا قال: فقال له: اجمع مالك في كل شهر ربيع، قال علي بن إسماعيل: فمات إسحاق في شهر ربيع

[1/123] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim from Ayyub from Ibn al-Mughira from Ali b. Ismail b. Ammar from Ishaq who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - we have some wealth and we deal with the people [lend it to them], and I fear that if an event occurs [I die] our wealth will perish [in the hands of the people], he said: recover [re-collect] your wealth every month of Rabi`, Ali b. Ismail said: and Ishaq died in the month of  Rabi` [thus the wisdom of the Imam’s instruction was comprehended]. 

NOTES:

This Ishaq is Ishaq b. Ammar b. Hayyan, by virtue of the fact that the one narrating from him is his nephew Ali b. Ismail b. Ammar i.e. the son of his brother Ismail b. Ammar b. Hayyan.

إسحاق بن عمار بن حيان، مولى بنى تغلب، أبو يعقوب الصيرفي، شيخ من أصحابنا، ثقة، وإخوته يونس، ويوسف، وقيس، وإسماعيل، وهو في بيت كبير من الشيعة، وابنا أخيه، علي بن إسماعيل، وبشير بن إسماعيل، كانا من وجوه من روى الحديث

al-Najashi says: Ishaq b. Ammar b. Hayyan, the client of the Bani Taghlib, Abu Ya`qub al-Sayrafi, a Shaykh (chief) from among our companions, Thiqa, and his brothers Yunus, Yusuf, Qays and Ismail, he is part of a big family of the Shia, and the sons of his brother - Ali b. Ismail and Bashir b. Ismail were both Wujuh (eminent) among those who narrate the Hadith.

Ishaq seems to have been pretty wealthy. This is confirmed not only in the main report above but two others as follow:

جعفر بن معروف قال: حدثنا أبو الحسن الرازي قال: حدثني إسماعيل بن مهران قال: حدثني سليمان الديلمي قال: قال إسحاق بن عمار: لما كثر مالي أجلست على بابي بوابا يرد عني فقراء الشيعة ...

Ja`far b. Ma`ruf who said: Abu al-Hassan al-Razi narrated to us saying: Ismail b. Mihran narrated me saying: Sulayman al-Daylami narrated to me saying: Ishaq b. Ammar said: when my wealth increased I put on my door a gate-keeper to drive away from me the poor among the Shia …

محمد بن مسعود قال: حدثني محمد بن نصير قال: حدثني محمد بن عيسى، عن زياد القندي قال: كان أبو عبد الله عليه السلام إذا رأى إسحاق بن عمار  وإسماعيل بن عمار قال: وقد يجمعهما الله لأقوام يعني: الدنيا والآخرة

Muhammad bin Masud who said: Muhammad bin Nusayr narrated to me saying: Muhammad bin Isa narrated to me from Ziyad al-Qandi who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام used to say when he saw Ishaq b. Ammar and Ismail b. Ammar: Allah may sometimes unite them both for some people - that is - (unite good in) the Dunya (i.e. wealth) and also the Akhira.

Does the Imam know how long his Shia are going to live? This question requires a full and exhaustive study best left for another day.

It is my hunch however that the Ghulat took this idea [the kernel found in the Hadith] including the notion of Ishaq’s wealth and used it as a template [embellishing details to the above basic version] for their own motives of establishing a high Imamology.

Look at the report below found in Rijal al-Kashshi:

نصر بن الصباح قال حدثنى سجادة قال حدثنى محمد بن وضاح عن اسحاق بن عمار قال كنت عند أبى الحسن عليه السلام جالسا حتى دخل عليه رجل من الشيعة فقال له: يا فلان جدد التوبة واحدث عبادة فانه لم يبق من عمرك الا شهر قال اسحاق: فقلت في نفسى: واعجباه! كأنه يخبرنا انه يعلم آجال الشيعة، او قال: آجالنا قال: فالتفت إلى مغضبا وقال: يا اسحاق وما تنكر من ذلك وقد كان رشيد الهجرى مستضعفا، وكان عنده علم المنايا والامام اولى بذلك من رشيد الهجرى. يا اسحاق قد بقى من عمرك سنتان، اما انه يتشتت اهل بيتك تشتتا قبيحا ويفلس عيالك افلاسا شديدا

Nasr b. al-Sabbah who said: al-Sajjada narrated to me saying: Muhammad b. Wadhah narrated to me from Ishaq b. Ammar who said: I was seated with Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام when a man from the Shia came and entered, he [the Imam] said to him: O so and so, renew your repentance and begin worship for it is not left from your life except one month, Ishaq said: so I said in my heart (to myself): how strange! as though he wants to convey to us that he knows the life-spans of his Shia [or he said: our life-spans], he [Ishaq] said: so he [the Imam] turned to me in anger and said: O Ishaq, what do you find strange in that, Rushayd al-Hajari was just a weak person [not an Imam] and he had the knowledge of predicting fates, the Imam is more worthy of that than Rushayd al-Hajari, O Ishaq there remains from your life two years, verily the people of your house will undergo most grievous circumstances [after you] and your family will be totally bankrupt.

al-Sajjada [in the chain] - upon him be the curse of Allah - was one the of the worst of the Ghulat and was accused of lying. Muhammad b. Wadhah only occurs in this single chain in our whole corpus which is another red flag.

A variant of the Sajjada narration is also found in Usul al-Kafi where it is narrated by one of the less scrupulous of al-Kulayni’s teachers i.e. Ahmad b. Mihran who is weakened by Ibn al-Ghadhairi [I can only imagine that this was in al-Kulayni’s more immature days in Rayy].

احمد بن مهران عن محمد بن على عن سيف بن عميرة عن اسحاق نحوه من تفاوت وزاد في آخره: فكان هذا في نفسك فقلت: فانى استغفر الله بما عرض في صدرى، فلم يلبث اسحاق بعد هذا المجلس الا يسيرا حتى مات، فما أتى عليهم الا قليل حتى قام بنو عمار بأموال الناس فأفلسوا

The chain contains Muhammad b. Ali (Abu Samina) > Sayf.

Abu Samina was a Ghali who is arguably the most notorious liar we had. He cannot have narrated directly from Sayf without there being at least one intermediary between them because of the time-gap. [So much for the claim that al-Kafi is wholly authentic!]

A variant is  also found in Basair:

حدثنا عبدالله بن محمد عن ابراهيم بن محمد قال حدثنا على بن معلى قال حدثنا ابن ابى حمزة عن سيف بن عميرة عن اسحق بن عمار قال سمعت العبد الصالح ابا الحسن عليه السلام ينعى إلى رجل نفسه فقلت في نفسى وانه ليعلم متى يموت الرجل من شيعته فقال شبه المغضب يااسحق قد كان رشيد الهجرى يعلم علم المنايا والبلايا فاالامام اولى بذلك

This time the chain has al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Hamza [al-Bataini] > Sayf.

al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Hamza was also a prominent Ghali accused of lying.

What are the odds that three men accused of lying each occur in one of the chains narrating variations of the same report?

If forced to venture, I would accuse al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Hamza for fabricating this [because of being earlier in the Tabaqa] and al-Sajjada and Abu Samina for stealing it from him because of how amenable it would be for circulation in their circles.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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3.9. - 3.10. Ismail b. Ja`far and Abdallah b. Sharik

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/ismail-b-jafar-and-abdallah-b-sharik

 

[1/124] رجال الكشي: عبدالله بن محمد، عن الحسن بن علي الوشاء، عن أحمد بن عائذ، عن أبي خديجة الجمال قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: إني سألت الله في إسماعيل أن يبقيه بعدي فأبى ولكنه قد أعطاني فيه منزلة أخرى إنه يكون أول منشور في عشرة من أصحابه ومنهم عبدالله بن شريك وهو صاحب لوائه

[1/124] Rijal al-Kashshi: Abdallah b. Muhammad from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Washsha from Ahmad b. A`idh from Abi Khadija the Cameleer who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: I asked Allah about Ismail – that he should preserve him to remain after me – but He refused, however, He has given me another position for him, he (Ismail) will be the first one to be resurrected with ten of his companions, among them Abdallah b. Sharik, and he (Abdallah) will be the man who carries his banner. 

NOTES:

Ismail died before al-Sadiq. He was never to be the Imam after al-Sadiq. However, he will be resurrected in the Raj`a [Eschatological Return] together with ten of his closest companions, with Abdallah b. Sharik at their head. Abdallah b. Sharik was among the Tabi`ina who participated in Mukhtar's revolt [he was sent by Mukhtar to send a message to Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya] and lived a long life to the time of al-Sadiq.

Ibn Uyayna said: I heard [narrations] from Abdallah when he was a hundred years old.

al-Sa`di said about him: مختاري كذاب - A lying Mukhtari

Ibn Hibban said about him:  كان غاليا في التشيع يروي عن الأثبات ما لا يشبه حديث الثقات - He was extreme in his Tashayyu, narrating from the established narrators what does not resemble the Hadith of the Thiqat. [Note: this accusation is purely subjective, just because they did not like what he was narrating]. 

Ahmad b. Hanbal said that he was Thiqa

al-Muhsini: al-Sayyid al-Khoei postulated that the Abdallah b. Muhammad with whom the chain begins here is the son of Muhammad b. Khalid al-Tayalisi, the Thiqa, and it is not a far-fetched postulation. The Ismail here is the son of Imam al-Sadiq to whom the Ismailiyya are attributed.

 

[2/125] كمال الدين: الحسن بن احمد بن إدريس رضي الله عنه، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن احمد الاشعري، عن ابن يزيد والبرقي، عن احمد بن محمد بن ابي نصر البزنطي، عن حماد، عن عبيد بن زرارة قال: ذكرت إسماعيل عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: لا والله لا يشبهني ولا يشبه أحدا من آبائي

[2/125] Kamal al-Diin: al-Hasan b. Ahmad b. Idris - may Allah be pleased with him - from his father from Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ash`ari from Ya`qub b. Yazid and al-Barqi from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti from Hammad from Ubayd b. Zurara who said: I mentioned Ismail to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام so he said: no by Allah - he does not resemble me or any one of my forefathers.

NOTES:

al-Muhsini: It is very likely that al-Hasan in the chain is a scribal error and it should be al-Husayn, for there isn’t anyone such named (al-Hasan b. Ahmad b. Idris) in the books of Rijal, while al-Husayn b. Ahmad b. Idris exists and is deemed Thiqa.

Even if for the sake of argument we maintain that it is al-Hasan then the Tarradhi of al-Saduq [al-Saduq asking God to be pleased with him] is enough to establish his soundness as is discussed in the books of Rijal.

The narration should not be taken as censuring Ismail or casting aspersions on his character, for it is possible that the Imam while denying resemblance is referring to the matter of Imama alone [i.e. he is not an Imam like the `Aimma] and not anything further than that.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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3.11. - 3.14. Bazi`, al-Sarri, Bashshar and Bayan

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/bazi-al-sarri-bashshar-and-bayan

 

[1/126] رجال الكشي: عن محمد بن مسعود، عن الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار ومحمد بن قولويه القميان، عن سعد بن عبد الله بن أبي خلف، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: إن بيانا و السري و بزيعا لعنهم الله تراءى لهم الشيطان في أحسن ما يكون صورة آدمي من قرنه إلى سرته قال: فقلت: إن بيانا يتأول هذه الآية وَ هُوَ الَّذِي فِي السَّماءِ إِلهٌ وَ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلهٌ، أن الذي في الأرض غير إله السماء، و إله السماء غير إله الأرض، و أن إله السماء أعظم من إله الأرض، و أن أهل الأرض يعرفون فضل إله السماء و يعظمونه فقال: و الله ما هو إلا الله وحده لا شريك له إله من في السماوات و إله من في الأرضين، كذب بنان عليه لعنة الله، لقد صغر الله جل و عز و صغر عظمته

[1/126] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Muhammad b. Masud from al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi and Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi from Sa`d b. Abdallah b. Abi Khalaf from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Husayn b. Sa`id from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the Devil appeared to Bayan, al-Sarri and Bazi` - may Allah curse them - in the most handsome form that a human can have from the top of his head to the navel, I [Hisham] said: Bayan interprets this verse “and He is the one who is God in Heaven and God on Earth” (43:84) that the one on Earth is not the God of Heaven, and the God of Heaven is not the God of Earth, and that the God of Heaven is greater than the God of Earth, and that the people of the Earth recognize [only] the merit of the God of Heaven and magnify Him, so he said: by Allah! He is not but Allah alone having no partner, the God of the those in the Heavens and the God of those on the Earths, Bayan has lied - may Allah curse him - he has belittled Allah Majestic and Mighty and His greatness.     

NOTES:

This narration in which Hisham b. al-Hakam (d. 179/795) is asking the Imam about heretical figures is consistent with the fact that he was the first to author a work on Muslim sects ‘Kitāb ikhtilāf al-nās fī él-imāma’. It was devoted to the description of the divisions in Šhi’ism in the late second/eighth century. His original is no longer extant but it has been preserved in Firaq al-Šhia of Nawbakhtī (d. ca. 310/923).

Most manuscripts of al-Kashshi  have the name as Bunan ((بنان instead of Bayan (بيان), but this is probably a manuscriptal error [The only difference between the two names being mere dot number and placement].  

Bayan b. Sam`an (most likely from the South Arabian tribe of Nahd) was a Ghali who is said to have associated himself with Hamza b. `Ammara, a speculator about the divinity of Ibn al-Hanafiyya [heading a splinter of the Kaysaniyya]. Bayan later attached himself to the claim of Abu Hashim the son of Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya.

The following were some of the ideas held by the Bayaniyya [themes also shared by other Ghulat with some important variations]:

i. The Bayaniyya, as is clear from the Hadith above, were influenced by the concept of the Demiurge in their cosmology. This owes its origins to Gnosticism which had a long pre-Islamic pedigree in the melting pot that was Kufa. Gnosticism presents a distinction between the highest, unknowable God and the demiurgic lesser power [second divine heavenly being] that was pre-existing with the unknowable God. The latter is the ilah al-ard [lesser god] in Bayan’s terminology. The real unknown God is so distant and incomprehensible to humans that they can only know him through a lesser being which can interact with matter.

ii. Who is this lesser god on the earth? The Bayaniyya held that it was a man housing the indwelling of the demiurgic light particle. This transmigrated (Tanasukh) i.e. passed down - from the Biblical patriarchs, to the Prophet Muammad, to the Shiʿi Imams.

هذا بيان بن سمعان النهدي ظهر بالعراق بعد المائة وقال: بالهية علي عليه السلام، وأن جزءا إلهيا متحد بناسوته، ثم من بعده في ابنه محمد بن الحنفية ثم في أبي هاشم ولد محمد بن الحنفية، ثم من بعده  في بيان هذا

In other words the bodies of prophets and `Aimma were just receptacles/vessels to be filled with a divine spark or Spirit. This I term a “possessionist” Imamology. This particle is said to have passed through Ali > Ibn al-Hanafiyya > Abu Hashim and potentially Bayan himself.

Al-Baghdadi says in al-Farq bayn al-Firaq:

ان بَيَانا قَالَ لَهُم ان روح الْإِلَه تناسخت فى الانبياء والائمة حَتَّى صَارَت الى ابى هَاشم عبد الله ابْن مُحَمَّد بن الْحَنَفِيَّة ثمَّ انْتَقَلت اليه مِنْهُ يعْنى نَفسه فَادّعى لنَفسِهِ الربوبية على مَذْهَب الحلولية

Bayan said: the Divine Spirit transfused into the prophets and the `Aimma until it reached Abi Hashim Abdallah b. Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya then it went into me [i.e. he deified himself].

al-Shahristani says in al-Milal wa al-Nihal:

قال بيان:  حل في علي جزء إلهي، واتحد بجسده، فيه كان يعلم الغيب اذا اخبر عن الملاحم وبه قلع باب خيبر

The divine particle transfused into Ali, and united with his physical body, with it [in this divine particle] did he know the knowledge of the Unseen when he used to inform others about the trials [at the end of times] and by it [not his physical body] was he able to uproot the door of Khaybar.

iii. The continuation of prophecy. The Ghulati groups did not believe that access to the divine realm ended with the prophet Muhammad. Since they deified the Imams, anyone who is a legitimate deputy of this Imam-god would be a “prophet”. Bayan saw himself as the “prophet” of the one with the divine spark, or even possessing the spark himself according to others, in this way he had access to special kind of knowledge which enabled him to predict the future [as a corollary] among other powers.

iv. The Ghulat in general are characterized by dabbling in Ta`wil [esoteric interpretation of the Qur`an]. The Bayaniyya in particular developed a literalist anthropomorphic interpretation of the Qur`an. They considered the unknowable God as being  a Man of Light based on Q. 24:35. This Man of Light has various constituent parts e.g. having a hand based on Q. 48:10. In this vein, they considered that all will be destroyed [including God’s other parts] except for His face based on Q. 28:88.

v. A key feature of most of these groups is the belief in the return of the dead before the day of judgment initiated by the eschatological return of of the expected messianic deliverer. The Bayaniyya believed in the Raj`a of Abu Hashim as the Mahdi. 

In 119/737 AD Bayan and another Ghali al-Mughira b. Sa`id joined forces and rose in revolt against the Umayyad governor of Iraq, Khalid b. `Abdallah al-Qasri. The rebellion was quickly put down and the leaders as well as some of their followers were executed and then burned.

As the Imam says:

كان بيان يكذب على علي بن الحسين عليه السلام، فأذاقه الله حرَّ الحديد، وكان المغيرة بن سعيد يكذب على أبي جعفر عليه السلام فأذاقه الله حرَّ الحديد

Bayan used to lie about al-al-Sajjad عليه السلام and al-Mughira b. Sa`id used to lie about al-Baqir عليه السلام so Allah made to taste of the heat of the iron [put to the sword].

 

 [2/127] رجال الكشي: عن محمد بن مسعود عن الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار و محمد بن قولويه القميان، عن سعد بن عبد الله بن أبي خلف، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن ابن بكير، عن زرارة، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: سمعته يقول لعن الله بيان التبان و إن بيانا لعنه الله كان يكذب على أبي أشهد أن أبي علي بن الحسين كان عبدا صالحا

[2/127] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Muhammad b. Masud from al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi and Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi from Sa`d b. Abdallah b. Abi Khalaf from Ya`qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Bukayr from Zurara from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام, he (Zurara) said: I heard him saying: may Allah curse Bayan the straw seller, and also [saying]: Bayan - may Allah curse him - used to lie about my father, I bear witness that my father Ali b. al-Husayn was [naught but] a righteous slave.

NOTES:

This Hadith gives us the occupation of Bayan i.e. selling straw, as well as indicating that apart from his association with Ibn al-Hanafiyya and Abu Hashim, he also claimed things [deification] for the former’s junior contemporary Ali Zayn al-Abidin who must have repudiated him.

Sa`d b. Abdallah says in his al-Maqalat that this Bayan sent a letter to al-Sadiq announcing his prophethood and commanding him among other things “to surrender himself so as to be safe … for you cannot know where God will place his prophethood .. and whoever warns has been excused”. The Imam ordered the messenger who brought the letter, a hapless man called Umar b. Abi Afif al-Azdi, to eat the letter in front of him, and that was his reply.

 

[3/128] رجال الكشي: عن محمد بن مسعود، عن الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار ومحمد بن قولويه القميان، عن سعد، عن العبيدي، عن يونس، عن العباس بن عامر القصباني؛ و أيوب بن نوح و الحسن بن موسى الخشاب و الحسن بن عبد الله بن المغيرة، عن العباس بن عامر، عن حماد بن أبي طلحة، عن ابن أبي يعفور قال: دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: ما فعل بزيع فقلت له: قتل، فقال: الحمد لله، أما إنه ليس لهؤلاء المغيرية شي‏ء خيرا من القتل لأنهم لا يتوبون أبدا 

[3/128] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Muhammad b. Masud from al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi and Muhammad b. Qulawayh al-Qummi from Sa`d from al-Ubaydi from Yunus from al-Abbas bin A’mir al-Qasbani AND Ayyub b. Nuh and al-Hasan b. Musa - the wood seller - and al-Hasan b. Abdallah b. al-Mughira from al-Abbas b. A`mir from Hammad b. Abi Talha from Ibn Abi Ya’fur who said: I entered upon Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - so he said to me: what has happened to Bazi`? I said: he has been killed, he said: All praise is due to Allah - for there is nothing more appropriate for these Mughiriyya than being killed - this is because they will never repent ever.

NOTES:

The Mughiriyya are the followers of al-Mughira b. Sa`id (it has already been pointed out above that he died with his followers in the same rebellion as that of Bayan; more about him in his own independent entry). Bazi` would be one of the Mughiriyya who died in the same incident.

It would seem that this Bazi` also claimed prophethood in the same way as Mughira [his teacher] had done i.e. they considered the Imam to be divine and themselves to be legitimate deputies (“prophets”).

  محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال، عن حماد بن عثمان، عن ابن أبي يعفور قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: إن بزيعا يزعم أنه نبي فقال: إن سمعته يقول ذلك فاقتله، قال: فجلست له غير مرة فلم يمكني ذلك

Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Fadhal from Hammad b. Uthman from Ibn Abi Ya`fur who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام - Bazi` claims that he is a prophet, he said: if you hear him saying that then kill him, he [Ibn Abi Ya`fur] said: so I sat in his sessions more than once but he did not give me any chance [he did not repeat those words]. 

It has been attributed to Bazi`that he claimed to have made a heavenly ascent at the culmination of which Allah the Elevated Himself wiped on his head [anointed him] and spat into his mouth, which was the source of his knowledge. He also believed that any one who perfects his recognition will not die in reality but be “raised” to the spiritual domain directly. The idea of ascension through the heavenly spheres was not new in the Near Eastern societies and even Paul of Tarsus claims this in the NT.

 

[4/129] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن يعقوب، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن علي بن يقطين، عن المدايني، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال، قال لي: يامرازم من بشار؟ قلت بياع الشعير، قال: لعن الله بشارا، قال، ثم قال لي: يا مرازم قل لهم ويلكم توبوا إلى الله فانكم كافرون مشركون

[4/129] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Ya`qub from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ali b. Yaqtin from al-Madaini from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he [Abi Abdillah] said to me: O Murazim - who is Bashshar? I said: the seller of barley, he said: may Allah curse Bashshar, then he said to me: O Murazim - say to them: woe on you! repent to Allah for you are indeed disbelieving polytheists! 

 

[5/130] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم ابنا نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن صفوان، عن مرازم قال: قال لي أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: تعرف مبشر بشير، بتوهم الاسم، الشعيري، فقلت: بشار قال: بشار قلت: نعم جار لي، قال: إن اليهود قالوا و وحدوا الله و إن النصارى قالوا و وحدوا الله و إن بشارا قال عظيما، إذا قدمت الكوفة فأته و قل له يقول لك جعفر يا كافر يا فاسق يا مشرك أنا بري‏ء منك، قال مرازم: فلما قدمت الكوفة فوضعت متاعي جئت إليه فدعوت الجارية فقلت قولي لأبي إسماعيل هذا مرازم فخرج إلي فقلت له: يقول لك جعفر بن محمد يا كافر يا فاسق يا مشرك أنا بري‏ء منك، فقال لي: و قد ذكرني سيدي قال: قلت: نعم ذكرك بهذا الذي قلت لك فقال: جزاك الله خيرا و فعل بك و أقبل يدعو لي 

[5/130] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim the sons of Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Safwan from Murazim who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: do you know Mubashir or Bashir - [mistaking the name] - the barley seller? I said: Bashshar? he said: Bashshar! I said: yes I do, he is a neighbor of mine, he (al-Sadiq) said: the Jews said (what they said) but they (still) monothized Allah, and the Christians said (what they said) but they (still) monothized Allah, but Bashshar has said (i.e. professed) a mighty thing! if you reach Kufa go to him and say to him: Ja’far says to you - ‘O Kafir, O Fasiq, O Mushriq, I am disassociated from you’, Murazim said: so when I reached Kufa and had put down my provisions (of the journey) - I came to his place and called the maid servant and said: say to Abi Ismail (Bashshar) that this is Murazim (at the door), so he came out to me, I said to him: Ja’far b. Muhammad says to you - ‘O Kafir, O Fasiq, O Mushriq, I am disassociated from you’, so he (Bashshar) said to me: and has my master mentioned (i.e. remembered) me? he (Murazim) said: I said: yes - he has mentioned you with what I have just said to you! so he said: may Allah reward you with good, and may he do (so and so) for you, and he began supplicating for me!

NOTES:

al-Mamaqani says: he (the Imam) wishes by naming him Mubashar and then Bashir [which are derivations of Bishr] and not getting his name right - to do as though he does not know him, and this is to belittle the one named, and not that he does not know his name in actuality, and this is something well known even in our usage, when we want to demean a man we show as if we do not know his actual name (i.e. get it wrong purposely).

What were the beliefs of Bashshar the barley seller that the Imam had such a visceral reaction against him. Al-Kashshi elaborates that he held similar beliefs to the Ulyawiyya and the Mukhammisa as follows:

ومقالة بشار هي مقالة العلياوية يقولون إن عليا رب وظهر بالعلوية الهاشمية وأظهر عبده ورسوله بالمحمدية، فوافق أصحاب أبي الخطاب في أربعة أشخاص علي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين وأن معنى الأشخاص الثلاثة فاطمة والحسن و الحسين تلبيس و الحقيقة شخص علي لأنه أول هذه الأشخاص في الإمامة و أنكروا شخص محمد وزعموا أن محمدا عبد وعلي رب وأقاموا محمدا مقام ما أقامت المخمسة سلمان و جعلوه رسولا لعلي، فوافقوهم في الإباحات و التعطيل و التناسخ والعلياوية سمتها المخمسة العليائية و زعموا أن بشارا الشعيري لما أنكر ربوبية محمد وجعلها في علي و جعل محمدا عبد علي و أنكر رسالة سلمان مسخ في صورة الطير يقال له علياء يكون في البحر فلذلك سموهم العليائية

And the belief of Bashshar is that of the Ulyawiyya - they say: Indeed Ali is the Deity, and he appeared [incarnated] in the Alawi and Hashimi form (as a human), and He [Ali] made his slave and messenger [pre-existent right-hand lesser power] to appear [incarnate] in the Muhammadi form (as a human). In this, he (Bashshar) agreed with the companions of Abi al-Khattab (i.e. the Khattabiyya) in four personas (being complete embodiments of the Divine) - Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, maintaining however that the meaning [independent essence] of the three personas - Fatima, al-Hasan and al-Husayn is a deception, and the reality is only the persona of Ali [who alone is true and integral - reappearing as these other persons in successive incarnations], because he is the first among these personas in the Imama, and they denied the persona of Muhammad (as Lord), and they held that Muhammad was slave and that Ali Lord, and they placed Muhammad in the station (position) that the Mukhammisa (Pentadists) had placed Salman in [i.e. that of a slave and messenger], and they made him (Muhammad) a messenger to Ali, and he (Bashshar) also agreed with them in anti-nomian libertinism (considering licit what is forbidden), in denying (negating the attributes of Allah), and transmigration (of souls).

And the Ulyawiyya were called by the Mukhammisa - ‘Ulya`iyya’, and they held that Bashshar - the barley seller - when he rejected the deification of Muhammad, and placed it in Ali, and made Muhammad a slave to Ali, and rejected the messenger-ship of Salman - was transformed into the shape of a bird which is called Ulya, found by the sea, so this is why they called them Ulya`iyya (i.e. pejoratively).

I say: Allah is Elevated above this, in their esoteric derangement they consider the curse of the Imam a secret coded blessing! This is because they considered their doctrine “secret knowledge” which is Gnosis, and that the Imam was maintaining Taqiyya with the laity while they were the elite who were initiated into this, so they had to maintain the facade in front of those who do not have this salvific knowledge .

Note that there is a difference in belief between the Bayaniyya [followers of Bayan] who considered this to happen as a result of the transfer of the divine particle, and what I consider be a later evolution of this belief into the more mature Mukhammisa and Ulyawaiyya who believed in a complete reincarnation (Hulul) of God [on the Earth] “Divine became Flesh” where the human figure is a complete embodiment of the divine. This is “incarnationist” Imamology.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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3.15. Bukayr

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/bukayr

 

[1/131] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن الفضيل و إبراهيم ابني محمد الأشعريين قالا: إن أبا عبد الله عليه السلام لما بلغه وفاة بكير بن أعين قال: أما و الله لقد أنزله الله بين رسول الله و أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليهما

[1/131] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Ya`qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from al-Fudhayl and Ibrahim the two sons of Muhammad al-Ash`ari who said: when the news of the death of Bukayr b. A`yan reached Aba Abdillah عليه السلام, he said: by Allah - Allah has brought him down [placed him] between the messenger of Allah and the commander of the faithful صلوات الله عليهما [as his station in the world to come].

 

[2/132] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن، عن أبيه، عن إبراهيم بن محمد الأشعري، عن عبيدة بن زرارة؛ و الحسن بن جهم بن بكير، عن عمه عبد الله بن بكير، عن عبيد بن زرارة قال: كنت عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فذكر بكير بن أعين فقال: رحم الله بكيرا و قد فعل، فنظرت إليه و كنت يومئذ حديث السن، فقال: إني أقول إن شاء الله

[2/132] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud who said: narrated to me Ali b. al-Hasan from his father from Ibrahim b. Muhammad al-Ash`ari from Ubayd b. Zurara; and [al-Hasan b. Ali b. Fadhal from] al-Hasan b. Jahm b. Bukayr from his uncle Abdallah bin Bukayr from Ubayd bin Zurara who said: I was with Abi Abdillah عليه السلام when Bukayr bin A`yan was mentioned, so he عليه السلام said: may Allah have mercy on Bukayr, and He has done it [already], so I (Ubayd) looked at him [in disbelief, as to how could one speak for Allah in such a way], and I (i.e. Ubayd) was then - young in age [excusing himself], so he عليه السلام said: I do say ‘If Allah wills’.

NOTES:

The Banu A`yan were a very famous and large family of the Shia producing a lot of worthy scholars. A`yan himself was a slave of Roman ancestry purchased by a man from the Bani Shayban who brought him up in Kufa and later set him free. The sons of A`yan included Humran, Zurara and this Bukayr.

Bukayr was a companion of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq and he died in the lifetime of the latter as the above reports prove. He narrated a large number of narrations, about one hundred and twenty of them can still be found in our books.

The second strain in the last narration is a kind of family chain, being reported by his grandson al-Hasan b. Jahm from his son Abdallah b. Bukayr from his nephew Ubayd b. Zurara [all three of whom were prolific narrators].

More about the family can be discovered by studying the Risala of one Abu Ghalib al-Zurari, a scholar who was a contemporary to Shaykh al-Mufid and a direct descendant of Bukayr.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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3.16. - 3.20. al-Hakam, Salama, Kathir, Salim and Abu al-Miqdam

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-hakam-salama-kathir-salim-and-abu-al-miqdam

 

[1/133] رجال الكشي: علي بن الحسن، عن العباس بن عامر و جعفر بن محمد، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن أبي بصير قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: إن الحكم بن عتيبة و سلمة و كثيرا و أبا المقدام و التمار يعني سالما، أضلوا كثيرا ممن ضل من هؤلاء، و إنهم ممن قال الله عز و جل وَ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَ بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَ ما هُمْ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

[1/133] Rijal al-Kashshi: Ali b. al-Hasan from al-Abbas b. A`mir and Ja`far b. Muhammad from Aban b. Uthman from Abi Basir who said: I heard Aba Ja`far عليه السلام saying: al-Hakam b. Utayba, Salama, Kathir, Aba al-Miqdam and al-Tammar - that is Salim - have misguided a lot of those who are misguided from among these [non-Imamis], and they are those about whom Allah Mighty and Majestic said: “and among people are those who say: we have believed in Allah and the last day while they are not believers” (2:8).

NOTES:

The chain is Mu`tabar only if the intermediary between al-Kashshi and Ali b. al-Hasan is a Thiqa narrator like Muhammad b. Masud, as is likely, looking at the Isnad statistics throughout the book.

All those mentioned here can be considered of the Batriyya. This is how al-Nawbakhti describes them in his Kitab al-Firaq [undoubtedly he was inspired by this narration when putting them together under one heading]: The people of Hadith, like al-Hasan b. Salih b. Hayy (d. 168), Kathir al-Nawwa, Salim b. Abi Hafsa (d. 137), al-Hakam b. Utayba (d. 114), Salama b. Kuhayl (d. 121), Abu al-Miqdam Thabit al-Haddad, and their followers. They called for loyalty to Ali, peace be upon him, then they mixed it with loyalty to Abu Bakr and Umar. They agreed that Ali was the best and superior among the Umma. Nevertheless, they accept the judgment of Abu Bakr and Umar and allow the wiping of shoes [Mash ala al-Khuffayn in Wudhu], and permit drinking intoxicating drink [Nabidh], and eating catfish [which does not have scales].

Why were they called Batriyya? There is a difference of opinions about the origin of this term, but one possible reason is given by the narration below [though it is clearly polemical and weak in chain].

Sa`d b. Janah al-Kashshi - Ali b. Muhammad b. Yazid al-Qummi - Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa - al-Husayn b. Sa`id - Fadhala b. Ayyub - al-Husayn b. Uthman al-Ruwasi - Sadiyr who said: I entered upon Abi Ja’far عليه السلام and with me were Salama b. Kuhayl, Abu al-Miqdam Thabit al-Haddad, Salim b. Abi Hafsa, Kathir al-Nawwa and a group together with them, and with Abi Ja’far عليه السلام was his brother Zayd b. Ali عليهم السلام, so they said to Abi Ja’far عليهم السلام - we consider as a guardian Ali, Hasan and Husayn, and we disassociate from their enemies, he said: yes (do that), they said: we consider Abu Bakr and Umar as guardians, and disassociate from their enemies, he (Sadiyr) said: so Zayd b. Ali turned towards them and said: do you disassociate from Fatima!? you have cut off our affair - may Allah cut you off. [And from that day on they were known as the Batriyya (those who cut off part of the thing)].

In other words they had political Tashayyu in them, in so far as they considered Ali more merituous [a concept that was further elaborated on by the Zaydiyya]. This was enough for a lot of Nasibi scholars to view as “Tashayyu”. At the same time, they accepted the Jamai conception that Abu Bakr and Umar were Just leaders and did not condemn the Sahaba wholesale.

They did not have any concept of the Nass, whereby the true leader [in both temporal and spiritual terms] is one man from the Ahl al-Bayt who has been designated by a prior man from the same lineage.

They respected al-Baqir and al-Sadiq and considered them authorities. This can be evidenced by the fact that they did narrate from them more than your average Hadith narrator among the Proto-Sunnis. Despite this, they did not know of a concept of Isma, nor did they restrict authority to just these Imams, thus, they could mix freely and take Ilm from others which even contradicted what the `Aimma of Ahl al-Bayt were preaching to their closest followers in Non-Taqiyya mode.

What is also worthy of note is how al-Hakam was seen as much more of a key player in early Imami circles, over and beyond his status in what has become Sunnism [he is a very marginal figure]. Maybe this was because Zurara studied under him first before beginning to follow the Imams.

Muhammad b. Masud - Ali bin Muhammad b. Fayruzan al-Qummi - Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya - al-Abbas b. Ma`ruf - al-Hajjal - Abi Maryam al-Ansari who said: Abi Ja`far عليه السلام said to Salama b. Kuhayl and al-Hakam b. Utayba - (go) east or west, you will not find correct knowledge except something that has originated from us - the Ahl al-Bayt.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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3.21. - 3.24. Abu Sasan, Ammar, Shatira and Abu Amra

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/abu-sasan-ammar-shatira-and-abu-amra

 

[1/134] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن العباس بن عامر و جعفر بن محمد بن حكيم، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن الحارث بن المغيرة النصري قال: سمعت عبد الملك بن أعين يسأل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فلم يزل يسأله حتى قال له: فهلك الناس إذا فقال: إي و الله يا ابن أعين هلك الناس أجمعون قلت: من في الشرق و من في الغرب قال: فقال: إنها فتحت على الضلال إي و الله هلكوا إلا ثلاثة ثم لحق أبو ساسان و عمار و شتيرة و أبو عمرة فصاروا سبعة

[1/134] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan b. Fadhal from al-Abbas b. Amir and Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Hukaym from Aban b. Uthman from al-Harith b. Mughira al-Nasri who said: I heard Abd al-Malik b. A`yan asking Aba Abdillah عليه السلام - and he did not cease asking him - until he said to him: so the people were destroyed then (after the messenger of Allah)? he said: yes, by Allah, O the son of A`yan, all the people were destroyed, I (Abd al-Malik) said: whomever was in the east and the west? he said: it (the whole earth) was opened up to misguidance, yes, by Allah, they were all destroyed, except three, then joined Abu Sasan, Ammar, Shatira and Abu Umra, so they became seven.

NOTES:

The three pillars are Miqdad, Salman and Abu Dhar as other narrations make clear.

Abu Amra al-Ansari [Bashir b. Amr b. Mihsan] was a very early convert to Islam who participated in Badr, Uhud and the rest of the battles. He was a faithful follower of Ali in his Khilafa and fought with him in Jamal and was killed in Sifffin.

Ammar b. Yasir needs no introduction.

Most scholars have identified Abu Sasan as al-Hudhayn b. al-Mundhir al-Raqqashi, a companion of Ali and the man who carried his banner in the Siffin war [See: al-Tusi in al-Rijal]. The problem with this identification is that there are reports that he was quite young at this time, indeed the Sunni scholars have place him in the Tabaqa of the Tabi`in and he lived on to the Marwanid era. This being the case - how could he have been among the foremost to return back to Ali at the time of the prophet’s death? This point raises doubt about this identification and over-rules it.

al-Tustari proposes that it could be Abu Sinan (أبو سنان) al-Ansari instead of Abu Sasan (أبو ساسان), their names are quite close to each other in the Arabic script. al-Tusi includes Abi Sinan al-Ansari among the companions of Ali and al-Barqi considers him to be among the select (Asfiya) of his companions. The problem again is that he has not been listed among the companions of the prophet by any scholar, and we do not even know his personal name. At the same time, it is possible that it is Abu Sinan which is a corruption of Abu Sasan.

Shatira (Shatir) is most probably Shatira b. Shakal al-Absi al-Kufi. Al-Barqi enumerated him among the close (Khawas) companions of Ali from Mudhar. Ibn Athir says that he witnessed the time of Jahiliyya, though he did not narrate from the prophet directly, but from his father and other companions. Nothing more is known about him.

Despite all the above, there is an enigmatic narration in al-Ikhtisas as follows:

و روى الاختصاص باسناده، عن عليّ بن إسماعيل بن عيسى، عن حمّاد بن عيسى، عن الحسين بن مختار القلانسي، عن الحارث بن المغيرة النضري، قال: قال لي أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: أيّ شي‏ء تقولون أنتم؟ فقال: نقول هلك الناس إلّا ثلاثة، فقال أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: فأين ابن ليلى و شتير؟ فسألت حمّاد بن عيسى عنهما، قال: كانا موليين أسودين لعليّ بن أبي طالب

Al-Ikhtisas: pseudo-al-Mufid by his chain to Ali b. Ismail b. Isa from Hammad b. Isa from al-Husayn b. Mukhtar al-Qulanasi from al-Harith b. al-Mughira al-Nadhri who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said to me: what do you (pl.) say? I said: we say that the people were destroyed except for three, so Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said: so where is Ibn Abi Layla and Shatir? So I (Ali b. Ismail) asked Hammad b. Isa about them, he said: they were two black slaves of Ali b. Abi Talib.

Assuming this is authentic, then it is possible that Abu Sasan (= Ibn Abi Layla) and Shatir are two obscure slaves of Ali who got such an eminent position as to become among the seven because of their loyalty to him.

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3.25. - 3.26. The two Jabirs

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/jabir-b-abdallah-al-ansari-and-jabir-b-yazid-al-jufi

 

[1/135] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي نجران، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: حدثني جابر عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ولم يكذب جابر ...

[1/135] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Najran from A`sim b. Humayd from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام who said: Jabir [b. Abdallah] narrated to me from the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله - and Jabir did not lie - …

NOTES:

For the Imam to be narrating from a companion is nothing of the extraordinary, provided the words of the companion are true. It may also be done to show the status of the companion. There is a weak-chained apologetic narration trying to explain away this phenomenon by noting that al-Baqir used to visit Jabir not to take Ilm from him but to honour him.

... جابر يأتيه طرفي النهار فكان أهل المدينة يقولون وا عجباه لجابر يأتي هذا الغلام طرفي النهار و هو آخر من بقي من أصحاب رسول الله، فلم يلبث أن مضى علي بن الحسين (عليهما السلام) فكان محمد بن علي يأتيه على وجه الكرامة لصحبته برسول الله (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) قال، فجلس فحدثهم عن أبيه فقال أهل المدينة ما رأينا أحدا قط أجرا من ذا قال : فلما رأى ما يقولون حدثهم عن رسول الله، قال أهل المدينة ما رأينا أحدا قط أكذب من هذا يحدث عمن لم يره، قال فلما رأى ما يقولون حدثهم عن جابر بن عبد الله فصدقوه، و كان جابر و الله يأتيه يتعلم منه

It adds that when al-Baqir used to narrate from his father, the people of Madina used to say - we have not seen someone bolder than him [acting as though the words of his father are a final authority], when the Imam heard what they said he began to narrate directly from the messenger of Allah so the people of Madina said - we have not seen someone more lying than him for he narrates from someone he has not met, when the Imam heard that he decided to narrate to them on the authority of Jabir and they considered him truthful, while in fact it was Jabir who used to gain knowledge from al-Baqir.

 

[2/136] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن زياد بن أبي الحلال قال: اختلف أصحابنا في أحاديث جابر الجعفي، فقلت لهم: أسأل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام، فلما دخلت ابتدأني فقال: رحم الله جابر الجعفي كان يصدق علينا، لعن الله المغيرة بن سعيد كان يكذب علينا 

[2/136] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Hakam from Ziyad b. Abi al-Hilal who said: our companions differed about accepting the narrations of Jabir al-Ju`fi, I said to them: I will ask Aba Abdillah عليه السلام, so when I entered upon him, he عليه السلام began saying [without me asking]: may Allah have mercy on Jabin al-Ju`fi - he used to tell the truth about us, may Allah curse al-Mughira bin Sa`id, he used to lie about us.

NOTES:

This narration is used to confirm Jabir’s truthfulness. Despite this, it cannot be overlooked that Jabir was seen as a controversial figure from very early on, indeed, this is why the Imam is asked about him in the first place.

روى عنه جماعة غمز فيهم و ضعّفوا ... و كان في نفسه مختلطا. و كان شيخنا أبو عبد اللّه محمّد بن محمّد بن النعمان رحمه اللّه ينشد أشعارا كثيرة في معناه يدلّ على الاختلاط، ليس هذا موضعا لذكرها. و قلّما يورد عنه شي‏ء في الحلال و الحرام

al-Najashi points out that a number of weak and censured individuals narrate from him. They include some prominent Ghalis. He goes further and accuses Jabir himself of having corrupt “syncretist i.e. mixed with esoteric elements” beliefs. He cites a large number of poems [of Jabir] that were recited to him by al-Mufid which evidence him having such beliefs. He also accuses him of not concerning himself with the narrations of Halal and Haram [i.e. Fiqh] [which may be alluding to the fact that the Ghulat saw themselves as the elite above outward ritual]. This tallies with Jabir’s claims to have secret intitiatic knowledge that should be hidden from the “masses”.

و يضاف إليه رسالة أبي جعفر إلى أهل البصرة و غيرها من الأحاديث و الكتب، و ذلك موضوع، و اللّه أعلم

al-Najashi concludes by stating that a number of fabricated books and narrations are attributed to him including a supposed letter from Abi Ja`far al-Baqir to the people of Basra. 

ثقة في نفسه، و لكن جلّ من روى عنه ضعيف فممّن أكثر عنه من الضعفاء: عمرو بن شمر الجعفي، و مفضّل بن صالح السكوني، و منخل بن جميل الأسدي و أرى الترك لما روى هؤلاء عنه و الوقف في الباقي، إلّا ما خرج شاهدا

Ibn al-Ghadhairi on the other hand sums him up by considering him Thiqa in of himself. This would rule him out of being personally responsible for disseminating esoterically corrupt material. He concedes, however, that weak narrators made use of his name to spread spurious material [he was almost the go-to person to attribute material to as anyone who studies the Jabirean corpus will tell you - which brings up the question, if he was so un-involved with these circles why did they consider him one of their pillars?]

In any case, Jabir is a complex character who is also known to Sunni Rijal scholars and a full study on him is needed [perhaps a monograph that treats him in-depth will be forthcoming].

 

[3/137] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم ابنا نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن ابن بكير، عن زرارة قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن أحاديث جابر فقال: ما رأيته عند أبي قط إلا مرة واحدة و ما دخل علي قط

[3/137] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim the two sons of Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Hakam from Ibn Bukayr from Zurara who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the narrations of Jabir, he said: I never saw him with my father - ever - except for one time, and he never entered upon me [to take Hadith] ever.

NOTES:

This narration would seem to conflict with the one above it, and open up the possibility of mass deception on the part of Jabir!

وأما قول الصادق عليه السلام، في موثقة زرارة (بابن بكير): ما رأيته عند أبي إلا مرة واحدة، وما دخل علي قط، فلابد من حمله على نحو من التورية، إذ لو كان جابر لم يكن يدخل عليه سلام الله عليه، وكان هو بمرأى من الناس ، لكان هذا كافيا في تكذيبه وعدم تصديقه، فكيف اختلفوا في أحاديثه، حتى احتاج زياد، إلى سؤال الإمام عليه السلام عن أحاديثه على أن عدم دخوله على الإمام عليه السلام لا ينافي صدقه في أحاديثه، لاحتمال أنه كان يلاقي الإمام عليه السلام في غير داره: فيأخذ منه العلوم والاحكام، ويرويها، إذن لا تكون الموثقة معارضة للصحبة الدالة على صدقه في الأحاديث المؤيدة بما تقدم من الروايات الدالة على جلالته ومدحه، وأنه كان عنده من أسرار أهل البيت سلام الله عليهم

al-Khoei tries to explain it away by claiming that it could be Tawriya [a form of dissimulation] from the Imam. He reconciles it with Ziyad’s narration by noting that Jabir could be meeting the Imam and taking knowledge from him in other than his house [since the Imam said: ‘and he never entered upon me ever i.e. in my house’]. While this is indeed possible, it does not answer the question why the Imam would need to do this with Zurara, a student with whom he was freer than others.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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11 hours ago, E.L King said:

I am a little confusrd brother, so the top bit is about Jabir ibn Abdillah, the rest is about Al-Ju'fi? Or?

Yes, the first narration is about the Sahabi Jabir b. Abdallah al-Ansari, the second and third are about Jabir b. Yazid al-Ju`fi, the companion of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq.

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2.27. - 2.29. al-Ash`ath, Jarir and Simak

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-ashath-jarir-and-simak

 

[1/138] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن عمرو بن عثمان، عن محمد بن عذافر، عن أبي حمزة أو عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: إن بالكوفة مساجد ملعونة و مساجد مباركة ... فأما المساجد الملعونة فمسجد ثقيف ومسجد الاشعث ومسجد جرير ومسجد سماك ومسجد بالخمراء بني على قبر فرعون من الفراعنة

[1/138] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Amr b. Uthman from Muhammad b. Udhafir from Abi Hamza and Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام who said: In Kufa there are accursed mosques and blessed mosques … among the accursed mosques include the mosque of Thaqif, the mosque of al-Ash`ath, the mosque of Jarir, the mosque of Simak and the mosque in al-Khamra which was built on the grave of one Pharaoh among the Pharaohs. 

NOTES:

The accursed mosques are those that were tainted by their connection to either (i) hostile personalities (mainly partisans of Uthman and Mua`wiya) or (ii) unfriendly tribes (to the Shia and Ali).

A similar narration in al-Kafi has the following five:

عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: إن أمير المؤمنين صلوات الله عليه نهى بالكوفة عن الصلاة في خمسة مساجد: مسجد الاشعث بن قيس ومسجد جرير بن عبدالله البجلي ومسجد سماك بن مخرمة ومسجد شبث بن ربعي ومسجد التيم

Abi Abdillah عليه السلام said: The commander of the faithful صلوات الله عليه prohibited praying in five mosques in Kufa: Masjid al-Ash`ath b. Qays, Masjid Jarir b. Abdallah al-Bajali, Masjid Simak b. Makhrama, Masjid Shabath b. Rib`i and Masjid al-Taym.

Note that a Masjid Shabath b. Rib`i (someone who supported Ali at first but turned Khariji) and a Masjid Taym (to whom belonged Abu Bakr) are added in this narration.

عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: جددت أربعة مساجد بالكوفة فرحا لقتل الحسين عليه السلام: مسجد الاشعث ومسجد جرير ومسجد سماك ومسجد شبث بن ربعي

It seems that one of the main reasons why these mosques were cursed is because they were renovated just to celebrate the killing of al-Husayn! (this shows their Nasibi influence).

Who are the individuals mentioned in the narration?

al-Ash‘ath b. Qays (d. 40/661) fought with ‘Alı in the Battle of Siffın before pressuring him to accept arbitration and appoint Abu Musa al-Ash‘arı as one of the arbiters. This made Ali remind him that he was the same person who participated in the ridda (apostasy) revolts after the death of the Prophet, and was eventually pardoned when he payed a humbling price making use of his Ashrafi connections. What the daughter Jo`da bt. al-Ash`ath did in poisoning al-Hasan and his son’s involvement in the incident of the arrest of Muslim b. Aqil show that the rotten fruits did not fall far from the tree.

Jarır b. ‘Abdallah b. Jabir al-Bajalı (d. 51-6/671-6) was entrusted by ‘Alı to carry a letter to Mu’awiya (to call upon him to submit) but he secretly pledged loyalty to the Umayyads, and began wasting time in Syria, his prevarication worked to sap the energy of Ali’s forces. He finally abdicated at which point Ali ordered his house in Kufa to be destroyed.

Simak b. Makhrama b. Humayn al-Asadı (d. mid- to late 1st/7th century) lived in an area of Kufa known for the pro-‘Uthman beliefs of its inhabitants (as late as the 4th/10th century), where he built a mosque in which ‘Alı famously refused to offer prayers.

Masjid Khamra (or Hamra in al-Tahdhib of al-Tusi) is built on the grave of “one of the Pharaohs”. It is not clear whom this is referring to.

A similar dynamic characterized Masjid Thaqıif given the tribe’s adversarial relationship with ‘Alı and his partisans. Note that Mughira b. Shu`ba the famous Munafiq was from Thaqif and he was critical in perpetuating Umayyad rule as a governor in Kufa.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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2.30. – 2.32. Ja`far b. Isa, Salih and Abu al-Asad

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/jafar-b-isa-salih-and-abu-al-asad

 

[1/139] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و إبراهيم، عن أبو جعفر محمد بن عيسى العبيدي قال: سمعت هشام بن إبراهيم الختلي و هو المشرقي يقول: استأذنت لجماعة على أبي الحسن عليه السلام في سنة تسع و تسعين و مائة، فحضروا و حضرنا ستة عشر رجلا على باب أبي الحسن الثاني عليه السلام، فخرج مسافر فقال: يتخلف آل يقطين و يونس بن عبد الرحمن و يدخل الباقون رجلا رجلا، فلما دخلوا و خرجوا خرج مسافر فدعاني و موسى و جعفر بن عيسى و يونس، فأدخلنا جميعا عليه و العباس قائم ناحية بلا حذاء و لا رداء، و ذلك في سنة أبي السرايا، فسلمنا ثم أمرنا بالجلوس، فلما جلسنا، قال له جعفر بن عيسى: يا سيدي نشكو إلى الله و إليك ما نحن فيه من أصحابنا فقال: و ما أنتم فيه منهم فقال جعفر: هم و الله يا سيدي يزندقونا و يكفرونا و يتبرءون منا، فقال: هكذا كان أصحاب علي بن الحسين و محمد بن علي و أصحاب جعفر و موسى صلوات الله عليهم و لقد كان أصحاب زرارة يكفرون غيرهم، و كذلك غيرهم كانوا يكفرونهم، فقلت له: يا سيدي نستعين بك على هذين الشيخين يونس و هشام و هما حاضران، فهما أدبانا و علمانا الكلام، فإن كنا يا سيدي على هدى ففزنا، و إن كنا على ضلال فهذان أضلانا، فمرنا نتركه و نتوب إلى الله منه، يا سيدي فادعنا إلى دين الله نتبعك فقال عليه السلام: ما أعلمكم إلا على هدى، جزاكم الله عن الصحبة القديمة و الحديثة خيرا، فتأولوا القديمة علي بن يقطين، و الحديثة خدمتنا له، و الله أعلم. فقال جعفر: جعلت فداك، إن صالحا و أبا الأسد ختن علي بن يقطين حكيا عنك أنهما حكيا لك شيئا من كلامنا فقلت لهما ما لكما و الكلام يثنيكم إلى الزندقة فقال عليه السلام: ما قلت لهما ذلك، أنا قلت ذلك و الله ما قلت لهما. و قال يونس: جعلت فداك إنهم يزعمون أنا زنادقة و كان جالسا إلى جنب رجل و هو متربع رجلا على رجل و هو ساعة بعد ساعة يمرغ وجهه و خديه على باطن قدمه الأيسر، فقال له: أ رأيتك لو كنت زنديقا فقال لك هو مؤمن ما كان ينفعك من ذلك، و لو كنت مؤمنا فقالوا هو زنديق ما كان يضرك منه. و قال المشرقي له: و الله ما تقول إلا ما يقول آباؤك عليهم السلام عندنا كتاب سميناه كتاب الجامع فيه جميع ما تكلم الناس فيه عن آبائك عليهم السلام و إنما نتكلم عليه، فقال له جعفر شبيها بهذا الكلام، فأقبل على جعفر فقال: فإذا كنتم لا تتكلمون بكلام آبائي عليهم السلام فبكلام أبي بكر و عمر تريدون أن تتكلموا؟

[1/139] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim from Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Isa al-Ubaydi who said: I heard Hisham b. Ibrahim al-Khatli - and he is al-Mashraqi - say: I sought permission for a number of people to enter upon Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام in the year one hundred and ninety nine, so they attended and we attended, a total of sixteen men, waiting at the door of Abi al-Hasan the Second عليه السلام. Then Musafir (a Mawla of al-Ridha) came out and said: The family of Yaqtin and Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman should wait while the rest should enter one by one, so when they had all entered and exited, Musafir came out and called me, Musa [b. Salih], Ja`far b. Isa and Yunus, and allowed us to enter to meet him, and al-Abbas (another Mawla of al-Ridha) was stood in a corner without footwear and without having worn a cloak, and that was in the year of Abu al-Saraya (i.e. his coming out in revolt). 

He (al-Ridha) saluted us and ordered us to sit, so when we had sat - Ja`far b. Isa said to him: O my master - we complain to Allah and to you in regards what we are in from our companions [the treatment which we receive from them]. He said: and what are you in from them? Ja`far said: they - by Allah - denounce us as heretics, deem us disbelievers, and disassociate from us, so he (i.e. the Imam) said: like this were the companions of Ali b. al-Husayn, Muhammad b. Ali, Ja`far and Musa عليهم السلام, for the companions of Zurara used to consider as disbelievers all the others (apart from themselves), and likewise, the others used to consider them as disbelievers. 

I said to him: O my master - we seek assistance in you from these two old men, Yunus and Hisham, and they are both present, for they are the ones who have trained us and taught us theological disputation, so if we are - O my master - upon guidance, then we have succeeded, and if we are upon misguidance, then these two are the ones who have misguided us, so order us to leave it (i.e. Kalam) and turn to Allah in repentance from it, O my master - call us to the religion of Allah, for we will follow you, so he عليه السلام said: I do not know you except as being upon guidance, may Allah recompense you goodly for the former companionship and for the recent one. [They interpreted the former companionship to mean Ali b. Yaqtin, and the recent one to be our service to him, and Allah knows better].

Then Ja`far said: may I be made your ransom, Salih and Aba al-Asad the son-in-law of Ali b. Yaqtin relate from you that they quoted to you some of our theological arguments - so you said to them both: what is with you and theological disputations [what do you have to do with it?] - it is dragging you to heresy! so he عليه السلام said: I did not say that to them! did I say that?! - by Allah - I did not say that to them! 

Yunus said: may I be made your ransom - they assert that we are heretics, and he was sat beside a man, and he had placed one leg over the other (was seated cross legged), and time after time (every now and then) was rolling his face and his two cheeks upon the interior of his left foot, so he (al-Ridha) said to him: assume that you were indeed a heretic and they say about you - he is a believer - what would that benefit you? and if you were a believer and they said: he is a heretic - what would that harm you? 

al-Mashriqi said to him: by Allah - you do not speak except that which was also spoken by your forefathers. We do have a book, we have called it the ‘comprehensive book’ (Kitab al-Jami), in it is all that which the people have spoken about [what they have disputed with each other in regards theology] on the authority of your forefathers [with the decisive judgment from the `Aimma], and we debate based on it, and Ja`far said to him something similar to this, so he turned to Ja`far and said: if you were not speaking by [in accordance with] the words of my forefathers then with the words of Abi Bakr and Umar do you want to speak!?

NOTES:

Alı b. Yaqtın was a high ranking Shı‘ite official of the early ‘Abbasid administration. Son of a chief organizer of the ‘Abbasid revolution, he was born in 124 in Kufa and appointed in 168 by the caliph Mahdı as his chief of staff and in 169 by the caliph Hadı as the keeper of the caliphal seal. He remained a high ranking official of the ‘Abbasid government for the rest of his life until his death in 182 whereupon the crown prince Muhammad al-Amin led the funeral prayer. He was a loyal follower of, and a fairly prolific transmitter from, Musa al-Kazim, and even secretly acted as his financial agent.

Yaqtin b. Musa (d. 185), his father, was a Persian client of the Banu Asad, his name (meaning pumpkin) must be an Arabicization of Abu Muslim`s appellation for him, yak din ([man of] one religion), designed to attest the sincerity and pure monotheism of a new convert. He was a committed veteran of the ‘Abbasid cause, so much so that his son, ‘Alı, worried that a curse possibly uttered by Ja‘far al-Sadiq upon those who brought the ‘Abbasids to power may fall on Yaqtın and his descendants.

Ali b. Yaqtin was allowed to work for the tyrannical rulers by the Imam, in Taqiyya, so that he could assist the believers and ward of danger from them. The descendants of Ali b. Yaqtin and the wider family became very strong followers of the Imams. They produced prolific narrators, chief among them, Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd b. Yaqtin. An even more important honour for the family is that they were the patrons of a great scholar like Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman [the foremost student of Ali b. Yaqtin’s friend Hisham b. al-Hakam].

As al-Najashi says: يونس بن عبد الرحمان، مولى علي بن يقطين بن موسى

What this narration shows is that the Al Yaqtin were firm proponents of Kalam, under the leadership of Hisham b. al-Hakam and Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman. This caused a backlash from the traditionist faction which did not see a need for employing any degree of independent reasoning even to defend the faith. This is why Yunus and Hisham before him came under attack in Qum. They were deemed as outright heretics. Such a narration was used by the Al Yaqtin as a defense for their position and to claim the sanction of the Imam for what they were doing. There is some evidence that the `Aimma had a very tolerant attitude to all factions [apart from the Ghulat], because different people were on different levels of insight. Thus, the Imam points out that this rivalry was common to the Ashab of several Imams including those who supported Zurara’s position on various theological points and those who were against. This reached such a level that they made Takfir against each other!  

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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2.33. al-Harith b. al-Mughira

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-harith-b-al-mughira

 

[1/140] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن عبد الله بن محمد الحجال، عن يونس بن يعقوب قال: كنا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال: أما لكم من مفزع أما لكم من مستراح تستريحون إليه ما يمنعكم من الحارث بن المغيرة النصري

[1/140] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh from Sa`d b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Abdallah b. Muhammad al-Hajjal from Yunus b. Ya`qub who said: we were at Aba Abdillah عليه السلام's place when he عليه السلام said: do you not have a secure shelter? do you not have a comforter that you can seek comfort in? what prevents you from [referring to] al-Harith b. al-Mughira al-Nasri.

NOTES:

al-Harith b. al-Mughira al-Nasri was a narrator from al-Baqir, al-Sadiq and al-Kadhim who has more than 40 narrations in our corpus as it survives today. He was highly esteemed by the Imam as indicated in this authentic narration which points to his lofty status.

It is not surprising therefore to find al-Najashi saying about him <<Thiqatun Thiqa>> which is a doubly strong endorsement of his moral probity.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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2.34. - 2.35. Hariz and Hudhayfa

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/hariz-and-hudhayfa

 

[141/1] رجال الكشي: حمدويه و محمد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن صفوان، عن عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج قال: سأل أبو العباس فضل البقباق لحريز الإذن على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فلم يأذن له، فعاوده فلم يأذن له، فقال: أي شي‏ء للرجل أن يبلغ من عقوبة غلامه؟ قال: على قدر ذنوبه، فقال: قد عاقبت و الله حريزا بأعظم مما صنع قال: ويحك إني فعلت؟ ذلك أن حريزا جرد السيف! ثم قال: أما لو كان حذيفة بن منصور ما عاودني فيه بعد أن قلت لا

[1/141] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Muhammad [b. Qulawayh] from Muhammad b. Isa from Safwan from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: Abu al-Abbas Fadhl al-Baqbaq sought permission for Hariz to enter upon [meet] Abi Abdillah عليه السلام but he was refused, he repeated the request a second time and was not given permission, so he [Fadhl] said: what should be the punishment of a man to his slave [who has done wrong]? He [the Imam] said: in proportion to his crime, he said: you have - by Allah - punished Hariz greater than what he did, he said: woe be upon you! am I the one who did that? Hariz unsheathed the sword [took up arms]! Then he said: if it were Hudhayfa b. Mansur he would not have persisted in the request about him after I had already said no [once].    

NOTES:

This narration indicates the superior obedience that Hudhayfa b. Mansur showed to the Imam in comparison with Abu al-Abbas Fadhl al-Baqbaq. It also indicates the displeasure of the Imam towards Hariz. Despite this, all three are Thiqa and excellent narrators of Hadith.

أقول: إن هذه الصحيحة وإن دلت على جرأة الفضل وسوء أدبه بالنسبة إلى الإمام عليه السلام، إلا أنها لا تنافي وثاقته، ولعلها كانت زلة منه فتذكر بعدها

al-Khoei says that it points to the boldness of al-Fadhl in his interaction with the Imam, and perhaps even to his poor character, however it does not negate his Wathaqa, and it is possible that it was a lapse which he regretted and corrected afterwards.

و هذه الرواية و إن كانت صحيحة لأن الظاهر وثاقة محمد بن عيسى إلا أنها لا تنافي وثاقة حريز كما هو ظاهر بل لا تنافي عدالته أيضا، فإن تجريده السيف من دون إذن الإمام(ع)، و إن كان ذنبا كما يظهر من الصحيحة إلا أنه قابل للزوال بالتوبة، و لا شك في أن حريزا ندم على فعله حينما ظهر له عدم رضى الإمام به، فإن الحجب كان وقتيا من جهة تأديب حريز، لئلا يصدر منه مثل ذلك فيما بعد، فإن الحجب لو كان دائميا لشاع و ذاع، مع أنه لم يذكر إلا في هذه الرواية. و يؤيد ذلك أن الإمام(ع)قد أذن لحريز بعد حجبه في الدخول عليه إكثار حريز من الرواية عن الصادق(ع)، و احتمال أن تكون جميع هذه الروايات قد صدرت قبل الحجب بعيد جدا، كما لا يخفى

Al-Khoei further acknowledges the severity of Hariz's action in taking up arms without the permission of the Imam, it was a great sin which led to the Imam banishing him from his presence, but it is nonetheless a sin that can be forgiven through Tawba, and there is no doubt that Hariz regretted what he did when he became aware of the Imam’s displeasure [and this is why he used al-Baqbaq to plead for the Imam to reconsider]. The banishment seems to be temporary and done so as to discipline Hariz, to make sure that he does not repeat the same mistake again. If it were a permanent exile then it would have been widely known which is not the case [it is only mentioned in this one narration]. Another circumstantial piece of evidence that aids this particular interpretation [i.e. the Imam only forbade him to come see him temporarily] is that Hariz is a prolific narrator from al-Sadiq, and the probability that all these narrations were taken from the Imam before his exile is slim.

More information about our three narrators:

Hudhayfa b. Mansur

الخزاعي، أبو محمد، ثقة، روى عن أبي جعفر وأبي عبد الله وأبي الحسن عليهم السلام حذيفة بن منصور بن كثير بن سلمة بن عبد الرحمان

al-Najashi says: Hudhayfa b. Mansur b. Kathir b. Salama b. Abd al-Rahman al-Khuzai, Abu Muhammad, Thiqa, narrated from Abi Ja`far, Abi Abdillah and Abi al-Hasan عليهم السلام

Allamah Hilli in his Khulasa quotes al-Mufid giving him Tawthiq and praising him, this cannot be sourced to al-Mufid in what survives of his works.

حديثه غير نقي، يروي الصحيح والسقيم، وأمره ملتبس، ويخرج شاهدا

Ibn al-Ghadhairi takes a dissenting view when he declares Hudhayfa’s narrations as below par. This is because he apparently narrated both what is authentic and what is not. He does accept his Hadith if it is corroborated by another.

al-Fadhl b. Abd al-Malik 

الفضل بن عبد الملك أبو العباس البقباق، مولى، كوفي، ثقة، عين، روى عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام

al-Najashi says: al-Fadhl b. Abd al-Malik Abu al-Abbas al-Baqbaq, client, Kufan, Thiqa, eminent, he narrated from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام

It seems that this Tawthiq goes all the way back to Sa`d b. Abdallah [in his Fihrist], this is because al-Barqi says:

وفي كتاب سعد: له كتاب، ثقة

And in the book of Sa`d: he [Fadhl] has a book, Thiqa.

Hariz b. Abdallah

al-Najashi says about this Hariz:

حريز بن عبد الله السجستاني، أبو محمد الأزدي، من أهل الكوفة، أكثر السفر والتجارة، إلى سجستان، فعرف بها، وكانت تجارته في السمن والزيت، قيل روى عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، وقال يونس: لم يسمع من أبي عبد الله إلا حديثين، وقيل روى عن أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام ولم يثبت ذاك، وكان ممن شهر السيف في قتال الخوارج بسجستان، في حياة أبي عبد الله  عليه السلام، وروي أنه جفاه، وحجبه عنه

Hariz b. Abdallah al-Sijistani, Abu Muhammad al-Azdi, from among the residents of Kufa, he travelled a lot to make business in Sijistan so he became known for it [i.e. his Nisba]. His business was in butter fat and olive. It is said that he narrated from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام. Yunus said: he [Hariz] did not hear from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام except for two narrations. It is also said that he narrated from Abi al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام  but that is not proven. He was among those who unsheathed the sword in fighting the Khawarij in Sijistan in the lifetime of Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, and it is narrated that he was shunned by the Imam and blocked from access to him [as a result].

It is clear that al-Najashi who had the book of al-Kashshi is basing his biographical information about his millitary activity and the Imam’s subsequent displeasure at him from it.

al-Tusi gives him an outright Tawthiq in his Fihrist.

Hariz authored arguably the most important book on Salat in the Madhhab. Hammad b. Isa al-Juhni transmits this Kitab al-Salat, which mostly contains narrations from his principal source who is Zurara. Its importance can be seen from the fact that al-Saduq includes it in his preface to al-Faqih among the dependable books which are referred to (عليها الكتب المعتمدة المعول). He was such a prolific narrator that he occurs in the chains of more than 1300 Hadith as we have them in our books today.

To know Hariz’s status in Fiqh one only needs to know that a scholar like Yunus considered him his teacher and asked him questions on it to which Hariz replied directly in the first person.

What to make of al-Najashi quoting Yunus saying that he heard only two narrations from al-Sadiq?

It would seem that this piece of information is something else that is taken from a narration in al-Kashshi

محمد بن مسعود، قال: حدثني محمد بن نصير، قال حدثني محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس قال: لم يسمع حريز بن عبد الله من أبي عبد الله (عليه السلام)، إلا حديثا أو حديثين

Muhammad b. Masud from Muhammad b. Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus who said: Hariz b. Abdallah did not hear from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام except one or two narrations.

The problem with this is that as we have seen in the narration under discussion, Hariz definitely used to enter and meet al-Sadiq before he was disallowed.

ولكن هذه الرواية لا يمكن تصديقها، بعدما ثبت بطرق صحيحة، روايات كثيرة تبلغ (215) موردا كما يأتي عن حريز عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام

As al-Khoei says: this narration cannot be believed because of the presence of more than 215 authentic narrations wherein Hariz is narrating directly from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام

وقال المفيد في الإختصاص: إن سبب قتل حريز أنه كان له أصحاب يقولون بمقالته، وكان الغالب على سجستان الشراة، وكان أصحاب حريز يسمعون منهم ثلب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام وسبه، فيخبرون حريزا ويستأمرونه في قتل من يسمعون منه ذلك، فأذن لهم، فلا يزال الشراة يجدون منهم القتيل بعد القتيل، فلا يتوهمون على الشيعة، لقلة عددهم، ويطالبون المرجئة، ويقاتلونهم، وما زال الأمر هكذا حتى وقفوا على الأمر، فطلبوا الشيعة، فاجتمع أصحاب حريز إليه في المسجد، فعرقبوا عليهم المسجد وقلبوا أرضه عليهم، رحمه الله

Al-Mufid says in al-Ikhtisas: the reason for Hariz’s death is that he had companions who followed him in matters of religion in Sijistan which had a majority of Khawarij. The companions of Hariz used to hear them disparaging the commander of the faithfulعليه السلام  and abusing him, they would come to Hariz and ask him to permit them to kill anyone they hear speaking thusly and he permitted them. Then the Khawarij began to see their fellows being [secretly] killed day after day, but they did not think even for a moment that it could be the Shia, because of how few they were, instead they sought retribution with the Murjia and bagan killing then in revenge, this continued until they became aware of the reality, so they targetted the Shia, and the companions of Hariz sought refuge together with him in the mosque, but they brought down the mosque over their heads and buried them under the rubble - may Allah have mercy on him.

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2.36. Hasan al-Muthalath

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/hasan-al-muthalath

 

[-/1] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن ابن مسكان، عن سليمان بن خالد قال: لقيت الحسن بن الحسن فقال: أما لنا حق؟ أما لنا حرمة؟ إذ اخترتم منا رجلا واحدا كفاكم! فلم يكن له عندي جواب، فلقيت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فأخبرته بما كان من قوله لي، فقال لي: القه فقل له: أتيناكم فقلنا هل عندكم ما ليس عند غيركم؟ فقلتم: لا، فصدقناكم و كنتم أهل ذلك، و آتينا بني عمكم فقلنا: هل عندكم ما ليس عند الناس؟ فقالوا: نعم، فصدقناهم و كانوا أهل ذلك، قال: فلقيته فقلت له ما قال لي، فقال لي الحسن: فإن عندنا ما ليس عند الناس، فلم يكن عندي شي‏ء، فأتيت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فأخبرته، فقال لي القه و قل: إن الله عز وجل يقول في كتابه ائْتُونِي بِكِتابٍ مِنْ قَبْلِ هذا أَوْ أَثارَةٍ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صادِقِينَ، فاقعدوا لنا حتى نسألكم قال: فلقيته فحاججته بذلك، فقال لي: أفما عندكم شي‏ء ألا تعيبونا، إن كان فلان تفرغ و شغلنا فذاك الذي يذهب بحقنا

[1/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Ibn Muskan from Sulayman b. Khalid who said: I met al-Hasan b. al-Hasan - he said: do we not have a right? do we not have a sanctity? if you were to select from among us [the Ahlulbayt as a whole] a single man he would have been sufficient for you [as an Imam]! I (Sulayman) did not have an answer for him, so I met Aba Abdillah عليه السلام and informed him of his words to me, he [the Imam] said to me: meet him and say to him - we came to you and said: do you have what the rest of the people do not have [do you have anything exclusive over the rest]? so you said: no, we considered you truthful [in your answer] and you became deserving of that [i.e. of nothing], then we came to the sons of your uncle [the descendants of al-Husayn] and said: do you have what the rest of the people do not have? so they said: yes, we considered them truthful and they became deserving of that [the Imama], he (Sulayman) said: so I met him and said to him what he (al-Sadiq) had said to me [to say to him], al-Hasan said to me: but we do have what the people do not have, I did not have anything [to reply to him], so I came to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام and reported to him [what had happened] -  he said: meet him and say: Allah - the Mighty and Majestic - says in his book: “provide me with a book (scripture) before this one - or traces of knowledge - if you be truthful” (46:4), so sit down for us [become accessible to us] so that we can ask you [all the questions we have], he (Sulayman) said: I met him and argued against him using that - so he said to me: do you not have anything [to do] other than to humiliate us?!, if so and so [meaning Ja`far] chose to be free [unoccupied by Jihad - and devoted to scholarship] while we are engaged [in revolt - and therefore inept at scholarship] - then that is what takes away our right!

NOTES:

Hasan al-Muthalath is al-Hasan b. al-Hasan b. al-Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Talib. His father was al-Hasan al-Muthanna and his mother was Fatima bt. al-Husayn b. Ali b. Abi Talib.

The Hasanid branch was more inclined to seek authority and redress the injustices committed by the Abbasids through force, which contrasted greatly with the quietism adopted by the Imams from the Husaynid branch. This led to a rivalry between them as seen from the at times strained relations that al-Baqir and al-Sadiq had with al-Hasan al-Muthalath (mentioned in this Hadith) and more particularly with his brother Abdallah b. al-Hasan who had propagated his son Muhammad b. Abdallah Nafs al-Zakiyya as the Mahdi. The Zaydi conception of the Imamate, underpinned as it is only by the requirement for one to be a lineal descendant of Ali and rise with the sword against the illegal authorities (without making any claims to exclusive knowledge or testamentary succession) was greatly influenced by such popular and ultimately failed uprisings. Al-Hasan acknowledges al-Sadiq’s superiority in Ilm but explains it as caused by him sitting at home while they were kept busy by the struggle. al-Hasan himself would die in the Iraqi prison of al-Mahdi (the second Abbasid caliph) together with a lot of other Talibids in 145 AH because of his activities, the same fate would await a lot of the Hasanis of the time.

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2.37. - 2.38. Abu Ali b. Rashid and Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/abu-ali-b-rashid-and-ali-b-al-husayn-b-abd-rabbi

 

[1/142] غيبة الطوسي: ابن أبي جيد، عن محمد بن الحسن بن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن محمد بن عيسى قال: كتب أبوالحسن العسكري عليه السلام إلى الموالي ببغداد والمدائن والسواد وما يليها: قد أقمت أبا علي بن راشد مقام علي بن الحسين بن عبد ربه ومن قبله من وكلائي، وقد أوجبت في طاعته طاعتي، وفي عصيانه الخروج إلى عصياني، وكتبت بخطي

[1/142] Ghayba of al-Tusi: Ibn Abi Jayyid from Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. al-Walid from al-Saffar from Muhammad b. Isa who said: Abu al-Hasan al-Askari عليه السلام wrote to his followers in Baghdad, Madain, the Sawad [Kufa], and surrounding areas [the following]: I have appointed Aba Ali b. Rashid to the position which was formerly occupied by Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi and those who preceded him from among my agents. I have made obedience to him to be obedience to me and opposition to him to be opposition to me. I have written this letter in my own hand.

 

[2/143] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن محمد بن نصير، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى قال: نسخت الكتاب مع ابن راشد إلى جماعة الموالي الذين هم ببغداد المقيمين بها و المداين و السواد و ما يليها أحمد الله إليكم ما أنا عليه من عافيته و حسن عادته، و أصلي على نبيه و آله أفضل صلواته و أكمل رحمته و رأفته، و إني أقمت أبا علي بن راشد مقام علي بن الحسين بن عبد ربه و من كان قبله من وكلائي، و صار في منزلته عندي، و وليته ما كان يتولاه غيره من وكلائي قبلكم، ليقبض حقي، و ارتضيته لكم و قدمته على غيره في ذلك، و هو أهله و موضعه، فصيروا رحمكم الله إلى الدفع إليه ذلك و إلي، و أن لا تجعلوا له على أنفسكم علة، فعليكم بالخروج عن ذلك و التسرع إلى طاعة الله و تحليل أموالكم و الحقن لدمائكم، وَ تَعاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَ التَّقْوى، وَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ، وَ اعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعاً، وَ لا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَ أَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ، فقد أوجبت في طاعته طاعتي و الخروج إلى عصيانه الخروج إلى عصياني، فألزموا الطريق يأجركم الله و يزيدكم من فضله، فإن الله بما عنده واسع كريم، متطول على عباده، رحيم، نحن و أنتم في وديعة الله و حفظه، و كتبته بخطي، و الحمد لله كثيرا

[2/143] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Muhammad b. Nusayr from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa who said: I made a copy of the letter [from the Imam] in the possession of Ibn Rashid to the group of followers who reside in Baghdad, Madain, the Sawad [Kufa], and surrounding areas: I praise Allah to you because of what I am in of good health granted by Him and His fair dealing with me. I invoke blessings upon His prophet and his family, the best of His blessings and most complete of His mercy and affection. I have appointed Aba Ali b. Rashid to take the place of Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi and whoever came before him from among my agents. He (Abu Ali) has attained the same status the latter had with me. I give him authority over all that which the other agents had authority over among you so that he can collect my dues. I have chosen him for you and have given him precedence over others in this regard because he is the most suited and deserving of that. So fall in line - may Allah have mercy on you - in handing that over to him and to me, and do not give him any reason to fault you over, for it is incumbent upon you to avoid that, and to hasten to the obedience of Allah, and to legitimize your wealth and preserve your blood - “and assist each other in righteousness and piety (5:2), and fear Allah so that you may be mercied (49:10), and hold onto the rope of Allah all together (3:103), and do not die except as Muslims (3:102)”. I have equated obedience to him with my obedience and embarking upon disobedience to him with embarking upon my disobedience. So stick steadfastly to the path and Allah will reward you and increase you from his own grace, for Allah is expansive and generous with what He has, bountiful to his servants, merciful. You and us are in the safe-guard of Allah and His protection. It is my own handwriting, and I praise Allah effusively.

NOTES:

It seems that this is one letter which has been truncated by al-Tusi in his Ghayba and given in a more complete form by al-Kashshi. The historical document sheds light on the financial network of the later Imams which had evolved considerably from earlier times. It serves the purpose of introducing a new agent (Abu Ali b. Rashid) to the Shia of Baghdad, Madain, Sawad and surrounding environs as a replacement for the former agent (Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi). This would mean that the Imam had one man at the top of a pyramid-like structure overseeing the affairs of what may be called the Iraq sector. Undoubtedly, another individual would be ultimately responsible for the vast Iran sector including greater Khorasan.

Who was Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi?

Both al-Barqi and al-Tusi count Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi among the companions of al-Hadi. He was an agent (Wakil) of Abi al-Hasan al-Askari [i.e. al-Hadi] as the two narrations above show. The status of Ali b. al-Husayn must have been very high for the Imam to have such confidence about him i.e. obedience to him was to be absolute.

Al-Kashshi includes two reports which shed light on the circumstances around his death.

حمدويه، عن محمّد بن عيسى، عنه قال: سألته أن ينسأ في أجلي، فقال: أو تلقى ربّك ليغفر لك خير لك فحدّث بذلك عليّ بن الحسين إخوانه بمكّة، ثمّ مات بالخزيميّة في المنصرف في سنته، و هذا في سنة تسع و عشرين و مائتين رحمه اللّه فقال: و قد نعي إليّ نفسي كان وكيل الرجل قبل أبي عليّ بن راشد

Hamduwayh - Muhammad b. Isa - [Ali b. al-Husayn] who said: I asked him to put-off my death, he said: ‘that you meet your Lord so that he can forgive you is better for you’. Ali b. al-Husayn narrated this [conversation] to his brothers in Makka and went on to die in Khuzaymiyya when departing from the Hajj in the same year, that was the year two hundred and ninety nine, may Allah have mercy on him. And he had said [when the Imam had answered him in this way]: he has foretold my death for me! He was the agent of the man before Abi Ali b. Rashid.   

محمد بن مسعود، قال: حدثنا محمد بن نصير، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد ابن عيسى، قال: كتب إليه علي بن الحسين بن عبد ربه يسأله الدعاء في زيادة عمره حتى يرى ما يحب، فكتب إليه في جوابه: تصير إلى رحمة الله خير لك، فتوفي الرجل بالخزيمية

Muhammad b. Masud - Muhammad b. Nusayr - Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa who said: Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi wrote to him asking him [the Imam] to supplicate for him to have a longer life until he can see what he loves, so he wrote to him in answer: that you depart to the mercy of Allah is better for you, then the man died in Khuzaymiyya. 

Who was Abu Ali b. Rashid?

Abu Ali al-Hasan b. Rashid, was the Wakil of the Imam who took the position of Ali b. al-Husayn after the latter’s death. He is counted among the companions of both al-Jawad and al-Hadi. al-Tusi gives him an outright Tawthiq in his Rijal. And why wouldn’t he be trustworthy when the Imam has just described in such glowing terms in his letter of introduction to the Shia.

وجدت بخط جبرئيل بن أحمد حدثني محمد بن عيسى اليقطيني قال: كتب عليه السلام إلى علي بن بلال في سنة اثنتين وثلاثين ومائتين: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم أحمد الله إليك وأشكر طوله وعوده، واصلي على محمد النبي وآله صلوات الله ورحمته عليهم، ثم إني أقمت أبا علي مقام حسين بن عبدربه فائتمنته على ذلك بالمعرفة بما عنده الذي لا يقدمه أحد وقد أعلم أنك شيخ ناحيتك فأحببت إفرادك وإكرامك بالكتاب بذلك فعليك بالطاعة له، والتسليم إليه جميع الحق قبلك، وأن تحض موالي على ذلك وتعرفهم من ذلك ما يصير سببا إلى عونه وكفايته، فذلك توفير علينا، ومحبوب لدينا، ولك به جزاء من الله وأجر، فان الله يعطي من يشاء أفضل الاعطآء والجزاء برحمته، أنت في وديعة الله، وكتبت بخطي وأحمد الله كثيرا

Jibrail b. Ahmad - Muhammad b. Isa al-Yaqtini who said: He عليه السلام wrote to Ali b. Bilal in the year two hundred and thirty two [the following]: in the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful. I praise Allah to you and thank Him for His bounty and favour. I invoke blessings upon Muhammad the prophet and his family, the blessings of Allah and His mercy be upon them. I have appointed Aba Ali in the place of Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi and have entrusted this [position] to him being aware of what he has [of merit] in which no one precedes him. I know that you are the chief of your locality [also appointed by the Imam] so I wished to single you out and distinguish you by sending you a personal letter on the matter. Therefore, upon you is obedience to him, and to submit to him all the dues that you have with you, and to encourage my followers to do this and create awareness among them such that it becomes a cause for support and aid to him. That will be a provision for us and is beloved to us, and for you will be a goodly recompense from Allah and a reward, for Allah does give to the one He likes the best of recompenses and rewards by His mercy. You are in the safe-guard of Allah. I have written it by me own hand and I praise Allah effusively.    

This letter was written in 232 and Ali died in 299, an incongruity which needs to be explained. It could be that the position was unfilled for the intervening period, or that the letter was written at least a year after Abu Ali's appointment.

حدثني محمد بن قولويه، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، قال: حدثنا أحمد ابن هلال، عن محمد بن الفرج، قال: كتبت إلى أبي الحسن عليه السلام أسأله عن أبي علي بن راشد، وعن عيسى بن جعفر بن عاصم، وابن بند؟ فكتب إلي: ذكرت ابن راشد رحمه الله، فإنه عاش سعيدا ومات شهيدا ودعا لابن بند، والعاصمي، وابن بند ضرب بالعمود حتى قتل، وابن جعفر ضرب ثلاثمائة سوط ورمي به في دجلة

Muhammad b. Qulawayh - Sa`d b. Abdallah - Ahmad b. Hilal - Muhammad b. al-Farj who said: I wrote to Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام asking him about Abi Ali b. Rashid, Isa b. Ja`far b. Asim and Ibn Band, so he wrote to me: you have mentioned Ibn Rashid - may Allah have mercy on him - for he lived virtuously and died a martyr, and he supplicated for Ibn Band and al-Asimi. Ibn Band was killed by being hit by rods until he died, and Ibn Ja`far was whipped three hundred strokes and thrown into the Tigris.      

This establishes that Abu Ali b. Rashid was martyred in the lifetime of Imam al-Hadi (because of his job for the Imam?) and did not continue his work into the Imama of al-Askari.

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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2.39. - 2.40. al-Hasan and al-Husayn the two sons of Zurara

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-hasan-and-al-husayn-the-two-sons-of-zurara

 

[1/144] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن، عن عبد الله بن زرارة قال: قال لي أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: اقرأ مني على والدك السلام و قل له: ... و لقد أدى إلي ابناك الحسن و الحسين رسالتك، حاطهما الله و كلأهما و رعاهما و حفظهما بصلاح أبيهما كما حفظ الغلامين ...

[1/144] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman from Abdallah b. Zurara who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: convey my salutations to your father and say to him: … and your two sons al-Hasan and al-Husayn brought me your letter, may Allah guard, defend, watch over and protect them because of the goodness of their father, the way He had protected the two boys (the orphans in Surat al-Kahf).

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2.41. al-Husayn b. Qayama

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-husayn-b-qayama

 

[1/145] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن الحسن بن موسى، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران، عن الحسين بن بشار قال: استأذنت أنا و الحسين بن قياما على الرضا عليه السلام في صريا فأذن لنا قال: افرغوا من حاجتكم قال له الحسين: تخلو الأرض من أن يكون فيها إمام؟ فقال: لا، قال: فيكون فيها اثنان قال: لا إلا واحد صامت لا يتكلم، قال: فقد علمت أنك لست بإمام! قال: و من أين علمت؟ قال: إنه ليس لك ولد و إنما هي في العقب، فقال له: فو الله أنه لا تمضي الأيام و الليالي حتى يولد لي ذكر من صلبي يقوم بمثل مقامي، يحيي الحق و يمحي الباطل

[1/145] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from al-Hasan b. Musa from Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Najran from al-Husayn b. Bashir who said: I sought permission for myself and al-Husayn b. Qayama to meet al-Ridha عليه السلام in Surya, he granted it and said: finish all your needs [ask all your questions]. al-Husayn (b. Qayama) said to him: is the earth ever devoid of an Imam? He عليه السلام said: no, he (al-Husayn) said: does it ever happen that there are two Imams (together)? He عليه السلام said: no, except if one is silent and not talking, he (al-Husayn) said: I have come to know that you are not an Imam! He عليه السلام said: and how did you come to know that? he (al-Husayn) said: you do not have a son and it [Imama] is through posterity [lineal descendants], so he عليه السلام said: by Allah, the days and the nights will not pass except a son will be born to me from my loins who will assume the position I have, he will enliven the truth and efface the falsehood.

NOTES:

al-Husayn b. Qayama was a Waqifi who did not believe in the Imama of al-Ridha. One of the arguments of the Waqifa against al-Ridha was his lack of male descendants as he had not got a son for a very long time. Finally the prediction of the Imam came true and al-Jawad was born to him late in life.

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2.43. al-Hakam b. Utayba

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-hakam-b-utayba

 

 [1/147] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن العباس بن عامر و جعفر بن محمد بن حكيم، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن أبي بصير قال: سألت أبا جعفر عليه السلام عن شهادة ولد الزنا أ تجوز؟ قال: لا، فقلت: إن الحكم بن عتيبة يزعم أنها تجوز، فقال: اللهم لا تغفر ذنبه، ما قال الله للحكم إِنَّهُ لَذِكْرٌ لَكَ وَ لِقَوْمِكَ، فليذهب الحكم يمينا و شمالا فو الله لا يوجد العلم إلا في أهل بيت نزل عليهم جبريل عليه السلام

[1/147] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan b. Fadhal from al-Abbas b. A`mir and Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Hukaym from Aban b. Uthman from Abi Basir who said: I asked Aba Ja’far عليه السلام about the Shahada (giving witness) of a Walad Zina (child born out of Nikah) - is it permissible? he عليه السلام said: No. I said: al-Hakam b. Utayba holds it to be permissible, so he عليه السلام said: O Allah - do not forgive his sin! Allah was not addressing al-Hakam when He said: ‘it is a reminder unto you and your Qawm (relations)’ (43:44). al-Hakam can go to the right and to the left, for by Allah he will not find true knowledge except with the Ahl al-Bayt upon whom Jibril عليه السلام descended.

NOTES:

The Imam has a novel interpretation of ‘your Qawm’ in the verse. They are the Ahl al-Bayt who alone have kinship ties to Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

al-Hakam was one of the scholars within the Butriyya movement. He considered ʿAlī to be more virtuous (afḍal) than Abū Bakr and ʿUmar; but found every form of what he considered Shīʿite “extremism” to be disagreeable. If he was particularly noticed by the Imāmite tradition, this was probably because Zurāra b. Aʿyan, the most prominent early Imami, had studied with him.

The Butriyya limited themselves to political Shi’ism. While it is true that they considered the Ahl al-Bayt to be worthy of leadership of the Umma, they did not see them as the sole arbiters whose interpretation of the Shari`a should be taken as final. They set themselves up as independent authorities and in this way misguided the masses. An example of this can be seen in this narration wherein the Imam repudiates the Fatwa of al-Hakam about the Shahada of a Walad al-Zina being admissible in the court of law. 

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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2.44. Hammad b. Isa

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/hammad-b-isa

 

[1/148] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن العبيدي، عن حماد بن عيسى قال: دخلت على أبي الحسن الأول عليه السلام فقلت له: جعلت فداك ادع الله لي أن يرزقني دارا و زوجة و ولدا و خادما و الحج في كل سنة فقال: اللهم صل على محمد و آل محمد و ارزقه دارا و زوجة و ولدا و خادما و الحج خمسين سنة، قال حماد: فلما اشترط خمسين سنة علمت أني لا أحج أكثر من خمسين سنة، قال حماد: و حججت ثمانيا و أربعين سنة و هذه داري قد رزقتها و هذه زوجتي وراء الستر تسمع كلامي و هذا ابني و هذا خادمي قد رزقت كل ذلك ...

[1/148] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Ubaydi from Hammad b. Isa who said: I entered upon Abi al-Hasan the First عليه السلام and said to him - may I be made your ransom, supplicate to Allah for me that he grants me a house, a wife, a son, a servant, and the ability to perform Hajj every year. He عليه السلام said: O Allah bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and grant him a house, a wife, a son, a servant, and the ability to perform Hajj for fifty years. Hammad said: so when he limited it to fifty years I knew that I will not perform the Hajj exceeding fifty. Hammad also said: I have gone to Hajj for forty eight years, and this is my house which I have been granted, and this is my wife behind the veil hearing my voice, and this is my son, and this is my servant, I have been granted all that …

NOTES:

Hammad b. Isa al-Juhni was a resident of Basra. He was very young when he met al-Sadiq for the first time. He is quoted as confirming having correctly memorized only about 20 narrations from al-Sadiq. Among these is the famous and widely transmitted narration wherein al-Sadiq teaches him how to pray. He died in the lifetime of al-Jawad in a flood which occurred close to Madina when he was going to the Hajj in the year 209.

He was a very prolific narrator of Hadith [graded Thiqa by both al-Najashi and al-Tusi] occurring in the Asanid of about 1036 narrations found in our books [Ref. to Mu`jam al-Ahadith of al-Khoei]. In most of these he is narrating from Hariz who is narrating from Zurara [this is a particularly important chain because it has preserved a lot of Zurara’s narrations from the two Imams about Salat and other important Fiqhi Masail].

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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2.45. Humran b. A`yan

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/humran-b-ayan

 

[-/1] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن أذينة، عن زرارة قال: قدمت المدينة و أنا شاب أمرد فدخلت سرادقا لأبي جعفر عليه السلام بمنى، فرأيت قوما جلوسا في الفسطاط و صدر المجلس ليس فيه أحد، و رأيت رجلا جالسا ناحية يحتجم، فعرفت برأيي أنه أبو جعفر عليه السلام فقصدت نحوه فسلمت عليه، فرد السلام علي، فجلست بين يديه و الحجام خلفه فقال: أمن بني أعين أنت فقلت: نعم أنا زرارة بن أعين، فقال: إنما عرفتك بالشبه، أحج حمران؟ قلت: لا و هو يقرئك السلام، فقال: إنه من المؤمنين حقا لا يرجع أبدا، إذا لقيته فأقرئه مني السلام و قل له لم حدثت الحكم بن عتيبة عني أن الأوصياء محدثون لا تحدثه و أشباهه بمثل هذا الحديث فقال زرارة: فحمدت الله تعالى و أثنيت عليه فقلت الحمد لله، فقال هو الحمد لله، ثم قلت أحمده و أستعينه، فقال هو أحمده و أستعينه، فكنت كلما ذكرت الله في كلام ذكره كما أذكره حتى فرغت من كلامي

[1/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Zurara who said: I journeyed to Madina when I was a young man and entered a pavilion of Abi Ja`far عليه السلام in Mina. I saw a group sitting in the tent and no one was at the front of the gathering. I saw a man seated at the back being cupped. I felt that it was Abu Ja`far عليه السلام came near and greeted him, he replied the greeting. I sat in front of him while the cupper was behind him. He said: are you from the children of A`yan? I said: yes, I am Zurara b. A`yan, he said: I recognized you because of your familiar looks, did Humran make the Hajj? I said: no, but he sends you greetings, he عليه السلام said: he is truly a believer who will never turn back, if you meet him convey my greetings to him and say to him: why did you narrate to al-Hakam b. Utayba my saying that the Awsiya are Muhadath [spoken to by angels], do not narrate such narrations to him and his fellows. Zurara said: then I praised Allah the Exalted and extolled Him by saying: “All praise belongs to Allah” he also said: “All praise belongs to Allah” then I said: “I praise Him and seek His aid” he in turn said: “I praise Him and seek His aid”. Whenever I would mention Allah in my talk he would also mention Him in the same way I did until I finished my conversation.

NOTES:

The Imam confirms the status of Humran as a believer and declares that he will never turn back from that. The Banu A`yan were formerly associated with the pseudo-Sunni scholar al-Hakam b. Utayba. The Imam asks Humran not to narrate to him the narrations which are reserved only for those whom he took as his Shia. We also see the Imam practicing a Sunna by echoing the praise to Allah in the same manner as he hears it - a way of affirming what has been said.

 

[2/149] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن حسن، عن العباس بن عامر، عن أبان، عن الحارث قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: إن حمران كان يقول: نمد الحبل من جاوزه من علوي و غيره برئنا منه

[2/149] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. Hasan from al-Abbas b. A`mir from Aban from al-Harith who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: Humran used to say: we stretch out a rope [as our marker] then we disassociate from whoever over-steps it - whether he be an Alawi or otherwise.

NOTES:

Note that the Imam is quoting a statement of Humran. This confirms his exalted status in so far as the Imam saw merit in what he had said. What Humran wishes to convey by this is that: it is the Shia who are the possessors of the standard by which to judge what is correct and what is not. They possess the criterion to distinguish between truth and falsehood. Whenever a claimant makes any claim, be he an Alawi [from which many pretenders arose making use of their lofty genealogy to corrupt others] or otherwise makes no difference in this regard. Whoever exceeds the bounds is to be disassociated from.

 

[3/150] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم، عن حجر بن زائدة، عن حمران بن أعين قال: قلت لأبي جعفر عليه السلام: إني أعطيت الله عهدا لا أخرج من المدينة حتى تخبرني عما أسألك قال: فقال لي: سل قال: قلت: أمن شيعتكم أنا؟ قال: نعم في الدنيا و الآخرة

[3/150] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam from Hujr b. Zaida from Humran b. A`yan who said: I said to Abi Ja`far عليه السلام: I have made an oath to Allah that I will not depart from Madina until you inform me the answer to what I ask. He said to me: ask. I said: am I of your Shia? He said: yes, in this world and the next.

 

Who was Humran b. A`yan?

Humran b. A`yan had met al-Sajjad and was one of the earliest companions of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq. He was the first of the famous Banu A`yan to turn to the `Aimma after having formerly associated with al-Hakam b. Utayba.

محمّد بن مسعود، عن محمّد بن نصير، عن العبيدي و عن حمدويه، عنه، عن الحسن بن عليّ بن يقطين قال: حدّثني المشايخ أنّ حمران و زرارة و عبد الملك و بكيرا و عبد الرحمان بني أعين كانوا مستقيمين، و مات منهم أربعة في زمان أبي عبد اللّه عليه السّلام و كانوا من أصحاب أبي جعفر عليه السّلام و بقي زرارة إلى عهد أبي الحسن عليه السّلام فلقي ما لقي

Muhammad b. Mas`ud – Muhammad b. Nusayr – al-Ubaydi; Hamduwayh – al-Uabydi; al-Hasan b. Ali b. Yaqtin said: the Mashayikh narrated to me that Humran, Zurara, Abd al-Malik, Bukayr and Abd al-Rahman - the sons of A`yan - were all steadfast [on the correct Madhhab]. Four of them died in the lifetime of Abi Abdillah عليه السّلام  but they were the companions of Abi Ja`far عليه السّلام before that. Only Zurara remained to the time of Abi al-Hasan عليه السّلام and faced what he faced..

To know his exalted status just consider the narration below [which is backed up by other narrations despite it weak chain]

و عن العيّاشي، عن عليّ بن محمّد، عن محمّد بن أحمد، عن محمّد بن موسى الهمداني، عن منصور بن العبّاس، عن متروك بن عبيد، عمّن رواه، عن زيد الشحّام، قال: قال لي أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام ما وجدت أحدا أخذ بقولي و أطاع أمري و حذا حذو أصحاب أبي غير رجلين: عبد اللّه بن أبي يعفور و حمران بن أعين. أما أنّهما مؤمنان خالصان من شيعتنا أسماؤهم عندنا في كتاب أصحاب اليمين الذي أعطى اللّه محمّدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله

Al-Ayyashi – Ali b. Muhammad – Muhammad b. Ahmad – Muhammad b. Musa al-Hamdani – Mansur b. al-Abbas – Matruk b. Ubayd – from the one who he narrated from – Zayd al-Shahham - Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said: I have not found anyone who takes my word and obeys my commands and walks in the footsteps of the companions of my father except two men: Abdallah b. Abi Ya`fur and Humran b. A`yan. Verily they are two sincere believers among my Shia, their names are with us in the book of the people of the right which Allah had given to Muhammad.

He is considered among the Tabi`in and was an all-round complete scholar being a specialist both in the Qur`an and the Hadith among other sciences. 

As his descendant Abu Ghalib al-Zurari says in a letter:

قال أبو غالب في رسالته: لقي سيّدنا سيّد العابدين عليّ بن الحسين عليه السّلام و كان من أكبر مشايخ الشيعة المفضّلين الذين لا يشكّ فيهم، و كان أحد حملة القرآن و من يعد و يذكر اسمه في كتب القراء، و روي أنه قرأ على أبي جعفر محمّد بن عليّ عليهما السّلام و كان مع ذلك عالما بالنحو و اللغة

He met our master and the master of the worshipers Ali b. al-Husayn عليه السّلام. He was the foremost among the merituous teachers of the Shia about whom there is no doubt. He was one of the bearers of the Qur`an and among those who are enumerated and mentioned in the books of Qira`a. It is narrated that he recited the Qur`an to Abi Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Ali عليهما السّلام [as a student of his]. He was also apart from that a scholar of grammar and language. 

This is borne out because he features in the chain of the Qira`a known as Khalaf an Hamza or Khallad an Hamza. Some scholars have argued that this would be the closest Qira’a to us because of the presence of numerous Kufan narrators with Shi`i leanings in them apart from Humran. Humran is featured as having got this recitation from al-Baqir > al-Sajjad > al-Husayn > Ali.

His ability in grammar can be seen in the following narration

العيّاشي، عن عليّ بن محمّد بن يزيد القمّي، عن محمّد بن أحمد بن يحيى، عن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن محمّد بن حمّاد، عن الحسن بن إبراهيم، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمان، عن يونس بن يعقوب، عن هشام بن سالم قال: كنّا عند أبي عبد اللّه عليه السّلام جماعة من أصحابه، فورد رجل من أهل الشام، فاستأذن فاذن له فلمّا دخل سلّم، فأمره أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام بالجلوس، ثمّ قال له: حاجتك أيّها الرجل؟ قال: بلغني أنّك عالم بكلّ ما تسأل عنه فصرت إليك لأناظرك، فقال أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: في ماذا؟ قال: في القرآن و قطعه و إسكانه و خفضه و نصبه و رفعه، فقال أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: يا حمران دونك الرجل! فقال الرجل: إنّما اريدك أنت لا حمران! فقال أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: إن غلبت حمران فقد غلبتني فأقبل الشامي يسأل حمران حتّى ضجر و ملّ و عرض و حمران يجيبه! فقال: كيف رأيت يا شامي؟ قال: رأيت حاذقا ما سألته عن شي‏ء إلّا أجابني فيه

al-Ayyashi – Ali b. Muhammad b. Yazid al-Qummi – Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya – Ibrahim b. Hashim – Muhammad b. Hammad – al-Hasan b. Ibrahim – Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman – Yunus b. Ya`qub – Hisham b. Salim who said: a group of Abi Abdillah’s عليه السّلام companions were with him when a man from Syria  came and sought permission to enter which was given, when inside he greeted and Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام asked him to be seated. Then he said: what have you come for O man? He said: I have been informed that you are knowledgeable of all that which you are questioned about so I have come to debate you. Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said to him: in what topic? He said: about the Qur`an, its Qat` (disconnection), Iskan (deletion in jussive), Khafd (genitive), Nasb (accusative) and Raff (nominative). Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said: O Humran face the man! The man said: I want to face you not Humran! Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said: if you can defeat Humran then you have defeated me, so the Syrian began asking Humran until he became tired, exhausted, whatever he brings up is answered by Humran! The Imam said: how have you found him O Syrian? He said: I have found him proficient, whatever I ask him about is answered in full!         

Edited by Islamic Salvation

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@Islamic Salvation salamu 'alaykum.

Which grading is the hadith below? I know it's either Sahih, Hasan or Muwathaq but I'm curious to know which one of the three it is.

 

[5/98] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا عن أحمد بن محمد، عن العباس بن عامر، عن عبدالله بن بكير، عن أبيه، قال: قال لي

أبوعبدالله عليه السلام: إذا استيقنت أنك قد أحدثت فتوضأ وإياك أن تحدث وضوء ا أبدا حتى تستيقن أنك قد أحدثت

[5/98] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Abbas b. A’mir from Abdallah b. Bukayr from his father who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: if you are sure that you have broken your Wudhu then renew it, beware of ever renewing a Wudhu unless you are certain that you have broken it.

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13 hours ago, Hassan- said:

@Islamic Salvation salamu 'alaykum.

Which grading is the hadith below? I know it's either Sahih, Hasan or Muwathaq but I'm curious to know which one of the three it is.

 

[5/98] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا عن أحمد بن محمد، عن العباس بن عامر، عن عبدالله بن بكير، عن أبيه، قال: قال لي

أبوعبدالله عليه السلام: إذا استيقنت أنك قد أحدثت فتوضأ وإياك أن تحدث وضوء ا أبدا حتى تستيقن أنك قد أحدثت

[5/98] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Abbas b. A’mir from Abdallah b. Bukayr from his father who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: if you are sure that you have broken your Wudhu then renew it, beware of ever renewing a Wudhu unless you are certain that you have broken it.

Wa Alaykum Salam.

It is Muwathaq because of Abdallah b. Bukayr who was a Fathi in Madhhab. 

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24 minutes ago, Islamic Salvation said:

Wa Alaykum Salam.

It is Muwathaq because of Abdallah b. Bukayr who was a Fathi in Madhhab. 

:salam:

Brother, are most of the hadiths in this book muwathaq or sahih? 

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2.46. Hamza b. Bazi`

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/hamza-b-bazi

 

[1/151] غيبة الطوسي: أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن الحسين ابن أبي الخطاب، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن إبراهيم بن يحيى بن أبي البلاد قال: قال الرضا عليه السلام: ما فعل الشقي حمزة بن بزيع؟ قلت: هو ذا قد قدم، فقال عليه السلام: يزعم أن أبي حي؟! هم اليوم شكاك ولا يموتون غدا إلا على الزندقة ...

[1/151] Ghayba of al-Tusi: Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Yahya from his father from Muhammad b. al-Husayn b. Abi al-Khattab from Safwan b. Yahya from Ibrahim b. Yahya b. Abi al-Bilad who said: al-Ridha عليه السلام said: what’s happened to the wretched Hamza b. Bazi`? I said: he is here - come to see you, so he عليه السلام said: he claims that my father is alive?! today they are doubters but tomorrow they won’t die except upon heresy [other than islam] … 

NOTES:

Hamza b. Bazi` was a Waqifi who rejected the Imama of al-Ridha because they claimed that al-Kadhim was alive. 

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2.47. Hayyan al-Sarraj

https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/hayyan-al-sarraj

 

[1/152] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن الحسن بن موسى، عن محمد بن أصبغ، عن مروان بن مسلم، عن بريد العجلي قال: دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال لي: لو كنت سبقت قليلا أدركت حيان السراج قال: و أشار إلى موضع في البيت فقال: و كان هاهنا جالسا فذكر محمد بن الحنفية و ذكر حياته و جعل يطريه و يقرظه، فقلت له: يا حيان أ ليس تزعم و يزعمون و تروي و يروون لم يكن في بني إسرائيل شي‏ء إلا و هو في هذه الأمة مثله قال: بلى قال: فقلت: فهل رأينا و رأيتم أو سمعنا و سمعتم بعالم مات على أعين الناس فنكح نساؤه و قسمت أمواله و هو حي لا يموت فقام و لم يرد علي شيئا

[1/152] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Hasan b. Musa from Muhammad b. Asbagh from Marwan b. Muslim from Burayd al-Ijli who said: I entered upon Abi Abdillah عليه السلام so he said to me: if you had come in a little earlier you would have met Hayyan al-Sarraj, he (Burayd) said: and he (al-Sadiq) pointed out a place in the room and said - he (Hayyan) was sat there, then he (Hayyan) brought up Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya and talked about his life (continued existence), and he began praising him and extolling him. So I (al-Sadiq) said to him: O Hayyan! don't you and others claim and narrate: ‘there is nothing that happened to the Bani Israil except that it is also to occur in this Umma’, he (Hayyan) replied: yes, so I (al-Sadiq) said: then have we or you seen or heard - a Scholar (divine leader) - who died in the estimation of the people (as far as the people were concerned), and his wives were married off, and his inheritance was redistributed, while he was still alive not dead?!, so he (Hayyan) stood up (to leave) and did not answer me anything.

 

[2/153] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن الحسن بن موسى، عن أصحابنا، عن عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: أتاني ابن عم لي يسألني أن آذن لحيان السراج فأذنت له، فقال لي: يا أبا عبد الله إني أريد أن أسألك عن شي‏ء أنا به عالم إلا أني أحب أن أسألك عنه، أخبرني عن عمك محمد بن علي مات قال: قلت: أخبرني أبي أنه كان في ضيعة له فأتى فقيل له أدرك عمك قال: فأتيته و قد كانت أصابته غشية فأفاق، فقال لي: ارجع إلى ضيعتك، قال: فأبيت، فقال: لترجعن، قال: فانصرفت فما بلغت الضيعة حتى أتوني فقالوا: أدركه فأتيته فوجدته قد اعتقل لسانه، فدعا بطست، و جعل يكتب وصيته فما برحت حتى غمضته و غسلته و كفنته و صليت عليه و دفنته، فإن كان هذا موتا فقد و الله مات، قال: فقال لي: رحمك الله شبه على أبيك، قال: قلت: يا سبحان الله أنت تصدف على قلبك قال: فقال لي: و ما الصدف على القلب قال: قلت: الكذب

[2/153] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Hasan b. Musa from our companions from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: one of the sons of my paternal uncle came to me seeking permission to allow Hayyan al-Sarraj to meet me so I granted it to him. He (Hayyan) said to me: O Aba Abdillah - I want to ask you something about which I have knowledge but would like you to confirm it, inform me about your paternal uncle - Muhammad b. Ali - did he die? He (al-Sadiq) said: I said: my father (al-Baqir) informed me that he was in one of his farm lands when they came to him and said: go to your paternal uncle, he (al-Baqir) said: so I came to him, and he was overcome by unconsciousness, then he regained his senses, he (Ibn al-Hanafiyya) said to me: return to your property, he (al-Baqir) said: I refused, but he said: you must return, so I left, I had not reached the property when they came to me again and said: go to him, I came to him and found that his tongue had been seized (he could not talk anymore), he called for a tray and began writing his will. I did not leave until I had closed his eyes, washed him, enshrouded him, prayed over him, and buried him, so if this is death - then he has - by Allah - died! He (al-Sadiq) said: so he (Hayyan) said to me: may Allah have mercy on you, it was made to appear so to your father, I said: glory be to Allah! you turn away from your own heart! he said to me: and what is turning away from the heart? I said: lying (to it).

NOTES:

Hayyan al-Sarraj (the saddler) was a Kaysani. These were an early Shi’ite splinter grouping who believed that Muhammad b. Ali b. Abi Talib (Ibn al-Hanafiyya) was the Mahdi. They did not accept his apparent death and maintained that he was in concealment (Ghayba) in the Radwa mountains. They awaited his triumphant return.

These narrations indicate that they were still active in the time of al-Sadiq. The Imam argues against Hayyan using a well-known narration as well as the testimony of his father.

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