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Science and Adam + Eve

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I have recently been looking into the relationship or connection between modern science's concept of human origin and the concept of the Islam (in Adam and Eve).

When do Muslims think Adam and Eve were created?

The scientists believe humans (modern homo sapiens) came into existence around 200,000 years ago through a shared ancestor called 'Mitochondrial Eve' . They do not believe she was the only woman around at the time though (Adam and Eve were the first humans- were they the only?).

Creation before Adam and Eve?

Scientists believe, through finding Hominids fossils, that there were pre-human creatures similar to humans. I know there are some hadith which state there were 'Adams before Adam' and something along those lines. Also, the angels saying to Allah (on Adam) 'why do you want to create creatures which kill each other in the land' could imply something similar. Below is a picture of the fossil 'Turkana Boy'- said to be 1.6 million years old. He is very human like,

15000.jpg

How did Adam and Eve begin such a large progeny?

Adam and Eve had children. How did these children have children? (in the context that Adam and Eve were the only ones created at the time)

Anyone wish to add anything?

Jazakallah Khair

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36 minutes ago, Tango said:

I have recently been looking into the relationship or connection between modern science's concept of human origin and the concept of the Islam (in Adam and Eve).

When do Muslims think Adam and Eve were created?

The scientists believe humans (modern homo sapiens) came into existence around 200,000 years ago through a shared ancestor called 'Mitochondrial Eve' . They do not believe she was the only woman around at the time though (Adam and Eve were the first humans- were they the only?).

Creation before Adam and Eve?

Scientists believe, through finding Hominids fossils, that there were pre-human creatures similar to humans. I know there are some hadith which state there were 'Adams before Adam' and something along those lines. Also, the angels saying to Allah (on Adam) 'why do you want to create creatures which kill each other in the land' could imply something similar. Below is a picture of the fossil 'Turkana Boy'- said to be 1.6 million years old. He is very human like,

15000.jpg

How did Adam and Eve begin such a large progeny?

Adam and Eve had children. How did these children have children? (in the context that Adam and Eve were the only ones created at the time)

Anyone wish to add anything?

Jazakallah Khair

Salamun alaykum.

We, as the children of Adam and Eve, are the last generation of humans. So it is in line with the fact that there have been many other generations of human before Adam and Eve. After the creation of Adam, angels protested that he would do mischief etc. One reason mentioned for this objection of the angels is that they knew about the nature of humans because there were other humans before Adam and Eve.

 

As for marriage of Abel and Cain, the following article is informative:

 

question
How did Adam\'s offspring grow? Whom did Adam\'s (A.S) children marry? What are the significations of the traditions in this regard?
Concise answer
According to the traditions and some interpreters' viewpoints, the current generation of mankind is not from Abel or Cain, it’s from Adam’s (A.S) other son, Seth. However, when it comes to the marriage of Adam’s (A.S) children, there are some viewpoints among Muslim scholars, each mentioning reasons from Quran and traditions for their viewpoints. Some of these viewpoints are briefly mentioned here:
1- It was a marriage among siblings. Since it was not forbidden by God to marry a sibling and because there was no other way to preserve Adam's (A.S) offspring, therefore this type of marriage was acceptable at that time.
2- Since it was impossible for Adam's (A.S) children to marry each other, they married girls from other races and generations living on earth. Then their children became cousins and married among themselves. This view is supported by some traditions as well; since Adam (A.S) was not the first man on earth and he was preceded by other human races.
However, the first viewpoint seems to be more compliant with Quran's text; as some interpreters – like Allamah Tabatabai have advocated.
 
Detailed Answer
There is a rift over how Adam's (A.S) offspring survived and how his children married. The main reason behind these different views is different and sometimes conflicting traditions, which have led to different viewpoints in this respect. Here we will mention a few of them.
Continuation of Adam’s (A.S) Offspring and His Children’s Marriage from the Perspective of Traditions
1- There is a tradition saying Adam's (A.S) children first married nymphs from heaven and then they married jinn; Imam Baqer (A.S) says: "Adam (A.S) had four sons. So God sent each of them a nymph from heaven. They married them and had children. Then God reclaimed these nymphs and married those children to four jinns and they had an offspring. So whatever patience there is among mankind is driven from Adam (A.S). Whatever beauty there is among mankind is from those nymphs and whatever vices and misconduct found among mankind is from jinns." [1] This marriage has been narrated in another way i.e. a son married a nymph and another son married a jinn[2]. There is even another tradition narrated with a little difference[3].
2- Imam Reza (A.S) was asked about how Adam (A.S) fathered people. He answered: "Eve (A.S) gave birth to Abel and a twin girl in her first labor. In her second labor, she gave birth to Cain and another twin girl. Abel married Cain's twin sister and Cain married Abel's twin sister. Following these marriages, it was forbidden to marry a sibling[4].
3- A set of traditions stipulate that Adam's (A.S) children never married each other. Instead, they married nymphs sent by God from heaven; such as a tradition where Imam Sadiq (A.S) was asked: How did Adam's (A.S) offspring expand? Because some people say Adam (A.S) was commanded through divine revelation to marry out his daughters to his sons and people's forefathers and foremothers are those brothers and sisters. Imam Sadeq (A.S) answered: "God Almighty is greater than to say such things about Him. Has He created prophets (A.S), apostles, religious men and women and Muslim men and women from haram [forbidden] not having enough power to create them through halal [permissible] means or He has taken a covenant from man for purity and cleanness from sins…. Then Imam Sadiq (A.S) described how Adam's (A.S) offspring expanded and said:"When Abel was murdered by Cain, Adam (A.S) mourned and lamented on the death of his son… And God Almighty granted him Seth (A.S) alone without a twin sister. Seth's name is Hebatollah [A gift from God] and he is the first man to become the deputy and the successor to a prophet. After Seth (A.S) God granted Adam (A.S) with Japheth without a twin. When they reached puberty and God decided to expand Adam's (A.S) offspring as you see (they have reproduced) while marriage between siblings was forbidden. Therefore God sent a nymph called Nazalah from heaven on a Thursday evening and commanded Adam (A.S) to marry her to his son, Seth. Then next day in the evening, God sent another nymph called Monzalah and commanded Adam (A.S) to marry her to Japheth. Once Adam (A.S) married those two nymphs to his sons, Seth (A.S) had a son and Japheth had a daughter. When those two reached puberty God commanded Adam (A.S) to marry Japheth's daughter to Seth's (A.S) son, Adam (A.S) obeyed and made them husband and wife from whom God's prophets, messengers, elites and their offspring are[5].
4. In a dialogue with a man from Quraysh, Imam Sajjad (A.S) said:"Abel married Lozaq, Cain's twin sister, and Cain married Eqlima, Abel's twin sister." Qurayshi man asked:" Did Abel and Cain impregnate each other's sisters?" Imam (A.S) said:"Yes" Man said:"That is an act practiced by Magianists today." Imam (A.S) said:"Magianists practice this act while we have negated it, is because they practice this action after God has forbidden it." Then Imam Sajjad (A.S) added that:"Do not reject this fact because permissibility of this action at that day and its impermissibility today are both God's commands. Has not God created Adam's (A.S) wife from himself while we see God made her halal for him, so this was the ruling of shari'ah for Adam's(A.S) son, exclusive for them. Later on God Almighty revealed His ruling to forbid such a marriage[6]."
5. According to some traditions; expansion of Adam's (A.S) offspring is considered from Adam's (A.S) third child called Seth or Hebatollah, Adam's (A.S) deputy and successor; since Abel was murdered by Cain, and Cain was outcast because of sin and disobedience, he committed sins and vices which made his children and offspring to follow him and be destroyed in Noah's flood[7].
In short, the issue of  the marriage of Adam's (A.S) children is amongst issues about which there are conflicting traditions in Hadith collections.
Interpreters' Viewpoints
Having referred to the following verse “O! People! Be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women“ [8] some interpreters believe that: The growth of Adam's (A.S) offspring has taken place only through Adam (A.S) and his wife without the involvement of a third party[9]. This necessitates that Adam's (A.S) children have married each other – brothers and sister - because if they had married from another race and other wives for Adam (A.S), God's words "from these two" would not be true.
This issue has been the subject of numerous traditions without much surprise; since based on an argument narrated in some traditions this type of marriage had been permissible because the ruling to forbid marriage of siblings had not been revealed.
Obviously a forbidden action depends on whether God has forbidden it or not. What is wrong with it if, due to some necessities and expediencies, something is permitted during a specific period of time and it is forbidden later? As we read in a tradition by Imam Sadiq (A.S) (as mentioned in tradition no.4)
On the contrary, however, some interpreters[10] accept the contents of those traditions stipulating that Adam's (A.S) children never married their sisters rather they married nymphs sent by God from heaven; such as the tradition narrated from Imam Sadiq (A.S) (tradition no.3)
There is another possibility that Adam's (A.S) children married with humans before the generation of Adam (A.S); because according to some traditions[11] Adam (A.S) was not the first man on earth and he was preceded by other humans. Modern scientific studies also indicate that human species have lived probably for quite a few million years while it has not been so long since Adam (A.S) set foot on earth. Therefore it should be accepted that man was preceded by other humans who were on the verge of extinction when Adam (A.S) was created, there is nothing wrong with this assumption that Adam's (A.S) children may have married with humans remaining from previous species however this possibility does not much comply with the denotation of the above verse from the Quran[12].
It can be concluded that the first viewpoint by interpreters complies more with the denotation of the Quran; as some interpreters such as Allamah Tabatabai has emphasized on this possibility and has accepted it[13].
 

[1]Majlesi, Muhammad Baqer, Beharol Anwar, vol.11, p.244, Dar Ehya at-Torath al-Arabi, Beirut, second impression, 1982
[2]Sheikh Sadooq, Man La YahzorolFaqih, researched and corrected by: Gaffari, Ali Akbar, vol.3, p.382, DaftareEntesharateEslami, Qom, First impression, 1992
[3]See: Ayyashi, Muhammad ibnMasood, at-Tafsir, researched and corrected by: RasooliMahallati, Hashem, vol.1, p.215, al-Matba'atolElmiya, Tehran, First impression, 1959
[4]Beharol Anwar, vol.11, p.226
[5]Sheikh Sadooq, ElaloshSharaye', Davari Bookstore, Qom, First impression, 2006
[6]Tabarsi, Ahmad ibn Ali, al-EtejajelaahlelLejaj, researched and corrected by: Kharsan, Muhammad Baqer, vol.2, pp.314-315, Morteza Publications, Mashad, first impression, 1985
[7]“Sālem ibn Abel Ja’d says: “When Abel was murdered, Adam (PBUH) mourned for a year and did not laugh so when Adam (PBUH) was 130 years old, 50 years after Abel’s murder, Eve (S) gave birth to Seth who was Adam’s (PBUH) deputy and successor. But Cain was told to go away and be abandoned. He went to Yemen so Satan approached him and said: “Fire swallowed Abel’s sacrifice because he worshiped fire so you’d better create a fire for you and your offspring. “ Then he built a house of fire and he was the first to set up a fire and worship it. And he made musical instrument s for his children and they drowned themselves in drinking wine, worshiping fire, adultery and vices until God Almighty drowned them with Noah’s flood and Seth’s offspring survived.”  Here is the Arabic version of the report:
«قال سالم بن أبی الجعد لما قتل هابیل مكث آدم سنة حزینا لا یضحک ثم أتى فقیل حیاك الله و بیاك أی أضحكک قالوا و لما مضى من عمر آدم مائة و ثلاثون سنة و ذلک بعد قتل هابیل بخمس سنین ولدت له حواء شیثا و تفسیره هبة الله یعنی أنه خلف من هابیل و كان وصی آدم و ولی عهده و أما قابیل فقیل له اذهب طریدا شریدا فزعا مذعورا لا یأمن من یراه و ذهب إلى عدن من الیمن فأتاه إبلیس فقال إنما أكلت النار قربان هابیل لأنه كان یعبدها فانصب أنت أیضا نارا تكون لک و لعقبك فبنى بیت نار و هو أول من نصب النار و عبدها و اتخذ أولاده آلات اللهو من الیراع و الطنبور و المزامیر و العیدان و انهمكوا فی اللهو و شرب الخمر و عبادة النار و الزنا و الفواحش حتى غرقهم الله أیام نوح بالطوفان و بقی نسل شیث»‏
Beharol Anwar, vol.11, p.220
[8] Quran, al-Nisa verse No.1 «يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَةٍ وَ خَلَقَ مِنْها زَوْجَها وَ بَثَّ مِنْهُما رِجالاً كَثيراً وَ نِساءً...»؛
[9]Beyzawi, Abdollah ibn Omar, Anwarot Tanzil wa Asrarot Ta'weel, researched by: Al-Marashli, Mohammad Abdor Rahman, vol.2, p.58, Darol Ehya le Ehya at-Torath al-Arabi, Beirut, first impression, 2000; Feiz Kashani, Molla Mohsen, al-Asfa fi Tafsir al-Quran, researched by: Derayati, Mohammad Hussein, Ne'mati, Mohammad Reza, vol.1, p.191, Publication Center of Islamic Propagation Office, Qom, first impression, 2000, Makarem Shirazi, Naser, Tafsire Nemoune, vol.3, p.246, Darol Ketab al-Eslamiya, Tehran, first impression, 1995
[10]Tayyeb, Seyyed Abdol Hussein, Atyabol Bayan fi Tafsir al-Quran, vol.4, p.342, Eslam Publications, Tehran, second impression, 1999, Moosavi Sabzevari,  Seyyed Abdol A'la, Mawaheb Ar-Rahman fi Tafsir al-Quran, vol.7, pp.249-250, AhlulBayt ('A) Institute, Beirut, second impression, 1988
[11]See: Sheikh Sadooq, at-Tawhid, researched and corrected by: Husseini, Hashem, p.277, Daftare Entesharate Eslami, Qom, first impression, 1977; For more information see: index "Mankind’s lifespan from the perspective of the Quran and the Bible" question No.516
[12]TafsireNemoune, vol.3, p.243
[13]Tabatabai, Seyyed Muhammad Hussein, al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Quran, vol.4, p.135, Daftrae Entesharate Eslami, Qom, fifth edition, 1996

 

Source: http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa560

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14 minutes ago, amirhosein_88 said:

Salamun alaykum.

We, as the children of Adam and Eve, are the last generation of humans. So it is in line with the fact that there have been many other generations of human before Adam and Eve. After the creation of Adam, angels protested that he would do mischief etc. One reason mentioned for this objection of the angels is that they knew about the nature of humans because there were other humans before Adam and Eve.

 

 

As for marriage of Abel and Cain, the following article is informative:

 

question
How did Adam\'s offspring grow? Whom did Adam\'s (A.S) children marry? What are the significations of the traditions in this regard?
Concise answer
According to the traditions and some interpreters' viewpoints, the current generation of mankind is not from Abel or Cain, it’s from Adam’s (A.S) other son, Seth. However, when it comes to the marriage of Adam’s (A.S) children, there are some viewpoints among Muslim scholars, each mentioning reasons from Quran and traditions for their viewpoints. Some of these viewpoints are briefly mentioned here:
1- It was a marriage among siblings. Since it was not forbidden by God to marry a sibling and because there was no other way to preserve Adam's (A.S) offspring, therefore this type of marriage was acceptable at that time.
2- Since it was impossible for Adam's (A.S) children to marry each other, they married girls from other races and generations living on earth. Then their children became cousins and married among themselves. This view is supported by some traditions as well; since Adam (A.S) was not the first man on earth and he was preceded by other human races.
However, the first viewpoint seems to be more compliant with Quran's text; as some interpreters – like Allamah Tabatabai have advocated.
 
Detailed Answer
There is a rift over how Adam's (A.S) offspring survived and how his children married. The main reason behind these different views is different and sometimes conflicting traditions, which have led to different viewpoints in this respect. Here we will mention a few of them.
Continuation of Adam’s (A.S) Offspring and His Children’s Marriage from the Perspective of Traditions
1- There is a tradition saying Adam's (A.S) children first married nymphs from heaven and then they married jinn; Imam Baqer (A.S) says: "Adam (A.S) had four sons. So God sent each of them a nymph from heaven. They married them and had children. Then God reclaimed these nymphs and married those children to four jinns and they had an offspring. So whatever patience there is among mankind is driven from Adam (A.S). Whatever beauty there is among mankind is from those nymphs and whatever vices and misconduct found among mankind is from jinns." [1] This marriage has been narrated in another way i.e. a son married a nymph and another son married a jinn[2]. There is even another tradition narrated with a little difference[3].
2- Imam Reza (A.S) was asked about how Adam (A.S) fathered people. He answered: "Eve (A.S) gave birth to Abel and a twin girl in her first labor. In her second labor, she gave birth to Cain and another twin girl. Abel married Cain's twin sister and Cain married Abel's twin sister. Following these marriages, it was forbidden to marry a sibling[4].
3- A set of traditions stipulate that Adam's (A.S) children never married each other. Instead, they married nymphs sent by God from heaven; such as a tradition where Imam Sadiq (A.S) was asked: How did Adam's (A.S) offspring expand? Because some people say Adam (A.S) was commanded through divine revelation to marry out his daughters to his sons and people's forefathers and foremothers are those brothers and sisters. Imam Sadeq (A.S) answered: "God Almighty is greater than to say such things about Him. Has He created prophets (A.S), apostles, religious men and women and Muslim men and women from haram [forbidden] not having enough power to create them through halal [permissible] means or He has taken a covenant from man for purity and cleanness from sins…. Then Imam Sadiq (A.S) described how Adam's (A.S) offspring expanded and said:"When Abel was murdered by Cain, Adam (A.S) mourned and lamented on the death of his son… And God Almighty granted him Seth (A.S) alone without a twin sister. Seth's name is Hebatollah [A gift from God] and he is the first man to become the deputy and the successor to a prophet. After Seth (A.S) God granted Adam (A.S) with Japheth without a twin. When they reached puberty and God decided to expand Adam's (A.S) offspring as you see (they have reproduced) while marriage between siblings was forbidden. Therefore God sent a nymph called Nazalah from heaven on a Thursday evening and commanded Adam (A.S) to marry her to his son, Seth. Then next day in the evening, God sent another nymph called Monzalah and commanded Adam (A.S) to marry her to Japheth. Once Adam (A.S) married those two nymphs to his sons, Seth (A.S) had a son and Japheth had a daughter. When those two reached puberty God commanded Adam (A.S) to marry Japheth's daughter to Seth's (A.S) son, Adam (A.S) obeyed and made them husband and wife from whom God's prophets, messengers, elites and their offspring are[5].
4. In a dialogue with a man from Quraysh, Imam Sajjad (A.S) said:"Abel married Lozaq, Cain's twin sister, and Cain married Eqlima, Abel's twin sister." Qurayshi man asked:" Did Abel and Cain impregnate each other's sisters?" Imam (A.S) said:"Yes" Man said:"That is an act practiced by Magianists today." Imam (A.S) said:"Magianists practice this act while we have negated it, is because they practice this action after God has forbidden it." Then Imam Sajjad (A.S) added that:"Do not reject this fact because permissibility of this action at that day and its impermissibility today are both God's commands. Has not God created Adam's (A.S) wife from himself while we see God made her halal for him, so this was the ruling of shari'ah for Adam's(A.S) son, exclusive for them. Later on God Almighty revealed His ruling to forbid such a marriage[6]."
5. According to some traditions; expansion of Adam's (A.S) offspring is considered from Adam's (A.S) third child called Seth or Hebatollah, Adam's (A.S) deputy and successor; since Abel was murdered by Cain, and Cain was outcast because of sin and disobedience, he committed sins and vices which made his children and offspring to follow him and be destroyed in Noah's flood[7].
In short, the issue of  the marriage of Adam's (A.S) children is amongst issues about which there are conflicting traditions in Hadith collections.
Interpreters' Viewpoints
Having referred to the following verse “O! People! Be careful of (your duty to) your Lord, Who created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind) and spread from these two, many men and women“ [8] some interpreters believe that: The growth of Adam's (A.S) offspring has taken place only through Adam (A.S) and his wife without the involvement of a third party[9]. This necessitates that Adam's (A.S) children have married each other – brothers and sister - because if they had married from another race and other wives for Adam (A.S), God's words "from these two" would not be true.
This issue has been the subject of numerous traditions without much surprise; since based on an argument narrated in some traditions this type of marriage had been permissible because the ruling to forbid marriage of siblings had not been revealed.
Obviously a forbidden action depends on whether God has forbidden it or not. What is wrong with it if, due to some necessities and expediencies, something is permitted during a specific period of time and it is forbidden later? As we read in a tradition by Imam Sadiq (A.S) (as mentioned in tradition no.4)
On the contrary, however, some interpreters[10] accept the contents of those traditions stipulating that Adam's (A.S) children never married their sisters rather they married nymphs sent by God from heaven; such as the tradition narrated from Imam Sadiq (A.S) (tradition no.3)
There is another possibility that Adam's (A.S) children married with humans before the generation of Adam (A.S); because according to some traditions[11] Adam (A.S) was not the first man on earth and he was preceded by other humans. Modern scientific studies also indicate that human species have lived probably for quite a few million years while it has not been so long since Adam (A.S) set foot on earth. Therefore it should be accepted that man was preceded by other humans who were on the verge of extinction when Adam (A.S) was created, there is nothing wrong with this assumption that Adam's (A.S) children may have married with humans remaining from previous species however this possibility does not much comply with the denotation of the above verse from the Quran[12].
It can be concluded that the first viewpoint by interpreters complies more with the denotation of the Quran; as some interpreters such as Allamah Tabatabai has emphasized on this possibility and has accepted it[13].
 

[1]Majlesi, Muhammad Baqer, Beharol Anwar, vol.11, p.244, Dar Ehya at-Torath al-Arabi, Beirut, second impression, 1982
[2]Sheikh Sadooq, Man La YahzorolFaqih, researched and corrected by: Gaffari, Ali Akbar, vol.3, p.382, DaftareEntesharateEslami, Qom, First impression, 1992
[3]See: Ayyashi, Muhammad ibnMasood, at-Tafsir, researched and corrected by: RasooliMahallati, Hashem, vol.1, p.215, al-Matba'atolElmiya, Tehran, First impression, 1959
[4]Beharol Anwar, vol.11, p.226
[5]Sheikh Sadooq, ElaloshSharaye', Davari Bookstore, Qom, First impression, 2006
[6]Tabarsi, Ahmad ibn Ali, al-EtejajelaahlelLejaj, researched and corrected by: Kharsan, Muhammad Baqer, vol.2, pp.314-315, Morteza Publications, Mashad, first impression, 1985
[7]“Sālem ibn Abel Ja’d says: “When Abel was murdered, Adam (PBUH) mourned for a year and did not laugh so when Adam (PBUH) was 130 years old, 50 years after Abel’s murder, Eve (S) gave birth to Seth who was Adam’s (PBUH) deputy and successor. But Cain was told to go away and be abandoned. He went to Yemen so Satan approached him and said: “Fire swallowed Abel’s sacrifice because he worshiped fire so you’d better create a fire for you and your offspring. “ Then he built a house of fire and he was the first to set up a fire and worship it. And he made musical instrument s for his children and they drowned themselves in drinking wine, worshiping fire, adultery and vices until God Almighty drowned them with Noah’s flood and Seth’s offspring survived.”  Here is the Arabic version of the report:
«قال سالم بن أبی الجعد لما قتل هابیل مكث آدم سنة حزینا لا یضحک ثم أتى فقیل حیاك الله و بیاك أی أضحكک قالوا و لما مضى من عمر آدم مائة و ثلاثون سنة و ذلک بعد قتل هابیل بخمس سنین ولدت له حواء شیثا و تفسیره هبة الله یعنی أنه خلف من هابیل و كان وصی آدم و ولی عهده و أما قابیل فقیل له اذهب طریدا شریدا فزعا مذعورا لا یأمن من یراه و ذهب إلى عدن من الیمن فأتاه إبلیس فقال إنما أكلت النار قربان هابیل لأنه كان یعبدها فانصب أنت أیضا نارا تكون لک و لعقبك فبنى بیت نار و هو أول من نصب النار و عبدها و اتخذ أولاده آلات اللهو من الیراع و الطنبور و المزامیر و العیدان و انهمكوا فی اللهو و شرب الخمر و عبادة النار و الزنا و الفواحش حتى غرقهم الله أیام نوح بالطوفان و بقی نسل شیث»‏
Beharol Anwar, vol.11, p.220
[8] Quran, al-Nisa verse No.1 «يا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ واحِدَةٍ وَ خَلَقَ مِنْها زَوْجَها وَ بَثَّ مِنْهُما رِجالاً كَثيراً وَ نِساءً...»؛
[9]Beyzawi, Abdollah ibn Omar, Anwarot Tanzil wa Asrarot Ta'weel, researched by: Al-Marashli, Mohammad Abdor Rahman, vol.2, p.58, Darol Ehya le Ehya at-Torath al-Arabi, Beirut, first impression, 2000; Feiz Kashani, Molla Mohsen, al-Asfa fi Tafsir al-Quran, researched by: Derayati, Mohammad Hussein, Ne'mati, Mohammad Reza, vol.1, p.191, Publication Center of Islamic Propagation Office, Qom, first impression, 2000, Makarem Shirazi, Naser, Tafsire Nemoune, vol.3, p.246, Darol Ketab al-Eslamiya, Tehran, first impression, 1995
[10]Tayyeb, Seyyed Abdol Hussein, Atyabol Bayan fi Tafsir al-Quran, vol.4, p.342, Eslam Publications, Tehran, second impression, 1999, Moosavi Sabzevari,  Seyyed Abdol A'la, Mawaheb Ar-Rahman fi Tafsir al-Quran, vol.7, pp.249-250, AhlulBayt ('A) Institute, Beirut, second impression, 1988
[11]See: Sheikh Sadooq, at-Tawhid, researched and corrected by: Husseini, Hashem, p.277, Daftare Entesharate Eslami, Qom, first impression, 1977; For more information see: index "Mankind’s lifespan from the perspective of the Quran and the Bible" question No.516
[12]TafsireNemoune, vol.3, p.243
[13]Tabatabai, Seyyed Muhammad Hussein, al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Quran, vol.4, p.135, Daftrae Entesharate Eslami, Qom, fifth edition, 1996

 

Source: http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa560

Can you please provide references from Quran or hadith on your first point that there were indeed humans before Adam. Everything I knew points to him being the first 'man'. Were his predecessors human or something like humans? 

I am in the process of learning about my religion and having certainty in it. I don't want to inherit it and leave it there. If I am to believe in something then I must be convinced by it. So right now I am looking at Islam and science- the relationship between the two. Insha'Allah I will find the answers.

Wassalaam

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10 minutes ago, Tango said:

Can you please provide references from Quran or hadith on your first point that there were indeed humans before Adam. Everything I knew points to him being the first 'man'. Were his predecessors human or something like humans? 

I am in the process of learning about my religion and having certainty in it. I don't want to inherit it and leave it there. If I am to believe in something then I must be convinced by it. So right now I am looking at Islam and science- the relationship between the two. Insha'Allah I will find the answers.

Wassalaam

Salamun alaykum.

IA the following link would help:

Was Prophet Adam the eighth person to live on earth?
question
Is there a hadith that says that Adam was the eighth person to live on earth? If so please explain who the other seven were and whether or not they were rational creatures and if any of them were prophets?
Concise answer
Detailed Answer

When referring to the Quran and hadith, one can definitely say that before Prophet Adam there was a generation or even generations of beings that were called "insans" or "nasnases", but there is no detailed information about them.

Allame Tabatabai says: "It is said in the history of the Jews that the human being has not lived any more than about 7 thousand years on earth, but geologists argue that humans have lived for more than millions of years. The fossils of things made by humans and skeletons of humans that are said to belong to 500 thousand years ago are presented as evidence for such a claim. "

The proof that backs this opinion is not firm and convincing; it cannot be proven that these fossils are the fossils of the bodies of people belonging to the current generation of humans, it is possible that these fossils belong to a time in which other homosapians lived on earth and maybe that period was not connected to the period of the life of this generation of humans, meaning that they lived before Prophet Adam and became extinct and this happened several times until this generation of humans were created. [1]

Therefore there were humans before Prophet Adam, and it was after the creation of other humans that the angels were commanded to prostrate before Adam. [2]

The Quran has not mentioned how we started our lives on earth and whether or not there were humans that lived on the planet before us.

Nevertheless some verses give us clues and suggest the existence of humans before us and that Prophet Adam was not the first human being, like this one: "" وَ إِذْ قالَ رَبُّکَ لِلْمَلائِکَةِ إِنِّی جاعِلٌ فِی الْأَرْضِ خَلِیفَةً قالُوا أَ تَجْعَلُ فِیها مَنْ یُفْسِدُ فِیها وَ یَسْفِکُ الدِّماء " َ " [3] . This verse implies that before the creation of Adam, there were others living on the earth. [4]

At the same time, there are hadiths that clearly say that there have been generations of humans before this generation and that the majority of mankind has lived before the creation of Prophet Adam that all went extinct.

For example there is a hadith narrated in "Tafsir Ayyashi" that reads: “Hesham ibn Salem says that Imam Sadiq (as) said: "If the angels hadn't seen the humans that shedded blood then why did they say " أَ تَجْعَلُ فِیها مَنْ یُفْسِدُ فِیها وَ یَسْفِکُ الدِّماءَ " [5] ". [6] (They have had to seen humans before to claim that humans shed blood, if not why would they ask Allah why he was creating such creatures?).

We couldn’t find any account that says Prophet Adam was the eighth person that lived on Earth, nevertheless there is a hadith that says the people that were born from Prophet Adam formed the eighth generation of humans. For example Sheikh Saduq narrates a hadith by Imam Sadiq (as) in his book Khisal in which the Imam says: "When Allah (swt) created the earth, he created seven worlds in it (and made each one extinct); none of those worlds [generations] were of Prophet Adam’s generation. Allah created all of them from the earth’s crust and brought them one after another, and created a world for each one after the other, until He created Prophet Adam and ramified his generation from him. [7] ". [8]  This hadith can be better understood when combined with other hadiths that say that there were many generations of humans before this generation and not only seven. For example Sheikh Saduq narrates a hadith from Imam Sadiq (as) in his book Tawhid in which the Imam explains: "You may assume that God has not created any humans other than you, but this is not true because he has created thousands of thousands of humans before you and you are the last generation of humans". [9]

There is also another hadith in Khisal by Imam Sadiq (as) that says: "Allah has created twelve thousand worlds and every one of them is bigger than the seven skies and seven earths together, none of the people of these worlds ever think that Allah has created any other worlds". [10]

Of course, there is a possibility that this final hadith is not about Planet Earth and therefore it will not contradict the hadiths that point out the existence of seven generations of humans on Earth before Adam.

But even if we believe that before Prophet Adam there were other humans, can we argue that they lived until the time of Prophet Adam?

There is a possibility that there were people from the previous generations that had become extinct at the time of Prophet Adam as some scholars have theorized. [11]

Regarding the marriage of the sons of Prophet Adam a contemporary scholar argues: "There is also another theory that says that the sons of Prophet Adam married people that had survived from the previous generations, because according to a hadith Prophet Adam was not the first person to live on earth. On the other hand, research shows that it is likely that humans have been living on earth since a few million years back, and we all know that it has not been a long time since Prophet Adam appeared on earth, therefore we have to accept that before Prophet Adam there were humans living on earth that were becoming extinct at the his time; it seems completely reasonable to believe that the children of Prophet Adam married people who survived from that extinct generation". [12]

Of course it is totally clear that Prophet Adam was the first person of this generation of humans.

The apparent if not direct and clear meaning of verses of the Quran assert that the current generation of humans were born from a mother and father named Eve and Adam, some of the verses are as follows:

[13] " وَ بَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنْسانِ مِنْ طِینٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِنْ سُلالَةٍ مِنْ ماءٍ مَهِینٍ "

 

[14] " إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِیسى‏ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ کَمَثَلِ آدَمَ خَلَقَهُ مِنْ تُرابٍ ثُمَّ قالَ لَهُ کُنْ فَیَکُونُ "

 

[15] " إِذْ قالَ رَبُّکَ لِلْمَلائِکَةِ إِنِّی خالِقٌ بَشَراً مِنْ طِینٍ فَإِذا سَوَّیْتُهُ وَ نَفَخْتُ فِیهِ مِنْ رُوحِی فَقَعُوا لَهُ ساجِدِین "

 

As you can see these verses tell us that Allah (swt) has guaranteed the continuation of Prophet Adam’s generation through reproduction, although this applies to his children and on and not to himself and his spouse; they were created from mud/clay and were given reproductive organs in order to keep the generation going (therefore his children were created via conception and human reproduction). Thus, according to these verses, there is no doubt that the lineage of all humans traces back to Prophet Adam and his spouse, Eve (Hawwa). [16]

 

Regarding the question on whether or not there were any prophets among them or whether they were intelligent or not, nothing has been said in the Quran and hadiths, but because they too were called humans or "nasnases" it is likely that they were intelligent/rational and that there were prophets among them.

 

Related Question: The prophets of jinns before the creation of mankind, Question 371 (website:380).

 

 

[1] Muhammad Husein Tabatabai, translation of Al-Mizan, vol. 4, pg. 222.

2] Muhammad Husein Tabatabai, translation of Al-Mizan, vol.16, pg. 389.

[3] When your Lord said to the angels," I am appointing someone as myeputy on earth," they said (almost protesting)," Are you going to appoint one who will commit corruption and bloodshed therein?”

 

[4] Muhammad Husein Tabatabai, translation of Al-Mizan, vol. 4, pp. 222-223

[5] Are you going to appoint one who will commit corruption and bloodshed therein?”

[6] Majlisi, Biharul-Anwar, vol. 11, pg. 117.

[7] Sheikh Saduq Khisal, vol. 2, pg. 652, hadith 54.

[8] With help from Question 2999 (website: 3297).

[9] Sheikh Saduq, Tawhid, vol. 2, pg. 277.

[10] Khisal, vol. 2, pg. 639, hadith 14, With help from Question 516 (website: 563).

[11] The imams said these things at a time where no one knew of any fossils signifying the existence of people tracing to millions of years back. Today after the development of technology we realize the true value of these sayings and that they had a connection with the immaterial world above.

[12] Naser Makarem Shirazi, Tafsir Nemouneh, vol. 3, pg. 247; Tafsir Kawthar, vol. 2, pg. 349.

[13] “He commenced man's creation from clay Then He made his progeny from an extract of a base fluid.”

[14] “Jesus' case with God was the same as Adam's: He created him from dust; then told him:" Be!" and he was

[15]  Indeed I am about to create a human being out of clay. So when I have proportioned him and breathed into him of My spirit, then fall down in prostration before him”

[16] Muhammad Husein Tabatabai, translation of Al-Mizan, vol. 4, pp. 224-225.

 

From: http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa6471

 

Also the following:

Summary of question
How is Prophet Adam’s (A.S.) creation (about 5,764 years ago) make sense when fossils found from human beings are almost 25 million years old?
question
From the beginning of Prophet Adam’s life till this day about 5,764 years have passed. The oldest human fossil that has been found up to today is from 25 million years ago! Please answer using evidence.
Concise answer
Detailed Answer

There is no inconsistence between these two. If we have heard that Prophet Adam has been created six to seven thousand years ago, this might refer to a different and new generation of human beings which started with Prophet Adam (A.S.) and might have been preceded by numbers of generations of human beings who have gone extinct. There is a lot of evidence in hand that suggests a whole different generation of humans unlike Prophet Adam existed before him.

 

This is also in accord with the teachings of the Quran and Islamic Hadith. [1]

 

Allamah Tabatabai (R.A.) comments under the first ayah of surah Nisa’: “The surface meaning of the verse suggests that the term “ نفس واحدة ” is referring to Adam and “ زوجها ” to Eve, who are the mother and father of mankind. We also are from this generation [2] of humans and judging by the Quran, mankind’s species goes back to them. The noble verse implies that the existing generation of human beings goes back to Adam and Eve and that nobody else has played any part in producing this generation.

 

In the history of the Jews we read that the human species we know of doesn’t surpass a history of approximately seven thousand years which seems to be reasonable. Therefore, logic suggests the same as what history dictates. But geological experts believe the history of human beings to be millions of years.

 

This is their point of view, but the proof they present isn’t convincing. We don’t have a reason that proves that these fossils belong to the ancestors of this chain of human beings we witness today. We also have no reason to believe that these fossils don’t belong to a generation or kind of beings who lived before Prophet Adam (The Father of Mankind) and were instinct way before our ancestor and were never connected to the chain of human beings we are from.

 

The Holy Quran has not explicitly explained the emergence of mankind on the planet earth, in terms of whether we were the only generation of mankind or if there were other generations before us making us the last generation.

 

From paying attention to some verses of the Quran, we can slightly deduce that before the creation of Prophet Adam (The Father of Mankind) and his generation there were other human beings who lived here, where He says: “…And when your Lord said to the angels: I am going to place in the earth a khalif (representative), they asked: Will you place in it someone who will make mischief in it and shed blood”. [3]

 

Allamah Tabatabai says: “We can slightly deduce from ayah 30 of surah Al-Baqara that before the creation of Prophet Adam (A.S.) there was a different generation of human beings who caused the angels to ask: Will you place in it someone who will make mischief in it and shed blood .” [4]

 

This ayah implies that another generation of human beings was created before the generation of human beings we know and are part of what was created, which the angels were initially familiar with.

 

In some traditions coming from the imams (A.S.), we witness proof of the existence of eras of human beings prior to the current era.

 

Sheikh Saduq (A.S.) has narrated a hadith in which the imam tells the narrator: “You might believe that God Almighty has not created humans other than you. Well this is false because he has created millions of humans and you from the last generation of them.” [5]

 

In Khisal, Sheikh Saduq also narrates that Imam Baqir (A.S.) has stated: “From the time He created the earth, God Almighty has created within it, seven worlds (and made all of them instinct), none of which were of the generation of of Prophet Adam. God created all of them from the crust of this earth and created generation after generation with corresponding worlds for all generations till finally Prophet Adam was created and reproduced his descendants solely from him. [6] , [7]

 

On this account, if we conclude that the line of history for mankind extends to a million years based on fossils found perhaps in caves, they don’t belong to the current generation of human beings, because the story of Prophet Adam appears to be about 7000 years old. [8]

 

For more information on this topic, please refer to:

 

1. The Physical Creation of Prophet Adam, Question number: 399(415).

 

2. Quran and the Creation of Mankind, Question number: 5356(5578) .

 

 

[1] Adopted from Question 637 (website: 701).

 

[2] Translation of al-Mizan, vol. 4, pg. 214, Qum, Islamic Publications Office, 1417.

 

[3] Baqarah:30, “وَ إِذْ قالَ رَبُّکَ لِلْمَلائِکَةِ إِنِّی جاعِلٌ فِی الْأَرْضِ خَلیفَةً قالُوا أَ تَجْعَلُ فیها مَنْ یُفْسِدُ فیها وَ یَسْفِکُ الدِّماءَ وَ نَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِکَ وَ نُقَدِّسُ لَکَ قالَ إِنِّی أَعْلَمُ ما لا تَعْلَمُون”.

 

[4] Translation of al-Mizan, vol. 4, pg. 223.

 

[5] Sheikh Saduq, Tawhid, pg. 277, vol. 2, Tehran.

 

[6] Sheikh Saduq, Khisal, vol. 2, pg. 652, hadith 54.

 

[7] Adopted from Quranic Inquiries website.

 

[8] For further information, see: The age of mankind according to the Quran, Question 637 (website: 701).

 

Source: http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa3297

 

Please mention your analysis and let us know if the answer is convincing.

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2 hours ago, Tango said:

When do Muslims think Adam and Eve were created?

Creation before Adam and Eve?

Assalaamulaeykum,

We have hadeeth from our Imams which explains timeline before creation of Adam(as), here is that hadeeth.

8 - عن عيسى بن حمزة قال: قال رجل لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: جعلت فداك ان الناس يزعمون أن الدنيا عمرها سبعة آلاف سنة فقال: ليس كما يقولون إن الله خلق لها خمسين ألف عام فتركها قاعا قفراء خاوية (3) عشرة ألف عام، ثم بد الله بدأ الخلق فيها، خلقا ليس من الجن ولا من الملائكة ولا من الانس، وقدر لهم عشرة ألف عام، فلما قربت آجالهم أفسدوا فيها فدمر الله عليهم تدميرا ثم تركها قاعا قفراء خاوية عشرة ألف عام، ثم خلق فيها الجن وقدر لهم عشره ألف عام، فلما قربت آجالهم أفسدوا فيها وسفكوا الدماء وهو قول الملائكة " أتجعل فيها من يفسد فيها ويسفك الدماء " كما سفكت بنو الجان، فأهلكهم الله ثم بدأ الله فخلق آدم وقدر له عشرة ألف عام، وقد مضى من ذلك سبعة ألف عام ومائتان وأنتم في آخر الزمان

From Isa Bin Hamza who said:

‘A man said to Abu Abdullah(as), ‘May I be sacrificed for you! The people are claiming that the world, its age it of seven thousand years!’ So he(as) said: ‘It is not as they are saying. Allah Created for it fifty thousand years, so Left it empty of its inhabitants for ten thousand years.
Then Allah Began its beginning, so He Created in it creatures who were neither from the Jinn, nor from the Angels, nor from the human beings, and Measured out for them ten thousand years. So when they came near to the end of their term, they created mischief therein, so Allah Destroyed them with a damaging Destruction. Then He left it empty from its inhabitants for ten thousand years.
Then He Created in it, the Jinn, and Measured out for them ten thousand years. So when the end of their term came near, they were mischievous therein, and shed the blood. And these are the Words of Allah (the Angels said) [2:30] Are You going to Make in it one as shall make mischief therein and shed the blood, just as the Clan of Jaan had shed?’ So Allah Destroyed them.
Then Allah Began the Creation of Adam(as), and Measured out for him, ten thousand years. And, from that, seven thousand two hundred years have passed from that, and you all are in the end of the era’.

Source: Tafsīr al-‘Ayyāshī by Muhammad ibn Mas‘ūd Ayyāshī, Vol 1, Pg 31, H 8

Quote

How did Adam and Eve begin such a large progeny?

My father narrated to us, from Muhammad Bin Yahya Al Ataar, from Al Husayn Bin Al Hasan Ibn Aban, from Muhammad Bin Urwa, from Al Nowfaly, from Ali Bin Dawood Al Yaqouby, from Al Hassan Bin Maqatal, from the one who heard Zarara saying:

‘Abu Abdullah (a.s) was asked about the beginning of the offspring from Adam (a.s), how was it, and about the beginning of the offspring from the offspring of Adam (a.s), for there are people among us who are saying that Allah Mighty and Majestic Revealed unto Adam (a.s) to get his daughters to be married to his sons, and that, this people (today), all of them, their origin is from the brothers and the sister?’ 

So Abu Abdullah (a.s) said: ‘Allah is Higher than that, Higher, Greater! The one who said this is saying that Allah Majestic and Mighty Created the elite of His creatures, and the ones Beloved to Him, and His Prophets, and His Rasools, and the believing men, and the believing women, and the Muslim men, and the Muslim women unlawfully, and did not have the ability to Create them lawfully, and He has Taken the Covenant upon the Lawful, and the Purified, and the good.

And Allah has (even) Informed some of the animals that it should keep away from its sister. So when it descends upon it and when it find out that it is its sister, grabs it by its teeth until it cuts it, so it falls down dead. And it also dislikes (copulating) with its mother and it acts in the same way. So how can the human being (do this) forgetting his preference and his knowledge? But, a generation from these people which you are seeing have turned away from the knowledge of the Household of their Prophets and took from where they had not been Ordered to take it from, thus they became what you have been seeing, from the straying and the ignorance with the knowledge. How it was with the things in the past, from the beginning of the Creation of Allah what He Created, and (this is) what it will be happening, forever’....'

'...Then he (a.s) established in narrating to us, how the offspring of Adam (a.s) began, and how the offspring began from his offspring. So he (a.s) said: ‘There were born unto Adam (a.s), seventy pregnancies (of Hawwa (a.s)), in each pregnancy was a slave and a maid (boy and a girl) up to the killing of Habeel. So when Qabeel killed Habeel, Adam (a.s) was aggrieved upon Habbeel with such grief that he cut off from the women. So he remained not copulating with Hawwa (a.s) for five hundred years. Then his grief which was with him subsided, so he copulated with Hawwa (a.s), and Allah Granted to him, one thing, and there was no second along with it (single birth, not twins).

And the name of Shees (a.s) was Hibtallah (a.s), and he was the first one who was bequeathed to, from the human beings, in the earth. Then there was born unto him Yafas (a.s), not having a second with him. So when they became aware (adults), Allah Mighty and Majestic Intended that their offspring to reach what you are seeing, and since the Pen had flowed from Prohibiting what Allah Mighty and Majestic had Prohibited, from the sisters upon the brothers, after some time, on the Day of Thursday, Caused a Hourie to descend from the Paradise, her name being Nazalat.

So, Allah Mighty and Majestic Commanded Adam (a.s) that he should get her married to Shees (a.s). So he got her to be married to him. Then, after some time, a Hourie descended from the Paradise, her name being Manzalat. So Allah the High Commanded Adam (a.s) that he should get her to be married to Yafas, so he got her to be married to him. A boy was born unto Shees (a.s), and a girl was born unto Yafas. So Allah Mighty and Majestic Commanded Adam (a.s), when they attained awareness (adults), to get the daughter of Yafas to be married to the son of Shees (a.s). So he did it. Thus the elites from the Prophets, and the Rasools (a.s) were born from 
their offspring. And God Forbid, that that happened upon what they are saying, from the brothers and the sisters’

Source:Ilail al-Sharaie by Sheikh Sadooq, Vol 1, Pg 18, H 2.

a shorter version of this hadeeth is narrated by Sheikh Sadooq in his al-Faqih, vol 3, pg 381, H 4337 from Zurarah

Allamah al-Majlisi-I said hadeeth is "Saheeh" in his Rawdah al-Muttaqīn, Vol  8, 77.

Wa aleykumsalaam

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Jazakallah for your inputs

In summary of your replies:

Yes, there were peoples before Adam and Eve, not necessarily humans, but a people. Possibly seven ages of different peoples before Adam and Eve. We are not connected with the other peoples. We follow only the line of Adam and Eve.

Now it is interesting a point about these other creations. Maybe these are the ones we see in the Neanderthals and the hominids. Also, it is curious how the Neanderthals became strangely extinct with the appearance of modern humans.

Recently, it has been suggested by scientists that Neanderthals were cannibals. Could this be them 'making mischief and shedding blood in the land'?

Anyways, thanks a lot.

Wasalaam

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My advice is to first study what science has to say about the origin of our species and then work out an interpretation of the Quran to conform it. 

iCambrian likes this

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