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Bismillah.

Salaam.

Why do the Shia consider temporary marriage (sighah/mut’ah) permissible?

Temporary marriage is an accepted system of marriage by the Qur'an and Shīʻī jurisprudence. Through learning and studying Islamic traditions and knowing the philosophy behind every rules, we will admit the precise and accurate system of jurisprudential issues. Please read this article accurately and refer to the references I've provided at the end;

Before beginning this debate, two points need to be mentioned:

1) This issue is a fiqhi one, therefore it originally needs to be analyzed in the right place by Sunni and Shia fiqh experts (fuqaha’) along with Quranic and hadithic reasoning and without any negative propaganda and making noise or insult by any of the two sides.

2) Analyzing this issue along with propaganda and insult (as seen in some websites and opposing books) is not the right way to analyze it and is far from proper Islamic behavior.

In order to be able to reach a conclusion, the following points need to be mentioned and analyzed:

1) The definition of temporary marriage

2) The Quranic and hadithic reasoning behind it being permissible

3) Has its ruling been nullified?

4) What the sahaba and tabe’in’s viewpoints were on it.

5) Some of the doubts and questions regarding this issue

 

1) Its definition:

Mut’ah means for a free woman (who isn’t a slave) to willingly get married to a man for a limited and specified time, along with the mahr (dowry) they have agreed on, given that there aren’t any sababi (restrictions that are caused by certain causes eg. when one gets married to a woman, he can no longer get married to her mother even if he divorces her and in other words, marrying her mother is haram forever), nasabi (restrictions that are a result of certain family relationships eg. one cannot get married to his sister, mother or aunts), and rezai (restrictions caused by a woman breast feeding a child of course only certain breastfeeding with the necessary conditions) restrictions to getting married, that the woman isn’t married to another man, that she isn’t in her Iddah (the waiting period in which a woman must observe after divorce before being able to get married to another man) or any other restrictions.

In this marriage contract, there is no divorce, and whenever the specified time of the marriage ends, the couples are no longer “husband” and “wife”. If they have had any intercourse and at the same time she isn’t ya’esah (referring to a woman in menopause) she has to the observe the divorce Iddah after their separation. If she doesn’t have a menstrual period, but is in the age that she is supposed to see blood, she has to observe Iddah for forty-five days.[1]

The child of such a marriage, regardless of whether it is a girl or boy, is the father’s and is called by his name and inherits from both his mother and father. All of the general rulings pertaining to fathers, mothers, their children, and the child’s aunts and uncles go here too.

 

2) The reason behind its permissibility:

All Muslims agree and no one argues the fact that the permissibility of such a marriage has been legislated by Islam such that all Islamic scholars of all sects (with all of their differences) have no objection here. Of course, Sunnis believe that its permissibility has been nullified. We will analyze this claim as we go on.

As for its Quranic reasoning:

Allah (swt) says:     فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَریضَةً [2]

Ubayy ibn Ka’b, Ibn Abbas, Sa’id ibn Jubayr, Ibn Mas’ud, and Al-Sadi all would recite the mentioned verse in the following manner:   فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ إِلى‏ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى (In other words, they would add the underlined phrase). Agreed, the writer of Tafsir Al-Minar (Rashid Rhidha) insists that this verse was revealed concerning permanent marriage, but this theory is incorrect because:

a) A large number of the sahabah believe that this verse was revealed concerning temporary marriage, not permanent marriage.  The reason for such a claim is that they would always add this phrase «إِلى‏ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى» to the end of the verse. Back then, this phrase was used and added to a marriage contract to indicate its temporariness (showing that when they would add it to the abovementioned verse, they believed that it is talking about temporary marriage). This phrase literally means until a certain mentioned time.

b) Although the word mut’ah (and its derivatives, like the one in the previous verse) can also be used for permanent marriage, its frequent usage is for temporary marriage, therefore if it is used, it is apparently pointing to temporary marriage. On the other hand, the word “nikah” can be used for temporary marriage, although its usage for permanent marriage is stronger. Therefore, this verse is most probably and apparently speaking of temporary marriage.[3] [4]

Even if one doesn't accept that mut’ahs apparent meaning isn't temporary marriage, the least is that it denotes temporary marriage and as a result, will be one of the cases in which a word is used in a sentence for more than one meaning.

c) Using mut’ah in the verse to convey permanent marriage entails an unnecessary repetition in the verse. That is because in the beginning of surah Nisa' (which has expressed most of the rights and decrees pertaining to women) all of the different types of marriage have been mentioned in a special order. As for permanent marriage, it says: "If you fear that you may not deal justly with the orphan (girls), then marry (other) women that you like, two, three, or four. But if you fear that you may not treat them fairly, then (marry only) one…"[5]

Regarding the mahr (dowry) of a marriage, it says: "Give women their marriage-portion freely, (without any restraint), but if they themselves (voluntarily) remit to you anything thereof, then you may consume it with pleasure."[6]

Concerning female slaves (Ima'): "And whosoever of you who has not the means to marry free-believing men, may marry believing girls from among those (captives and slaves) whom you own; and Allah is The Knower of your Faith; you are Fellow-creatures; then, wed them with the permission of their masters and give them their marriage-portion according to what is reasonable, provided that they are chaste, not adulterous nor taking secret lovers…"[7]

Here, when Allah (swt) says " ما مَلَکَتْ أَیْمانُهُمْ " (those whom you own), He is pointing to the marriage between a person and his female slave. This issue has also been mentioned in this verse: "Except from their spouses or their slave women, for then they are not blameworthy. "[8]

Finally this statement that says: " فَانْکِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ " (then marry them with the permission of their masters) indicates the marriage between a man and the female slave of a third person.

Till this verse, all of the different types of marriage have been counted. The only one left is temporary marriage, which has been also been stated in the previous verse. As a result, interpreting this phrase

" فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ " as something pertaining to permanent marriage and the phrase " فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُن" (so grant them their dowries) as its mahr and dowry both entail repetition that is not needed at all, because both have already been mentioned in the previous verses.

Anyways, by taking a look at this surah, one can conclude that it is trying to list all of the different types of marriage in a specific order and this list doesn't come out to be complete unless temporary marriage is meant by the abovementioned verse (as the verse's apparent meaning also shows).

d) If permanent marriage is meant, then why has it been claimed that temporary marriage has been nullified? In this case there is no meaning in temporary marriage being nullified, because when the Quran hasn’t legislated it in the first place, how it can be nullified?

e) In this verse, paying the mahr or dowry has been announced as subject to estemta' (sexual pleasure) when it says: "For the enjoyment you have had from them (sexual intercourse) thereby give them their dowries…"[9] and this matter suits temporary marriage, not permanent marriage because in the latter, the woman becomes owner of the dowry as soon as the marriage contract is performed, although paying all of it depends on the marriage being consummated (while in the former, she only becomes owner after the contract being consummated). Of course, how and when it is paid all depend on the society where the couple live in and the traditions there. Some might even give it before the contract is performed, while others might delay it until after the husband's death for the wife to inherit it.

These were a few of the many Quranic reasons for temporary marriage.

 

Now the reasons for it from the tradition of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh):

The followers of the Prophet's tradition all know that there are many genuine and authentic hadiths on the permissibility of temporary marriage during his time, here are a few:

a) Jaber ibn Abdillah al-Ansari reports: "We would perform temporary marriage during the time of Rasulullah (pbuh) and it was also allowed during Abu Bakr’s time until Umar banned it.[10]

b) It has been quoted from Ibn Abbas that: "The verse of mut'ah (that says that mut'ah is halal) is of the muhkam verses of the holy Quran (verses that are clear statements accepting no interpretation) which hasn't been nullified."[11]

c) Both Hakim and Ibn Jarih report that Imam Ali (as) said: "If Umar hadn't banned mut'ah, no one would ever commit adultery other than shaqiyy (wretched) individuals."[12]

d) It has been quoted that 'Imran ibn Hasin said: "The Quran contains the mut'ah verse and there is no other verse that (has come after it that) nullifies it. The Prophet (pbuh) ordered us to it and never banned it during his lifetime. After his demise, someone came and banned it on his own behalf and according to his own opinion."[13]

This hadith shows that mut'ah was halal until the second khalifah's time which this hadith refers to as "someone who banned it on his own behalf and according to his own opinion".[14]

Till here, one can conclude that the argument over mut'ah's permissibility doesn't go back to whether or not the Prophet (pbuh) legislated its permissibility or not, or whether or not any of the Sahaba performed it or not, or whether or not they believed in its permissibility after the Prophet's demise or not (before the second khalifa's reign). On the contrary, the root of this argument is whether this action, which was allowed during the Prophet's time and was acted upon by his companions, was nullified or not. Also, a part of this argument goes back to the fact that some have considered its permissibilitng the Prophet's time and will punish anyone who performs them; the mut'ah of women (getting married temporarily to them) and the mut'ah of Hajj."[23]

4)   The sahabas’ position and viewpoint regarding temporary marriage:

A large number of sahabis and tabe'in (those who followed the Prophet's time but never saw him) see mut'ah as permissible and not nullified. They are as follows:

1) Imran ibn Hussain

2) Abdullah ibn Umar

3) Salamah ibn Umayyah

4) Ma’bad ibn Umayyah

5) Zubair ibn 'Awamm

6) Khaled ibn Muhajir

7) Ubayy ibn Ka'b

8) Rabi'ah ibn Umayyah

9) al-Sadi

10) Mujahid

11) Ibn Aws Madani

12) Anas ibn Malek

13) Mu'awiyyah ibn abi-Sufyan

14) Ibn Juraih

15) Nafe'

16) Sabib ibn abi-Thabit

17) Hakam ibn Utaybah

18) Jabir ibn Yazid

19) al-Bara' ibn 'Azeb

20) Sahl ibn Sa'd

21) Mughairah ibn Shu'bah

22) Salamah ibn Akwa'

23) Zayd ibn Thabet

24) Khaled ibn Abdillah al-Ansari

25) Ya'la ibn Umayyah

26) Safwan ibn Umayyah

27) Amr ibn Hawshab

28) Amr ibn Dinar

29) Ibn Jurair

30) Sa'eed ibn Habib

31) Ibrahim al-Nakha'i

32) Hasan Basri

33) Ibn Musayyab

34) A'mash

35) Rabi' ibn Meysarah

36) Abi Zuhari Mutraf

37) Malek ibn Anas (in one of his two viewpoints)

38) Ahmad ibn Hanbal in some conditions

39) Abu Hanifah according to some cases[24]

 

5) Doubts and questions on mut'ah:

a) The whole purpose of legislating the permissibility of marriage is for the establishment of a family and the continuation of generations, while temporary marriage defeats this purpose because the only reason for such a marriage is sexual satisfaction.

Answer:

This question comes up because one mixes up the benefits of a specific ruling and its “subject” (In order to see what is meant by the subject of a ruling , pay attention to the following example: “Prayer is wajib” ; This ruling has a ruling and a subject; its ruling is wujub, or in other words, being mandatory. The subject of this ruling is the act that has been made mandatory, which in this case is prayer.). What was mentioned was one of the benefits of marriage, but its ruling doesn't solely depend on that particular benefit, thus, getting married to a barren or ya'esah woman (one who has reached menopause), or a girl who is still a child is also acceptable (although the abovementioned benefit isn't possible with them). Many young couples get married only for fulfilling reproductive desires in an Islamically legitimate way and don’t even think of bringing a child (although it might accidentally happen), yet their marriage is right and no one says that such intentions are problematic.

What is strange is that sexual desires are counted as its only benefit, while in many cases like in permanent marriage, one gets temporarily married for other reasons such as bringing a child, managing and taking care of the home, or nursing and growing children etc.

The question we have from those who oppose mut'ah is that if its purpose contradicts that of permanent marriage, then what do you have to say about couples who get married with the intention of getting divorced after two months? Is their marriage correct or not?  Clearly, no faqih and alem (scholar) says such a marriage is incorrect unless he wants to say something completely illogical. So what is the difference between the two, other than one being timely and the other, permanent?

The author of al-Minar says: "The strictness of past and present ulema (scholars) and them prohibiting mut'ah, necessitates the prohibition of permanent marriage with the intention of getting separated by divorce afterwards. Yet, they say that if one has this intention at the time of marriage but doesn't mention it when performing the contract as one of the contract’s conditions, the contract is correct (and the two become husband and wife, although if it is mentioned, it will surely make the contract void), nevertheless, hiding this intention is considered deceit, thus, such a contract deserves to be void (although it isn't) more than a contract in which such intentions have been mentioned in (because when it isn’t mentioned, it is considered deceit)."[25]

We the Shia believe that if the couple themselves are content (in order for it not to become a form of deceit), and make a time limit one of the contract's conditions, it is still correct and they are husband and wife.

b) The permissibility of mut'ah contradicts the verse that says: "And those who guard their private parts;

except from their spouses or their slave women, for then they are not blameworthy; but whoever seeks (anything) beyond that it is they who are transgressors."[26] This verse is saying that anyone who goes after anything other than the mentioned instances has crossed Allah's red line and entered the domain of haram acts. Mut'ah doesn't cause any legitimate relationship between two people, so one who has intercourse with his mut'ah "wife" has commited a haram act.

Answer:

This is merely a claim that has no backup. Such a woman is the man's wife and has her own rulings. Just because her sustenance (nafaqah) isn't the man's responsibility and the fact that she doesn't bear the qismah right (which says the different wives of one man equally share his sleeping with them, each "owning" the same number of nights), doesn't make her not be his wife. The nashizah woman (one who doesn't do tamkin) is considered one's wife although she lacks the nafaqah and qismah rights, and the same goes with a girl who has become one's wife while merely being a child.

It is completely wrong to say that since there is no ruling, there is no subject of the ruling. Sometimes the subject is there, but its ruling isn’t. Being husband and wife is a relationship between a couple that is followed by numerous rulings and decrees, if some of them cease to exist, it doesn't mean that the relationship in its entirety doesn’t exist either. There are chances that some of these rulings exclusively belong to some types of marriage, not all of them.

c) One who performs temporary marriage, isn’t after companionship and a life free of adultery and sin, on the contrary, his/her sole intention is adultery. And although there is a responsibility of the man taking care of his spouse and therefore somewhat causing an obstacle for him committing adultery, there is no obstacle for the woman to commit it and she is able to offer and present herself to other men anytime she desires, becoming one of the instances of the poem that speaks of a ball that is struck back and forth by polo-sticks.[27]

Answer:

Who says that being protected only belongs to men? If this marriage is right, both men and women can protect themselves from adultery. Three things prevent young women from wrongdoing:

1- Permanent marriage

2- Temporary marriage with the conditions that were mentioned earlier

3- Controlling and dominating one's sexual drive

 

The first choice isn't a practical one for young girls and boys because of the low salaries that they receive from their families or the government or anywhere else. Taming the sexual drive is also impractical and almost impossible except for a few exceptional individuals. The only option that remains for youth in order not to fall into sin and corruption is temporary marriage.

Islam is Allah's final religion and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is His final messenger, his book being the final book and his decrees being the final ones. Such  characteristics call for this religion to have a solution for every social problem that might occur in order to keep the respect and greatness of Muslims. Sexual problems aren't an exception and Islam surely needs to provide a solution.

Imam Ali's (as) voice can still be heard, warning mankind of the negative consequences of not taking this solution serious: "If it wasn't for him (Umar banning mut'a) no one would ever commit adultery other than the shaqiyy (wretched)."[28]

As for linking mut'ah to the poem mentioned above, it is a sign of this person's ignorance regarding its essence and its borders and limits. The mut'ah that this person is thinking of, is one of the wrong statements that the Shia have always been accused of[29], while the Shia find this accusation false. They don’t believe that the temporary wife is one who other men can have turns with, how is that so, while they say that after every temporary marriage she has to observe an Iddah?! If she has to observe an Iddah, offering herself to others will no longer have any meaning. Subhanallah! How can they lie so much about the Shia?! This poem is an insult to divine revelation and heavenly legislation, while all interpreters of the Quran and narrators of tradition all agree that such a decree was indeed legislated, even though they claim that it was eventually nullified. So what this person is actually saying is that during the time this marriage was allowed by the Prophet (pbuh), it was an illegitimate act!


[1] See index: Remarrying after temporary marriage (question 1099).

[2] Nisa:24.

[3] See: Tabari, Tafsir Kabir; Zamakhshari, Kashaf; and the sharh (explanation) of Sahih Muslim by Nawawi in the beginning of the chapter on marriage, and other great scholars have all considered this recitation as one that no one can doubt about. In this case, the phrase " الی اجل مسمی" will only be an explanation added to the verse, not part of the verse.

[4] Ezdevaje Movaqqat (temporary marriage), pg. 14-15, The Ahlul-Bayt World Assembly.

[5] Nisa':3.

[6] Nisa':4.

[7] Nisa':25.

[8] Mu'minoon:6.

[9] Nisa':25, ... فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُن

[10] Sahih Muslim, v.4, pg. 131, Musnad Ahmad, v.6, Fathul-Bari, v.9, pg.149.

[11] Kashaf, v.1, pg. 498, printed in Beirut.

[12] Tafsir Tabari, v.5, pg. 9, Fakhr Razi's Tafsir, v.10, pg. 5, al-Durrul-Manthur, v.2, pg. 140.

[13]Sahih Bukhari, v.2, pg. 168 and v.6, pg. 33; Sahih Muslim, v.4, pg. 48, Sunan Nisa'i, v.5, pg.155; Musnad Ahmad, v.4, pg. 426 with an authentic chain of narrators.

[14]See: Neylul-Atwar, v.6, pg. 271; Fathul-Bari, v.9, pg. 150.

[15] Muminoon:6-7, إِلاَّ عَلى‏ أَزْواجِهِمْ أَوْ ما مَلَکَتْ أَیْمانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَیْرُ مَلُومینَ فَمَنِ ابْتَغَى‏ وَرَاءَ ذَالِکَ فَأُوْلَئکَ هُمُ الْعَادُون‏ "

[16] Talaq:1 "فطلقون لعدتهن"

[17]Ahkamul-Quran, 290, pg. 184-195, chapter of mut'a, Darul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah; Sahih Muslim along with the explanation of Nawawi, v.9, pg. 179, the chapter on mut'a Irshadus-Sari.

[18]See: Sahih Muslim, v.2, pg. 130, Darul-Fikr Press, Beirut.

[19]The tafsir of Qurtobi, v.5, pg.130-131.

[20] Zadul-Ma'ad, v.2, pg. 204. 

[21] See: Ezdevaje Movaqqat (temporary marriage), pg. 17-21, The Ahlul-Bayt World Assembly.

[22]Al-Insaf fi Masa'ela Dama fihil-Khilaf, pg. 534.

[23] Sharh Ma'anil-Athar, v.2, pg. 146.

[24] Al-Ghadir, v.6, pg. 220, and Ezdevaje Movaqqat dar Islam, pg. 133, and Mut'a az Fakiki, and Ahkamul-Shar'iyyah fi Ahwalal-Shakhsiyyah.

[25] Tafsir Al-Minar, v.3, pg. 17.

[26] Mu'minoon:5-7.

[27] Tafsir Al-Minar, v.5, pg. 13.

[28] Mustadrakul-Wasa'el, v.14, pg. 478. " فَلَوْلَاهُ مَا زَنَى إِلَّا شَقِیٌّ أَوْ شَقِیَّة"

[29] See: Kitabul-Sunnah wal-Shia, pg. 65-66.

With Duas.

Narsis.

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa915

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Bismillah.

Salaam.

Conditions of Temporary marriage:

In order to carry out a temporary (concubine) marriage contract, a number of prerequisites ought to be executed:

(i) the contract's formula ought to be read out. Consent (from the man and woman involved), alone, does not suffice; such a consent, moreover, must be accompanied by a declaration of specific and stipulated phrases.

(ii) Obligatory precaution dictates that the contract's wording be recited accurately in Arabic. Assuming the man and woman are not able to recite the formula, in Arabic, it won't be necessary to execute the contract by proxy; reciting the contract in another language is deemed valid. All that is required is that the meaning of the terms 'zawwaj-tu' (I have married) and 'qabil-tu' (I have accepted) be properly conveyed and understood.

(iii) Assuming the man and woman desire to execute the contract by themselves, they must initially stipulate the temporary marriage's (a) time frame (e.g. 1 hour, 2 days, 3 months etc.) and (b) dowry. Next, the woman must recite:

"zawwaj-tu-ka nafsi fil-mudda-til ma'loomah 'alal mah-ril ma'loom"

The man must follow successively by saying:

"qabil-tu"

Another variation involves the woman's attorney saying (to the man's attorney):

"matta'-tu muwakkilati muwakkila-ka fil-mudda-til ma'loomah 'alal mah-ril ma'loom"

The man's attorney then follows successively by saying:

"qabil-tu li-muwakkili haakatha"

(iv) The determination, and stipulation, of the dowry ought to be done at the time of the contract's execution.

(v) Note that the man and woman, or their attorneys, must intend to 'declare' their marriage contracts i.e. by reciting "zawwaj-tu-ka nafsi…" the woman ought to intend to declare that she is designating herself as the man's wife; and by reciting "qabil-tu", the man must intend to declare acceptance vis-à-vis the woman's being his wife

(vi) The one who recites the contract formula ought to be sane and pubescent.

(vii) Assuming the man and woman's attorneys or guardians are carrying out the contract, the man and woman's names ought to be specified

(viii) A pubescent virgin requires her father/grandfather's permission in order to marry, even though she is autonomous (i.e. able to lead her life independently). However, such permission is not required were she not a virgin (due to a previous husband).

(ix) (i.e. the period during which she must wait after divorce or death of her husband before she may legitimately re-marry)'iddahAt the time of the contract's execution, the woman must neither be, actually, temporarily/permanently married to another nor be within her

(x) Consent is necessary; any form of compulsion or force is prohibited.

Naturally, there exists other matters and conditions which may be accessed in books of jurisprudence. The above information is in accordance with the verdicts of Imam Khumayni; if your religious authority is someone else, please inform us and we shall reply accordingly.

http://www.islamquest.net/en/archive/question/fa627

With Duas.

Narsis.

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In Shia Islam there are two kinds of halal marriage, mutah (temporary) and nikah (permanent) and each has its own conditions, benefits and limitations. However, since Shias believe that Allah SWT cannot do wrong and His actions are Aslah (most beneficial), everything has a purpose. Mutah is only for those people who need it. As a reminder, it is not good to hate a provision that Allah created for some people, just because others do not need it. 

Allah says: "Do not say anything false that your tongues may put forth that this is lawful (halal) and this is unlawful (haram), so as to forge a lie against Allah. Those who ascribe false things to Allah will not prosper." Holy Quran 16:116

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It is Islamic etiquette that the husband should protect his wife from difficulties, especially if she becomes pregnant. Does science have an answer to how much harm can effect a developing fetus if the woman and man are not married when the child is conceived? What physical, mental, spiritual or social problems will a child have later in life if his parents were fearful of adultery when the child was conceived?

Mutah is a legal marriage that puts the couple at ease about their relationship, that they are not committing adultery. If the wife becomes pregnant, then her child is legitimate because she is legally married.

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    • وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ النَّبِيِّينَ لَمَا آتَيْتُكُمْ مِنْ كِتَابٍ وَحِكْمَةٍ ثُمَّ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَكُمْ لَتُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهِ وَلَتَنْصُرُنَّهُ ۚ قَالَ أَأَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَخَذْتُمْ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكُمْ إِصْرِي ۖ قَالُوا أَقْرَرْنَا ۚ قَالَ فَاشْهَدُوا وَأَنَا مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ {81} [Shakir 3:81] And when Allah made a covenant through the prophets: Certainly what I have given you of Book and wisdom-- then an messenger comes to you verifying that which is with you, you must believe in him, and you must aid him. He said: Do you affirm and accept My compact in this (matter)? They said: We do affirm. He said: Then bear witness, and I (too) am of the bearers of witness with you.
      [Pickthal 3:81] When Allah made (His) covenant with the prophets, (He said): Behold that which I have given you of the Scripture and knowledge. And afterward there will come unto you a messenger, confirming that which ye possess. Ye shall believe in him and ye shall help him. He said: Do ye agree, and will ye take up My burden (which I lay upon you) in this (matter)? They answered: We agree. He said: Then bear ye witness. I will be a witness with you.
      [Yusufali 3:81] Behold! Allah took the covenant of the prophets, saying: "I give you a Book and Wisdom; then comes to you a messenger, confirming what is with you; do ye believe in him and render him help." Allah said: "Do ye agree, and take this my Covenant as binding on you?" They said: "We agree." He said: "Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witnesses." ***** مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا {40} [Shakir 33:40] Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the Last of the prophets; and Allah is cognizant of all things.
      [Pickthal 33:40] Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets; and Allah is ever Aware of all things.
      [Yusufali 33:40] Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets: and Allah has full knowledge of all things. ***** Relevant part of the Verse: النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَىٰ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ ۖ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ ۗ } [Shakir 33:6] The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves, .....
      [Yusufali 33:6] The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, ....... [Yusufali 33:6] The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves,  ***** At Ghadir Khumm,  "Then the Messenger of Allah continued:  "Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?"   People cried and answered:  "Yes, O' Messenger of God." Then followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of 'Ali as the leader of the Muslim ummah.  The Prophet held up the hand of 'Ali and said:  "For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), 'Ali is his Leader (mawla)." https://www.al-islam.org/ghadir/incident.htm At Ghadir Khum, Question was asked(33:6), Muslims Answered. Seal of the Prophets, and the Witness over ALL Prophets( 3:81). Mawla here means what?  Does this mean, Mawla only in delivering revelation? What does More right over the Believers( All Past Prophets and believers present at Ghadir Khumm). Now the question is: Lets see if the cal for Unity are real. Are the Muslims united or disunited. 1) Messenger, only in Delivering Revelation. Rest, only a human like us, others an have better judgement,  opinions in leadership,preserving Quran, etc.. 2) Messenger, but Book of Allahسُبْحَانَهُ وَ تَعَالَى is sufficient for us 3) Mawla in All comprehensive and Complete sense. (Prophet/Messenger/Imam-Khaliftullah Vicegerent of Allah(awj) without limitation of time and space - All my affairs- as Islam is the same as our Nature, as its a Way of life not only a personal relationship with  Allah(awj).  Let's see what this Unity, talk is all about. We can't Unite here, All hopes are lost.
    • http://en.wikishia.net/view/Wadi_l-Salam_Cemetery One of the reasons to the importance of this cemetery is its proximity to Imam 'Ali's (a) holy shrine. In addition, it has been indicated and admired frequently in Shi'areferences. It appears the earliest hadith about it is one narrated by al-Kulayni (255/869 - 329/940-1), said to be from Imam 'Ali (a). Subsequent references have narrated this hadith numerously. In this hadith, Imam 'Ali (a), accompanied with one of his companions, goes to Wadi l-Salam and uttered: "No pious man passes away on any part of the earth unless his spirit is ordered to come to Wadi l-Salam. Here, is a part of Heaven."[8]  Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, Vol.3, P.243
    • I think she knows that if she reports her father he would be arrested and maybe go to prison. This would be catastrophic for her mother and family.
    • Concept of Unity is linked to Leadership. Cause of disunity. Ghadir Khum. What was missing at Saqifa, Fadak, Battle of Jamal, Battle of Siffin, and at Karbala? The other side apparently, believed in Tawheed, Prophethood, Prayers, Zakat, Fasting, Hajj, Recitation of Quran…… Except for Recognition of the Vicegerent/Representative of Allah(awj). "O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don't do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people ..." (Qur'an 5:67) Our safety is of no concern to us. We will not stop unmasking the culprits, removing the veil of deceit from the faces of those whose teaching have and will undermine True Islam.  Or we have lost the Message of Karbala. Why would any human be offended if Evil is exposed? How is this undermining Unity? Have you ever heard of such talk, do not expose the Traitors, it's not good for the unity of the country. If someone is supporting the Oppressors, the Unjust , they should be asked, why in the world you would do that , your innate Nature does not even allows it. Have you ever seen or heard that the humans love the Murderer and the murdered, the Oppressor and the oppressed ? This is against Human Nature. Coexistence is not the same as Unity. We coexist with other Humans, business/life goes on. Under the Umbrella topic of Unity, lies the propagation of the Political Islam/islam of Shafiqa, Jamal, Siffin…Silence them( the Shia's) with unity talk, so we can continue playing with the religion
    • Nehjul Balagha + Saying of Prophet "Ana madinatul ilm wa Aliyyun baboha (I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its door)", + man kunto mowla fahatha Aliyyun mowla  + Salooni Salooni qabla an'tafaqedooni (ask me ask me before you miss me)

      Hadeeth # 1     أما بعد، أيها الناس فإني فقأت عين الفتنة، ولم يكن ليجترىء عليها أحد غيري بعد أن ماج غيهبها، واشتد كلبها. فاسألوني قبل أن تفقدوني، فو الذي نفسي بيده لا تسألوني عن شيء فيما بينكم وبين الساعة، ولا عن فئة تهدي مائة وتضل مائة إلا نبأتكم بناعقها وقائدها وسائقها، ومناخ ركابها، ومحط رحالها، ومن يقتل من أهلها قتلا، ومن يموت منهم موتا.   So now, praise and eulogy be to Allah, O' people, I have put out the eye of revolt. No one except me advanced towards it when its gloom was swelling and its madness was intense. ask me before you miss me,(2) because, by Allah, who has my life in His hands, if you ask me anything between now and the Day of Judgement or about the group who would guide a hundred people and also misguide a hundred people I would tell you who is announcing its march, who is driving it in the front and who is driving it at the rear, the stages where its riding animals would stop for rest and the final place of stay, and who among them would be killed and who would die a natural death.... Source:Nahjulbalagha by Sheikh Radi,Sermon 92   Hadeeth # 2   إن أمرنا صعب مستصعب، لا يحتمله إلا عبد مؤمن امتحن الله قلبه للايمان، ولا يعي حديثنا إلا صدور أمينة، وأحلام رزينة. أيها الناس، سلوني قبل أن تفقدوني، فلانا بطرق السماء أعلم مني بطرق الارض، قبل أن تشغر برجلها فتنة تطأ في خطامها وتذهب بأحلام قومها.   ...Certainly, our case is difficult and complicated. No one can bear it except a believer whose heart Allah has tried with belief. Our traditions will not be preserved except by trustworthy hearts and (men of) solid understanding. O' people! ask me before you miss me, because certainly I am acquainted with the passages of the sky more than the passages of the earth,(2) and before that mischief springs upon its feet which would trample even the nosestring and destroy the wits of the people.   Source:Nahjulbalagha by Sheikh Radi,Sermon 188   Hadeeth #3   2 - عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد عن ابن أبي نصر، عن مثنى، عن زرارة قال: كنت عند أبي جعفر عليه السلام فقال: له رجل من أهل الكوفة يسأله عن قول أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: " سلوني عما شئتم فلا تسألوني عن شئ إلا أنبأتكم به " قال: إنه ليس أحد عنده علم شئ إلا خرج من عند أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام، فليذهب الناس حيث شاؤوا، فوالله ليس الامر إلا من ههنا، وأشار بيده إلى بيته.   A number of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Basir from Muthanna from Zurara who has said the following. "Once I was in the presence of abu Ja'far (a.s.). A man from Kufa asked him about the words of Amir al-Mu'minin (a.s.), "Ask me whatever you would like. Whatever you may ask I will give you the answer."The Imam (a.s.) said, "No one has any piece of knowledge of anything that has not come through Amir al- Mu'minin (a.s.) . People may go wherever they may like, however, by Allah, the truth comes from no where else except from here, he pointed out with his hand towards his house."   Source:Al-Kafi by Kulayni,Vol 1,Pg 399,H 2 Grading:Majlisi:Hasan(Mirat ul Uqool 4/308)   Hadith # 4:
      1 - حدثنا أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا علي ابن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه قال: حدثنا أبو الصلت عبد السلام بن صالح الهروي قال حدثنا علي بن موسى الرضا عليه السلام عن أبيه موسى بن جعفر، عن أبيه جعفر ابن محمد، عن أبيه محمد بن علي، عن أبيه علي بن الحسين، عن أبيه الحسين ابن علي عليهم السلام قال:....... وما في كتاب الله عز وجل آية: إلا وانا اعرف تفسيرها، وفي أي مكان نزلت من سهل أو جبل، وفي أي وقت نزلت من ليل أو نهار، وان هاهنا لعلما جما - وأشار إلى صدره - ولكن طلابه يسيرة وعن قليل يندمون لو (قد) يفقدوني.....   ..Imām `Alī (عليه السلام) said: “There is not an ayah in the Book of Allāh (عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ) except that I know its tafsīr, and in whichever place it was revealed, on a plain or a mountain, and in whatever time it was revealed, in the night or the day.’ – Pointing to his chest – ‘here there is abundant knowledge, but the seekers of it are few, and from the few they will regret when they lose me.’   Source:Ilal al-Sharai by Sheikh Sadooq,Vol 1,Ch 38,Pg 40,H 1 Grading:Saheeh     Sunni Version  
      Hadeeth #1:   527 - وحدثني أحمد بن فتح ، نا حمزة بن محمد ، نا إسحاق بن إبراهيم ، نا محمد بن عبد الأعلى ، ثنا محمد بن ثور ، عن معمر ، عن وهب بن عبد الله ، عن أبي الطفيل قال : « شهدت عليا رضي الله عنه وهو يخطب ويقول : سلوني فوالله لا تسألوني عن شيء يكون إلى يوم القيامة إلا حدثتكم به وسلوني عن كتاب الله ؛ فوالله ما منه آية إلا وأنا أعلم بليل نزلت أم بنهار أم بسهل نزلت أم بجبل    Narrated ahmed ibn fatah he said narrated hamzah ibn muhammed narrated ishaq ibn ibrahim narrated muhammed ibn abdul aala he said narrated muhammed ibn thawr from muammar from wahb ibn abdullah from abu tufail he said: i witnessed ali radhiallahu anh making a speech in public saying: ask me me before you lose me , by Allah if you ask me about anything from now till the day of judgement i will inform you about it and ask me about the book of Allah , by Allah there's no verse in it but i know it was revealed at night or during the day or on a plain or on a mountain   Source:Jami al-Bayan by at-Tabari,Vol 2,Pg 56,H 527 Grading:Saheeh   Hadeeth #2:   3342 - أخبرني أبو جعفر محمد بن علي الشيباني بالكوفة ثنا أحمد بن حازم الغفاري ثنا أبو نعيم ثنا بسام الصيرفي ثنا أبو الطفيل عامر بن واثلة قال : سمعت عليا رضي الله عنه قام فقال : سلوني قبل أن تفقدوني و لن تسألوا بعدي مثلي فقام ابن الكواء فقال : من الذين بدلوا نعمة الله كفرا و أحلوا قومهم دار البوار ؟ قال : منافقو قريش قال : فمن الذين ضل سعيهم في الحياة الدنيا و هم يحسبون أنهم يحسنون صنعا ؟ قال : منهم أهل حروراء   Narrated Abu Jaffar Muhammed bin Ali al-Sheybani from Ahmad bin Hazim al-Ghafari, from Abu Naeem, from Bassam al-Sayrafi, from Abu al-Tufail Amer bin Wathila saying : i heard Ali   saying while he standing : Ask me before you lose me, after me (you will not find) who is as me to ask    Source:Al-Mustadrak Al-Saheehain by Al-Hakem,Vol 3,Pg 197,H 3342 Grading:Al-Hakim:"Saheeh"        
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