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A Dialogue on your understanding of - Shirk

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Audhu billahi min ash-shaitanir rajeem.

Bismillah, ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim

AsSalam Alaykum,


It is my layman opinion. that the basic understanding of what is been provided below is prerequisite for this discussion/dialogue. I should have included in the first post.


1] Shahada (Muslim[Shia]-Testament of Faith)


Ash-hado an la ilaha illAllah

(I bear witness that there is no God But Allah)

Wahdahoo la shareeka lah

(The one, Who has no Partner)

Wa ash-hado anna Muhammadun abdohoo wa Rasoolullah…..

(and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger.

Ash-hado an Aliyun Waleeullah, Wasi-o-Rasoolilah

(I bear witness that Ali is the Wali of Allah, rightful executor of the Will of the Prophet)


2] Adhan[ Call to Prayer], from Muslim Mosques, repeat the Three testimony of Faith-Five times a Day for All to hear.


Allahu Akbar... ... ...... . (Allah is great)

Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah . . . . . . . . . . (I testify that there is no deity but Allah)

Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah . . . . . . . : . . (I testify that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger)

Ash hadu anna Amirul Muminina'Aliyyan Waliyyullah ……..(i.e. I testify that the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali (Peace be on him) is the vicegerent of Allah)


3]The Recommended Acts Of Prostration[Prayers]

Recite Salawat while reciting prostrations.

4]. Tashahhud (Bearing Witness During Prayers)


"Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wahdahu la sharika lah waash hadu anna Muhammadan Abduhu wa Rasuluh, Ala humma salli ala Muhammadin wa Aali Muhammad.


5] Salam (Salutation) Of The Prayers

Assalamu allayka ayyuhan Nabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barrakatuh; and then he should say: Assalamu alayna wa ala ibadil lahis salihin


6] Holy Qur’an Surah Al-Ikhlas.

[112:1] Say: He is Allah, the One!

[112:2] Allah, the eternally Besought of all!

[112:3] He begetteth not nor was begotten.

[112:4] And there is none comparable unto Him.


7] Holy Qur’an Surah Al-Faathia.

[1:1] In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

[1:2] Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds,

[1:3] The Beneficent, the Merciful.

[1:4] Master of the Day of Judgment,

[1:5] Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) we ask for help.

[1:6] Show us the straight path,

[1:7] The path of those whom Thou hast favoured; Not the (path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray.


8] Verses of the Holy Qur'an, Related to the Announcement of Adam[as] as the viceroy/Khalifa/vicegerent on/for earth


[16:98] And when thou recitest the Qur'an, seek refuge in Allah from Satan the outcast.

[23:97] And say: My Lord! I seek refuge in Thee from suggestions of the evil ones,

[23:98] And I seek refuge in Thee, my Lord, lest they be present with me,

[43:62] And let not Satan turn you aside. Lo! he is an open enemy for you.


[2:30] And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth, they said: Wilt thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not.

[2:31] And He taught Adam all the names, then showed them to the angels, saying: Inform Me of the names of these, if ye are truthful.

[2:32] They said: Be glorified! We have no knowledge saving that which Thou hast taught us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower, the Wise.

[2:33] He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names, and when he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I not tell you that I know the secret of the heavens and the earth? And I know that which ye disclose and which ye hide.

[2:34] And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever.


[7:11] And We created you, then fashioned you, then told the angels: Fall ye prostrate before Adam! And they fell prostrate, all save Iblis, who was not of those who make prostration.


[7:12] He said: What hindered thee that thou didst not fall prostrate when I bade thee? (Iblis) said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me of fire while him Thou didst create of mud.

[15:32] He said: O Iblis! What aileth thee that thou art not among the prostrate?


[17:61] And when We said unto the angels: Fall down prostrate before Adam and they fell prostrate all save Iblis, he said: Shall I fall prostrate before that which Thou hast created of clay?


[18:50] And (remember) when We said unto the angels: Fall prostrate before Adam, and they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He was of the jinn, so he rebelled against his Lord's command. Will ye choose him and his seed for your protecting friends instead of Me, when they are an enemy unto you? Calamitous is the exchange for evil-doers.


[38:71] When thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to create a mortal out of mire,

[38:72] And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My Spirit, then fall down before him prostrate,

[38:73] The angels fell down prostrate, every one,

[38:74] Saving Iblis; he was scornful and became one of the disbelievers.

[38:75] He said: O Iblis! What hindereth thee from falling prostrate before that which I have created with both My hands? Art thou too proud or art thou of the high exalted?

[38:76] He said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me of fire, whilst him Thou didst create of clay.

[38:77] He said: Go forth from hence, for lo! thou art outcast,

[38:78] And lo! My curse is on thee till the Day of Judgment.

[38:79] He said: My Lord! Reprieve me till the day when they are raised.

[38:80] He said: Lo! thou art of those reprieved

[38:81] Until the day of the time appointed.

[38:82] He said: Then, by Thy might, I surely will beguile them every one,

[38:83] Save Thy single-minded slaves among them.


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Audhu billahi min ash-shaitanir rajeem.

Bismillah, ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim

AsSalam Alaykum,

I want emphasize that below is My layman, current [incomplete] understanding. Allah{AWJ} knows best.


Tawheed is the primary pillar of our faith. It has various aspects.

In the same way Shirk also consists of different types:

1) Shirk with regard to the DIVINE Essence of Allah (AWJ).

2) Shirk with regard to the DIVINE Attributes of Allah (AWJ).

3) Shirk in Allah(AWJ) DIVINE actions.

4) Shirk in Allah(AWJ) DIVINE Obedience.

5) Shirk in Allah(AWJ) DIVINE worship.

6) Denial of the Creator

7) Doubts in Allah[AWJ],

8) Doubts in Allah[AWJ] Divine Book

9] Doubts in Allah[AWJ] Messengers/Hujjat and their abilities and disobedience of their commands.

10] Doubts in Allah[AWJ] abilities.

11] Many other ways, Shirk/Kufr can be committed.

Above could be all interrelated.

The Jinn, that became the outcast[Satan/Iblis], what type of Shirk, did he commit.

Point # 9 in above Post #3. Verses of the Holy Qur’an.

A] Did Iblis, associate any Divine Partner [as equal, independent deity ] to Allah[AWJ]?

B] Did Iblis associate any other DEITY with Divine Status[independent cause][like the Mushrik/Polythiest did] to  Allah[AWJ], and sought protection and made dua/supplicate to that Deity ?

C] Did Iblis, reject the day of Judgement, and that Allah[AWJ] is the Master of that day?

C] DId iblis associate his creaturely attributes to be equal to the DIVINE Attributes?

What was his real Crime, that made him an outcast till the day of Judgement?

If it was disobedience of the Divine decree[2:30], is this not we need to focus on the most ? as it concerns us, [Muslims]? We are directed to what Allah[AWJ] message was to the Meccans. Ok, let's fast forward, we are Muslims now. Is the story of Iblis for Meccans to convert them to Islam? It's directed at us. What difference does it make to the Mushriks/polytheists/infidels/pagans etc.. of Makkah, that Allah[AWJ] appointed a Khalifa and an entity rebelled, and disobeyed and became outcast, and we are to take refuge in Allah[AWJ] before reading the Qur’an [16:98], iblis has been deemed and open enemy? why don’t we concentrate and REFLECT on his actions that lead to his eternal condemnation.

Prostration ordered by the Divine Command was not to acknowledge Adam[as] Divinity.Or in Qur’an [12:100] in the case of Prophet Yusuf[as].[ Did Allah[AWJ] by HIS[AWJ} Divine command ordered Shirk here]?

Adam[as] can’t have Divine Attributes, he can only have creaturely attributes which are dependent on the Allah[AWJ] bestowing on him [2:31]. [There is a difference in Divine Knowledge and Adam[as] knowledge[which is not independent, of the original cause].

Rejection of Divine Command, is the most important message that Allah[AWJ] is trying to convey to us, Rejection of Allah[AWJ]’s appointment of Khalifa is of the essence.

If Allah[AWJ] has ordered respect and reverence of Allah{AWJ], Signs, Hujjat - and ability or any and all attributes they[the dependent creations] have been given is a dependent attribute not equal to the DIVINE attribute.

Everythings else that we are distracted with, may have lesser value in the overall scheme as they are all subjective to one’s opinion/interpretations//bais/political affiliations etc..

Now , I want to open myself [Layman] for constructive criticism, like to have an conceptual, academic and dispassionate and honest “ Dialogue’.

Kindly, put forward your understanding of Shirk/Kufr and in your opinion, what constitutes Shirk/kufr and any comments on my current/incomplete understanding.



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smha, I have approved the first of your posts. The other 2 were duplicates. All posts on this forum need approval that is why you won't immediately see them. And keeping on reposting does not help.

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On 1/15/2016 at 3:17 AM, colargol said:

Shirk is giving to something or someone what is reserved for Allah S.W.T alone, and giving to others or other things what belongs to Allah S.W.T. alone.

Before defining shirk, worship has to be understood. Worship is a consequence of something else, mainly piety and fear (hushoo), that come from ma'arifa (Knowledge of God). From that comes knowledge of the attributes of God and realisation of Tawheed (Oneness), which lead to love, fear, devotion, trust (tawakkal) to Allah S.W.T. and more,  they are the root of worship, and worship in itself. A person commits shirk if such person ascribes to others what is Allah's only mainly His S.W.T. unique attributes, ascribes other attributes of Allah S.W.T. equally to the creation, and disproportionates love, fear, devotion etc, to others or other things equally or more then to Allah S.W.T.

The Third post in this thread/topic above.


Quranic verses 2:34, 7:11, 7:12, 15:32, 17:61, 18:50, 38:72, 38:75


And Prostration of the Father[Prophet], the mother and 11 brothers to Prophet Yusuf[as]


إِذْ قَالَ يُوسُفُ لِأَبِيهِ يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ كَوْكَبًا وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ رَأَيْتُهُمْ لِي سَاجِدِينَ {4}

[Shakir 12:4] When Yusuf said to his father: O my father! surely I saw eleven stars and the sun and the moon-- I saw them making obeisance to me.

[Pickthal 12:4] When Joseph said unto his father: O my father! Lo! I saw in a dream eleven planets and the sun and the moon, I saw them prostrating themselves unto me.

[Yusufali 12:4] Behold! Joseph said to his father: "O my father! I did see eleven stars and the sun and the moon: I saw them prostrate themselves to me!"


وَرَفَعَ أَبَوَيْهِ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ وَخَرُّوا لَهُ سُجَّدًا ۖ وَقَالَ يَا أَبَتِ هَٰذَا تَأْوِيلُ رُؤْيَايَ مِنْ قَبْلُ قَدْ جَعَلَهَا رَبِّي حَقًّا ۖ وَقَدْ أَحْسَنَ بِي إِذْ أَخْرَجَنِي مِنَ السِّجْنِ وَجَاءَ بِكُمْ مِنَ الْبَدْوِ مِنْ بَعْدِ أَنْ نَزَغَ الشَّيْطَانُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ إِخْوَتِي ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي لَطِيفٌ لِمَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ {100}

[Shakir 12:100] And he raised his parents upon the throne and they fell down in prostration before him, and he said: O my father! this is the significance of my vision of old; my Lord has indeed made it to be true; and He was indeed kind to me when He brought me forth from the prison and brought you from the desert after the Shaitan had sown dissensions between me and my brothers, surely my Lord is benignant to whom He pleases; surely He is the Knowing, the Wise.

[Pickthal 12:100] And he placed his parents on the dais and they fell down before him prostrate, and he said: O my father! This is the interpretation of my dream of old. My Lord hath made it true, and He hath shown me kindness, since He took me out of the prison and hath brought you from the desert after Satan had made strife between me and my brethren. Lo! my Lord is tender unto whom He will. He is the Knower, the Wise.

[Yusufali 12:100] And he raised his parents high on the throne (of dignity), and they fell down in prostration, (all) before him. He said: "O my father! this is the fulfilment of my vision of old! Allah hath made it come true! He was indeed good to me when He took me out of prison and brought you (all here) out of the desert, (even) after Satan had sown enmity between me and my brothers. Verily my Lord understandeth best the mysteries of all that He planneth to do, for verily He is full of knowledge and wisdom.


Sajada-falling down in prostration

Would you call this Worship?

If not, what would it be called?

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4 hours ago, S.M.H.A. said:


as-Salaam Alaikum brother. 

The angels prostrated before Adam a.s. as an act of honoring Adam's a.s. status with Allah S.W.T. Similarly the prostration to Yusuf a.s. as an expression of love. Such acts are takreem honoring respecting someone. Today we have reserved these acts only for Allah S.W.T. in our daily prayers, and have appropriated other acts for honoring and showing love and respect to people or symbols and objects, such as to The Holy Prophet s.a.w.a. or his Pure Family a.s. or companions and awliya of Allah S.W.T. such as ziyarat mourning, remembrance or respect for objects related to them. However when the social norm is, as in the case of cultures like Japan and China where bowing slightly is a sign of respect and humility, we should not have a problem performing them as part good behavior and good akhlaq, as long as they remain within the confines of social norms in these cultures, and have no religious undertones. 

Worship is every act that is in line with what Allah has allowed, ordered and called to, and keeping away from everything that He has forbidden, meaning actions that result from following the path of God (ittibaa). Eating a halal meal with Bismilah and being grateful is worshiping Allah S.W.T., whereas acting in a boastful manner and ungratefully with one's meal is considered as tazkiyat an Nafs, and is part of worshiping the self. The two acts of worship are differentiated while outwardly in appearance they are the same act.

Allah S.W.T. says.

"And O ye in sin! Get ye apart this Day!

"Did I not enjoin on you, O ye Children of Adam, that ye should not worship Satan; for that he was to you an enemy avowed?" (36:59, 60)

The people that worshiped shaytan l.a. didn't necessarily prostrate themselves to a statue of shaytan l.a. rather as the verse says they where (mujrimeen) sinners, their worship of shaytan l.a. is in following him l.a. in performing evil acts by following his l.a. footsteps

"They have made Satan the master of their affairs, and he has taken them as partners. He has laid eggs and hatched them in their bosoms. He creeps and crawls in their laps. He sees through their eyes, and speaks with their tongues. In this way he has led them to sinfulness and adorned for them foul things like the action of one whom Satan has made partner in his domain and speaks untruth through his tongue." Imam Ali a.s. Nahj al Balagha 7 

If worship of Allah S.W.T. are the acts that result from following the path of Allah S.W.T., then shirk is all of these actions that are performed for other then Allah S.W.T. either by ascribing equals to Allah S.W.T. or by ascribing divine lordship to other then Allah S.W.T. 

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This is an example of "shirk" brought up in Quran:

وَ كانَ لَهُ ثَمَرٌ فَقالَ لِصاحِبِهِ وَ هُوَ يُحاوِرُهُ أَنَا أَكْثَرُ مِنْكَ مالاً وَ أَعَزُّ نَفَراً (34) 

وَ دَخَلَ جَنَّتَهُ وَ هُوَ ظالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ قالَ ما أَظُنُّ أَنْ تَبيدَ هذِهِ أَبَداً (35) 

وَ ما أَظُنُّ السَّاعَةَ قائِمَةً وَ لَئِنْ رُدِدْتُ إِلى‏ رَبِّي لَأَجِدَنَّ خَيْراً مِنْها مُنْقَلَباً (36) 

قالَ لَهُ صاحِبُهُ وَ هُوَ يُحاوِرُهُ أَ كَفَرْتَ بِالَّذي خَلَقَكَ مِنْ تُرابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ سَوَّاكَ رَجُلاً (37) 

لكِنَّا هُوَ اللَّهُ رَبِّي وَ لا أُشْرِكُ بِرَبِّي أَحَداً (38) 

وَ لَوْ لا إِذْ دَخَلْتَ جَنَّتَكَ قُلْتَ ما شاءَ اللَّهُ لا قُوَّةَ إِلاَّ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ تَرَنِ أَنَا أَقَلَّ مِنْكَ مالاً وَ وَلَداً (39) 

He had abundant fruits, so he said to his companion, as he conversed with him:" I have more wealth than you, and am stronger with respect to numbers."
He entered his garden while he wronged himself. He said," I do not think that this will ever perish,
and I do not think that the Hour will ever set in. And even if I am returned to my Lord I will surely find a resort better than this."
His companion said to him, as he conversed with him:" Do you disbelieve in Him who created you from dust, then from a drop of] seminal [fluid, then fashioned you as a man?
But I] say [," He is Allah, my Lord," and I do not ascribe any partner to my Lord.
Why did you not say, when you entered your garden,"] This is [as Allah has wished! There is no power except by Allah!" If you see that I have lesser wealth than you and children,

I don't think it is needed to explain it more; but you need to think of it so you would understand the reason for which he said :"I do not ascribe any partner to my lord". I would become happy if your share your thoughts of this story and why is he considered to be "Mushrik".


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The word itself, Shirk, means to give a portion or share, or the involvement of two partners [1]. The Quranic term has been used in face of "Hanif" (orthodox Muslim), and what is meant by shirk is - to associate a partner or an equal for God (Exalted be his praise). The term Hanif means to have inclination towards truth and righteousness from misguidance. And since the followers of Towhid wholly oppose the idea of shirk and instead are inclined towards this fundamental principal [of Towhid], they are called Hanif. And this is why one of the meanings of Hanif is "straight" and "clear" [2]

In the generous Quran, Allah The Most High has said to the Prophet: Say, 'Indeed my Lord has guided me to a straight path, the upright religion, the creed of Abraham, a Hanif, and he was not one of the polytheists'. [3] God has also stated: "Dedicate yourself to the religion as a Hanif, and never be one of the polytheist." [4]

Hence from a Quranic standpoint; in religion shirk is the opposite of Hanif, and in order to recognize shirk one must recognize Hanif, by identifying an entity by its contrary, meaning that one can distinguish something by distinguishing its opposite. In brief it can be said that shirk is the opposite of Towhid, and just like Towhid has different types, so does shirk. In a general categorization, shirk can be divided into two types: shirk in 'Amal' or actions (such as; obedience and worship), and shirk in 'Aqideh' (belief). Shirk in belief is divided into three parts:

1.    Shirk in Deity: Believing in an existence other than God, which independently has all of the divine qualities. Such a belief will be the cause of kufr [5], which is why Allah states in the Generous Quran: They are certainly faithless who say, 'Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary.' Say, 'Who can avail anything against Allah should He wish to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary and this mother and everyone upon the earth?' To Allah belong the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them. He creates whatever He wishes and Allah has power over all things.[6]

2.    Shirk in Creatorship: Believing in two independent origins and creators for the world in such a way that they control creation and modifications made to creation. Like the Mazdakians (Zoroasters) who believe in two originators, one of good "Yazdan" (God), and one of evil "Ahruman" (the devil).

3.    Shirk in Lordship: To believe that there are multiple lords and that God is the Lord of lords. Meaning that managing the affairs of the world has been delegated to each of the independent and individual lords. Just like the polytheist of Hazrat Ibrahim's (Peace be upon him) time who practiced this type of shirk. A group of them recognized the stars as the governor of the world and a group of others recognized the moon and another group the sun.

Shirk in stage of "Amal" (action):

This is known as "shirk in worship and obedience", Meaning that a person's humility and humbleness arises from belief in the deity, creatorship or Lordship of those whom he respects and has humility and humbleness for.

These are the criterion and standards of shirk as it has been mentioned in the Holy Quran. However there are some people who make up standards and criteria for shirk, and then commence to accuse other Muslims of practicing polytheism. These views that some have taken it upon themselves to gather have no type of credibility, as their criteria contradicts the ayats of the Holy Quran, the Seereh (Way and life) of the dear Prophet of Islam (Peace be upon him), and his successors (The Twelve Saint Imams).

Here we will mention some of the 'made-up' standards for shirk:

1.    believing in a super naturalistic sovereignty for other than Allah; they say, "If someone were to implore the Prophet or any of the of Allah's Saints for assistance, and if he believes that they can hear this supplication or have knowledge of his situation or are able to grant what he needs, then this is an eminent type of shirk." [7]

2.    Requesting a need from the deceased. They have said that; "Requesting things from the deceased, seeking their help, and favoring the deceased are all types of shirk, and these are the principals and basis for polytheism." [8]

3.    Dua and imploration are types of worship; they say that, "Worship is only for Allah and Dua is a type of worship; therefore asking for something from other than Allah is also shirk." [9]

4.    Visitation of tombs or graves is shirk.

5.    Seeking blessing and sacring through the effects of the prophets and righteous persons is shirk.

6.    Celebrating the birthday of the prophet is shirk.

7.    Building a dome above a grave is shirk.

These made-up standards and beliefs can be broken into two parts:

1.    One part of these actions and standards are called polytheist actions, because they recognize them as being shirk in belief.

In rebuttal to this part of their beliefs, it can be said that if believing in super naturalistic sovereignty, believing in intercession, and believing in granting of needs, etc. is such that all of these matters are related to Allah, and all that anyone has is from Allah, The Most High, then this is not shirk, because no type of sovereignty other than that of Allah's has been taken into consideration. In the definition of shirk in Deity, shirk in Lordship and shirk in Creation, we said that these various types of shirk take place when one believes that someone other than Allah independently has the [divine] attributes of glory and perfection or can be an independent creator or can independently manage the affairs of this world. However, if one's power or authority was dependent upon Allah, then that would no longer be shirk. We and all other Muslims that request needs from the Noble Prophet and his successors and or that believe that they have mystical strengths, also believe that this position and status has been bestowed upon them from The One Lord, The Most High. Considering this description can we still call this shirk?

2.    As for the other section of actions that they regard as shirk; this is because they recognize these actions as being a kind of worship; i.e. Celebrating the birth of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), Building a dome or cupola over a grave or kissing a shrine.

Worship has certain mannerisms, and those mannerisms are specific to Allah. Worship denoted by humbleness and humility which comes from one's belief in Deity, Creatorship or Lordship. However, if humility and humbles did not arise from such beliefs then by no means will that be 'worship'. This is why in Sura Yusuf, Allah does not recognize the prostration that Hazrat Yusuf's brothers made before him as shirk, for the reason that they never had a belief of Deity, Creatorship or Lordship towards Hazrat Yusuf (Peace be upon him).  

Fortunately, scholars of Islam and other conscious scholars have given rebuttals to all of these cases and fabricated principles.

For more information you can make reference to "Quranic Discussions in Towhid and Shirk", written by Dr. Allama Jafar Subhani.


[1] Majma'ul Bahrain – Vol.5, Pg.274; Al-Ain – Vol.5, Pg.293

[2] The word 'Hanif' comes from the word 'Hanafa' meaning – inclination towards truth and righteousness form misguidance. However 'Hanafa' actually means –inclination from truth to falsehood. Since the followers of pure Towhid, have turned away from that misguidance and have embraced this basic principal (Towhid) then they are called 'Hanif'. This is also why one of the meanings of Hanif is straight and clear.

[3] Sura An'aam –Verse 161

[4] Sura Yunus – Verse 105

[5] It is necessary to mention that all of these different types of shirk cause kufr. What is meant by kufr here is more general that what legal authorities and theologians recognize as kufr.

[6] Sura Ma'edeh – Verse 17

[7] Collection of the Fatwas of Ibn Baz – Vol.2, Pg.552

[8] Fathul Majid – Pg.68

[9] Arrad Ala Rafezah – According to the Shia narration – Ali Asghar Rezwani – Pg.135 - 143


With Duas.


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On 1/16/2016 at 0:23 PM, The Batman said:

I believe shirk is anything which contradicts the Islamic understanding of Tawheed.

"The great Islamic scholar and commentator of the Holy Qur’an -the late Allamah Tabatabai (may Allah bless his soul) says: At-Tawhid, when expanded, becomes the whole of Islam, and Islam, when condensed, At-Tawhid is acquired.”1


"As for Lordship in Divine Legislation, we know that from the Islamic perspective and in accordance with the teachings which the Holy Our’ an presents, the origin of deviation in belief and action is Iblis which is the same being who had been created before Hazrat Adam (AS) and had been engaged in worshipping Allah for many years. Amirul-Mu’mineen (The commander of the faithful) Al- Imam ‘Ali (AS) says in "Nahjul- Balaghah":

“Iblis worshipped Allah for six thousand years, while we do not know whether it was the years of this world or of the years of the hereafter6

Iblis worshipped Allah for six thousand years and yet it is not known whether these years have been of the years of this world each year of which is 365 days or of the years of the other world each day of which is one thousand years. Anyhow, for a very long period of time which is not quite imaginable for us, Iblis had existed and had been worshipping Allah (SWT), so that the angels had though that Iblis was of the angels and had given it a place in their own ranks. But Iblis had a two-sided nature (namely, like man, it had free will) and had to be tested so that the level of its At-Tawhid and knowledge of Allah (SWT) would emerge and it would become clear whether he had the necessary level of At-Tawhid or not.

The test of Iblis was realized through Hazrat Adam (AS), in the way that after the creation of Hazrat Adam (AS), Iblis was commanded (By Allah) to perform sajdah (prostration) to Adam (AS). But Iblis disobeyed this Divine command and because of this disobedience, it was driven away from the nearness to Allah and became the head of the inmates of hell and the rest of the inmates of hell will go to hell for following Iblis.

But why the one who has worshipped Allah (SWT) in His Oneness is driven away from His nearness for one opposition and one sin and reaches such a level of wretchedness which is unthinkable for us? What is the secret behind the fact that so much worship is ignored and Iblis falls so low because of just one sin?

The analysis which on the basis of Islamic outlook can be made on this matter is that the sin of Iblis stemmed from defect in its At-Tawhid, manifested itself in the form of a practical disobedience (to Allah) and caused its fall. Because in reality Iblis did not believe in whatever Allah (SWT) commands, His creatures should accept His command unquestionably, Iblis said;

..أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْهُ خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ

“…I am better than he; You have created me out of fire, while him did you create out of dust (7:12).”

What is this command You are giving me, how should I prostrate to Adam while I am better than him? These words in fact arose from Iblis spirit of disbelief and unfaithfulness and were demonstrative of his inner and hidden kufr. The Holy Qur’an says:

..وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

“…And he was one of the disbelievers (2:34)”

Such disbelief existed in Iblis before, but it had not yet emerged and turned into the stage of action. Iblis did not have belief up to the required level of At-Tawhid and did not believe that the right to command order and inhabit unquestionably belongs exclusively to Allah (SWT) and whatever He commands has to be fulfilled: otherwise, Iblis believed in the One God and he also talked to Allah.

..خَلَقْتَنِي مِنْ نَارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِنْ طِينٍ

“…You have created me out of fire, while him did you create out of dust (7:12).”

Iblis even believed in Allah’s Lordship in creation and in the Resurrection Day.

..أَنْظِرْنِي إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ

“…Respite me until the day when they are raised up (7:14)”.

So, Iblis had neither any defect in the principle of belief in Allah’s being the Creator, or in belief in Allah’s Lordship in creation and nor in belief in ma’ad. But still he falls so much! Why? Because he does not believe in Allah’s Lordship in Law-giving (Divine legislation) and docs not regard Allah’s command to be obeyed unquestionably, unless Allah’s command would be consistent with (Ibis’s) own thought and desire." 2



Edited by S.M.H.A.

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On 1/18/2016 at 2:16 PM, mostafaa said:

why is he considered to be "Mushrik".


Topic is about, your understanding of Shirk, and in your opinion what actually,  constitutes Shirk.

You quoted the Qur’an. And we can understand it differently.

It would help, if you explicitly explain your understanding here?

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When scientists need to understand something, they always go back to the beginning of the universe, [as they know the beginning to be], to see what existed and how it transformed into what is it today, or the shape or form or derivative of the first known elements or particles.


In my layman's opinion, We need to do the same, as most of these concepts, issues and different definition of terms , like infallibility, Imamat, Mawla, Worship, Prayer, Dua/Supplication, invocation..etc..


They trace all their beginning back to The event of Ghadir Khumm[1], on 18th of Dhu’l Hijjah of the year 10 AH. One party of Muslims went one way and the other went with a different understanding. Both have different understanding of Islam based on their understanding and acceptance of the Message delivered at Ghadir Khum. Who is right or wrong is not the issue here under discussion. But for academic discussion, need to point out some facts as they are directly related to the topic at hand, i.e, “Shirk” [ in worship ]


Two main things to happen that may have influence on how these terms are defined today. One before the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp], and one after.


A] That the book of Allah is sufficient for us. [2] [2A]


B]   “ ..one who worshipped Muhammad Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam should know that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had passed away, the one who worships Allah, let him know that Allah is living and will live for ever..” [3]


What was the environment like at that time, that one of the companion had to say, One who worshipped Muhammad[pbuhahp], should know that he passed away…


What necessitated this explicit comment? What is the meaning of Worshipping the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp]?

Your thoughts?

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In the last post [2A], should have said, scroll to the bottom to get to the hadith “ Volume 9, Book 92, Number 468:  "The Prophet is seriously ill, and you have the Qur'an, so Allah's Book is sufficient for us."


Also, since the event of Ghadir Khumm is crucial in understanding the major differences and subsequent issue related to Tawheed, Shirk,etc. Some, of the new people maybe not sure, as there are various websites creating all sort of confusion related to this event.


What we layman can gather on this event.


1][Pickthal 5:3] “....This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam…”


2][Pickthal 5:67] O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord, for if thou do it not, thou wilt not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect thee from mankind. Lo! Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk.


3]The Messenger of Allah declared:

"It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere to them both,  you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my Progeny, that is my Ahlul Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."


4]Then the Messenger of Allah continued:

"Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?"  

People cried and answered:

"Yes, O' Messenger of God."


5]Then followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of 'Ali as the leader of the Muslim ummah.  The Prophet held up the hand of 'Ali and said:


"For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), 'Ali is his Leader (mawla)."  [ 1 ]


6]Farewell Speech delivered by Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp]

7]Place called Ghadir Khumm on the 18th of Dhu'l-Hijjah of the year 10 AH

8] 100,000 + companions

9] All companions were told to convey the have message that they received to others.

10] In Verse 5:3 the order is between other issues.


Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] speech at Ghadir Khumm here Link [Sahih Muslim: Ghadir Khumm]


If you review the link I have attached, for the farewell pilgrimage from the book titled “ The Sealed Nectar “ the life of Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] by Safi-ur Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri, Islamic University of Al Madenah Al- Munawwarah [Link: Farewell Pilgrimage]

In addition to the link, you can search on the net for The last Sermon[Khutbatul Wada] of Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp].


“On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah….. “—


“They saddled it and had it ready, so he went down the valley where a hundred thousand and twenty-four or forty-four thousand people gathered round him. There he stood up and delivered the following speech”:


“As soon as the Prophet (Peace be upon him) had accomplished delivering the speech, the following Qur’ânic verse was revealed to him:

“This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” [5:3]”

From above, it is clear that the part of the verse 5:3 in question was revealed at the time of the Farewell Pilgrimage, 10 AH. Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] did give a sermon, [either on 8 or 18 or on both days of Dhul-Hijjah [ ?] ]. Because Sahih Muslim gives the place of the sermon called Ghadir Khumm. Maybe there are multiple narrations. There were at least 100,000+ companions present.

Islam is not only, a personal relationship with Allah[awj]. It’s a way of life. Qur’anic Verses 5:3 & 5:67 clearly explain the importance of the message. Message which will create some issues, among the Muslims and Allah[awj] informs the Prophet  Muhammad[pbuhahp], will protect. Not that Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] was afraid, it does not make sense, as the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] preached the message to the hostile Meccans and so on. Its for us to realize the importance to it, and the resistance, it will generate. Divine Message[Islam] had to be delivered by an infallible Prophet and executed/implemented by an infallible Imam[as].

Prophet Muhammad [pbuhahp] preached for 13 years in Mecca, Migrated to Medina, First assault on Muslims there were 300+ Muslims defenders, fast forward to conquest of mecca, an army of 10,000 + Muslims 8AH. Meccan who waged three major wars on the Muslim community in Medina, could not fight and “accepted” Islam. Don’t know exact figures, but you get the idea that in 8AH many new muslim entered Islam. Approximately two years later we have 100,000 plus pilgrims at the first and the last Pilgrimage[may be some for other areas].

Point is that the community after the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] had a large number of people who had just recently converted to Islam[within last 2 or 3 years]. Today, we see people regard Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] as just a man, who delivered a message, and we have the Quran. Because the message they received form history is that after the Religion was completed at the final pilgrimage, no more revelation from God. They started planning ahead.

They all recognized and and verbally profess that he is th Prophet, belived in one God, the Qur’an and the day of judgement.

In the last day, we see resistance to Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] commands and wishes.

As “The leadership of Osamah was subject to criticism”  [ 2 ], Tragedy of Thursday, [2] & [2A] last post.

One of the companion said

“ ..one who worshipped Muhammad Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam should know that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had passed away, the one who worships Allah, let him know that Allah is living and will live for ever..” [3]

like the past, separate the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] and the Ahlul Bayt[as] from Islam. We have the same thing going on today. Only Allah[awj]. Only Qur’an. Respect/Reverence of the Muslims is manipulated as worship.

Instead of the Divine Kingdom, we have the Political Kingdom. They will scream “Shirk” at anything that they feel will get the Muslim stay connected with Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] and Ahlul Bayt[as].

Karbala exposed them in the past, and they would like the memory of it to disappear and Karbla not commemorated. As the commemoration of Karbala will keep us attached to Al- Islam. Which the political Kingdom would very much like to mold it in their way for their political purpose.

So, the real Shirk is rejection of Ghadir Khumm.The Command of Allah[awj], The Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] and Imam[as].


[Pickthal 4:59] O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority..”

[Pickthal 5:55] Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe, who establish worship and pay the poordue, and bow down (in prayer).

Above is my Layman's view, and all as mentioned in the last post.[If there are any mistakes, point them out]. Your comments are appreciated.

Edited by magma
removed strikethrough

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Moderator: Kindly fix the last post- strikethrough lines.

Here is  a deep dive into the concept which is essential in understanding the differences we have, which are the cause of all evil - Today's Khawarij are calling other Muslims Mushriks, and kafir. On the surface their slogans are appealing " Only Allah" , for ones without insight. 

“Khawarij raised the slogan "rule of Allah" and said that Ali Ibn Abi Talib should not be the ruler. They used to say, لاٰحُکْمَ اِلاَّللّٰہ‘ - Governing is the right of God only. In response Commander of the Faithful used to say, 5کَلَمِۃُ حَقٍّ يُرٰادُ بِھَاالْبٰاطِل - What they are saying is correct but their purpose is evil.

They are right and the real ruler is God. The One who defines the commandments and holds the reins of all affairs of life is God. Rule and law belong to God but who is going to execute the law? Are you saying that no one other than God should implement the law? In response Imam Ali said, لاٰ بُدَّلِلنّا سِ مِنْ اَميرٍ - For a human society there is a need for a ruler.”


[Qur’an 5:55] Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe, who establish worship and pay the poordue, and bow down (in prayer).


“وَ الله وَلِيُّ الْمُوْمِنينَ

Allah is the Wali of the Faithful.

We have pondered over the verses that have the word Wali or Walis in them and have studied them all briefly. We have observed that God is Islamic Society's Wali, there is no helper for the faithful other than God and God should be the Ruler over all affairs of mankind is a subject that is consistently upheld in the Glorious Qur'an.

The meanings may be confusing to some people and we want to remind them that our discussion is not about Lord of the Worlds' Innate Rule i.e., Rule by Creation. It is a fact that the Lord manages the movement of the earth and the skies with His Controlling Will. Our talk relates to the fact that the laws in the peoples' lives and the individual and the community relationships in the Islamic society should be based on the Commandments from God. In other words the legal Ruler of the Islamic and Qur'anic society under the Islamic system and that of Imam Ali could only be God and only God.

Now a question arises, "what is meant by the Ruler is God?"

The Sublime Lord is not going to come to the people to implement His commandments.

Furthermore, only a human being can rule over other humans. It is vital that the control of people's affairs should be in the hands of a person. However, when we talk about a person, it does not imply that we are emphasizing a single individual and negating plural leadership. What we are saying is that there is a need for an individual who can take the reins of people's affairs in his hands, otherwise, if there is law in a society - it may even be God's law - but there is no commander, ruler or a committee; in short, if there is no administrator to implement the law in a human society, its systems will not function.

Who can such an individual be?

Who is that individual or individuals with the right to rule over the society; who have been recognized as the Wali of the society; who have to take the responsibility of Wilayat.

There have been several answers to this question. Historical facts also give several answers.

Some have said, اَلْمُلْکُ لَمِنْ غَلَب - whoever takes charge will be the ruler of the state. In other words, rule of the jungle. Some have stated whoever is shrewd deserves to rule. Others have decreed one who has support of people should rule. Still others have declared one who belongs to a certain tribe is eligible to rule. Some other people have expressed other logic and ideas.

The religion and school of thought has answered,

اِنَّمَا وَلِيُّکُمُ الله وَ رَسُوْلُہ

verily Allah and His Prophet are your Walis.

So practically speaking the one who has been given the responsibility of enforcing the law and enjoining good and forbidding evil in the society is the Prophet. So when a Prophet arrives in a society, there is no room for anyone else to rule in his presence. Prophet is the one who should have the power in the society.

However, when the Prophet passes away just like others, who will be the next ruler?

The Qur'anic verse responds, وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - the believers are your walis.

What believers?

Can every faithful who believes in the religion and the school of thought be the Wali and the ruler of the Islamic society? In this situation there will be as many rulers as the believers.

The Qur'anic verse in addition to identifying a known and appointed individual according to legislation as the rightful ruler, rationalizes the selection and provides a measure. It says, وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - those who believe. And who really believe. These words are for those who have validated their belief through action. So وَالَّذِيْنَ ٰامَنُو - the first condition is that they are truly believers. There are other conditions too. الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ - those who establish prayer. It does not say, "those who pray." It is one thing to pray and another to establish prayer. If the objective was to just pray, then يصلّون - pray would have been a short message. Establishing prayer in a society means that the soul of the prayer in the society is alive; praying is common in the society. And you know that praying society implies a society in which remembrance of God is present in all its corners.

You know that in a society that is filled with remembrance of God, no crime or evil happens. In such a society the human values are not debased. A society that has all its members remembering God has its compass pointed towards God and all peoples' deeds are for God.

The only reason for the presence of evil in a society and bowing to tyranny and oppression is forgetting God. A society in which God is remembered, has its ruler like Ali Ibn Abi Talib who does not oppress, rather eradicates oppression. It has commoners like Abu Dharr Ghaffari who do not bow to subjugation in spite of physical abuse, deportation, terrorization and helplessness. They do not leave the path of God. This is a society that remembers God. This is a society where prayer is established. A believer who establishes prayer in the society, i.e, directs the society towards God and fosters remembrance of God in the society is among الَّذِيْنَ يُقِيْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوۃَ -those who establish prayer.

The discourse does not stop here. Next وَ يُوتُوْنَ الزَّکٰوۃَ - they pay alms; they spend in the way of Allah; they distribute wealth justly. Then He says, وَ ہُمْ رَاکِعُوْنَ - in the state of bowing (pay alms). This is an allusion towards a special event and an anecdote. Some commentators say that وَ ہُمْ رَاکِعُوْنَ - means that these people are always kneeling and it does not refer to any special incident.

However, knowledge of Arabic language discards this conjecture and tells us that this phrase means that someone likes equality so much; he is so eager to give in the way of God; it pains him so much to see poverty and a needy that he just cannot wait to finish his prayer. This person is so intensely inclined towards spending in the way of God and he is so involved in this activity that he just cannot wait; has no patience. When he looks at a poor person, he sees a picture that is not appreciated by God and he himself does not like it; at that moment all he has is a ring, so he just takes it off in the state of prayer and hands it over to the needy. This is a known historical incident that occurred in the hands of the Commander of the believers, Imam Ali: while he was praying, a needy person came and the Imam gave him his ring, at this point this verse was revealed.

So as you observed, this verse is hinting towards appointing Ali Ibn Abi Talib as the Wali. It is not doing it the same way as some individuals in history were forced upon people. As an example, when Mu’awiyyah wants to appoint his son as his successor, he says, "My successor is my son and he is going to rule after me." The sublime Lord is not appointing the successor of the Prophet the same way. However, since the qualities in a head of the government - total faith in God, establishment of prayer and the fondness for charity to the extent of forgetting oneself - are found in Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the magnificent Lord, while selecting the Imam as the Caliph, is explaining the yardstick and the wisdom behind the criterion for the caliphate. On these grounds the Wali in Islam is an individual sent by God and chosen by God.

The concept is that according to the makeup of this world no one individual has the right to rule over another individual and the only entity that has this right is God; so He can delegate this right to someone based on what is good for the people. And we know that God's work is for the welfare of human beings and not based on force. So He appoints and we should accept His appointments.

The Lord of the worlds appoints the Prophet and the Imams. He also defines certain characteristics for the rulers to come after the Imams and says that those who bear these qualities will be the rulers of Islamic society after the infallible Imams. So He appoints Walis. He Himself is a Wali; his Prophet is a Wali and the twelve Imams coming after the Prophet are Walis. The Imams have been appointed from the family of the Prophet and their count is twelve. For later time periods those who meet the specific criteria have been appointed as rulers.

This was one verse that we described for you. There are other verses in Glorious Qur'an, some of them we have referred to in our speeches and the others you should look for yourselves. There are scores of such verses.

Islam underscores the fact that the reign of people should not be in the hands of such people who would push the ordinary people into hell.”



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“Say, “I am just a human being like you. It has been revealed to me that your God is One God. So whoever expects to encounter his Lord—let him act righteously, and not associate anyone with the worship of his Lord’.”10

In regard to this verse, Imām al-Sādiq (‘a) stated, “This kind of polytheism is sanctimony.”11

In another hadīth, a transmitter of traditions has said, “I went to see the Noble Prophet (s) and noticed that his face showed signs of anger. I asked why he was angry. His Holiness [the Noble Prophet (s)] responded, ‘I fear lest my community become polytheists.’ I asked, ‘Your community will become polytheists after you have left?’ The Noble Prophet (s) responded, ‘Beware! My community will not worship the sun, the moon, idols and/or stones, but will be sanctimonious in their deeds, and sanctimony is exactly the same as polytheism, which I fear will engulf my community.’ Then, he recited this verse, ‘So whoever expects to encounter his Lord—let him act righteously, and not associate anyone with the worship of his Lord’.”12


Can any knowledgeable member, provide an Arabic version of the above hadith[Tradition] and can you also verify, if the translation into English is accurate. Do we have other Hadiths[Traditions] from Prophet Muhammad[pbuh ahp] and Ahlul Bayt[as] on this subject.

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What is Worship ? [It is used in connection of Shirk as it is alleged we do not worship Allah[awj] and assign partners]. Is it only daily obligatory prayers which maybe amount to in total time about One Hour per day? or is it something more ...Is this term been define in narrow terms to bring about a desired outcome?

At the passing of the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] form this material/temperal world it was said

" “ ..one who worshipped Muhammad Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam should know that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wasallam had passed away, the one who worships Allah, let him know that Allah is living and will live for ever..” [3]


وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ {56}

[Shakir 51:56] And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me.
[Pickthal 51:56] I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me.
[Yusufali 51:56] I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me.

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 51:56]

Refer to Sad: 27. Imam Jafar bin Muhammad As Sadiq said:

"Allah created man and gave him faculties of observation and contemplation to acquire knowledge with which he understands the manifestation of His power and then submits to Him."

Without knowledge man's adoration of Allah has no real worth. The actual meaning of adoration is not the performance of rituals or a few prescribed formal prayers, recited by the mouth. Adoration involves surrender of ego, self-control and discipline, so that he acts only in consonance with the expressed will of Allah, by abiding with His commands. The whole life-activity of the individual should be nothing but the fulfilment of the will of Allah.

"Say: Verily my prayer and my sacrifice, and my life and my death (all) are for the Lord of the worlds." (An-am: 163)

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

This is the purpose of creation, as expressed in the holy book-to act according to the will and the command of Allah. The most perfect form of action is the absolute submission to His will, that is, Islam. Therefore of the creatures, whoever is better in manifesting His will and His command throughout life, will be closer to the purpose of creation, and therefore nearer to Him. The more perfect in obedience will be nearer to the creator, and the closer they are to Him, the more perfect they will be in the order of creation.


قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {31}

[Shakir 3:31] Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL
[Pickthal 3:31] Say, (O Muhammad, to mankind): If ye love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
[Yusufali 3:31] Say: "If ye do love Allah, Follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:31]

Love of Allah is the basis and essence of Islam. Fear is not the motivating factor, because one who worships Him and obeys His commands out of fear, devoid of love for His grace, comes in the category of idolworshippers who worship the false deities to appease their anger. See the commentary of rahman and rahim in surah al Fatihah and know that the heathen syndrome has been destroyed and replaced with love, kindness and compassion by the religion of Allah, Islam. The phrase "God-fearing" actually means guarding oneself against evil with awareness of the boundaries laid down by Allah. Man must refrain from thinking or acting in a way which may hurt the feelings of the beloved whom he intensely loves, reveres and worships.

It is made clear in this verse that he who loves Allah must follow the Holy Prophet. Sincere following of the Holy Prophet in the day to day life is the only proof of the love of Allah, otherwise it is an empty claim. Allah loves the true followers of the Holy Prophet and forgives their sins.

One who loves his beloved also loves those whom his beloved loves, therefore, every sincere follower of Islam (Allah's lover) must love the Holy Prophet and those whom he loves. There are several authentic traditions reported in the books of history written by Muslim scholars, referred to in the commentary of many verses in this book, according to which the Holy Prophet had openly declared his exclusive love for Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and their children; and in verse 23 of al Shura love of the Ahl ul Bayt has been enjoined on all the true believers. In fact those who do not love the Ahl ul Bayt are not the believers, therefore, the doctrine of tawalla is one of the fundamentals of the true faith, Islam original or Shi-aism.

Likewise, in the light of verse 28 of this surah, it is the duty of every Muslim to avoid and dislike the enemies and the allies and friends of the enemies of the Holy Prophet, because a believer cannot be a friend of those who hated and opposed the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt. Therefore, the doctrine of tabarra is also one of the fundamentals of the true faith, Shi-aism.

The love of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt makes man follow in their footsteps, which, in fact, is the love of Allah. Those who oppose them and follow their enemies go against Allah and His commandments.

A true lover of Allah becomes a devotee of the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, and mindful of the life after death, his true love activates him to always do that which pleases Allah, the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt, and refrain from acts of wickedness which certainly displease them; moreover, he remains attached with the Holy Prophet and his Ahl ul Bayt and refrains from going near their ungodly enemies, be they his own kith and kin.

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

According to An-am: 50;Araf: 203;Yunus: 15; Ahqaf: 9 and Najm: 3 and 4, since the Holy Prophet only followed the divine will, therefore, following in his footsteps is the only proof of the love of Allah, which alone entitles man to receive Allah's love. Any deviation from his word or deed means the deviator not only loses Allah's love but also earns His displeasure.

Ali ibna abi Talib has said:

The words and deeds of the Holy Prophet, from the beginning to the end of his stay in this world, were the truest demonstration of the divine revelations (nothing but a revelation revealed), and I did not follow any save him.

Therefore, Ali was the beloved of Allah and His prophet because he loved Allah and His prophet.

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Forms and Levels of Tawhid and Shirk in Islam - by Br. Khalil Jaffar

Consider the Prophet Muhammad [pbuhahp] and his Ahlulbayt[as] as the Best Teachers of Tawhid.

Meaning of Tawhid and Shirk is much more than just basic understanding and definition of monotheism and polytheism.

Tawhid and Shirk are multidimensional just as Islam & Iman.

Limiting ourselves to the definition and understanding of Monotheist and Polytheist from a Jurisprudence [Fiqh] point of view/perspective.

From the Theological and Spiritual perspective , all the different levels of Tawhid and Shirk even if at face value one is considered a Muslim.

There are many different forms/levels of Tawhid and Shirk, but the most prominent and pertinent here are at least Five. [Each one of the Five have their own levels and forms]

Tawhid and Shirk in  Essence of Allah [awj]

Tawhid and Shirk in Attributes of Allah [awj]

Tawhid and Shirk in Actions of Allah [awj]

Tawhid and Shirk in Obedience of Allah [awj]

Tawhid and Shirk in Worship of Allah [awj]

Your Thoughts?





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The biggest Idol is a false identity created by Satan and is his very uncleanness. In summarizing all idol worship the Quran "did I not take a covenant from you o offspring of Adam not to worship Satan for he is an open enemy. And worship me - that is a straight a path".

That uncleanness of Satan when it's valued over the pure word of God,  is belittling God's attributes, names, light, and when it's valued somewhat on par with God, we are unclean.

The reason why Nuh's people stuck to their idols was to stick to their leaders. And the reason to stick to their leaders, was to stick to the love of their people. And their love of their people over God stemmed from love of their identity. And that identity would not be a problem where it not that it was an unclean falsehood and darkness created by Satan and was Satan's spirit being inspired in people. 

Of course, there is nothing wrong with loving yourself or others, but it should be love for God's sake in so much it's loving them to the degree their nature is in line with God and his names. When we love the uncleanness of Satan within us over the light of Taha within us, we are in deep trouble.

When everything is about serving the delusional self that is inspired by Satan, we are worshipping Satan. Yes we are even deluded that we are worshipping ourselves when we make ourselves number 1, because that number 1 self preferred over God, is nothing but Satan spirit in us, and we are in fact, above it, while he afflicts us with his spirit and slowly makes us born of him while we don't realize it, till we are of illegitimate birth. 

Humans aren't that evil, they simply worship Satan because he deludes them into thinking they are him and he is them without realizing his influence. And his inner music which is influenced by outer music as well, makes you believe that unclean identity he wants you to value over everything else is you and he adorns that valuing that self over everything else.

On the other hand, Imam Mahdi is with believers, and their identity is born from him, and they are not of illegitimate birth.  They are taught to value God through him as the most valued thing and through him not seek anything other then the face of God.

We cannot value God as he deserved to be valued. But we can at least value in him to the extent we worship no one apart from him, valuing him more then anything else by a great degree.

When we obey Satan over time, he begins to take over our hearing and seeing. When we let the darkness overcomes the light, we must at this point, with all effort, seek refuge in God through his name. 

Do not go with the flow of dark forces inspiration, because, at the end, we realize, it wasn't us we even valued, we were never that dark, and we were never that unclean, but we valued Satan's spirit thinking it was us.









Edited by StrugglingForTheLight

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On 1/13/2016 at 4:40 PM, S.M.H.A. said:

If you can define, “ Shirk” and what actually constitutes Shirk, based on your understanding of the term Shirk.



My understanding of Shirk is when we set up idols or blindly follow celebrities and products and deify them:


Link/source: http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/coca-cola-sign.html


Link/source: http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-urban-energy-midtown-manhattan-new-york-city-hustle-bustle-modern-life-night-under-colorful-billboards-image40155275

Also people who treat science as some time of replacement of inner meaning, "look up at the stars and galaxies" and using these material entities as replacements of inner meaning and substitutions for God, when even stars will eventually have their expiration dates and are governed by forces of nature surpassing them.


Edited by Enlightened Follower

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What you both have pointed out is mentioned here by

Amir al-Muminin(Commander of the Faithful), Imam al-Muttaqeen(Leader of the Pious), Hujjah of Allah(awj)(Proof of Allah(awj), Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib(as).

In Sermon #7 in Nahjul Balagha [Peak of Eloquence]  : They have made Satan the master of their affairs...

About the hypocrites

ومن خطبة له (عليه السلام)

يذم فيها أتباع الشيطان

They1 have made Satan the master of their affairs, and he has taken them as partners. He has laid eggs and hatched them in their bosoms. He creeps and crawls in their laps. He sees through their eyes, and speaks with their tongues. In this way he has led them to sinfulness and adorned for them foul things like the action of one whom Satan has made partner in his domain and speaks untruth through his tongue.

اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيْطَانَ لاِمْرِهِمْ مِلاَكاً، وَاتَّخَذَهُمْ لَهُ أَشْرَاكاً، فَبَاضَ وَفَرَّخَ في صُدُورِهِمْ، وَدَبَّ وَدَرَجَ في حُجُورِهِمْ، فَنَظَرَ بِأَعْيُنِهِمْ، وَنَطَقَ بِأَلسِنَتِهِمْ، فَرَكِبَ بِهِمُ الزَّلَلَ، وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الخَطَلَ، فِعْلَ مَنْ قَدْ شَرِكَهُ الشَّيْطَانُ في سُلْطَانِهِ، وَنَطَقَ بِالبَاطِلِ عَلى لِسَانِهِ!




Shaytan[Iblis] was a superficial worshiper, not a True servant of Allah[awj]. Qur’an [ 3:31    ](above), Love is mentioned & in Qur’an [42:23].

قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَىٰ


"(O Prophet) tell (people) I don’t ask you any wage (in return for my prophethood) except to love my near kin. And if anyone earns any good We shall give Him an increase of good (in return for it)”

(Qur’an 42:23)

Because the best way to find out the truth about someone is to check their love and dislike system. If it is in line with the command/wish of Allah[awj]- They are on their way to achieve nearness to Allah[awj].

Shaytan[Iblis] even after worshiping for six thousand plus years would have continued till eternity, But he was checked for his love and dislike system. Shaytan[Iblis] failed. Shaytan[Iblis] only worshiped Allah[awj] as long as it served his purpose, he was not one who would love and dislike for the sake of Allah[awj].

Shaytan[Iblis] hatred Adam[as] and his progeny and wants to harm them. Adam[as] did not do any direct harm to Shaytan[Iblis]. Just because Shaytan [selfishness/Pride etc]

Love, manifests itself in emotions. If we are spiritually and emotionally connected with the Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] and Ahlul Bayt[as]. We are happy and sad based on what makes them happy or sad. Azadari for the Son of Sayeda Fatima Az Zahra[sa] is one of  the manifestation of this love. Which only brings us closer to Allah[awj].

One of the way to look at it [Spiritual connection] - when we say, Ya Muhammad, Ya Ali, Ya Zahra, Ya Hasan, Ya Husayn[Peace be upon them All] not because we worship them or they are  as Divine. Its the command of Allah[awj] to Love them and to Love them is to follow them- and as a constant reminder

We want to keep the spiritual connection alive at all time[ 24/7/365].

Shaytan[Iblis] and his forces, want to twist and turn it and portray this as something else- as Shirk/Kufr.

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The Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp]  has said:

(1) I and Ali are of one and the same light.

(2) Ali is a part of me and I am a part of Ali.

(3) The root of Ali and me is the same, but all other people come from various other origins.

(Zaynul Fata; Ibna Maghazali; Shafa-i; Kanzul Ummal, Ahmad ibna Hanbal).

[Pooya/Ali Commentary 3:34]

The Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] said:

“Whoever dies, not knowing the Imam of his age, dies in ignorance.”

The Prophet Muhammad[pbuhahp] said:

“The first of us is Muhammad,  the middle of us is Muhammad,the last of us is Muhammad,everyone of us is Muhammad.”

Only men of understanding know that the same quality of divine energy which activated the prophethood was also manifested in imamat with equal force.

Below is part of the commentary of 2:255 al-islam.org. It may clarify few concerns.

“Prophet after prophet came and awakened man step by step and degree by degree. Finally the Holy Prophet, the brightest light, was sent to expose and explain the ultimate truth, as promised by Allah, to enlighten the human mind and heart with the knowledge through which man can become aware of the Lord God, but comprehends only what his power of contemplation can bear.

It is reported that there are three kinds of existence;


The self-existing existence. The primal cause. There can never be any effect without a cause. The universe, therefore, was created by the self-existing creator, the primal cause.


The creatures or created beings whose creation is possible only if the creator so wills.


The impossible existence. The existence of another being like Allah is not possible because there cannot be two equals in the sense of oneness. If there are two equals in this sense, then there is no meaning in their being two, separated from each other. They must be one. If there are two such beings then there must be a dividing factor which makes the two as two and maintains their two separate entities, in which case the dividing factor will be the wajib ul wujud, therefore, such an existence is neither possible nor real.

Wajib ul wujud, therefore, means the self-existing existence of the ever-living and self-subsisting creator. To maintain His self-existing existence He must be an omnipotent authority who not only owns absolute knowledge of the existence but also the will that does what it wills. His control is absolute. His attributes are His self, inseparable from Him from any point of view or in any imaginable meaning or sense, as the meaning is inseparable from a word or as equiangularity is inseparable from an equilateral triangle. As the limited knowledge of the finite being cannot conceive of anything without referring to its attributes, we give names to the attributes of Allah, with the help of our visualisation, to have a suggestive idea of His absolute existence. Therefore, the Shia school holds it as a cardinal doctrine of faith not to think of any of His attributes as a separate entity from His existence. All the attributes of Allah are one absolute unity, because, if they are not, then it would mean complexity, which negates the absolute independence of the omnipotent authority. His existence means His authority, His authority means His knowledge, and likewise all His attributes are so linked together that they are one indivisible unity. Allah is a transcendental reality. He is unknowable. He is an infinite being, beyond the conceivability of our finite consciousness. He is inconceivable. He is hayyul qayyum, the ever-living, the self-subsisting (Ali Imran: 2; Ta Ha: 111, Mumin: 65).

Imam Ali says:

O He! O He whom none knows what He is, nor how He is, nor where He is, nor in what respect He is; except He.

(Dua al-Mashlul)

Aqa Mahdi Puya says:

Qayyum is a magnified form of the adjective qayam - standing, lasting, enduring. It implies He who stands by Himself, and all others stand because of His (eternal) endurance. His relation to His creatures is like the source of light to the rays of the light, or like the mind to the concepts, not like the relation of an architect or a builder to a construction he builds. It is exactly as Ali ibna abi Talib has said-"Every thing stands by means of Him". He is the self-subsisting everlasting, therefore, He is the first and the last, and the apparent and the hidden (Hadid: 2 and 3); and He is the knower of all things, and He is with everything but is not computed with anything (Mujadilah : 7; Ma-idah: 73).

While trying to visualise His attributes, it is necessary not to be misled by the finite inferences. His activity does not at all mean movement to perform an act by employing energy as we do. Awareness of His attributes, based upon reason and contemplation, may appear pure and perfect to us, but, in fact, it remains a shadow of the reality which transcends all faculties of comprehension.

"Slumber does not overtake Him", means that He is not influenced by any change whatsoever. He is beyond time and states, for He encompasses time and all states. He is the ever vigilant, or the true and perfect vigilance itself.

"Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His" means that He is the creator of matter. If the "matter" is not created by Allah, and is said to be eternally existing as He is, then He is only a fashioner of things out of matter, in which case nothing belongs to Him. There is no propriety in this conjecture. It is unreasonable to say that there are two independent eternal equals. If matter is accepted as an independent and uncreated eternal, then Allah, to prove His existence, will need the matter to carry out His creative plan, otherwise the matter will remain idle. There is no meaning in the idea of two eternal equals, separated from each other. They must be one. If there are two such beings, then there must be a dividing factor which makes the two as two and maintains their two separate entities, in which case the dividing factor, superior in will and authority will be the ever-existing supreme being.

"Who can intercede with Him, except by His permission?" implies that though Allah is the almighty and the absolute sovereign but as He is also the merciful, the compassionate, He has given permission to "Muhammad and Ali Muhammad", the thoroughly purified, to intercede on behalf of the sinners. The issue of intercession has been dealt with in detail in the commentary of verse 48 of this surah. Please refer to it.

"He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they cannot comprehend anything out of His knowledge except what He pleases", means Allah's omniscience. The finite beings cannot hide anything from Allah. They cannot comprehend anything except what He pleases, no matter whatever knowledge and intelligence they possess. The facts which are unknown or unknowable to the finite beings are known to the infinite. Allah's knowledge is infinite and absolute. He is the knowing who knows ahead and in advance (in term of time and space) the origin and causality of knowledge. Although the ordinary human beings do not perceive that which is known to Allah only, but those who have been endowed with the divine knowledge are aware of the secrets of the universe.

In "His kursi (seat of authority and knowledge) extends over the heavens and the earth", although kursi literally means "chair", like arsh (used in other verses of the Quran) means "throne", but both these words have been used metaphorically. They refer to the divine knowledge and authority of the supreme, almighty and sovereign Allah, in relation to all that which has been created by Him. His "relation" with His creation, in time and space, remains unconditionally unaffected. His control over everything, created by Him, is perfect, complete and absolute. There is no limitation to the infinity of His existence, because the ever-existing existence is only His and it is He who gives existence to whom He wills. When we say "He is here, there and everywhere", we only make use of our limited and inadequate ability to understand and express His absolute infinity. He is the creator of time and space, therefore, His infinite existence cannot be conceived by the help of the knowledge derived from the system based upon experience and induction.

According to the Ahl ul Bayt kursi or arsh, not connected with any kind of matter, is the manifestation of His knowledge and authority in relation to all that which has been created. It includes all the heavens and the earth. Arsh refers to Allah's hold and sway over all creation. In other words, the creation as a whole is the kursi or the throne of Allah from which all His divine attributes of knowledge, wisdom, might and glory manifest.

"And the preservation of them does not tire Him" means the creation, as a whole, is sustained by Him, and its continued existence is maintained by Him. The laws (created by Him), governing the operation of creation, produce fatigue, therefore, He is independent of such laws. His absolute existence is eternal and everlasting.

"He is the most high, the great", according to the Holy Prophet, is one of the most important verses of the Quran, which deals with the unity of Allah, His attributes, His relation to His creatures, the position of man in the order of creation, his instinctive desire to turn unto Him, his means of salvation and the ultimate reward and punishment.

In order to prevent the total seizure of mind and heart by the greatness of the kursi, mentioned in this verse, it is made clear in the end that Allah alone is the most high, the greatest.”


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