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Arabic Terms - Glossary

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Salam,

I've notice a few times, like this morning, that variations in translation spellings are difficult to decipher and read.

For people like myself, this is awkward.

So, I suggest, we have a pinned Thread under "Technical Support" so some words are standardized in spelling. A short definition being optional.

I suggested under Tech Spt because it is a short section and the best heading for this idea.

What remains is how it is administered and by who. Maybe the First Post being the dictionary and the subsequent posts being suggestions.

[Mod Note: This topic is a project that is being updated.]

Edited by Hameedeh
Mod Note

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Thank you for starting this topic. We recognize that different members spell words differently; Shia, Shiah, Shi'a, Muhammad, Mohammad, Muhammed, Mohamad, Fatima, Fatimah, Fatemeh, Fatma, etc. Perhaps the best we can do is make a list of words that other people are using, as a means of helping each other out.

Aalim: Scholar
Ahlul Bayt : People of the house. They are The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), Janabe Fatima Zahra (s.a.), Ali (a.s.) and his eleven successors.
Ahsan : Goodness
Amanat : Trust
Amr-bil-Maroof : Enjoining to do good
Ayat or Ayah : Verse of the Holy Quran
Barakat : Divine increase of bounties
Barzakh : The intermediary stage between death and the Day of the Judgement
Bismillah : In the Name of Allah
Dirham : Unit of currency
Diyah : Blood money
Dua : Invocation
Ehtekaf : A recommended ritual consisting of a continuous stay of at least three days in the mosque during the last ten days of the month of Ramazan (Ramadan, Ramadhan).
Fajr : Morning
Faqih : Jurisprudent
Firon : Pharaoh (some think Ramases II, Ramesses II, Ramses II)
Furoo-e-Deen : Branches of Religion or the practical laws of Islam

Ghafil: Reckless

Ghusul Hayz: After a woman completes menstruation (hayz) it is obligatory for her to take a bath (ghusul) to be Tahir again.
Hadd : Punishment
Hadith : A statement of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) or of the Holy Imams (a.s.)
Hajj : Annual pilgrimage to Makkah during the month of Zilqad
Halal : Permissible, legal
Haraam : Prohibited, illegal
Hasna : Unit of heavenly rewards
Hijab : Statutory Islamic dress for women, veil, curtain
Iblees : Satan, Shaytan
Iddah : A prescribed period a woman has to pass after divorce or her husband's demise before she can remarry.

Ihtiyat Wajib: Precautionarily Obligatory

Ihtiyat Musteheb: Precautionarily Recommended  
Imaan : Faith
Imla : Respite given by Allah to the sinners in which they become more heedless of their sins .
Insha-Allah : (InshaAllah, InShaAllah) If Allah wills
Isha : Late evening
Jamat : Congregation
Janabat : A state of ritual impurity that can be removed by performing ghusl (Bath)
Jehad : (Jihad) Religious war
Kaaba : The Holy House of Allah, the directions that Muslims face during prayers.
Kaffara : Fine, penalty
Kafir : One who denies God
Kalimas : I witness that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) is the Messenger of Allah

Khums: one fifth or 20% of certain items which a person acquires as wealth and which must be paid as Islamic tax.
Kuffar : Plural of Kafir
Kunniyat : Patronym
Maghrebain : The two prayers of Maghreb (early evening) and Isha (late evening)
Makrooh : Detestable, in the Islamic terminology it denotes an action performing which does not incur sin but refraining from which earns divine rewards

Malaika: Angels
Marefat : Recognition

Ma-sha-Allah : What God Wills (usually used after complimenting something or someone) 
Masjidul-Haram : The Holy Mosque in Makkah
Masoomeen : (Singular- Masum): Infallible
Mehram : Relatives between whom marriage is prohibited
Mahshar : The field where people will be collected on the Day of the Judgement for their final Accounting
Meraj : Ascension (to heaven)
Mithqal : A measure of weight of about 4.6 gms.
Mohib : Admirer
Momin : Believer
Mubah : Permitted. It denotes an action performing of which earns no rewards and refraining from it is not punishable
Mujtahids : Doctors of Islamic law
Munafiq : Hypocrite

Murtad: apostate 
Mushrik : Polytheist
Mustahab : Recommended. It is an action performing which earns rewards and refraining from it is not punishable
Mutawati : A frequently related tradition

Nafs: The Self

Nafs Al Ammara: The Commanding Soul

Nafs Al Lawwama: The Self Accusing Soul
Nahy-Anil-Munkar : Forbidding evil
Najis : Unclean
Nam-e-Amaal : Scroll of deeds
Namaz : Salat or prayers
Namehram : Persons between whom marriage is possible
Nawafil : Recommended prayers
Nikah : Marriage ceremony

Niyya: Intention (every act is judged according to the niyya of the person- prophet Muhammed sawws)
Oqooq : (Singular=Aaq): those who disobey or anger the parents

Qareen: Evil shadow of every person. 
Qasr : Shortening of the ritual prayers during a journey
Qate-Rehmi : Breaking off relations with relatives
Qaza : An unfulfilled obligatory act
Qazi : Judge, jurist

Qisas: the right of a murder victims nearest relative or Wali to take the right of the killer if the court approves.
Qunut : Despondence
Rakat : A unit of ritual prayer
Ramadan, Ramazan : Holy month of Fasting
Rawayat : A narration
Riyah : An act of showing off
Rizq : Sustenance

Rouh: Soul
Sadaat : Descendants of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) through Imam Husain (a.s.)
Sadaqah : Voluntary charity, alms
Salaam : Salute, Islamic greeting
Salaat : Ritual prayers
Sawaab : Divine rewards

Sawm : Fast

Shab-e-Qadr : The Night of Power
Shabaan : A month of the Muslim calender
Shahadatain : See Kalimas
Shariat : Islamic law
Sileh-Reham : An act of goodness towards ones relatives
Siraat : Path

Tabarruj: when a women reveals her adornments and beauty to men (surat al nisaa)

Tahir: Pure/Clean
Taqwa : Piety
Taslim : Acceptance
Tawakkal : Reliance
Tawfeeq : Divine inspiration
Tawheed : (Towhid, towheed) Belief in the absolute Oneness of Allah
Ulil-Amr : One who holds an authoritative position
Ummat : Followers (of Prophets)
Wajib : Obligatory, compulsory
Wajib-e-Aini : An obligation that is to be carried out by every person
Wajib-e-Kifai : An obligatory act which if performed by one ceases to be obligatory on the others
Wilayat : Love and obedience

Wiswas: Paranoia (usually whispers of iblees - refer to surat al naas)
Yaas : Despair

Yawmal Qiyama: Judgment Day
Zakat : Obligatory Islamic wealth tax
Ziarat : Visitation or the recitation of salutation while facing the tomb of religious personalities
Zimmi : A non-muslim who lives under the protection of an Islamic government
Zohrain : The two ritual prayers of Zuhr (noon) and Asr (afternoon)
Zuhoor : Reappearance (of Imam Mahdi [a.t.f.s.]).

New additions:

A'isha: Widow of the Prophet (S) and a leader during Jamal Confrontation.

Abbas: Brother of Imam Husayn, flag-bearer during Karbala.

Abu Sufyan: Leader of Bani Umayya, Mu'awiya's father, was inveterate enemy of Islam.

Abu Musa Ash'ari: Governor fired by Imam ‘Ali, was selected to arbitrate after Siffin.

Ahlul Bayt: The household of the Prophet (s), consisting of ‘Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan, al-Husayn and the 9 Imams descending from al-Husayn (peace be upon them all).

Al- Farazdaq: A famous poet.

Al- Nu'man Ibn al-Basheer: Governor over Kufa replaced by Ibn Ziyad through Yazid's order.

‘Ali Akbar: Son of Imam Al-Husayn, martyred in Karbala.

‘Ali Asghar: Baby of Imam Al-Husayn, martyred in Karbala.

Amal Saleh: Good deed.

Ammar Ibn Yasir: A famous highly revered Companion, on ‘Ali's side, killed in Siffin.

Amr Ibnil Aas: A cunning deceptive person, in Mu'awiya's camp, arbitrator after Siffin.

Ash'ath Ibn Qais: A spy General in ‘Ali's armed forces, also the father of Joda (wife of Al-Hasan).

Bani Asad: The tribe that buried Al-Husayn and the other martyrs of Karbala.

Bani Umayya: A clan known to be power hungry, greedy, and materialistic, of Mu'awiya.

Basrah: An important town in south of Iraq.

Byzantines: The Christian superpower ruling over Syria and Egypt that lost to Islam.

Hani Ibn Urwah: The man who helped Muslim Ibn Aqeel in Kufa and lost his life for the cause.

Hasad: Envy (especially relevant to Surat Al-Falaq)

Hurr Ibn Yazid alRiyahi: The Commander of the enemy force who defected to the side of Imam Husayn.

Ibn Muljim: The killer of Imam ‘Ali while ‘Ali was performing Salat Al-Subh.

Ibn Ziyad: The Governor over Kufa responsible for the atrocities of Karbala.

Imam: The 12 Divinely Commissioned leaders of the Ummah after the Prophet (S).

Imam AlHasan (a.s.): The second Divinely Commissioned Imam, and the brother of Imam Husayn.

Imam ‘Ali (a.s.): The first Divinely Commissioned Imam, and the father of Imam Hasan and Husayn.

Imam Husayn (a.s.): The third Divinely Commissioned Imam, hero of Karbala, brother of Imam Hasan.

Iraq: Country in which Imam Husayn suffered at the hands of its military.

Jamal: Battle imposed on ‘Ali by A'isha, Talha, and Zubair.

Joda: Wife of Imam Al-Hasan, who poisoned him when enticed by Mu'awiya.

Karbala: The site of the ugliest atrocities committed against Al-Husayn, his family and devotees, but Karbala saved Islam from disintegration in an indirect way.

Khalifa: Head of state after the Prophet (S).

Kharijies: The outsiders who turned against ‘Ali, then killed him while he was praying.

Medina: Famous town of the Prophet (S) in Arabia.

Mu'awiya: Of Bani Umayya clan, brother of Yazid, also father of the infamous Yazid of Karbala.

Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr: Brother of A'isha who fought on ‘Ali's side during Battle of Jamal.

Mukhtar AlThaqafi: Loyalist of Ahlul Bayt.

Muslim Ibn Aqeel: Cousin of Al-Husayn and his emissary to Kufa, killed by Ibn Ziyad.

Omar: The second Khalifa who appointed Mu'awiya as the Governor over Syria.

Quraish: The clan of the Prophet (S).

Shar: Evil 

Shimr Bin DhilJawshan: The killer of Imam Husayn, his name will remain in infamy.

Siffin: Battle imposed on ‘Ali by Mu'awiya.

Syria: Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine nowadays used to be called Syria.

Talha: Sahaabi, leader during Jamal Confrontation, killed during that battle.

Tulaqaa': Denigrating term used by Muhammad (S) for the disbelievers who had to become Muslims after Mecca was triumphed over.

Umar Ibn Sa'ad: Commander-in-chief of the military forces against Imam Husayn in Karbala.

Umm Habib: Ramla the daughter of Abu Sufyan, the sister of Mu'awiya, wife of the Prophet (S).

Uthman: The third Khalifa killed by the protesting Muslims.

Waleed Ibn Ut'ba: Governor over Medina when Yazid son of Mu'awiya declared his rulership.

Yazid son of Abu Sufyan: Brother of Mu'awiya, governor of Syria for a few years until he died.

Yazid son of Mu'awiya: Son of Mu'awiya, the infamous despicable ruler, cause of Karbala tragedy.

Zainab: Sister of Al-Husayn, heroin of Karbala, losing her children for the cause.

Zubair: Sahaabi, leader during Jamal Confrontation, refused to fight during that battle.

Edited by Hameedeh
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Correction for Firon Pharaoh: not Ramses II, this was a late 19th Century concoction by Christian leaders at the beginnings of archeology. Ramses II's body was discovered in the 1990s. In addition,  Ref vii:137, as Quran reveals, all monuments and extravagant buildings were "leveled" which would have to include the pyramids that were begun ~2700 BCC.

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There are a number of online dictionaries/ glossaries for Islamic term.

https://www.almaany.com/dicload/Dictionary_of_Islamic_Terms.pdf

http://www.alim.org/library/references/dictionary/a

http://www.al-islam.org/articles/islamic-glossary-explanation-names-terms-and-symbols-hasnain-kassamali

If we can make a word cloud for all non English words mentioned in this site, we maybe able to make a relevant glossary for SC.

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Quote

Masoomeen : (Singular- Masum): Infallible

Masoomeen is the term used for the 14 in the Holy Household: Prophet Muhammad SA, his daughter Fatima AS, and the Twelve Imams AS. 

AJ or ATFS used after the name of the 12th Imam AJ is an abbreviation of 'Ajalallaho ta'ala farajahum' or 'Ajalallaho ta'ala farajahu sharif' which in English means May Allah the Exalted hasten His Relief, the Noble/honourable. 

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Some "Conventions" that you will see or hear in Arabic:

Sallalahu Alayhi wa alihi wa Salaam - May Allah's greetings and blessings be upon him and his progeny (used immediately after referring to the Prophet Muhammad (S))

Alayha al-Salaam (a.s.) - Peace be upon her (used immediately after referring to Khadijah, Fatimah, Zaynab and Maryam)

Alayhi al-Salaam (a.s.) - May Allah bless him (used immediately after referring to a single Imam or Prophet)

Alayhima al-Salaam (a.s.) - May Allah bless them (used immediately after referring to two Imams or two Prophets)

Alayhum al-Salaam (a.s.) - May Allah bless them (used immediately after referring to three or more Imams or Prophets)

Rahimahu Allah - May Allah grant him mercy (used immediately after referring to a single deceased and respected person)

Rahimahum Allah - May Allah grant them mercy (used immediately after referring to deceased and respected people)

Quddisa Sirroh - May his soul be blessed (used immediately after referring to a single deceased and respected scholar)

Quddisa Sirrohuma - May their souls be blessed (used immediately after referring to deceased and respected scholars)

Radi Allahu anhu - May Allah be pleased with him (used after referring to a respected companion of the Prophet or the Imams)

https://www.al-islam.org/fr/node/44038

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On 11/1/2015 at 11:53 AM, Hameedeh said:

Umm Habib

Isn't it Umm Hakima? :einstein:

Lol though I will be sending this thread to some of my non-muslim friends, its pretty useful, thanks :)

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39 minutes ago, Mansur Bakhtiari said:

Isn't it Umm Hakima? :einstein:

Lol though I will be sending this thread to some of my non-muslim friends, its pretty useful, thanks :)

No, not Umm Hakima, but I searched it again and another source said Umm Habib, so I edited the post above. One wife of the Holy Prophet SA was Ramla binte Abu Sufyan, whose agnomen was Umm Habib. 

https://www.al-islam.org/hayat-al-qulub-vol-2-allamah-muhammad-baqir-al-majlisi/wives-prophet-their-number-and-brief

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The Islamic Glossary: An Explanation of Names, Terms and Symbols  Get PDF

https://www.al-islam.org/articles/islamic-glossary-explanation-names-terms-and-symbols-hasnain-kassamali

• Aaron see Harun

• Abar Ali the name of a place where Masjidu Shajarah is situated, 7 km. outside of Medinah.

• Abbas b. Ali b. Abi Talib was the brother of Imam Hussein (A.S.). His mother was Umm al-Banin. Abbas was killed at Karbala.

• Abu Dharr al-Ghiffari (Jundub b. Junada) was a companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.) who was loyal to Imam Ali (A.S.) He died in 32 (A.H.) 651 (A.D.) after being expilled by Uthman.

• Abu Talib was the father of Ali (A.S.). He looked after the Prophet (S.A.W.) when the latter was a child.

• 'Adl is Justice

• Adam was the first man and the first prophet of Allah.

• Adhan is the call for daily ritual prayers (Salat).

• Ahlul-Bayt refers to the Household of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.).

• Ahwat is a precaution. This can be obligatory or optional as ruled by the Mujtahid.

• Akhirah is the Hereafter

• A'lam is the top ranking jurist

• Ale Muhammad Blood kin, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).

• Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.) is the first Imam (A.S.), the cousin and son-in-law of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). He is referred to as Ameer al-Mu'mineen, the Leader of the Faithful. He was poisoned in 661 A.D.

• Ali b. al-Husayn b. Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.) is the fourth Imam.

• Ali b. Muhammad b. Ali b. Musa al-Hadi, Abu al-Hasan (A.S.) is the 10th Imam.

• Ali b. Musa al-Rida, Abu al-Hasan (A.S.) is the eighth Imam.

• 'Alim is a scholar

• Allah refers to God, glory be to Him, there is no god but He. Allah is a Divine name of God. It is the perfect name for God as it truly denotes the absolute Oneness of God. The name has no plural and no feminine form.

• A'maal is an act of worship.

• Amirul Mu'mineen The commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (A.S.).

• Amr bil Ma-roof ordering to goods

• Arafah is the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah.

• Arafat is the area about 25 km. away from Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

• A.H. refers to After Hijrah.

• A.S. refers to 'Alayhis-salaam, (God's) peace be with him. It is said after the names of all previous prophets, their mothers (e.g. Bibi Maryam [Mary] A.S.), the twelve divine Imams from the household of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and Bib i Fatima (A.S.). It will change to 'Alayhas-salaam (peace be with her) if it follows a lady's name. After any two names we say 'Alayhimas-salaam and after more than two names or when referring a group of people we say 'Alayhimus-salaam. Thus, we sa y Imams Hasan and Husayn (A.S.='alayhimas-salaam) and the Ahul-Bayt (A.S.'alayhimus-salaam).

• Ashura the day Iman Hussai (sa) was killed in Karbala land

• 'Asr is the afternoon, and the prayer of the afternoon

• Ayah is a sign of Allah or a verse of the Qur'an (pl. Ayat)

• Ayatul Kursi Verse No. 255 in Suratul Baqarah

• Baab-al-Salaam is one of the famous gates of Masjidul Haraam.

• Baligh is one who is an adult

• Batil is void

• Bilal was a companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.)

• Bismillah means In the Name of Allah or I begin in the Name of Allah

• Bulugh is puberty

• David see Dawood

• Dawood was a Prophet of Allah mentioned in the Qur'an and the Old Testament.

• Deen is religion

• Dhikr is remembrance, the recitation of special invocations during and after ritual prayers.

• Dhuhr prayers are the afternoon prayers

• Dhul Hijjah is the last month (12th) of the Islamic calendar.

• Dhul Qidah is the 11th month of the Islamic calendar.

• Du'a is supplication

• Ehtiaat see Ahwat

• Ehtiaat-Mustahabbi is a preferable precaution

• Ehtiaat-Waajib is an obligatory precaution which must be followed

• Eid is an Islamic holiday. The four Eids are listed below.

    • Eid ul-Adha falls on the tenth day of Dhul Hijjah.

    • Eid ul-Fitr falls on the 1st day of Shawwal.

    • Eid-e Ghadeer

    • Eid-e Mubahala

• Fajr is dawn, and denotes Subhe-Sadiq, the prime time for prayer

• Farsakh is a distance of five and a half kilometers

• Fatiha is the opening chapter of the Holy Qur'an.

• Fatima or Fatema (A.S.), the Chief of the women of the worlds, is the daughter of the Prophet (S.A.W.) and the wife of Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.), the mother of Hasan and Hussein (A.S.)

• Fatwa is a verdict, especially of a Mujtahid

• Fidyah is a sacrifice of an animal for expiation

• Fiqh is a science of religious jurispudence

• Fitrah is the charity due on the occasion of Eid al-Fitr, on the night after Ramadhan.

• Foroo-e-Din are the branches of Islam

• Ghadeer is the name of a place near Mecca, and the great holiday named after the event that occurred at that place.

• Ghasbi is usurpation

• Ghusl is a spiritual bath required after sexual intercourse, menstruation, seminal discharge, and other conditions.

• Hadath-Akbar is something that needs wudhu or ghusl

• Hadath-Asghar is a minor hadath that needs wudhu

• Hadeeth is a narration/tradition reported from the Prophet (S) and the Imams (a)

• Hajarul Aswad is the Black Stone.

• Hajj is the Islamic pilgrimage

• Hajjatul Tamatu is the secnod session of the Hajj for those who are not resident in Mecca or its vicinity.

• Halal is something that is lawful and permissible to use/consume in Islam

• Halq is to shave off the hair from the head (during Hajj)

• Hamza was an uncle of the Prophet who became a Muslim and was martyred at the battle of Uhud.

• Haq is the right or claim to something

• Haram is that which is unlawful in Islam. It is necessary to abstain from the acts which are haram.

• Harun was the brother of Musa (Moses) and Prophet of Allah mentioned in the Qur'an.

• Hasan b. Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.) was the secnd Imam.

• Hasan b. Ali b. Muhammad, Abu Muhammad al-Askari (A.S.) was the 11th Imam.

• Hijab is the screening between non-mahram men and women

• Hijra is the day the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) left Mecca for Medina. In particular, it was the Prophet's (S.A.W.) abandoning Mecca because of its mounting hostility, and transferring himself and his followers to Yathrib (200 miles north) whose people had invited him. He arrived on the 20th of September 622 AD, and the city proudly changed its name to Medinatu'l-Nabi (the Prophet's (S.A.W.) city). On Imam Ali's (A.S.) advice, Omar, reproached for not dating documents, took this event as the start o f the Muslim era, dubbing the year of the Hijrah year as Year 1 and starting it on the Lunar New Year's Day, the 1st of Muharram 622 AD.

• Hijr-e-Ismaaeel is a small wall in an arc shape adjoining the Ka'ba on one side

• Hira is the cave wherein Prophet Muhammad (S) sat for worshipping Allah

• Husain b. Ali b. Abi Talib (A.S.) was the third Imam.

• Ibadah is devotion or worship

• Ibrahim

• Iftar is the breaking of the fast

• Ihram is the state in which every pilgrim in Hajj has to perform his/her Hajj, consisting of two modest clothes and 25 restrictions.

• Ihtiyat is a precautionary action which usually requires repetition.

• Ihtiyat Wajib means precautionarily obligatory. Its significance is the same as that of wajib with the difference that in the problems where a mujtahid says it is “precautionarily obligatory”, one has the option of leaving his taqlid in this particular problem and following the rulings of the second-best mujtahid in that problem.

• Imam means Leader in Arabic. The term is generally applied to religious leaders. However, there are 12 infallible and noble Imams, the descendants of Muhammad (S.A.W.).

• Iman is full, deep belief or faith.

• Injil is the New Testament.

• Inshallah means with the will of Allah

• Iqamah is the announcement of the beginning of prayer.

• Isa was the son of Mariam (Mary). He is a prophet of Allah.

• Isha is the commencement of darkness, and the prayer of that time.

• Ishmael see Ismaeel

• Islam was revealed to the Prophet (Sura III: Ali-Imran--The Family of Imran, verse 19) “The Religion of Allah is Al-Islam,” and again (Sura V: Ma'idah--The Table Spread, verse 3) “This day I have approved al-Islam for you as a religion.” Islam is the verbal noun of “asalama”--to submit oneself to God.

• Ismaeel was the son of Abraham, Prophet of Allah and the father of the Arabs.

• Istighfar is to seek the forgiveness of Allah

• Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn, al-Sadiq, Abu Abd Allah (A.S.) was the 6th Imam.

• Ja'iz see Halal

• Jacob see Yaqub

• Jama'at is a group or a congregation

• Jesus see Isa.

• Jihad is a holy war (striving or fighting in the way of Allah) by the order of the Imam.

• Jinn is a type of creature having, like humans, free will

• Joseph see Yusuf

• Jum'ah is Friday

• Ka'bah is the cubic house built by Prophet Ibrahim (A.S.) and his son Ismaeel (A.S.) more than 3000 years ago in Mecca, towards which all Muslims face for their Salat. It contains the Hajarul Aswad or the Black Stone.

• Kafa is the shroud for the dead

• Kaffarah are alms to be given as penance on different occasions.

• Karbala a holey city In Iraq where Imam Hussain (sa) was killed there in day Ashura

• Khadija was the daughter of Khuwaylid and the wife of the Prophet (S.A.W.). She was the mother of Fatima (A.S.).

• Khums is “a fifth”, obligatory tax-like charity

• Kifie is an obligatory Islamic rule. If one person performs the act, then it is not required for others to perform. For example, the burial of a deceased Muslim is obligatory on any one person to perform.

• Labbaik literally means a response to the call

• Madina means city, and Medinatu'l Nabi (the city of the Prophet) was the name taken by the citizens of Yathrib, the town to which the Prophet (S.A.W.) and his companions migrated during Hijrah.

• Maghrib is sun-down and the prayer associated with it

• Mahram is a person with whom marriage is forbidden

• Makruh is something abominable

• Maqame-e-Ibrahim is a place near the Ka'bah, where there is a stone bearing the footprint of Prophet Ibrahim (a)

• Marwah is a remnant of a mountain in Mecca.

• Masjid is a mosque, a place of Islamic worship.

• Masjid-u-Shajarah is a mosque outside Madinah, where most of the Hajis go there for wearing Ihram; a Meeqat

• Masjid-ul-Haram is the Grand mosque in Makkah, where the Holy Ka'ba is situated

• Mayyit is a corpse, a dead body of a human being

• Mecca is a holy city in Arabia

• Medina see Madina

• Meeqat are appointed places for wearing Ihram before entering Makkah

• Mina is an area about 12 km. from Mecca.

• Moses see Musa

• Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the Last of the Messengers of Allah to mankind.

• Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn al Baqir, Abu Ja'far (A.S.) is the 5th Imam.

• Muhammad b. Ali b. Musa, al-Jawad, is the 9th Imam.

• Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Askari (A.S.) is the 12th Imam.

• Muharram is the first month of the Islamic calendar.

• Mujtahid is s specialist on the deduction of the Islamic rules from four major sources: the Qur'an, Hadith, conscience of the community, and reasoning.

• Mu'min is a believer, one who has Iman (pl. Mu'mineen)

• Muqallid is a follower of a qualified specialist on religious matters.

• Musa was a Prophet of Allah mentioned in the Qur'an and the Old Testament.

• Musa b. Ja'far b. Muhammad al-Kadhim, Abu al-Hasan (A.S.) is the 7th Imam.

• Muslim is one who believes in Allah, his Prophet (S.A.W.), the day of Resurrection (Qiyamat), recites the Kalemah, and accepts the commandments of Allah and His Prophet (S.A.W.) as the Truth.

• Mustahab or Sunnat is something that is recommended and performed in desire for (divine) love

• Muzdalafah (also called Mash'ar) is the area between Mina and Arafat, about 20 km. form Mecca.

• Nabi is a Prophet

• Nabuwwat is prophet-hood

• Nadhr is one of the three types of vows to Almighty Allah.

• Nafilah are the recommended prayers after or before the daily obligatory Salat.

• Nahi anil Munkar interdicting from ugly (sin)

• Najasat is an impurity

• Najis is something that is impure

• Naar is the fire of Hell

• Nikah is a pronouncement of marriage according to Shari'ah

• Niyyah is an intention to perform an activity.

• Noah see Nuh

• Non-mehram is one with whom marriage is permitted

• Nuh was a prophet of Allah mentioned in the Qur'and and the Old Testament

• Pak is something that is clean, not najis

• Prophet refers to a Messenger sent by Allah to mankind, such as: Adam, Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), Isa (Jesus)(A.S.), and the Last Messenger, the Seal of the Prophethood, Muhammad (S.A.W.).

• Qadha is the duty that is required for a missed ritual activity, such as prayers or fasting.

• Qamar is the moon

• Qiblah is the direction of Salat (towards the Ka'bah).

• Qira-at is the reading of the prayer

• Qiyam is the standing during the Salat for recitation of Suratul Hamd and the second Surah, and the standing after the Ruku'.

• Qiyamat is the day of Resurrection

• Qunut is the act of raising both palms in fornt of the face while praying in the second Rakat of Salat.

• Qur'an is the Holy Book, the Living Miracle, revealed from Allah as a guidance to mankind.

• Quraysh is the tribe of Mecca to which Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) belonged. All his descendants are also called Qurayshi.

• Qurbani is a sacrifice

• Qurbat is the niyyah of nearness to Allah

• Rajab is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar.

• Ramadhan is the ninth and the holiest month of the islamic calendar. It is the month of fasting from sunrise to sunset.

• Rasool is messenger

• Rukn literally means a “pillar”. It is also a basis of the prayer.

• Ruku' is the act of bowing in the Salat

• S.A.W. stands for Sallal-lahu 'alayhi wa-alihi wa-sallam in Arabic, and means Blessings and peace of God be with him and his household. It is a prayer which is said after the name of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).

• Sadaqah is the charity given to the poor.

• Saee means walking between the rocks of Safa and Marwah

• Safa is the part of a mountain in Mecca.

• Saheefa-Kamila is a collection of supplications by our 4th Imam (a), Zainul Abideen.

• Sajdah is the act of prostration in the Salat, when seven portions of the body touch the earth: the forehead on pure ground, two palms, two knees, and the two big toes. The two Sajdahs together are called sajdatain.

• Salam is a salutation. It is also the last recitation at the end of Salat.

• Salat are the obligatory prayers

• Salawat are invocation of blessings, specifically the recitation of Allahumma Sali 'Ala Muhammadin Wa Aali Muhammad, meaning O Allah, bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad.

• Salman (al-Farsi) was the Persion Companion of the Prophet (S.A.W.)

• Sawm is the act of fasting

• Sayyid is a descendant of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)

• Shaabaan is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar.

• Shahadah is declaration

• Shaheed is a martyr in the way of Islam (pl. Shuhada).

• Shaitan is Satan, the enemy of mankind

• Shari'ah are the rules and regulations of Islam, the divine Law. Shari'ah is the totality of of Allah's Commandments relating to man's activities.

• Shams is the sun

• Shawwal is the 10th month of the Islamic calendar.

• Shi'a is a follower of the twelve Imams (A.S.).

• Sunnat or Mustahab means recommendable, desirable. The acts whose neglect is not punished, but whose performance is rewarded, e.g., the call for prayers (adhan).

• Surah is any chapter of the 114 in the Holy Qur'an. It literally means a sign, or a revelation. Each Surah in the Qur'an is named from some subject or word which is particularly striking.

• Tabarra opposite of Tawalla, avoiding and eluding enemies of Allah and prophet and Imams

• Tafseer is a term used for a commentary of any book, specifically the Holy Qur'an.

• Taharat is the state of being clean and not impure

• Tahur is the cave wherein Prophet Muhammad (S) stayed before finally migrating to Madinah

• Takbirah is saying “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is the Greatest).

• Talbiyah is the formula of response to the Call of Allah, which must be pronounced immediately after Niyyah of Ihram

• Tawaf is part of the worship of Hajj and Umrah

• Tawalla is loving and supporting and following (Allah and prophet and Imams and their allies)

• Tawbah is repentance

• Tawheed is Divine Unity

• Tayammum means spiritual cleansing which is sometimes a substitute for wudhu and ghusl

• Thawab is a Divine blessing

• Turbah is earth, especially from the shrines of the Holy Imams (A.S.), on which Muslims place their heads during Sajdah

• Umm Kulthum see Zaynab

• 'Umra is the “little” pilgrimage, performed in ritual purity wearing the Ihram, the seamless ceremonial garments consisting of a white sheet from the navel to the knees and a white sheet covering the left shoulder, back and breast, knotted on t he right.

• Usule Din are the principles of Islam.

• Wafat is a death

• Wajib is obligatory (pl. Wajibat). An act which must be performed.

• Wudhu is a spiritual wash of the face and hands before Salat

• Yaqub was a prophet of Allah, mentioned in the Qur'an and the Old Testament.

• Yusuf was a prophet of Allah, mentioned the Qur'an and the Old Testament.

• Zakat is an obligatory charity

• Zamzam is the name of a well at Makkah

• Zaynab (Umm Kulthum) was the younger daughter of Ali and Fatima (A.S.).

• Ziyarat is to visit and/or to recite special salutations for the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and his household (A.S.).

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