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Arabic Terms - Glossary

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Salam,

I've notice a few times, like this morning, that variations in translation spellings are difficult to decipher and read.

For people like myself, this is awkward.

So, I suggest, we have a pinned Thread under "Technical Support" so some words are standardized in spelling. A short definition being optional.

I suggested under Tech Spt because it is a short section and the best heading for this idea.

What remains is how it is administered and by who. Maybe the First Post being the dictionary and the subsequent posts being suggestions.

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Thank you for starting this topic. We recognize that different members spell words differently; Shia, Shiah, Shi'a, Muhammad, Mohammad, Muhammed, Mohamad, Fatima, Fatimah, Fatemeh, Fatma, etc. Perhaps the best we can do is make a list of words that other people are using, as a means of helping each other out.

Aalim: Scholar
Ahlul Bayt : People of the house. They are The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), Janabe Fatima Zahra (s.a.), Ali (a.s.) and his eleven successors.
Ahsan : Goodness
Amanat : Trust
Amr-bil-Maroof : Enjoining to do good
Ayat or Ayah : Verse of the Holy Quran
Barakat : Divine increase of bounties
Barzakh : The intermediary stage between death and the Day of the Judgement
Bismillah : In the Name of Allah
Dirham : Unit of currency
Diyah : Blood money
Dua : Invocation
Ehtekaf : A recommended ritual consisting of a continuous stay of at least three days in the mosque during the last ten days of the month of Ramazan (Ramadan, Ramadhan).
Fajr : Morning
Faqih : Jurisprudent
Firon : Pharaoh (some think Ramases II, Ramesses II, Ramses II)
Furoo-e-Deen : Branches of Religion or the practical laws of Islam

Ghafil: Reckless

Ghusul Hayz: After a woman completes menstruation (hayz) it is obligatory for her to take a bath (ghusul) to be Tahir again.
Hadd : Punishment
Hadith : A statement of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) or of the Holy Imams (a.s.)
Hajj : Annual pilgrimage to Makkah during the month of Zilqad
Halal : Permissible, legal
Haraam : Prohibited, illegal
Hasna : Unit of heavenly rewards
Hijab : Statutory Islamic dress for women, veil, curtain
Iblees : Satan, Shaytan
Iddah : A prescribed period a woman has to pass after divorce or her husband's demise before she can remarry.

Ihtiyat Wajib: Precautionarily Obligatory

Ihtiyat Musteheb: Precautionarily Recommended  
Imaan : Faith
Imla : Respite given by Allah to the sinners in which they become more heedless of their sins .
Insha-Allah : (InshaAllah, InShaAllah) If Allah wills
Isha : Late evening
Jamat : Congregation
Janabat : A state of ritual impurity that can be removed by performing ghusl (Bath)
Jehad : (Jihad) Religious war
Kaaba : The Holy House of Allah, the directions that Muslims face during prayers.
Kaffara : Fine, penalty
Kafir : One who denies God
Kalimas : I witness that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) is the Messenger of Allah

Khums: one fifth or 20% of certain items which a person acquires as wealth and which must be paid as Islamic tax.
Kuffar : Plural of Kafir
Kunniyat : Patronym
Maghrebain : The two prayers of Maghreb (early evening) and Isha (late evening)
Makrooh : Detestable, in the Islamic terminology it denotes an action performing which does not incur sin but refraining from which earns divine rewards

Malaika: Angels
Marefat : Recognition

Ma-sha-Allah : What God Wills (usually used after complimenting something or someone) 
Masjidul-Haram : The Holy Mosque in Makkah
Masoomeen : (Singular- Masum): Infallible
Mehram : Relatives between whom marriage is prohibited
Mahshar : The field where people will be collected on the Day of the Judgement for their final Accounting
Meraj : Ascension (to heaven)
Mithqal : A measure of weight of about 4.6 gms.
Mohib : Admirer
Momin : Believer
Mubah : Permitted. It denotes an action performing of which earns no rewards and refraining from it is not punishable
Mujtahids : Doctors of Islamic law
Munafiq : Hypocrite

Murtad: apostate 
Mushrik : Polytheist
Mustahab : Recommended. It is an action performing which earns rewards and refraining from it is not punishable
Mutawati : A frequently related tradition

Nafs: The Self

Nafs Al Ammara: The Commanding Soul

Nafs Al Lawwama: The Self Accusing Soul
Nahy-Anil-Munkar : Forbidding evil
Najis : Unclean
Nam-e-Amaal : Scroll of deeds
Namaz : Salat or prayers
Namehram : Persons between whom marriage is possible
Nawafil : Recommended prayers
Nikah : Marriage ceremony

Niyya: Intention (every act is judged according to the niyya of the person- prophet Muhammed sawws)
Oqooq : (Singular=Aaq): those who disobey or anger the parents

Qareen: Evil shadow of every person. 
Qasr : Shortening of the ritual prayers during a journey
Qate-Rehmi : Breaking off relations with relatives
Qaza : An unfulfilled obligatory act
Qazi : Judge, jurist

Qisas: the right of a murder victims nearest relative or Wali to take the right of the killer if the court approves.
Qunut : Despondence
Rakat : A unit of ritual prayer
Ramadan, Ramazan : Holy month of Fasting
Rawayat : A narration
Riyah : An act of showing off
Rizq : Sustenance

Rouh: Soul
Sadaat : Descendants of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) through Imam Husain (a.s.)
Sadaqah : Voluntary charity, alms
Salaam : Salute, Islamic greeting
Salaat : Ritual prayers
Sawaab : Divine rewards

Sawm : Fast

Shab-e-Qadr : The Night of Power
Shabaan : A month of the Muslim calender
Shahadatain : See Kalimas
Shariat : Islamic law
Sileh-Reham : An act of goodness towards ones relatives
Siraat : Path

Tabarruj: when a women reveals her adornments and beauty to men (surat al nisaa)

Tahir: Pure/Clean
Taqwa : Piety
Taslim : Acceptance
Tawakkal : Reliance
Tawfeeq : Divine inspiration
Tawheed : (Towhid, towheed) Belief in the absolute Oneness of Allah
Ulil-Amr : One who holds an authoritative position
Ummat : Followers (of Prophets)
Wajib : Obligatory, compulsory
Wajib-e-Aini : An obligation that is to be carried out by every person
Wajib-e-Kifai : An obligatory act which if performed by one ceases to be obligatory on the others
Wilayat : Love and obedience

Wiswas: Paranoia (usually whispers of iblees - refer to surat al naas)
Yaas : Despair

Yawmal Qiyama: Judgment Day
Zakat : Obligatory Islamic wealth tax
Ziarat : Visitation or the recitation of salutation while facing the tomb of religious personalities
Zimmi : A non-muslim who lives under the protection of an Islamic government
Zohrain : The two ritual prayers of Zuhr (noon) and Asr (afternoon)
Zuhoor : Reappearance (of Imam Mahdi [a.t.f.s.]).

New additions:

A'isha: Widow of the Prophet (S) and a leader during Jamal Confrontation.

Abbas: Brother of Imam Husayn, flag-bearer during Karbala.

Abu Sufyan: Leader of Bani Umayya, Mu'awiya's father, was inveterate enemy of Islam.

Abu Musa Ash'ari: Governor fired by Imam ‘Ali, was selected to arbitrate after Siffin.

Ahlul Bayt: The household of the Prophet (s), consisting of ‘Ali, Fatima, al-Hasan, al-Husayn and the 9 Imams descending from al-Husayn (peace be upon them all).

Al- Farazdaq: A famous poet.

Al- Nu'man Ibn al-Basheer: Governor over Kufa replaced by Ibn Ziyad through Yazid's order.

‘Ali Akbar: Son of Imam Al-Husayn, martyred in Karbala.

‘Ali Asghar: Baby of Imam Al-Husayn, martyred in Karbala.

Amal Saleh: Good deed.

Ammar Ibn Yasir: A famous highly revered Companion, on ‘Ali's side, killed in Siffin.

Amr Ibnil Aas: A cunning deceptive person, in Mu'awiya's camp, arbitrator after Siffin.

Ash'ath Ibn Qais: A spy General in ‘Ali's armed forces, also the father of Joda (wife of Al-Hasan).

Bani Asad: The tribe that buried Al-Husayn and the other martyrs of Karbala.

Bani Umayya: A clan known to be power hungry, greedy, and materialistic, of Mu'awiya.

Basrah: An important town in south of Iraq.

Byzantines: The Christian superpower ruling over Syria and Egypt that lost to Islam.

Hani Ibn Urwah: The man who helped Muslim Ibn Aqeel in Kufa and lost his life for the cause.

Hasad: Envy (especially relevant to Surat Al-Falaq)

Hurr Ibn Yazid alRiyahi: The Commander of the enemy force who defected to the side of Imam Husayn.

Ibn Muljim: The killer of Imam ‘Ali while ‘Ali was performing Salat Al-Subh.

Ibn Ziyad: The Governor over Kufa responsible for the atrocities of Karbala.

Imam: The 12 Divinely Commissioned leaders of the Ummah after the Prophet (S).

Imam AlHasan (a.s.): The second Divinely Commissioned Imam, and the brother of Imam Husayn.

Imam ‘Ali (a.s.): The first Divinely Commissioned Imam, and the father of Imam Hasan and Husayn.

Imam Husayn (a.s.): The third Divinely Commissioned Imam, hero of Karbala, brother of Imam Hasan.

Iraq: Country in which Imam Husayn suffered at the hands of its military.

Jamal: Battle imposed on ‘Ali by A'isha, Talha, and Zubair.

Joda: Wife of Imam Al-Hasan, who poisoned him when enticed by Mu'awiya.

Karbala: The site of the ugliest atrocities committed against Al-Husayn, his family and devotees, but Karbala saved Islam from disintegration in an indirect way.

Khalifa: Head of state after the Prophet (S).

Kharijies: The outsiders who turned against ‘Ali, then killed him while he was praying.

Medina: Famous town of the Prophet (S) in Arabia.

Mu'awiya: Of Bani Umayya clan, brother of Yazid, also father of the infamous Yazid of Karbala.

Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr: Brother of A'isha who fought on ‘Ali's side during Battle of Jamal.

Mukhtar AlThaqafi: Loyalist of Ahlul Bayt.

Muslim Ibn Aqeel: Cousin of Al-Husayn and his emissary to Kufa, killed by Ibn Ziyad.

Omar: The second Khalifa who appointed Mu'awiya as the Governor over Syria.

Quraish: The clan of the Prophet (S).

Shar: Evil 

Shimr Bin DhilJawshan: The killer of Imam Husayn, his name will remain in infamy.

Siffin: Battle imposed on ‘Ali by Mu'awiya.

Syria: Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine nowadays used to be called Syria.

Talha: Sahaabi, leader during Jamal Confrontation, killed during that battle.

Tulaqaa': Denigrating term used by Muhammad (S) for the disbelievers who had to become Muslims after Mecca was triumphed over.

Umar Ibn Sa'ad: Commander-in-chief of the military forces against Imam Husayn in Karbala.

Umm Habib: Ramla the daughter of Abu Sufyan, the sister of Mu'awiya, wife of the Prophet (S).

Uthman: The third Khalifa killed by the protesting Muslims.

Waleed Ibn Ut'ba: Governor over Medina when Yazid son of Mu'awiya declared his rulership.

Yazid son of Abu Sufyan: Brother of Mu'awiya, governor of Syria for a few years until he died.

Yazid son of Mu'awiya: Son of Mu'awiya, the infamous despicable ruler, cause of Karbala tragedy.

Zainab: Sister of Al-Husayn, heroin of Karbala, losing her children for the cause.

Zubair: Sahaabi, leader during Jamal Confrontation, refused to fight during that battle.

Edited by Hameedeh
Spelling

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Correction for Firon Pharaoh: not Ramses II, this was a late 19th Century concoction by Christian leaders at the beginnings of archeology. Ramses II's body was discovered in the 1990s. In addition,  Ref vii:137, as Quran reveals, all monuments and extravagant buildings were "leveled" which would have to include the pyramids that were begun ~2700 BCC.

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There are a number of online dictionaries/ glossaries for Islamic term.

https://www.almaany.com/dicload/Dictionary_of_Islamic_Terms.pdf

http://www.alim.org/library/references/dictionary/a

http://www.al-islam.org/articles/islamic-glossary-explanation-names-terms-and-symbols-hasnain-kassamali

If we can make a word cloud for all non English words mentioned in this site, we maybe able to make a relevant glossary for SC.

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Quote

Masoomeen : (Singular- Masum): Infallible

Masoomeen is the term used for the 14 in the Holy Household: Prophet Muhammad SA, his daughter Fatima AS, and the Twelve Imams AS. 

AJ or ATFS used after the name of the 12th Imam AJ is an abbreviation of 'Ajalallaho ta'ala farajahum' or 'Ajalallaho ta'ala farajahu sharif' which in English means May Allah the Exalted hasten His Relief, the Noble/honourable. 

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Some "Conventions" that you will see or hear in Arabic:

Sallalahu Alayhi wa alihi wa Salaam - May Allah's greetings and blessings be upon him and his progeny (used immediately after referring to the Prophet Muhammad (S))

Alayha al-Salaam (a.s.) - Peace be upon her (used immediately after referring to Khadijah, Fatimah, Zaynab and Maryam)

Alayhi al-Salaam (a.s.) - May Allah bless him (used immediately after referring to a single Imam or Prophet)

Alayhima al-Salaam (a.s.) - May Allah bless them (used immediately after referring to two Imams or two Prophets)

Alayhum al-Salaam (a.s.) - May Allah bless them (used immediately after referring to three or more Imams or Prophets)

Rahimahu Allah - May Allah grant him mercy (used immediately after referring to a single deceased and respected person)

Rahimahum Allah - May Allah grant them mercy (used immediately after referring to deceased and respected people)

Quddisa Sirroh - May his soul be blessed (used immediately after referring to a single deceased and respected scholar)

Quddisa Sirrohuma - May their souls be blessed (used immediately after referring to deceased and respected scholars)

Radi Allahu anhu - May Allah be pleased with him (used after referring to a respected companion of the Prophet or the Imams)

https://www.al-islam.org/fr/node/44038

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39 minutes ago, Mansur Bakhtiari said:

Isn't it Umm Hakima? :einstein:

Lol though I will be sending this thread to some of my non-muslim friends, its pretty useful, thanks :)

No, not Umm Hakima, but I searched it again and another source said Umm Habib, so I edited the post above. One wife of the Holy Prophet SA was Ramla binte Abu Sufyan, whose agnomen was Umm Habib. 

https://www.al-islam.org/hayat-al-qulub-vol-2-allamah-muhammad-baqir-al-majlisi/wives-prophet-their-number-and-brief

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