Forgive me if my information of egyptiology is low .
Here is a conclusive SUMMARY that might be of use...
The Ancient Egyptians called their land KEMYT. This comes from the cursive hieroglyphic or Old Hieratic text entitled BOOK OF KEMYT.
The appellation KEMYT
[SILTATION] is a direct derivative of the Archaic Hieratic word Kemy
SILT = soil containing 80 percent or more of such silt and less than 12 percent of clay or a deposit of sediment (as by a river). In this case, the KEMY
[SILT] of the Nile River Valley which gave rise to the agricultural development that MADE Ancient Egypt; Kemy
(Silt) which made up the fertile soil of the Nile flood plains. KEMY
[Silt] is NOT to be confused, as has often been the case, with the Archaic Hieratic word Khem
=Black[colour]. Nor is KEMY
[Silt] to be further confused with the Archaic Hieratic word Kemai
=Gum, of which the Greek derivative is Kommi
. The Ancient Egyptians called the River Nile ITERU
or simply "River". The name EGYPT itself was the Hellenic or Greek adaptation AIGYPTOS[AEGYPTUS in Latin] from the Old Hieratic HET-KA-PTAH(Temple Of The Spirit Of Ptah); Het=Temple; Ka=Spirit.
According to tradition, the Greek word Chemeia
and the Arabic word Al-Kimiya
, BOTH of which literally mean ALCHEMY, were directly derived from the Archaic Hieratic word KEMY
While the Greco-Latin words Chemistry
are direct derivatives of the word ALCHEMY.
I have to AMEND my previous chronological table of KEMYT[Ancient Egypt] :
Historians have used the royal title PHARAOH[Phara'oun in Musri Arabic] from the Ancient Musri[Old Hieratic] Per'o-Aa[Great Host]; Per'o-Aa[Great Host] directly derived from Per-Aa[Great House]; Per=House; Per'o=Host; Aa=Great. Per
was synonymous with the words Mansion
. Related Archaic Hieratic appellations : Neswe[Nsw] = King; Neswet[Nswt] = Kingship; Hem[Hm] = Majesty; Ity = Sovereign; Heqa = Ruler; Neb = Lord.
These historians have applied the title "PHARAOH"
RETROACTIVELY from Mena the Nar-Mer[Angry Catfish] onward as he was the Unifier of ALL Ancient Egypt. Prior to Mena Nar-Mer, historians referred to the Ancient Egyptian ruler as king
The noun malik
consequently would apply to the Egyptian rulers during the predynastic kingdoms. These KINGS had their righthand-man in the Tjat[later Tjaty] or Grand Vizier[i.e. Prime Minister]; Vizier=Minister.
In Ancient Egypt, the main distinction between Predynastic Rulership and Pharaonic Rulership was that the Predynastic Kings
were ELECTED...Whereas Pharaohs(of Dynastic Egypt), from the reign of Mena Narmer onward, were primarily HEREDITARY.
Pharaoh Tutankhamun was the LAST Pharaoh of the royal hereditary bloodline. King Tut's immediate successor was an unrelated COMMONER or non-royalty named Ay; Ay was King Tut's former Grand Vizier and High Priest. Ay was the driving force who engineered Ancient Egypt's and the boy-king Tutankhaten's conversion from his father Akhenaten's monotheism
to polytheistic worship. Thus, Tutankhaten became Tutankhamun.
King Tut's father Amun-hotep IV converted to monotheism, establishing the religion of ATEN[One True God] in Ancient Egypt, changing his name to Akhen-Aten. He abolished all polytheism in Egypt, including the chief deities of Amun and Ra. The Age of the Three Kingdoms
[Upper/Middle/Lower] = 3700-3400 B.C.The Age of the Two Kingdoms
[Upper/Lower] = 3400-3200 B.C.
Because the Nile River flowed UPWARD into the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile Delta region was called Lower Egypt as it was thought to be South when it was in fact North. Hence, Upper Egypt was actually Southern Egypt.
The Three Kingdoms were symbolized by the following :
Lower Egypt=The Papyrus Reed
[Due to the heavy concentration of papyrus reeds in the Nile Delta.]
Middle Egypt=The Beehive
[Due to the abundance of honeycombs grown in bee farms which was the speciality of the region.]
Upper Egypt=The Desert Hawk
[Due to the common spread of desert hawks in the mostly arid region, resulting in a patron deity called 'Nekheny'.]
Consequently, the titles of the rulers of the Three Kingdoms were :
The Red-Crowned(Deshret) UAT or REED Kings of Lower Egypt...
The Blue-Crowned(Khepresh) BJT or BEE Kings of Middle Egypt...
The White-Crowned(Hedjet) NEKHENY or HAWK Kings of Upper Egypt...
The shape and design of the Three Crowns were based upon STYLIZED glyphs of :
The Papyrus Reed [for the Uat or Reed Kingdom of Lower Egypt]
The Beehive or Honeycomb [for the Bjt or Bee Kingdom of Middle Egypt]
The Hawk's Beak [for the Nekheny or Hawk Kingdom of Upper Egypt]
No textual information has survived which explains as to why the specific colours of Red/Blue/White were selected for the Three Crowns.
Circa 3400 B.C., a ruler in the line of the Nekheny[Hawk] Kings of Upper Egypt, named King Scorpion(reigned 3407-3346 B.C.), conquered the kingdom of Middle Egypt, bringing about its END. King Scorpion was reportedly the genealogical forefather of Mena the Nar-Mer[Angry Catfish]. Mena Nar-Mer conquered Lower Egypt two centuries later circa 3200 B.C.; Mena the Narmer's reign has 2 different recorded lengths from the very same ORIGINAL source : Manetho(native Egyptian high priest of Ra)--62 yrs[Josephus/Africanus] & 30 yrs[Eusebius].
Also, the ONCE Blue Crown(Khepresh) of Middle Egypt became the ceremonial WAR crown of the rulers of Upper Egypt. Since the Blue Crown(Khepresh) was the prize of victory for King Scorpion, it came to symbolize military triumph for subsequent rulers not only of Upper Egypt, but ALL the way down through Dynastic Egypt of the Pharaohs.
AFTER King Scorpion's conquest of Middle Egypt, Ancient Egyptian scribes referred to the subsequent Two Kingdoms as simply NESUT[Upper Kingdom] and BITI[Lower Kingdom].
Previously, all three kingdoms of Upper, Middle and Lower Egypt had dual appellations :
-Upper Egypt had the geopolitical appellation of Upper Kingdom
and sociopolitical appellation of the Nekheny[Hawk] Kingdom.-
Middle Egypt had the geopolitical appellation of Middle Kingdom
and sociopolitical appellation of the Bjt[Bee] Kingdom.-
Lower Egypt had the geopolitical appellation of Lower Kingdom
and sociopolitical appellation of the Uat[Reed] Kingdom.
After King Scorpion's annexation of Middle Egypt, he decreed scribes to exclusively use the geopolitical appellation of Nesut
or Upper Kingdom
for the new Upper Egypt. He did not want to cause any cultural or theological conflict between the Nekheny(Hawk)
To counter this new development, Lower Egypt very quickly followed suit and began exclusively to use its own geopolitical appellation of Biti
or Lower Kingdom
to distinguish itself from its southern neighbour.
Consequently, there always remained a definitive distinction between Upper and Lower Egypt, long after Mena Narmer's unification of ALL Egypt. The population of Lower Egypt never allowed that distinction to be socially and culturally forgotten. Unlike Middle Egypt which after its annexation by King Scorpion, thoroughly ASSIMILATED with Upper Egypt.
Gradually losing its social and cultural distinction.
However, PRIOR to all this, Ancient Egypt had THREE NOMES which eventually evolved into the THREE KINGDOMS; Nomes were provinces or regions of Ancient Egypt. The governor-generals of these Nomes were NOMARCHS. The Nomarchs had no SINGLE righthand-man but a council of peers subordinate to the Nomarch; the council of peers being deputy governors of the Nome's subdivisions or territorial districts.
The Nomarch was the ELECTED Governor-General of the Nome. The Three Nomes were established circa 4200 B.C. but gradually grew in territorial control and jurisdiction since then. By circa 3700 B.C., the Three Nomes had expanded in geographic range to such an extent that they had evolved into Three Kingdoms.The Age of the Nomarchies
[Upper/Middle/Lower] = 4200-3700 B.C.
The word Nome
) was Greek while in Ancient Musri[Old Hieratic] it was SEPAT. The Sepat[Nome] had a very different definition in PRE-MONARCHIAL Kemyt[Ancient Egypt]. The Sepat was the Nomarchy or GOVERNORATE of the ENTIRE region of either Upper, Middle or Lower Egypt.
Later AFTER the Sepat or Nome evolved into a Kingdom, Ancient Egyptian scribes started applying the term Sepat[Nome] to a DISTRICT. While the position of Nomarch was applied to the Chief Magistrate of the District. Hence, the terms Nome[Sepat] and Nomarch were greatly REDUCED to identify a district and its chief magistrate.
And PRIOR to the Nomarchies, it was The Age of the Fiefdoms
from 5000-4200 B.C. when Ancient Egypt was comprised of fiefs or feudal estates. The earliest archaeological evidence of human existence in Egypt dates from 9000 B.C. along the Nile River. These were of prehistoric hunter-gatherers who fished and hunted along the river Nile in Egypt. By 6000 B.C., village settlements had been established all along the Nile River in Egypt commencing the Agrarian Age
(6000-5000 B.C.). By 5000 B.C., fiefdoms had been established which flourished till 4200 B.C., when they had evolved into THREE main nomarchies(governorates).
Recent geoarchaeological discoveries reveal that the Sahara Desert of North Africa was a lush, fertile region with numerous lakes spread throughout. Far from the Mediterranean Coastline, cave drawings were found spread out across the Sahara Desert of North Africa, vividly depicting scenes of hunter-gatherers swimming and hunting in and around lakes. These cave drawings spanned a period which dated from 9000-6000 B.C.
After a slight tilt in the Earth's Axis circa 6000 B.C., the Sahara in North Africa transformed into an arid desert region within a SINGLE human lifetime. As a result, the ONLY truly lush region left was the Nile River Valley of Egypt. The direct genealogical descendants of those Prehistoric Indigenous North Africans were the Imazighen Peoples[aka the BERBERS] AND the Ancient Egyptians. BOTH peoples shared homogeneous ancestry.
Returning to Mena Narmer's unification of ALL Kemyt[Ancient Egypt], which initialized Ancient Egypt's very 1st Dynasty...The title Pharaoh[Per'o-Aa/Phara'oun] or Great Host signified the monarch or ruler of ALL Egypt-Upper and Lower. Mena's personal name is said to mean either "The Establisher" or "The Everlasting". Variations on Mena's name include the Old Hieratic Meni & Min; the Greek and Latin Menes & Menses. 'Nar-Mer'["Angry Catfish"] was Mena's lakab or epithet.
Mena the Nar-Mer himself was of Upper Egypt(Southern Egypt) but upon his unification of both Upper and Lower Egypt, he commissioned a Double Crown called the Pshent.
This Double Crown(Pshent) was literally a combination of the Hedjet(White Crown) of his native Upper Egypt and the Deshret(Red Crown) of Lower Egypt...
The Blue Crown(Khepresh) of the former Middle Egypt had morphed into a ceremonial war crown.
Also, a new development had arisen with Mena Narmer's unification of Upper and Lower Egypt : The new ruler was now elevated to High Priest of The Two Lands...High Priest of both Upper and Lower Egypt. This was done so the sovereign of the new unified Egypt would not be superseded by the various powerful priesthood factions which exerted enormous influence and control over Egypt. The Pharaoh[Great Host] was the direct liaison or agent to the Egyptian deities. Mena the Narmer[Angry Catfish] was that very 1st Pharaoh.
This UNPRECEDENTED institution was unique to Ancient Egypt among ALL the ancient civilizations and cultures. Neither of Egypt's contemporary civilizations instituted such a POSITION. Not Sumerian Iraq, nor Indus Valley Pakistan, etc. ... The Pharaoh or Great Host was BOTH the spiritual hierarch(eg. the Roman Catholic Pope) and the sovereign. This was from Mena Narmer's reign onward until Khufu declared himself a LIVING GOD during the 4th Dynasty. Khufu was the ONLY Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh to have declared himself a full-fledged PEER to the Ancient Egyptian deities...
From Khufu's son and successor Djedef-Ra's reign onward, the title SON OF RA was instituted and ALL Pharaohs from Djedef-Ra onward were then regarded as DEMI-GODS. Being the "Sons of the Gods", these Pharaohs were above mere mortals but ranked just below the mythical deities of the Ancient Egyptian pantheon, to whom they offered tribute and paid homage. This institution transferred the position of High Priest of The Two Lands, which was once held by the Pharaoh(before the reign of Khufu), to the Grand Vizier.
Pharaonic Egypt had a total of 33 Royal Dynasties in its long history. By the 6th Dynasty, Ancient Egypt had a total of 22 Nomes[administrative districts]. By the 26th Dynasty, Ancient Egypt had a total of 42 Nomes[administrative districts] : 22 Nomes of Upper Egypt and 20 Nomes of Lower Egypt. The LAST Royal Dynasty in which a NATIVE Egyptian ruled was the 30th Dynasty...With Nakhthorheb II (Nectanebo II) being Ancient Egypt's LAST native Pharaoh.
The very last Pharaonic Dynasty[33rd Dynasty] of Ancient Egypt was the Hellenic/Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty. The very last Pharaonic ruler of Ancient Egypt was NOT a king, but a queen : Queen Cleopatra VII [i.e. Caesar & Cleopatra/Antony & Cleopatra]...
And in a footnote, after the collapse of the Old Kingdom, which was at the end of the 6th Dynasty, what followed was the First Intermediate period. This period was known as the DARK PERIOD of Ancient Egyptian history.
According to celebrated Egyptologist James Henry Breasted, this period was when--"the temples were pillaged and violated, their existing artwork was vandalized, and the statues of kings were broken or destroyed as a result of this alleged political chaos.."
Pharaonic Egypt's power was greatly reduced during this period of chaos and disorder which spanned THREE CENTURIES from the 7th Dynasty thru the earlier half of the 11th Dynasty. Ancient Egypt's 22 Nomarchies[administrative districts] of this period had risen considerably in power, vying with the Pharaonic Dynasties in power and autonomy.
Coming to a conclusion, I would have to AMEND Nabih Yusuf's timeline to Predynastic Egypt's period of TWO KINGDOMS[3400-3200 B.C.]. More specifically, circa 3340-3250 B.C.[instead of circa 4000 B.C.] or 700 years later than I had previously dated it. This would fit in perfectly with the Egyptian ruler being identified with the Qur'anic MALIK or King and his Grand Vizier, the Qur'anic AZIZ. Nabih Yusuf, of course, eventually became the AZIZ or Grand Vizier of Lower Egypt.
That would also place Nabih Ibrahim's timeline to circa 3510-3400 B.C.[instead of 4300 B.C.]. Nabih Ibrahim's timeline would then be post-Late Ubaid period(4700-4100 B.C.). This would roughly place the year of Nabih Ibrahim's birth at circa 3510 B.C.
Assuming that the Grand Shaykh was about 80-yrs-old when Nabih Ishaq was born; Nabih Ishaq being about 30-yrs-old when Nabih Yaqub was born; Nabih Yaqub being about 60-yrs-old when Nabih Yusuf was born. And Nabih Yusuf being about 90-yrs-old when he passed away around 3250 B.C. ... The timeline from Nabih Ibrahim's birth to Nabih Yusuf's passing would then be circa 3510-3250 B.C. or 260 years.
With Dr. Peter A. Piccione's placement of Pharaoh Khufu's death in 2583 B.C.,
THE YEAR OF THE EXODUS WAS 2583 B.C.
Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.