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Khufu : Firaun Of The Holy Qur'an


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#151 Al-Afza

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Posted 12 May 2009 - 07:03 PM

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Yuya = Joseph?


Salam.

Even after a few thousand mummified years, that photo on the left* does not look like someone described as malakun kareemun in the Holy Qur'an...

*[The photo on the right is Yuya's spouse Tuya]

As for the 12th Surah Yusuf and ayat 31, regarding the Egyptian ladies who went crazy over the extremely handsome Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) :

------------------------------

12:31
YUSUFALI: When she heard of their malicious talk, she sent for them and prepared a banquet for them: she gave each of them a knife: and she said (to Joseph), "Come out before them." When they saw him, they did extol him, and (in their amazement) cut their hands: they said, "Allah preserve us! no mortal is this! this is none other than a noble angel!"
PICKTHAL: And when she heard of their sly talk, she sent to them and prepared for them a cushioned couch (to lie on at the feast) and gave to every one of them a knife and said (to Joseph): Come out unto them! And when they saw him they exalted him and cut their hands, exclaiming: Allah Blameless! This is not a human being. This is not other than some gracious angel.
SHAKIR: So when she heard of their sly talk she sent for them and prepared for them a repast, and gave each of them a knife, and said (to Yusuf): Come forth to them. So when they saw him, they deemed him great, and cut their hands (in amazement), and said: Remote is Allah (from inperfection); this is not a mortal; this is but a noble angel.

12:31
Falamma samiAAat bimakrihinna arsalat ilayhinna waaAAtadat lahunna muttakaan waatat kulla wahidatin minhunna sikkeenan waqalati okhruj AAalayhinna falamma raaynahu akbarnahu waqattaAAna aydiyahunna waqulna hasha lillahi ma hatha basharan in hatha illa malakun kareemun.

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They are described in the Quran in Arabic as having stated malakun kareemun ...

Since the following Arabic words are etymologically related :

terrestrial/temporal context :

Mulk = Kingdom; Monarchy; Realm; Sovereignty [subcontext : objective-geographical]
Muluk = Kingdoms; Monarchies; Realms; Sovereignties [subcontext : objective-geographical]
Malakat = Kingdom; Monarchy; Realm; Sovereignty [subcontext : subjective-jurisdictional]
Mulukaat = Kingdoms; Monarchies; Realms; Sovereignties [subcontext : subjective-jurisdictional]
Malik = King; Monarch; Ruler; Sovereign
Malika = Queen
Malak = Prince
Maleeka = Princess
Malaika = Subjects
Mamluk = Slave[M]
Mamlaka = Slave[F]
Mamalaka = Slaves[M/F]
Mamalakat = Slavery

celestial/spiritual context :

Malakut = Heaven
Mulukaat = Heavens
Malak = Angel[M only]
Malaika = Angels[M only]
Malek (proper name pronounced m-u-l-l-i-c-k) = Archangel of Hell(Jehannum)

In referrence to Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) as malakun kareemun, those lovely Egyptian ladies meant "noble prince" not NOBLE ANGEL as the English translations have documented. Remember, Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) was sold as a foreign slave...An ethnically inferior slave to the high and mighty Egyptians. Yet he had the physical beauty of an ideal NOBLE PRINCE.

You see an ANGEL would not need a further qualifying description as NOBLE...Angels are automatically Noble. The earlier statement about Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) not being a basharan has been translated as meaning mortal or human being...However, basharan can also be interpreted as commoner. This Quranic Arabic word is etymologically related to the word bisharin, as in the bisharin bedouins who inhabited SE Egypt since Neolithic times and were often slaves of the Ancient Egyptians.

The concept of angels(malaika) was a muwahidun(monotheist) phenomenon introduced by Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) to Kemyt/Misr(Egypt). This concept of angels(malaika) was not in Ancient Egyptian religious culture. So those Egyptian ladies could not possibly have meant malakun kareemun in the context of NOBLE ANGEL.

As for the Egyptian ladies exclaiming hasha lillahi, this is obviously the Quranic Arabic translation of what those women would have said in Archaic Hieratic. To better understand this translation, I will quote native Egyptian author & Egyptologist Moustafa Gadalla, who has written 17 books(so far) on Ancient Egypt. Two of them are entitled Egyptian Divinities: The All Who Are THE ONE and Egyptian Cosmology: The Animated Universe; Mr. Gadalla is chairman of the Tehuti Research Foundation(TRF) of ancient Egyptian studies and research --

"The Ancient Egyptians believed in One God who was self-produced, self-existent, immortal, invisible, eternal, omniscient, almighty, etc. This One God was never represented. It is the functions and attributes of his domain that were represented."

Appellations for The Divinity, The Deity or God :

Archaic Hieratic -

Neter = God; Divinity; Deity.
Netert = Goddess
Neteru = Gods/Goddesses; Divinities; Deities.

Aramaic -

al-Laha = the Divinity; the Deity.
Laha = God; Divinity; Deity.
Ilahun = Gods; Divinities; Deities.

Syriac -

al-Loho = the Divinity; the Deity.
Loho = God; Divinity; Deity.

Arabic -

al-Lah = the Divinity; the Deity.
al-Lat = the Goddess
Lah = God; Divinity; Deity.
Lat = Goddess
Alihah = Gods; Divinities; Deities.
Alihat = Godesses; Divinities; Deities.

----------------------------------

Divinity is from the Latin Divus = Heavenly; Godlike.
Deity is from the Greek Deios = Heavenly; Godlike.
Divus and Deios directly derived from the Sanskrit Deva = Heavenly; Godlike.

-----------------------------------

Allah(swt) stated in the Holy Qur'an, that Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) was a nabih(announcer) and rasul(messenger).

Whereas Allah(swt) further stated in the Holy Qur'an that Nabih Musa(a.s.), in addition to being both a nabih(announcer) and rasul(messenger), was a nazir(warner) to a people[the Egyptians] who never had one before.

Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) was not brought to Egypt as an eventual nazir(warner), but only as a nabih(announcer) and rasul(messenger).

naba = announcement
nabih = announcer
nubuwat = annunciation
risalat = message
risalah = messages
rasul = messenger
rusul = messengers

--------------------------------

Another example from Surah Az-Zukhruf(The Ornaments), when Pharaoh[Firawn] says the following about Nabih Musa[Moses] :

43:53
YUSUFALI: "Then why are not gold bracelets bestowed on him, or (why) come (not) with him angels accompanying him in procession?"
PICKTHAL: Why, then, have armlets of gold not been set upon him, or angels sent along with him?
SHAKIR: But why have not bracelets of gold been put upon him, or why have there not come with him angels as companions?

43:53
Falawla olqiya AAalayhi aswiratun min thahabin aw jaa maAAahu almala-ikatu muqtarineena.

In the above verse, Pharaoh[Firawn] is applying al-malaikatu in the context of royal subjects NOT angels. The metaphoric correlation of the gold bracelets with al-malaikatu[the subjects] is temporal, NOT celestial. Pharaoh[Firawn] was referring to Nabih Musa[Moses] coming to Pharaoh's royal court, appearing as a desert nomad with only a staff in hand accompanied by his biological brother and no entourage.

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 12 May 2009 - 07:26 PM.


#152 Al-Afza

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Posted 21 May 2009 - 12:45 AM

Thanks for all the info, Al-Afza.


Salam.

Here is some belated info that might be food for some closing thoughts...

From the 40th Surah Al-Mumin[The Believer] aka Surah Al-Ghafir[The Forgiver] :

40.28
And a believing man of Pharaoh's family[Aal-i-Firawna], who hid his faith, said: Would ye kill a man because he saith: My Lord is Allah, and hath brought you clear proofs from your Lord? If he is lying, then his lie is upon him; and if he is truthful, then some of that wherewith he threateneth you will strike you. Lo! Allah guideth not one who is a prodigal, a liar.

40.30
And he who believed said: O my people! surely I fear for you the like of what befell the parties:

40.31
The like of what befell the people of Nuh and Aad and Samood and those after them, and Allah does not desire injustice for (His) servants;

-------------------------------------------------

These verses indicate that a "believer" from Firawn's family supported Nabih Musa and Nabih Harun. And that this individual had to be someone of great power as he intervened with Pharaoh Khufu, preventing him from slaying Nabih Musa.

Historically, the only person this could be would have been Khufu's elder brother and 1st Grand Vizier Kanefer. It was a fact that Khufu was the 3rd in line of accession to the Pharaonic throne with two older brothers in Nefer-Maat I and Ka-Nefer. Kanefer had served as Grand Vizier during the reign of his father Pharaoh Snefru, continuing to do so after Snefru's death.

Some historical sources upheld that both Kanefer and Nefermaat I predeceased their father Pharaoh Snefru[1st Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty]...And that Kanefer was Snefru's eldest biological son, not Nefermaat I.

Other historical sources upheld that Nefermaat I predeceased Pharaoh Snefru while Kanefer continued to serve as Grand Vizier under Khufu. These sources upheld that Nefermaat I was Pharaoh Snefru's eldest biological son as he served as Snefru's Grand Vizier before Kanefer.

If the latter was the case, than it fits in with Kanefer holding the SECOND most powerful
position in all Egypt after Pharaoh Khufu.

Kanefer did not get the throne after Snefru's death because he may not have been the biological son of Snefru's Chief Royal Wife Hetepheres I...But a son from a lesser royal spouse like Nefermaat I. Khufu WAS the biological son of Chief Royal Wife, Queen Hetepheres I.

For a member of Pharaoh's house to take an opposing position, this person must have been a very powerful individual.

Historically, Kanefer was replaced as Grand Vizier by his nephew Hemiunu(Haman)--son of his late elder half-brother Nefermaat I. There never has been any evidence that Kanefer actually DIED while he served as Grand Vizier. There is a very strong possibility that Kanefer was DISPLACED as Grand Vizier because of the stance he took in favour of Nabih Musa.

Just as Khufu's 1st Chief Royal Wife, Queen Merytiotes I[Asiya], was replaced by a lesser royal spouse in Queen Henutsen.

Kanefer could have also been the member of Firawn's household who found the infant Nabih Musa in a basket, floating adrift the Nile River. Allah(swt) does NOT specifically state that it was Firawn's Wife that found the infant Nabih Musa[Moses], but that a member of Pharaoh's royal household found him...

Also, whether or not it was documented figuratively or allegorically, the Biblical book of Exodus relates that the Pharaoh of the Oppression "...knew not Joseph.."

In the Holy Qur'an, the Mumin[Believer] of the household of Firawn[Pharaoh] clearly states that Nabih Yusuf[Joseph] came to Egypt with clear proofs of Allah's existence, but the Egyptians doubted his message...Even though they greatly honoured him in a temporal manner. So according to this Believer[Grand Vizier Kanefer], the Pharaoh of Nabih Musa's time knew well enough about Nabih Yusuf[Joseph].

Kanefer was Overseer of All Royal Commissions, including the construction and carving of the Great Sphinx[Seshep-Ankh or Living Image] at Giza. This was a Pharaonic decree by Khufu, a rite of self-deification. As the Great Sphinx[Seshepankh] of Giza was reportedly the very first one of its kind in Ancient Egyptian history.

It is very likely that the actual task of building the Great Sphinx was placed upon Hemiunu, who was originally Overseer of All Construction Projects of the King. Hemiunu was probably ambitious and eager to please his paternal uncle Khufu.

The RADICAL socioreligious change in Egyptian culture and society brought about by Khufu's historically unprecedented SELF-DEIFICATION, most probably displeased his elder half-brother and 1st Grand Vizier Kanefer. Even though he didn't oppose this publicly, Kanefer must have harboured strong disapproval of his younger half-brother, Pharaoh Khufu. This disapproval eventually lead Kanefer into becoming a believer in monotheism.

Kanefer could have easily lost faith in polytheism altogether, seeing that his own mortal kin proclaimed himself a god, while the established deities of the ancient Egyptian pantheon seemed powerless to prevent this...Did they actually exist? Or were they imaginary beings created out of fear and superstition?

Later, as Allah(swt) states in the 40th Surah Mumin[The Believer], Kanefer concealed his increasing faith in the God of Nabih Musa...And only came out and publicly opposed Khufu when Nabih Musa confronted Khufu with his ayah(signs) from Almighty Allah. The contest in which Anbiya Musa and Harun defeated Khufu's magicians, most likely emboldened Kanefer to take this course of action.

Allah(swt) further stated that He protected the Believer[Kanefer] from Khufu and his Host.

Grand Vizier KA-NEFER

Kanefer.jpg

Also, the mention of the historical accounts of Nabih Nuh, Aad and Thamud by the Mumin or Believer[Kanefer], clearly indicates that Aad and Thamud occurred BEFORE the account of the Exodus.

This automatically removes the geographical placement of Thamud from Jabal Athlab(near Meda'in Salih) in northern Hejaz, Arabia; this Arabian Thamudi reportedly migrated from the city of Thamud in central Yemen. The Hejazi civilization of Tamudaei, which has been mentioned in the historical writings of Aristo, Ptolemy and Pliny, was not the same as the one mentioned by Allah(swt) in the Holy Qur'an.

The OLDEST known historical documentation of the Hejazi Tamudi, was during the reign of Assyrian King Sharrukin II[Sargon II] in 715 B.C., who subjugated them. The Hejazi Tamudi was a civilization that archaeologically dated from 1000 B.C. to 200 A.D. and NO EARLIER.

As for the dwellings carved out from the hills or mountains, such archaeological finds are NUMEROUS throughout the Ancient Near East. Even greater carvings upon hills and mountains are to be found in ancient historical sites in Syria, Turkey(Anatolia), Iran(Persia), Iraq(Mesopotamia), Jordan[i.e. City of Petra], Afghanistan, etc...Anyone of these could be a candidate for the Quranic Thamud based upon this fact. However, Allah(swt) also stated that the Thamud built mansions or dwellings upon the PLAINS...

And regarding the she-camel...Well if a camel is mentioned that shouldn't automatically place the Thamud's geographic placement in the Arabian Peninsula! Dromedary camels are common in the desert regions of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and NW China...

With the Hejazi Tamudi Civilization dating NO EARLIER than circa 1000 B.C., even IF the Exodus had taken place during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses II or his successor Merneptah, this would have been ANACHRONISTIC; Ramses II reigned from 1292-1225 BC, Merneptah reigned from 1225-1215 BC...

Also, from forensic examination, Ramses II's and Merneptah's corpses had not shown ANY positive proof of ever having been drowned. As for Ramses II, he was around 96 years old AND suffered from a DISABLING paralysis toward his final years. He was physically incapable of riding on any type of chariot to pursue the Bani Israil.

This would also have me AMEND my geographical placement of AAD from the Harappan Age of the Indus Valley Civilization to the EARLIER Mehrgarh Civilization. The Mehrgarh Civilization of Baluchistan, the direct lineal precursor of the Indus Valley Civilization of primarily Sind, reached its peak by circa 6000 B.C. Its gradual decline was the result of a geologic catastrophe(cyclone, earthquake, flood, tectonic upheaval?) which occurred circa 5500 B.C.

The Mehrgarh Civilization of Baluchistan, Ancient Pakistan has been categorized into seven chronological phases :

10,500-9000 B.C. = From the very beginning of a Proto-Mehrgarh settlement to an early Mehrgarh culture.
9000-7500 B.C. = Early Mehrgarh culture evolves.
7500-6000 B.C. = Mehrgarh culture rapid development, reaching its height by 6000 B.C.
5500 B.C. = Geologic catastrophe(cyclone, earthquake, flood, or tectonic upheaval); *precise nature of geologic event yet undetermined by modern geoarchaeologists.
5500-4800 B.C. = Resulting semi-desertification of Baluchistan region causes steady decline of the Mehrgarh culture; many native Mehrgarh inhabitants migrate to the fertile Indus River Valley in Sind region.
4800-3500 B.C. = Further decline of the Mehrgarh culture.
3500-2600 B.C. = Mehrgarh settlements reduced to primitive villages.

The ORIGINAL site of these peak settlements of the Mehrgarh Civilization is completely buried underground, under heavy silt and alluvial deposts. And has not been properly excavated to this day!

Either the Mehrgarh Civilization was the Quranic Aad or the IVC Mohenjodaro(Mound of the Dead) site--which I proposed in my original theory as being Aad of the Holy Qur'an--is much, much OLDER than the current established chronology...As there is still no plausible explanation or cause for the 44 original corpses found buried deep within the public streets of Ancient Moen Jo Daro...

The one very curious item about the IVC excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro, is that the DEEPER they excavated, the quality of the artifacts were much more sophisticated and refined ! This is generally the exact opposite in archaeology. The deeper the excavation, the OLDER and cruder the artifacts.

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 21 May 2009 - 12:56 AM.


#153 Al-Afza

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Posted 31 May 2009 - 04:27 PM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

Recently, there were articles published in the internet which had quoted Dr. Hawass as stating that he thought that the entire Exodus story was "...a myth.."

Dr. Hawass was supposed to have stated this on the eve of the most recent Passover celebration...

This could be some crude propaganda by the press to defame Dr. Hawass.

Here is an article from Al-Ahram by Dr. Hawass himself...I don't believe that Dr. Hawass ever truly stated that he thought that the Exodus was a "myth".

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Posted Image
23 - 29 April 2009
Issue No. 944
Published in Cairo by AL-AHRAM established in 1875


The Mummy of the Pharaoh of Moses
By Zahi Hawass

I recently read on the Internet the story of Ramses II's mummy. We know that during the late 1970s the French president, Giscard d'Estaing, asked President Anwar El-Sadat if the mummy of Ramses II could be sent to Paris for conservation and preservation. Being that this mummy did not require any treatment, the real reason behind their request lay in their search for the Pharaoh of the biblical Exodus whom they believed to be Ramses II, also known as Ramses the Great, third ruler of the New Kingdom's 19th Dynasty. This ulterior motive, however, was never voiced to the authorities.

According to the holy books, the Pharaoh ruling in Moses's time drowned in the Red Sea during an epic chase after the parting of the waters. The French scientists were seeking evidence to prove the occurrence of this miraculous event.

The mummy of Ramses the Great was given a royal welcome at Le Bourget airport. Even the French president attended the glamorous ceremony. The mummy was then transferred to the French archaeological centre for examination.

One of the scientists responsible for the mummy's examination was a very dishonest man. He stole strands of Ramses II's hair and kept them for himself. Later on, his son attempted to sell the strands of hair on the Internet. With the help of our ambassador to France, Nasser Kamel, we were able to put an end to this and return the strands of hair to Cairo.

On the mummy's return to Cairo, reporters interviewed the French scientist about his findings. He stated that, inside the mummy, he had discovered a strange insect. The reporters laughed and called it a French insect. I seriously believe that sending the mummy of Ramses II to France was a big mistake.

Numerous false ideas about the mummy have recently been published. First, it has been said that the hands of the mummy are positioned differently than all other royal mummies, especially the left hand. This is inaccurate. Both Ramses II's arms are laid on his chest, just like all the other royal New Kingdom mummies. It has also been said that when the linen surrounding the mummy was untied the left arm jumped up, leading to the conclusion that the embalmers forced the mummy's arms position. Finally, some have stated that the laboratory results demonstrated the remains of salt inside the body of Ramses II, and that X-rays showed that many of his bones were broken. According to theorists, these results indicate that the Pharaoh drowned in the sea. They claimed that the strange position of his left hand indicated that he was holding the reins of a horse, while swinging a sword in his right. Furthermore, they added that while the Pharaoh was drowning he was attempting to push the water with his left hand, hence the reason for the embalmers having to force the left arm back into the traditional position.

I do not think that any of these ideas is correct. Egyptologists know that salt was used in the mummification process and that a great amount of salt is always found while examining mummies. For example, about 28 large jars full of natron, the type of salt used in mummification, were recently discovered in tomb KV 63 in the Valley of the Kings. Therefore, the fact that salt was found inside the royal mummy of Ramses II does not, by any means, prove that he drowned in the Red Sea. This said, I do not believe that there is any real evidence demonstrating that Pharaoh Ramses II drowned at all.

All these theories posted on the Internet are inaccurate, as the research conducted was not scientific.

It is my opinion that we should conduct further research into the lineage of Ramses II. Now that I have successfully had the mummy believed to be that of Ramses I flown back to Cairo from Atlanta, our scientists can investigate further into the true identity of this mummy. Lastly, with the help of the DNA labs and CT-Scanning machines in Cairo, the Egyptian Mummy Project can begin to determine the true identity of Ramses II's family members. These tests could, perhaps, also help us answer the everlasting question of whether or not Ramses II was truly the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Most importantly, the CT- Scanning machine can take up to 1,700 images which will reveal to be important evidence for our research. It will be the first time that an Egyptian team has attempted this study.

© Copyright Al-Ahram Weekly. All rights reserved

--------------------------------------------------------

A point of note is that a cache of 40 royal mummies were found in the year 1881 at Deir el-Bahri, which is on the west bank of the Nile River, opposite the city of Luxor(al-Uqsur), Egypt.

This cache of royal mummies had been moved to Deir el-Bahri from the Valley Of The Kings by 21st Dynasty priests to prevent further desecration and looting of those mummies.

This 1881 discovery revealed that some of those royal mummies were of the following :

Founder of the 18th Dynasty and expeller of the Heqa Khasewet[Hyksos] from Lower Egypt--Ahmose I; 18th & 19th Dynasty Pharaohs Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Thuthmose III, Ramses I, Seti I, Ramses II, and Ramses IX...

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

#154 John Connor

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Posted 01 June 2009 - 07:54 PM

http://www.youtube.c...re=channel_page

without a shadow of doubt egyptian culture was the greatest culture ever...

#155 Storm Large

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Posted 06 June 2009 - 10:08 AM

I think that even Mesomerican culture has something to do with the Pharoahs.

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#156 ShiaSoldier@2007

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Posted 06 June 2009 - 10:15 AM

http://www.youtube.c...re=channel_page

without a shadow of doubt egyptian culture was the greatest culture ever...


(bismillah) (salam)

I appreciate there quran recitations greatly :)

#157 Storm Large

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Posted 10 June 2009 - 02:27 PM

Al Afza

try



Riddle of the Sphinx part 1
http://www.mysteriou...inter/Sphinx01/

Riddle of the Sphinx part 2
http://www.mysteriou...pring/Sphinx02/

Riddle of the Sphinx part 3
http://www.mysteriou...ummer/Sphinx03/

Riddle of the Sphinx part 4
http://www.mysteriou...utumn/Sphinx04/

==========


And try this,

Ancient Osiria. Time of Osiris, before the Pharoahs! I think Osiris was the real Firawn of the Quran.

http://www.mysteriou.../Spring/Osiria/

http://www.mysteriou.../Summer/Osiria/

http://www.mysteriou.../Autumn/Osiria/

http://www.mysteriou.../Winter/Osiria/


Mysteriousworld.com is a great site for exploration.

#158 Storm Large

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Posted 10 June 2009 - 02:34 PM

The story of Exodus itself :

http://www.mysteriou...ring/Artifacts/

http://www.mysteriou...s.asp#TheExodus



I tells ya, the site is brilliant. It also contains articles on the Giants of Adam's time, Nephelim, Gibborim, og gog, Nimrod, Goliath, other fantastic stories.

#159 Al-Afza

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Posted 16 June 2009 - 12:35 AM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

In light of some concluding research on Khufu, I will have to AMEND my previous theory on Khufu declaring himself the younger brother of the solar deity Ra...

So far, there has been no archaeological findings whatsoever indicating that the cult of Ra existed prior to the 2nd Pharaonic Dynasty of Anicent Egypt.

The cults of Haru[Horus] and Ptah were among the most dominant in Ancient Egypt upto the 4th Dynasty. The Ptah and Haru[Horus] cults originated during the late predynastic period of the Two Kingdoms(circa 3300-3200 B.C.); Ptah was the local deity of Menfi[Memphis], which became the kingdom capital of Egypt during the 1st Dynasty and whose original name was Ineb Hedj[The White Walls]; Haru[Horus] was a derivative god rooted in the ancient Nekheny[Hawk] cult of the city of Nekhen.

The cult of Ra came into existence late in the 2nd Dynasty, but it was limited only to the city of Iunu[Heliopolis] and was virtually unknown beyond it; the Archaic Hieratic name being Iunu=[The]Pillars; the Coptic transcription was On=[Place Of]Pillars; the Greek exonym was Heliopolis=City Of The Sun.

During the 4th Dynasty, Ra was suddenly catapulted to become the supreme mythical deity of Ancient Egypt. And that Pharaoh Khufu was SOLELY responsible for this socioreligious phenomenon.

Becaue of Khufu declaring himself a sun god, Ra went from a little known, OBSCURE deity limited only to the city of Iunu[Heliopolis], to eventually become the top mythical deity of ALL Ancient Egypt.

When Khufu not only became the very first pharaoh to deify himself, but also the world's very first ruler to do so, he identified himself with this new obscure deity Ra of Iunu[Heliopolis]...

Khufu declared himself the living god Ra...Establishing the cult of Ra as the supreme Egyptian deity. In the obscure cult of Ra, Khufu found his ideal living image for self-deification.

The idea of self-deification was Khufu's very own, not inspired by anyone. Khufu was well aware of the folklore regarding the deities Ptah and Haru[Horus], that they were once kings of Egypt in biological form before their Ka[Spirits] journeyed to the heavens to permanently reside there as CONSTELLATIONS.

Khufu came to believe that his own personal Ka[Spirit] was none other than the SUN itself...Reigning supreme in the skies, shining brighter than the Moon and all the stars and constellations combined.

Thus, Khufu came up with the concept to deify himself in the same fashion as the legends of Ptah and Haru[Horus]. Khufu then had to come up with a suitable deified image of himself to present to the people of Egypt. Rather than present himself as he actually was in biological form, like the anthropomorphic representation of Ptah, Khufu opted for the more flamboyant HYBRID representations of Egyptian deities that became customary since the 1st Dynasty.

When Khufu first came across the seshep-ankhs[living images] or statues of the Iunu[Heliopolis] Ra, the symbol was that of a seated lion with only the face of a deified human male...Not the entire head. The male human face was surrounded by a lion's mane. The lion was a most ancient terrestrial symbol of the celestial sun...A cultural concept which the Egyptians adopted from the Saggiga[Blackheads] or Shumeru[Sumerians]. Khufu, of course, had it remodelled when he adopted this living image. Khufu replaced the initial hybrid face and head of this proto-Ra with the likeness of his very own bust.

This makes one wonder what Khufu did with the priests of this small cult of proto-Ra, when he decided he had found the ideal representation for his deified public image?

Khufu must have either forced this small, obscure priesthood with accepting that he was Ra, or he slew them all and propagated a brand new priesthood of his own...This would certainly be in character with Khufu's unanimous reputation as a cruel, ruthless tyrant.

The original Khufu-esque representations of Ra were that of the Seshepankh[Sphinx] or Living Image of Khufu's deified head upon a lion's body.

Greek historian Herodotus recorded from old Egyptian legends that Khufu shutdown all temples, forbidding the worship of traditional deities in Egypt. This concurs with what Almighty Allah(swt) quoted in the Holy Qur'an as to what Firawn[Pharaoh] said about "knowing no god other than himself..."

In perverse essence, Khufu reintroduced monotheism to Egypt since the days of Nabih Yusuf(a.s.), but made himself the object of worship instead...Unlike Akhenaten, who well over a millennium later, instituted his own brand of monotheism in the worship of yet another "new" sun-god in Aten.

With Egypt recovering from Khufu's unprecedented monarchial self-deification, Ra's post-4th dynasty representations were MERGED with the representation of Haru[Horus]--the falcon-headed deity; the very word haru means "falcon" in Archaic Hieratic. Ra was thus represented as a whole new hybrid--a falcon's head upon a male human body with a crown that held an encased SUN disk.

This explains why, when Khufu decreed the building of the Great Sphinx[Seshepankh] of Giza as his self-deification rite, he had it facing east towards sunrise...As Ra became the SUPREME representation of a solar deity or sun god in ancient Egyptian mythology.

This further explains why Khufu's sons who succeeded him as pharaohs, Djedef and Khaf, renamed themselves Djedef-Ra and Khaf-Ra.

Djedef, Khufu's immediate successor, was the very first pharaoh to hold the title Son of Ra. No pharaoh before Djedef had Ra added to his personal name.

In fact, prior to Djedef-Ra, NONE of the Pharaohs of Dynastic Egypt, nor ANY of the pre-pharaonic or pre-dynastic rulers of Ancient Egypt had deified titular names...

Names that would appear much later among pharaohs such as Amun-hotep, Thoth-mose, Har-hemheb, Ra-messe, Meren-Ptah, etc...

The early dynastic pharaohs, as well as predynastic rulers of ancient Egypt used their own personal names. This was the socioreligious custom all the way down to the 2nd pharaoh of the 4th dynasty-Khufu.

Also, Khufu's eternal symbol of self-deification, the Great Sphinx[Seshepankh] or Living Image, remains not only the oldest sphinx existing in Egypt but also the largest.

Khufu's full royal title upon accession to the throne was Khnumu Khufwey[Khnum Protects Me], but his personal name was Khufu[Protected]; in some of my earlier posts, I inaccurately translated Khufu as meaning "Protector".

There is another controversial old theory among scholars, historians, archaeolgists and Egyptologists alike, which contends that the scrawled name of "Khufu" inside the Great Pyramid of Giza really spells "Ra-ufu"...This is in relation to the infamous allegation that the Khufu cartouche scrawled by the Great Pyramid's workmen was really a forgery by the soldier, anthropologist & Egyptologist, Maj-Gen. Sir Richard William Howard Vyse.

Even if the theory of Khufu's cartouche really spelling out the name Ra-ufu is proven, than all that does is RECONFIRM that Khufu deified himself as the sun god Ra. That he altered his personal name from Khufu to Ra-ufu.

Here is a bust of Pharaoh Khufu wearing a nemes, which is held as one of the conclusive evidences by Dr. Rainer Stadelmann and Dr. Vassil Dobrev that the Great Sphinx of Giza was made in Khufu's living image. However, Dr. Stadelmann believes Khufu himself had the Great Sphinx built, whereas Dr. Dobrev believes Khufu's son Djedef-Ra built it to honour his father as the Sun God Ra...Below the Khufu-Sphinx images, I have also included the Khufu cartouche scrawled by the workmen of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

khufu2.jpg

sphinx_head3_2001.jpg

sphinx_head2_2001.jpg

sphinx_head1_2001.jpg

khufuname.jpg

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 16 June 2009 - 12:48 AM.


#160 Al-Afza

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Posted 20 June 2009 - 12:32 PM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

The key link to ancient submissive(islamic) monotheism and predynastic Egyptian polytheology lies in the mythic deity Khnum; whose name means "join"; "unite"; "build".

Khnum was originally the deity of the Nile River, fertility, and pottery. The Khnum cult came into existence during the late period of the Three Kingdoms(circa 3500-3400 B.C.). And was one of the triplicity of high-ranking mythic deities along with Haru(Horus) and Ptah.

Khnum's role as the Nile River god and the potter of life was a fusion of evolving ancient Egyptian mythology and ancient monotheistic concepts introduced to Egypt by Nabih Akhnook[aka Idris a.s.]; this monotheist prophet, mentioned in the Holy Qur'an, preceded Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) and probably existed during the Age of the Nomarchies(4200-3700 B.C.)--more specifically 4100-4000 B.C. or a half-millennium before Nabih Yusuf(a.s.)...After the Great Flood or Deluge and not before.

Superficially(but not positively) identified with the Judeo-Christian Enoch(Henoch), Nabih Idris[aka Akhnook a.s.] existed BEFORE Nabih Nuh[Noah] in Biblical chronology. However, in purely Quranic verses, this is not specifically indicated anywhere therein. This excluding any and all tafseer(exegesis) or ahadith(narratives) about Nabih Nuh[Noah] in standard Islamic tradition. Medieval Islamic scholarship has heavily adapted Biblical narratives without paying much closer attention to the Quranic interpretation of monotheist(muwahidun) traditions...And I mean adapted NOT adopted.

Focusing on Nabih Yusuf(a.s.), he further upheld the earliest monotheist(muwahidun) traditions and added more to predynastic Egyptian culture.

Thus, you have the three main functions of the mythic deity Khnum; as the Nile River god, he controlled the annual inundation of water or flooding. This flooding brought with it the rich silt and clay which gave life to the surroundings. All agriculture, livestock, and even human reproduction was the result of this siltation of the Nile River caused by the mythic Khnum. This silting of the Nile gave its name to ancient Egypt which was Kemyt[Siltation], from the Archaic Hieratic word kemy or silt.

Furthermore, in his equally distinguished role as potter, Khnum was the "potter of life" as he moulded the clay from the Nile's silt into living human babies, placing them in the wombs of mothers, simultaneously conceiving their Ka(Souls) as well. Thus, Khnum was a fertility god who moulded the physical bodies of human babies from his potter's wheel of life. This clearly echoes how Almighty Allah(swt) created Nabih Adam(a.s.), the Father of Mankind, in monotheist belief. As Allah(swt) fashioned Adam(a.s.) from clay with is "his own two hands..."

Khnum's mythological functions as moulder of clay into human shape and the creator of Ka(Souls), make apparent the monotheist influence of both anbiya(announcers), Akhnook al-Idris(a.s.) and Yusuf as-Siddiq(a.s.), upon predynastic Egyptian culture and society. And NOT vice versa as modern scholars, historians, scientists, and archaeologists would probably uphold, if and when making such comparison.

----------------------------------------------

From Egyptologist Caroline Seawright's description :

Khnum
was a mythic god of the Nile, a god of silt, fertility and a potter god of creation. He was called the "Father of Fathers and the Mother of Mothers"...The creator, the fashioner of the bodies of men. A fertility god because of his association with the fertile silt. Thus, pottery was created out of the soil of the Nile, and it was believed that he created the first humans and as well as the other gods themselves on his potter's wheel with this silt. As a creator god, Khnum was "Father of the Fathers of the Gods and Goddesses."

---------------------------------------------

As one of the trinity or trio of top ancient Egyptian mythical deities, Khnum was the patron god of choice for pharaonic endorsement of Pharaoh Khufu's accession to the throne. Thus, the royal title of accession for Pharaoh Khufu was Khnumu-Khufwey(The Uniter Protects Me). This, of course, was BEFORE Pharaoh Khufu came up with the idea of deifying himself and declared himself a sun god, the possible Ra'u-fu. Khufu's alter ego of Ra, the sun god, eclipsed ALL other Egyptian deities during his reign, including the trio of Khnum, Ptah, and Haru(Horus).

Below are images of the mythological Egyptian deity Khnum :

180px_Khnum_svg.png

khnum.jpg

khnum8.jpg

-------------------------------------------------------

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 20 June 2009 - 01:10 PM.


#161 Al-Afza

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Posted 20 June 2009 - 12:50 PM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

A REVISED & UPDATED biodata of Firawn[Pharaoh] Khufu ...

Personal Name : Khufu(Protected)
Titular Name : Khnumu-Khufwey(The Uniter Protects Me)
Horus Name : Medjedu(The One Who Hits)
Deified Name : Ra'u-fu(The Sun Is Me)
Koranic Title : Firawn, Dhu al-Awtaad(Great Host, He Of The Great Bulwark)
Alternate Names : Cheops; Suphis II.
Born : 2669 B.C.
Reigned : 2646-2583 B.C.
Died : 2583 B.C.
Father : Snefru[aka Soris] - 1st Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty; son of Huni, the last Pharaoh of the 3rd Dynasty.
Mother : Hetepheres I - Queen Mother/Chief Royal Wife/Snefru's half-sister; daughter of Pharaoh Huni.

-Pharaoh of both the Oppression and the Exodus of the Bani Israil[Children of Israel] tribe.
-2nd Pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty.
-3rd biological son of Pharaoh Snefru(Seneferu/Sneferu/Snofru).
-Began reign upon death of father Pharaoh Snefru.
-Elder half-brothers were Nefer-Maat I and Ka-Nefer, biological sons of Snefru from lesser royal wives; Nefermaat I served as Grand Vizier to Pharaoh Snefru but predeceased his father; Kanefer next served as Grand Vizier to Pharaoh Snefru, serving well past Snefru's death under his younger half-brother Pharaoh Khufu.
-Replaced his original Chief Royal Wife, Queen Merytiotes II, with lesser royal spouse Queen Henutsen.
-Replaced his original Grand Vizier, elder half-brother Kanefer, with nephew Hemiunu(Haman).
-Ascended to the throne at age 23.
-Died at age 86.
-reigned : 63 yrs[Manetho/Josephus/Africanus/Eusebius]; 50 yrs[Herodotus]; 23 yrs[Turin Canon].
-reign dates :

2646-2583 B.C.*
2633-2583 B.C.
2606-2583 B.C.
2636-2573 B.C.
2623-2573 B.C.
2596-2573 B.C.
2629-2566 B.C.
2616-2566 B.C.
2589-2566 B.C.
2591-2528 B.C.
2578-2528 B.C.
2551-2528 B.C.

[*The most accurate and likely date.]

-The very first ruler in world history to publicly declare himself a "Living God".
-Decreed his elder half-brother and 1st Grand Vizier Kanefer to commission the building of the Seshep-Ankh[Living Image] or Great Sphinx as a self-deification rite; however, Khufu's nephew Hemiunu(Haman) was the one in charge of the actual construction of the Great Sphinx.
-Decreed his late elder half-brother Nefermaat I's son and 2nd Grand Vizier, Hemiunu(i.e.Hemon/Haman), to build Akhet-Khufu[Horizon of Khufu] or the Great Pyramid at Giza to observe the "constellation" of the One God of Anbiya[Announcers] Musa[Moses] and Harun[Aaron].
-Lost his firstborn, crown prince and heir Khawab to the 8th and penultimate Ayat(Sign) of Allah(The Divinity) which was the Blood.
-Died by drowning upon pursuing the emigrating Bani Israil[Israelite] tribe at the terminus of the Pelusiac river branch of the Nile Delta, where it once flowed out into the Mediterranean Sea.
-Reportedly sired 9 sons[only 6 are confirmed]; 15 daughters[only 5 have recorded names and can be confirmed].
-Allegedly had 6 queens[only 4 are confirmed] :
1-Merytiotes II [Queen Mother/1st Chief Royal Wife/Khufu's sister]
2-Nefertkau [Khufu's half-sister]
3-Senti [Khufu's half-sister]
4-Henutsen [2nd Chief Royal Wife]
5-Djefatsen(?)
6-Nefertabe(?)
sons :
1-Khawab(Kawab/Kauab/Kewab)
2-Djedef [aka Hor-Djedef/Djedef-Hor/Ra-Djedef/Djedef-Ra]
3-Babaef [aka Hor-Babaef/Hor-Baef/Bauaf-Ra/Khnum-Baf]
4-Khaf [aka Khaf-Ra/Chephren/Khaf-Khufu/Khufu-Khaf I/Suphis III]
5-Minkhaf
6-Nefermaat II
7-Kha-Hor(?)
8-Akhet-Hotep(?)
9-Hor-Netjer(?)
daughters :
1-Hetepheres II
2-Merytiotes III
3-Meresankh III
4-Khamernebty II
5-Neferetiabet

Firawn's 1st Chief Royal Wife : Queen Merytiotes II (Asiya)

Queen_Merytiotes_II__Asiya_.gif

Queen_Meritites.jpg

Firawn(Pharaoh) : Khufu (Cheops/Suphis II)

Khufu_Ivory_Statue.jpg

khufu2.jpg

Firawn's 1st Grand Vizier & elder half-brother : Kanefer (aka The Mumin or Believer)

Kanefer.jpg

Firawn's 2nd Grand Vizier & Nephew : Hemiunu (Hemon/Haman)

Haman.jpg

Firawn's Firstborn Son : Crown Prince Khawab

kawab2.jpg

Ancient map location of where Firawn(Pharaoh) and Haman(Hemiunu) both drowned in the Nile Delta : The defunct or dried-up waterway that was the Pelusiac branch of the Nile River ...

Pelusiac.jpg

Nile_Delta.jpg

----------------------------------

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

#162 Storm Large

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Posted 20 June 2009 - 03:59 PM

I am sorry to say Al Afza but your theories are way off tangent.

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I am sorry to say but that is what the Actual Firawn Ramses 2 of Quran looked like.

#163 Al-Afza

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Posted 21 June 2009 - 08:02 PM

I am sorry to say Al Afza but your theories are way off tangent.

Posted Image

Posted Image

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I am sorry to say but that is what the Actual Firawn Ramses 2 of Quran looked like.


Salam.

10:92

"This day shall We save thee in the body, that thou mayest be a sign to those who come after thee! but verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our Signs!"

This Surah and Ayat from the Holy Qur'an explains a great deal to the perceptive...

As a sign(ayat) to those who came after Pharaoun Khufu, this would imply US of the modern era. This is related in the future tense.

As those among mankind who are heedless of Almighty Allah's signs(ayah), that would apply to Khufu's surviving sons Djedef-Ra and Khaf-Ra[Chephren/Suphis III] who succeeded him, perpetuating the cult of Khufu's Ra(or possibly Ra'u-fu).

When Djedefra and Khafra found Khufu's drowned body inside his royal solar ship at the Pelusiac terminus, what they came across were flooded waters...With no trace of the Egyptian marine fleet, Haman(Hemiunu), nor Anbiya Musa and Harun and the Bani Israil tribe.

They were heedless of the fact that they found the drowned body of their sire, feeble in his mortality. They only saw that Khufu's corpse was the sole surviving evidence of what appeared to be a great supernatural battle. An epic duel between the self-proclaimed Living God of Egypt and the "magicians" Musa[Moses] and Harun[Aaron] and their One True Invisible God. What Djedefra and Khafra and the rest of Egypt saw was that Khufu vanquished his adversaries and was the sole surviving evidence, drowned in the epic battle but victorious in death.

That would explain why the cult of Khufu's Ra continued throughout the 4th Dynasty...While in post-4th Dynasty Egypt, Ra was ultimately disassociated with Khufu's living image and MERGED with the old, established deity--the falcon-headed Haru(Horus).

Hypothetically, included as the "many among mankind that are heedless of Our Signs...", would be the disputers who would contend with one another if and when Khufu's mummified corpse is found...

Rather than paying close attention to the moral of Pharaoh's story, which would be proven by his promised discovery, the disputers will argue over which scripture was right and which one was wrong. Thus, being heedless of the symbolism and purpose of such a pending discovery, in favour of disputing over the rights of interpretation of the holy scriptures[i.e.Torah, Evangel, Koran]...

As for Ramses II's mummy, those who uphold him to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus and/or Oppression, they are not heedless of wanting to believe that he must have been that Biblical-Koranic Pharaoh. There still is general, widespread consensus that Ramses II is the Pharaoh of the Exodus, even though the number of those who oppose this view is steadily growing.

Furthermore, regarding Ramses II, if you retrace the numerous earlier posts that have covered all the reasons why he couldn't have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus or the Oppression, you will find more than enough tangible evidence that support it.

--Ramses II's mummy wasn't discovered alone in 1881 but with 39 other (mostly royal) mummies.

--Ramses II had lost not just his firstborn son(at age 52), but 11 other sons before his 67-year reign came to an end.

--Ramses II died anywhere between ages 92-99 years; he also suffered from near-complete paralysis for the last decade of his life; he would have been physically unable to ride on a chariot.

--Ramses II's mummified corpse has been forensically examined numerous times via modern technology; he clearly did not die from drowning.

--Ramses II built no sarhan or tower that matches the description mentioned in the Holy Qur'an.

The list goes on and on...

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin

Edited by Al-Afza, 21 June 2009 - 08:05 PM.


#164 Al-Afza

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Posted 30 June 2009 - 12:22 AM

Aleikassalam,
Forgive me if my information of egyptiology is low .


Salam.

Here is a conclusive SUMMARY that might be of use...

The Ancient Egyptians called their land KEMYT. This comes from the cursive hieroglyphic or Old Hieratic text entitled BOOK OF KEMYT.

The appellation KEMYT[SILTATION] is a direct derivative of the Archaic Hieratic word Kemy = Silt; SILT = soil containing 80 percent or more of such silt and less than 12 percent of clay or a deposit of sediment (as by a river). In this case, the KEMY[SILT] of the Nile River Valley which gave rise to the agricultural development that MADE Ancient Egypt; Kemy(Silt) which made up the fertile soil of the Nile flood plains.

KEMY[Silt] is NOT to be confused, as has often been the case, with the Archaic Hieratic word Khem=Black[colour]. Nor is KEMY[Silt] to be further confused with the Archaic Hieratic word Kemai=Gum, of which the Greek derivative is Kommi. The Ancient Egyptians called the River Nile ITERU or simply "River". The name EGYPT itself was the Hellenic or Greek adaptation AIGYPTOS[AEGYPTUS in Latin] from the Old Hieratic HET-KA-PTAH(Temple Of The Spirit Of Ptah); Het=Temple; Ka=Spirit.

According to tradition, the Greek word Chemeia and the Arabic word Al-Kimiya, BOTH of which literally mean ALCHEMY, were directly derived from the Archaic Hieratic word KEMY or SILT. While the Greco-Latin words Chemistry and Chemical are direct derivatives of the word ALCHEMY.

I have to AMEND my previous chronological table of KEMYT[Ancient Egypt] :

Historians have used the royal title PHARAOH[Phara'oun in Musri Arabic] from the Ancient Musri[Old Hieratic] Per'o-Aa[Great Host]; Per'o-Aa[Great Host] directly derived from Per-Aa[Great House]; Per=House; Per'o=Host; Aa=Great. Per was synonymous with the words Mansion and Palace. Related Archaic Hieratic appellations : Neswe[Nsw] = King; Neswet[Nswt] = Kingship; Hem[Hm] = Majesty; Ity = Sovereign; Heqa = Ruler; Neb = Lord.

These historians have applied the title "PHARAOH" RETROACTIVELY from Mena the Nar-Mer[Angry Catfish] onward as he was the Unifier of ALL Ancient Egypt. Prior to Mena Nar-Mer, historians referred to the Ancient Egyptian ruler as king or malik in Arabic.

The noun malik or king consequently would apply to the Egyptian rulers during the predynastic kingdoms. These KINGS had their righthand-man in the Tjat[later Tjaty] or Grand Vizier[i.e. Prime Minister]; Vizier=Minister.

In Ancient Egypt, the main distinction between Predynastic Rulership and Pharaonic Rulership was that the Predynastic Kings were ELECTED...Whereas Pharaohs(of Dynastic Egypt), from the reign of Mena Narmer onward, were primarily HEREDITARY.

Pharaoh Tutankhamun was the LAST Pharaoh of the royal hereditary bloodline. King Tut's immediate successor was an unrelated COMMONER or non-royalty named Ay; Ay was King Tut's former Grand Vizier and High Priest. Ay was the driving force who engineered Ancient Egypt's and the boy-king Tutankhaten's conversion from his father Akhenaten's monotheism to polytheistic worship. Thus, Tutankhaten became Tutankhamun.

King Tut's father Amun-hotep IV converted to monotheism, establishing the religion of ATEN[One True God] in Ancient Egypt, changing his name to Akhen-Aten. He abolished all polytheism in Egypt, including the chief deities of Amun and Ra.

The Age of the Three Kingdoms[Upper/Middle/Lower] = 3700-3400 B.C.
The Age of the Two Kingdoms[Upper/Lower] = 3400-3200 B.C.

Because the Nile River flowed UPWARD into the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile Delta region was called Lower Egypt as it was thought to be South when it was in fact North. Hence, Upper Egypt was actually Southern Egypt.

The Three Kingdoms were symbolized by the following :

Lower Egypt=The Papyrus Reed [Due to the heavy concentration of papyrus reeds in the Nile Delta.]

Middle Egypt=The Beehive [Due to the abundance of honeycombs grown in bee farms which was the speciality of the region.]

Upper Egypt=The Desert Hawk [Due to the common spread of desert hawks in the mostly arid region, resulting in a patron deity called 'Nekheny'.]

Consequently, the titles of the rulers of the Three Kingdoms were :

The Red-Crowned(Deshret) UAT or REED Kings of Lower Egypt...

red_crown.gif

The Blue-Crowned(Khepresh) BJT or BEE Kings of Middle Egypt...

blue_crown.gif

The White-Crowned(Hedjet) NEKHENY or HAWK Kings of Upper Egypt...

white_crown.gif

The shape and design of the Three Crowns were based upon STYLIZED glyphs of :

The Papyrus Reed [for the Uat or Reed Kingdom of Lower Egypt]
The Beehive or Honeycomb [for the Bjt or Bee Kingdom of Middle Egypt]
The Hawk's Beak [for the Nekheny or Hawk Kingdom of Upper Egypt]

No textual information has survived which explains as to why the specific colours of Red/Blue/White were selected for the Three Crowns.

Circa 3400 B.C., a ruler in the line of the Nekheny[Hawk] Kings of Upper Egypt, named King Scorpion(reigned 3407-3346 B.C.), conquered the kingdom of Middle Egypt, bringing about its END. King Scorpion was reportedly the genealogical forefather of Mena the Nar-Mer[Angry Catfish]. Mena Nar-Mer conquered Lower Egypt two centuries later circa 3200 B.C.; Mena the Narmer's reign has 2 different recorded lengths from the very same ORIGINAL source : Manetho(native Egyptian high priest of Ra)--62 yrs[Josephus/Africanus] & 30 yrs[Eusebius].

Also, the ONCE Blue Crown(Khepresh) of Middle Egypt became the ceremonial WAR crown of the rulers of Upper Egypt. Since the Blue Crown(Khepresh) was the prize of victory for King Scorpion, it came to symbolize military triumph for subsequent rulers not only of Upper Egypt, but ALL the way down through Dynastic Egypt of the Pharaohs.

AFTER King Scorpion's conquest of Middle Egypt, Ancient Egyptian scribes referred to the subsequent Two Kingdoms as simply NESUT[Upper Kingdom] and BITI[Lower Kingdom].

Previously, all three kingdoms of Upper, Middle and Lower Egypt had dual appellations :

-Upper Egypt had the geopolitical appellation of Upper Kingdom and sociopolitical appellation of the Nekheny[Hawk] Kingdom.

-Middle Egypt had the geopolitical appellation of Middle Kingdom and sociopolitical appellation of the Bjt[Bee] Kingdom.

-Lower Egypt had the geopolitical appellation of Lower Kingdom and sociopolitical appellation of the Uat[Reed] Kingdom.

After King Scorpion's annexation of Middle Egypt, he decreed scribes to exclusively use the geopolitical appellation of Nesut or Upper Kingdom for the new Upper Egypt. He did not want to cause any cultural or theological conflict between the Nekheny(Hawk) and Bjt(Bee) cults.

To counter this new development, Lower Egypt very quickly followed suit and began exclusively to use its own geopolitical appellation of Biti or Lower Kingdom to distinguish itself from its southern neighbour.

Consequently, there always remained a definitive distinction between Upper and Lower Egypt, long after Mena Narmer's unification of ALL Egypt. The population of Lower Egypt never allowed that distinction to be socially and culturally forgotten. Unlike Middle Egypt which after its annexation by King Scorpion, thoroughly ASSIMILATED with Upper Egypt.
Gradually losing its social and cultural distinction.

However, PRIOR to all this, Ancient Egypt had THREE NOMES which eventually evolved into the THREE KINGDOMS; Nomes were provinces or regions of Ancient Egypt. The governor-generals of these Nomes were NOMARCHS. The Nomarchs had no SINGLE righthand-man but a council of peers subordinate to the Nomarch; the council of peers being deputy governors of the Nome's subdivisions or territorial districts.

The Nomarch was the ELECTED Governor-General of the Nome. The Three Nomes were established circa 4200 B.C. but gradually grew in territorial control and jurisdiction since then. By circa 3700 B.C., the Three Nomes had expanded in geographic range to such an extent that they had evolved into Three Kingdoms.

The Age of the Nomarchies[Upper/Middle/Lower] = 4200-3700 B.C.

The word Nome(i.e.nomos) was Greek while in Ancient Musri[Old Hieratic] it was SEPAT. The Sepat[Nome] had a very different definition in PRE-MONARCHIAL Kemyt[Ancient Egypt]. The Sepat was the Nomarchy or GOVERNORATE of the ENTIRE region of either Upper, Middle or Lower Egypt.

Later AFTER the Sepat or Nome evolved into a Kingdom, Ancient Egyptian scribes started applying the term Sepat[Nome] to a DISTRICT. While the position of Nomarch was applied to the Chief Magistrate of the District. Hence, the terms Nome[Sepat] and Nomarch were greatly REDUCED to identify a district and its chief magistrate.

And PRIOR to the Nomarchies, it was The Age of the Fiefdoms from 5000-4200 B.C. when Ancient Egypt was comprised of fiefs or feudal estates. The earliest archaeological evidence of human existence in Egypt dates from 9000 B.C. along the Nile River. These were of prehistoric hunter-gatherers who fished and hunted along the river Nile in Egypt. By 6000 B.C., village settlements had been established all along the Nile River in Egypt commencing the Agrarian Age(6000-5000 B.C.). By 5000 B.C., fiefdoms had been established which flourished till 4200 B.C., when they had evolved into THREE main nomarchies(governorates).

Recent geoarchaeological discoveries reveal that the Sahara Desert of North Africa was a lush, fertile region with numerous lakes spread throughout. Far from the Mediterranean Coastline, cave drawings were found spread out across the Sahara Desert of North Africa, vividly depicting scenes of hunter-gatherers swimming and hunting in and around lakes. These cave drawings spanned a period which dated from 9000-6000 B.C.

After a slight tilt in the Earth's Axis circa 6000 B.C., the Sahara in North Africa transformed into an arid desert region within a SINGLE human lifetime. As a result, the ONLY truly lush region left was the Nile River Valley of Egypt. The direct genealogical descendants of those Prehistoric Indigenous North Africans were the Imazighen Peoples[aka the BERBERS] AND the Ancient Egyptians. BOTH peoples shared homogeneous ancestry.

Returning to Mena Narmer's unification of ALL Kemyt[Ancient Egypt], which initialized Ancient Egypt's very 1st Dynasty...The title Pharaoh[Per'o-Aa/Phara'oun] or Great Host signified the monarch or ruler of ALL Egypt-Upper and Lower. Mena's personal name is said to mean either "The Establisher" or "The Everlasting". Variations on Mena's name include the Old Hieratic Meni & Min; the Greek and Latin Menes & Menses. 'Nar-Mer'["Angry Catfish"] was Mena's lakab or epithet.

Mena the Nar-Mer himself was of Upper Egypt(Southern Egypt) but upon his unification of both Upper and Lower Egypt, he commissioned a Double Crown called the Pshent.
This Double Crown(Pshent) was literally a combination of the Hedjet(White Crown) of his native Upper Egypt and the Deshret(Red Crown) of Lower Egypt...

double_crown.gif

The Blue Crown(Khepresh) of the former Middle Egypt had morphed into a ceremonial war crown.

Also, a new development had arisen with Mena Narmer's unification of Upper and Lower Egypt : The new ruler was now elevated to High Priest of The Two Lands...High Priest of both Upper and Lower Egypt. This was done so the sovereign of the new unified Egypt would not be superseded by the various powerful priesthood factions which exerted enormous influence and control over Egypt. The Pharaoh[Great Host] was the direct liaison or agent to the Egyptian deities. Mena the Narmer[Angry Catfish] was that very 1st Pharaoh.

This UNPRECEDENTED institution was unique to Ancient Egypt among ALL the ancient civilizations and cultures. Neither of Egypt's contemporary civilizations instituted such a POSITION. Not Sumerian Iraq, nor Indus Valley Pakistan, etc. ... The Pharaoh or Great Host was BOTH the spiritual hierarch(eg. the Roman Catholic Pope) and the sovereign. This was from Mena Narmer's reign onward until Khufu declared himself a LIVING GOD during the 4th Dynasty. Khufu was the ONLY Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh to have declared himself a full-fledged PEER to the Ancient Egyptian deities...

From Khufu's son and successor Djedef-Ra's reign onward, the title SON OF RA was instituted and ALL Pharaohs from Djedef-Ra onward were then regarded as DEMI-GODS. Being the "Sons of the Gods", these Pharaohs were above mere mortals but ranked just below the mythical deities of the Ancient Egyptian pantheon, to whom they offered tribute and paid homage. This institution transferred the position of High Priest of The Two Lands, which was once held by the Pharaoh(before the reign of Khufu), to the Grand Vizier.

Pharaonic Egypt had a total of 33 Royal Dynasties in its long history. By the 6th Dynasty, Ancient Egypt had a total of 22 Nomes[administrative districts]. By the 26th Dynasty, Ancient Egypt had a total of 42 Nomes[administrative districts] : 22 Nomes of Upper Egypt and 20 Nomes of Lower Egypt. The LAST Royal Dynasty in which a NATIVE Egyptian ruled was the 30th Dynasty...With Nakhthorheb II (Nectanebo II) being Ancient Egypt's LAST native Pharaoh.

The very last Pharaonic Dynasty[33rd Dynasty] of Ancient Egypt was the Hellenic/Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty. The very last Pharaonic ruler of Ancient Egypt was NOT a king, but a queen : Queen Cleopatra VII [i.e. Caesar & Cleopatra/Antony & Cleopatra]...

And in a footnote, after the collapse of the Old Kingdom, which was at the end of the 6th Dynasty, what followed was the First Intermediate period. This period was known as the DARK PERIOD of Ancient Egyptian history.

According to celebrated Egyptologist James Henry Breasted, this period was when--"the temples were pillaged and violated, their existing artwork was vandalized, and the statues of kings were broken or destroyed as a result of this alleged political chaos.."

Pharaonic Egypt's power was greatly reduced during this period of chaos and disorder which spanned THREE CENTURIES from the 7th Dynasty thru the earlier half of the 11th Dynasty. Ancient Egypt's 22 Nomarchies[administrative districts] of this period had risen considerably in power, vying with the Pharaonic Dynasties in power and autonomy.

Coming to a conclusion, I would have to AMEND Nabih Yusuf's timeline to Predynastic Egypt's period of TWO KINGDOMS[3400-3200 B.C.]. More specifically, circa 3340-3250 B.C.[instead of circa 4000 B.C.] or 700 years later than I had previously dated it. This would fit in perfectly with the Egyptian ruler being identified with the Qur'anic MALIK or King and his Grand Vizier, the Qur'anic AZIZ. Nabih Yusuf, of course, eventually became the AZIZ or Grand Vizier of Lower Egypt.

That would also place Nabih Ibrahim's timeline to circa 3510-3400 B.C.[instead of 4300 B.C.]. Nabih Ibrahim's timeline would then be post-Late Ubaid period(4700-4100 B.C.). This would roughly place the year of Nabih Ibrahim's birth at circa 3510 B.C.

Assuming that the Grand Shaykh was about 80-yrs-old when Nabih Ishaq was born; Nabih Ishaq being about 30-yrs-old when Nabih Yaqub was born; Nabih Yaqub being about 60-yrs-old when Nabih Yusuf was born. And Nabih Yusuf being about 90-yrs-old when he passed away around 3250 B.C. ... The timeline from Nabih Ibrahim's birth to Nabih Yusuf's passing would then be circa 3510-3250 B.C. or 260 years.

With Dr. Peter A. Piccione's placement of Pharaoh Khufu's death in 2583 B.C.,
THE YEAR OF THE EXODUS WAS 2583 B.C. ...

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

#165 Al-Afza

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Posted 01 July 2009 - 01:47 PM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

An epilogue or addendum to my earlier posts on Ra and Khnum...

In relation to the evolving ancient Egyptian polytheology, it is interesting to note that of ALL the mythical deities of Egypt, Ra was the only deity to be fused or merged with other major deities.

Ra went through several incarnations and metamorphoses throughout ancient Egyptian folklore and socioreligious history.

Ra started out as a virtually unknown, obscure mythical deity, limited to the city of Iunu(Heliopolis). After Khufu discovered proto-Ra's cult and found his public image and alter ego for self-deification in proto-Ra, proto-Ra then became the supreme deity of Egypt. Proto-Ra was depicted as a seated lion with only the face of a deified human male, sporting a false beard.

Ra'u-fu was the remodelled sun-god Ra with Khufu's bust upon the body of seated lion; this redefined proto-Ra was depicted from Khufu's reign till the very end of the 4th Dynasty.

Post-4th Dynasty, saw Ra merged with Haru(Horus) as Ra-Har-akhty[Ra Is Haru Of the Horizon]. Haru(Horus) being a falcon-headed deity. This was done by the cult of Horus to regain their once prominent stature by merging with the Ra cult, which was nationally established by Khufu.

Ra also gained his own independent personage, depicted as a falcon-headed deity with a crown that held an encased sun disk.

Ra was consecutively fused with other major mythical deities Atum and Amun...As Atum-Ra and Amun-Ra.

Thus, Ra was the ONLY major ancient Egyptian deity to be merged or fused with other important mythical deities of ancient Egypt.

Also, by the end of the 1st Dynasty of ancient Egypt, three items that were firmly established :

1-Hybrid representations of mythical deities became widely popular throughout Egypt.

2-Khnum, Ptah and Haru(Horus) became the topmost mythical deites in Egypt.

3-The Ka(Spirits) of the deities resided as constellations up in the heavens, while those of the pharaohs, resided as single stars in the skies.

--------------------------------------------------------

As for the omnipotent concept of Neter[God] in evolving ancient Egyptian socioreligious belief, that was a by-product of monotheist origin propagated by Nabih Akhnook al-Idris(a.s.). Nabih Idris(a.s.) was one of four monotheist anbiya(announcers) and rusul(messengers) that were sent to ancient Egypt(i.e.Yusuf/Musa/Harun). The third and fourth of these were also nazirs(warners), which the previous two were not.

Also, Nabih Idris(a.s.) was said to be a native or pure Egyptian. Nabih Yusuf(a.s) was of mixed Canaanite(Philistine/Syrian/Jordanian) and Sumerian(Saggiga) ethnic origin. Having married an Egyptian, his progeny was half-Egyptian. As for his eleven brothers, the youngest, Hazrat Yamin(Benjamin), also married an Egyptian spouse. The other ten had Canaanite(Kinanah) spouses but also took on additional native Egyptian spouses as well.

Overall, by circa 2650 B.C., the Bani Israil had probably far more native Egyptian bloodline than both Canaanite and Sumerian combined. The following verse of the Holy Qur'an's Surah Qisas[The Narrative] indicates this :

28:4
Inna firAAawna AAala fee al-ardi wajaAAala ahlaha shiyaAAan yastadAAifu ta-ifatan minhum yuthabbihu abnaahum wayastahyee nisaahum innahu kana mina almufsideena.

Truly Pharaoh elated himself in the land and broke up its people into sections, depressing a small group among them: their sons he slew, but he kept alive their females: for he was indeed a maker of mischief.

This ayat(verse) makes it apparent that AllahÓÈÍÇäå æÊÚÇáì identified the Bani Israil as among the people of the land of Egypt...Not foreigners or strangers, nor slaves...Since no mention at all was made of them being slaves, it must be assumed that they were a free people who were citizens of Egypt with their own hereditary distinction. And that the Bani Israil were a small population in Egypt...

By circa 2650 B.C., the Bani Israil population probably numbered about 6000* total[all descended from just the 12 sons of Nabih Yaqub al-Israil], while the entire population of Egypt numbered approximately 900,000[lowest estimate] to 1,600,000[highest estimate]. By circa 2600 B.C., Pharaoh Khufu probably decimated an entire one-third of the Bani Israil population, roughly leaving a total of 4000 to participate in the Exodus/Hijrah(Migration) of 2583 B.C.

Judeo-Christian/Biblical tradition held that Anbiya Musa(Moses) and Harun(Aaron) were descended from one of Nabih Yusuf's elder brothers named Luayy or Louay[Levi]. However, some Saracen traditions upheld that they were descended from Nabih Yusuf's direct line.

Returning to the concept of the omnipotent Neter[God] in ancient Egypt, Nabih Idris(a.s.) was indeed its propagator. Owing to that stage of social and cultural development in ancient Egypt, the early period of the Age of the Nomarchies(4100-4000 B.C.), the concept of the Malaikah(Angels) and Jinnat(Genii) were introduced to Egypt. However, they were mutated into benign spirited deities and evil spirited deities by post-Idrisid Egyptians.

It is important to mention that from 9000-6000 B.C., no archaeological evidence exists to support that prehistoric Egyptians had any form of religious beliefs. This period was far too primitive for such social development. The earliest evidence of any type of religion in Egypt, appeared during the Agrarian Age(6000-5000 B.C.), which was totemism. This totemic culture gave way to shamanism during the Age of the Fiefdoms(5000-4200 B.C.). This Egyptian shamanism gradually evolved into mythology from 4500-4200 B.C. By circa 4200 B.C., shamanism had completely given way to organized mythological religion in Egypt.

By Nabih Yusuf's time, the concept of Malaikah(Angels) and Jinnat(Genii) were completely lost to antiquity, unheard of in Egypt. Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) most probably tried to introduce such concepts once again in their original form, but they were rejected outright. However, the concept of the omnipotent Neter[God] somehow survived in abstract form in ancient Egypt.

-------------------------------------------------------

*Amended revised figure from earlier postings. The Akkadian empire-builder Sharrukin I[Sargon I], who reigned 2637-2582 B.C. and a contemporary of Pharaoh Khufu, amassed an army that numbered 5400 at its largest. Khufu's entire standing army numbered 5000 by 2584 B.C. During the pursuit of the Bani Israil in 2583 B.C., he probably deployed a total of 4000 soldiers; 2000 marines in pursuit by boats to cut off the Bani Israil who were on foot; plus 2000 infantrymen following behind divided in two battalions; 1000 soldiers marching up the western banks of the Pelusiac, 1000 soldiers marching up the eastern banks. Of the migrating 4000 Bani Israil, the male population were a small minority, survivors of Khufu's male genocide. Those among them of fighting capability, from ages 13-70, probably numbered no more than 700 males. They certainly were no match for Khufu's 2000 marines, who would have cut them down like straw.

Another revised amendment would be the timelines of Anbiya Ibrahim & Yusuf(pbut); Nabih Ibrahim's birth would be circa 3510 B.C., while Nabih Yusuf's passing would be circa 3250 B.C.; this would place Nabih Yusuf(a.s.) during the Age of the Two Kingdoms in Lower Egypt, instead of the Age of the Three Kingdoms. Having passed away before the birth of Mena Narmer. There was roughly a 600-year span from the passing of Nabih Yusuf to the birth of Nabih Musa(born circa 2644 B.C.).

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

#166 Al-Afza

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Posted 03 July 2009 - 06:15 PM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

On recapping my reconstruction of the climactic parting of the waters of the Exodus/Hijrah(Migration) of the Bani Israil, I had to make some amendments in its logistical aspects :

--In the backwash of the tidal wave that drowned Khufu's marine fleet, roughly half of them were swept out into the Mediterranean Sea. This would leave about a thousand soldiers to drown with their boats within the Pelusiac branch. These soldiers and their vessels sank to the bottom of the Pelusiac.

--Khufu's royal barge was among the vessels that wasn't swept out to the Mediterranean in the backwash. Having capsized with only Khufu's trapped body inside the royal cabin, it was the ONLY vessel of the Pharaonic fleet to float ashore along the Pelusiac banks. Khufu's drowned corpse was found inside by his arriving sons Djedef and Khaf.

--Khufu's convoy of marines comprised 67 boats with 30 soldiers per boat; this included the oarsmen who were the soldiers themselves. This made up the 2010 marines deployed by Khufu to accompany himself and his grand vizier and high priest Hemiunu[Haman], in his pursuit of the Bani Israil. This convoy comprised boats travelling in parallels of 4 per row, with 17 rows in tandem with 30 troopers per boat. With the travelling space of these rows of 4 adjacent vessels taken into account, the entire length of this convoy was roughly 2500 feet. The Pelusiac branch was 330 feet wide while nearing its terminus, from the eastern riverbank to the western riverbank.

--The parted mounds of water of the Mediterranean on one side and the Pelusiac on the other, cleared a pathway of solid ground at least 400* feet wide. Taking this into account, each parted mound of water would have been 200 feet high.

--Because of the anti-gravitational pull of the parted mounds of water, Khufu's convoy of boats were forced into an unavoidable cluster. The entire fleet got caught off guard and because of the mildly rapid current propelling the convoy against the anti-gravity water mound, were stuck as if in a quagmire. All attempts by the oarsmen to steer their vessels to either riverbank were impossible. Utterly desperate, a few of Khufu's troops must have attempted to swim the 65 feet to either riverbank, but drowned due to the anti-gravitational sway of the Pelusiac current.

--With the 67-boat convoy all in a large cluster in tandem, the width of this cluster must have been no more than 200 feet. This left an additional length of 130 feet of the Pelusiac river, divided into a distance of 65 feet to either riverbank, east or west. The maximum length of this cluster of boats would have been 1700 feet, assuming all the boats of the convoy were no more than 100 feet long and 20 feet wide[excluding Khufu's 145-foot barge which contained a large cabin, unlike all the other open-air boats]. So when the massive tidal wave came roaring in moments after the parted mounds of water came together, it gushed in 1000* yards[3000 feet] inland, down the upflowing Pelusiac. Thats how Khufu's entire marine convoy drowned without any chance of survival.

--The 4000 Bani Israil muhajirin[migrants] were at least 5000 feet clear away from the eastern riverbank of the Pelusiac terminus, when the massive tidal wave roared inland. Also, where the Bani Israil stood, observing this event, was an elevated plateau at the eastern riverbank of the Pelusiac. For the Bani Israil, this embankment was high enough to act as a natural barrier from the furious tidal wave, excluding them from harm's way.

--In order to determine the approximate time it took for 4000 civilians[i.e.Bani Israil] to cross the 330-foot pathway, which was the width of the Pelusiac, a modern-day re-enactment would be necessary. Such an experiment or test, would have to also include an additional 5000-foot crossing at an upward slope to a higher plateau or embankment at least 250 feet above sea level. Also, the width of the 330-foot long path would have to be 400 feet wide. This would give us the length of time the parted waters barred and contained Khufu's fleet.

--The precise position of Khufu's royal barge amongst his fleet can only be a calculated guess. This would depend upon a computer generated reconstruction of the most likely logistical spot where Khufu's barge would have had the highest probability of floating ashore the Pelusiac riverbank, after being capsized by the incoming tidal wave.

--During the crossing of the Pelusiac by the Bani Israil, Anbiya Musa[Moses] and Harun[Aaron] most probably stood right in front of the parted mounds of water at the halfway point. This would have been the ideal spot for them to be poised, in order to assure and inspire confidence to the overwhelmed and frightened Bani Israil civilians. Symbolically, I would place Nabih Musa[Moses] standing right in front of the Pelusiac's parted mound of water which held back Khufu and his fleet; Nabih Harun[Aaron] would have then been the one standing right in front of the Mediterranean's parted mound of water. Both anbiya(announcers) would have been directing the pedestrian crossing of the Bani Israil civilians.

--Nabih Musa[Moses] did not strike the parted mounds of water with his staff to reunite them, as he had done to part them. The reason being that all of the Bani Israil[Anbiya Musa and Harun included] had to be far enough up the Pelusiac's eastern embankment before the parted waters came together, immediately followed by the incoming monstrous tidal wave. The parted waters most likely came together smoothly and automatically, without Nabih Musa[Moses] having to do anything.

--The incoming tidal wave must have been approximately 70-75* feet high, with a 70-75* mph surge upon shoreline impact; caused by either an underground earthquake, tectonic upheavel, or distant volcanic blast, this tidal wave probably travelled across the Mediterranean Sea at a speed of 400* mph. The spot where the Bani Israil stood when this monstrous tidal wave roared inland, was most probably a plateau that sloped at least 250 feet above sea level from the eastern riverbank of the Pelusiac terminus.

-------------------------------------------------------

[*Amended and revised figures from previous postings.]

Pelusiac.jpg

Nile_Delta.jpg

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 03 July 2009 - 06:31 PM.


#167 Al-Afza

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Posted 12 July 2009 - 12:59 AM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

In examining the map of the Giza Pyramid complex, there are SIX possibilities of where Pharaoh Khufu's yet undisovered burial chamber might be...

At the southern end of Akhet-Khufu[Horizon Of Khufu]--i.e. the Great Pyramid--the two solar boat pits were discovered back in 1954(the eastern pit) and in 1957(the western pit)...

Mr. Kamal El-Mallakh was the one who discovered both pits back in the 1950's...

It took Mr. El-Mallakh four years to convince the government to begin the reconstruction of the eastern solar boat. The reassembly commenced in 1958.

It took TEN years to complete the reassembly of the 145-foot eastern solar boat.

Since completion in 1968, a museum has been built over and around the eastern boat pit, which displays the excavated and reassembled solar barge of Khufu.

The western solar boat still lies buried as it was 4,600 years ago. Plans were made by the Waseda University to excavate it in Novermber 2008 and again in February 2009...

I don't know what the status of that project is as of yet...

My calculated guess of the SIX different possible spots where Khufu's tomb would be are the following :

1-Directly between the eastern and western boat pits.

2-Directly west of the western boat pit.

3-South of and parallel to the western boat pit.

4-Directly east of the eastern boat pit.

5-South of and parallel to the eastern boat pit.

6-South of and in between the eastern and western boat pits.

One of the prevailing theories of Egyptologists and archaeologists alike, is that the eastern solar barque[the manjet] is symbolic of Khufu as Ra, gliding over the heavenly "ocean" as his Ka is the rising sun from the east.

While the western solar barque[the mesket] is the one in which the Ka(Spirit) of Khufu's Ra[i.e.Ra'u-fu], journeys through the underworld during the night from maghrib/ghuroob(west/sunset) to mashriq/shurooq(east/sunrise).

Consequently, my personal calculated guess would be that Khufu's burial chamber most likely aught to be directly between the eastern and western boat pits.

Since the Nile river flowed upward, the direction south was considered north by the ancient Egyptians; that is why the two solar barques, the manjet and the mesket, were disassembled and hidden underground south of Akhet-Khufu[i.e.The Great Pyramid]. To the ancient Egyptians, the solar boats of the 'living sun god'[i.e.Khufu] were north of Akhet-Khufu[Horizon Of Khufu]...

It would make sense since the theory has it that Khufu's Ka[Soul] has passed away, descending into the night and the underworld, only to rise again the next day as the sunrise. The most logical spot would be directly between the two boat pits...

...There is no reason for there to be any kind of a gap between the two rectangular boat pits. Logically, they should have been adjoined since they were surgically dismantled for reassembly for their respective subterranean and celestial voyages...

...Unlike the three boat pits at the eastern end of the Great Pyramid that are not rectangular, but boat-shaped...And whose intended boats[which were already missing upon discovery] were meant only for burial, and not for subterranean or celestial reuse.

P.S. - I emailed this idea of mine to Dr. Hawass' personal email address on 8th July; inshallah, maybe he might find time to follow up on it.

Here are some images below related to the above topics :

gizapyramidcomplexmap.jpg

khufu_boat_pit.jpg

solar_boat_museum_exterior.jpg

solar_boat_museum.jpg

KhufuBoat_45.jpg

solar_boat_museum_interior.jpg

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 12 July 2009 - 01:02 AM.


#168 Al-Afza

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Posted 16 July 2009 - 06:50 PM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam...

A couple topical points :

In light of some research on the personage of Nabih Idris(a.s.), a couple of possibilities emerged...

For one, there are two camps regarding the identity of Nabih Idris. He is definitely mentioned by Almighty Allah(swt) in the Holy Quran...

The question, as with Nabih Shuayb and his disputed Biblical counterpart Jethro, is whether Nabih Idris was in fact Akhnook[Henoch/Enoch]...

The majority Saracen(Eastern) traditions have Nabih Idris not a native Egyptian, but an immigrant from ancient Iraq. However, some "Islamic" sources upheld that he came from Babylon. This is totally anachronistic since there was no Babylon during Nabih Idris' time. Nabih Idris was allegedly of the 6th generation after Nabih Adam(a.s.).

Saracenic tradition further upheld that Nabih Idris invented writing and developed arithmetic, science, astronomy, etc...

If the Saracenic tradition is to be used as a historical blueprint, than Nabih Idris would have existed during the early Ubaid Period(5900-5300 B.C.)...

The Proto-Sumerian Ubaid Dynasty was divided into three stages :

Early Ubaid = 5900-5300 B.C.

Middle Ubaid = 5300-4700 B.C.

Late or Classical Ubaid = 4700-4100 B.C.

Nabih Idris' timeline, if he was from Mesopotamian Iraq, would then be somewhere between 5800-5600 B.C.; he would have arrived in Egypt during the Agrarian Age(6000-5000 B.C.) when Egypt was a totemic culture in regards to religion.

Whether Nabih Idris was a native Egyptian or not, he certainly influenced Egyptian mythological beliefs: The concept of the omnipotent Neter(God); the trinity of Set, Aset[Isis], and Aser[Osiris]; the deity Khnum; etc. are some examples.

--Neter(God) as an invisible, omnipotent deity survived in abstract form throughout Egypt's mythological history.

--The trinity of Set, Aset[Isis], and Aser[Osiris] have been metaphorically linked to Saracen traditions about Habil[Abel] and Qabil[Cain] and an alleged "sister" they vied for as mate. Set murdered Aser[Osiris], Habil[Abel] was murdered by Qabil[Cain].

--Khnum was a river god and a potter god; he moulded human babies from clay and placed them in the womb of mothers; Almighty Allah(swt) moulded Nabih Adam from clay.

These just cannot be mere coincidences. There clearly is monotheist influence in ancient Egyptian mythology, and not vice versa.

In occult tradition, Nabih Idris was equated with the first incarnation of Hermes Trismegistus[Thrice-Greatest]...

Other students of mythology and occult equate the personage of Aser[Osiris] as an ancient Egyptian adaptation or variation on the personage of Nabih Idris, the monotheist messenger[rasulallah].

If Nabih Idris was a native Egyptian and his timeline was circa 4100-4000 B.C., he would have directly dealt with the newly risen mythological religion of Egypt.

If Nabih Idris was from Early Ubaid Dynasty Iraq[between circa 5800-5600 B.C.], he would have dealt with a primitive, totemic culture along the Nile River Valleys of Egypt.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Here are a some interesting article excerpts from Peter Goodgame regarding the Giza Pyramids and Dr. Hawass' initiatives :

The Pyramid Texts The three main pyramids of Giza were built during Egypt's Fourth Dynasty (c.2600-2500 BC) and they are curiously devoid of any kind of ritualistic hieroglyphic inscriptions. Less than two hundred years later another major pyramid complex began to be built at Saqqara, about ten miles southeast of Giza. Altogether five kings from the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties erected five main pyramids at this new cult location. These pyramids were much smaller than those of Giza and they were also different by the fact that the halls and chambers within these pyramids were completely covered with the inscriptions that are known today as the 'Pyramid Texts.'

There are over seven hundred groups of inscriptions, known as 'utterances,' carved throughout these five pyramids, and the majority of them are spells or ritualistic verses whose purpose is to "ensure the welfare of the dead king in the hereafter."

---------------------------------

The Search for the Hidden Tomb
By Peter Goodgame

"I really personally believe that the secret chamber of Khufu is hidden inside the pyramid."

-Zahi Hawass, from a lecture in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in early July of 2005


In October of 2005 the world will witness another serious effort to uncover some of the mysteries that lay buried under the rock and sand at Giza. There is a very good possibility that this effort will not be in vain, and that it will result in the greatest archaeological discovery ever made in the history of mankind. This series of articles will explain what that discovery might be and, more importantly, what that discovery could mean for the world not only archaeologically and historically, but spiritually as well.

The major components of the Giza complex include the the three major pyramids and also the enigmatic massive stone statue known as the Sphinx. The Great Pyramid, the largest of the three main pyramids, was the first built and is also the last remaining of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. It is a well-established fact that the Great Pyramid was built by King Khufu, of Egypt's Fourth Dynasty, whose reign began around approximately 2500 BCE. What is not an established fact, although it is the common explanation, is that Khufu built the Great Pyramid to be his own personal burial chamber. That was not the purpose of the Great Pyramidthe truth is much more interesting.

Zahi Hawass himself explains that the Giza Plateau was known by the Egyptians as the "House of Osiris, Lord of the Underground Tunnels." So if we want to understand Giza and the Great Pyramid we must understand the ancient Egyptian god Osiris, rather than focus on Khufu the king who was merely tasked with initiating the construction of this enduring monument. To begin this story we will go back to 1998, when Dr. Hawass had just made what he called his greatest discovery, a discovery that definitely did concern the Egyptian god Osiris.

You may be asking, 'Who is Dr. Zahi Hawass?' Well, his official titles are 'Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt' and 'Director of the Giza Pyramids Excavation.' In other words, Dr. Zahi Hawass is the top man in charge of Egyptian antiquities. Nothing happens archaeologically in Egypt without his approval and signature, and nothing happens in Giza without him usually being physically present, either personally directing the research or excavation or else observing with a keen and critical eye.

The Hallway of Osiris

Back in November of 1998 Hawass made a discovery that he relates here in his own words, as taken from a press release at the time :

"I have found a shaft, going 29 meters [95 feet approximately] vertically down into the ground, exactly halfway between the Chefren Pyramid [the middle pyramid] and the Sphinx. At the bottom, which was filled with water, we have found a burial chamber with four pillars. In the middle is a large granite sarcophagus which I expect to be the grave of Osiris, the god... I have been digging in Egypt's sand for more than 30 years, and up to date this is the most exciting discovery I have made... We found the shaft in November and began pumping up the water recently. So several years will pass before we have finished investigating the find."

Zahi Hawass believed at the time that he had found the burial place of Osiris the god and he referred to this as the greatest discovery of his entire career. This discovery eventually became known worldwide and the FOX television network broadcast a special program on March 2, 1999, entitled "Opening the Lost Tombs: Live From Egypt." The special was a huge success for FOX as far as ratings were concerned, but as far as the academic world was concerned it was a travesty and an embarrassment both to archaeology and to Egyptology, despite what appeared to be the good intentions of Zahi Hawass.

The so-called grave and sarcophagus of Osiris was eventually explained by Hawass as being "symbolic," probably having been used for initiatory and/or ritual purposes as a part of Egyptian religion, and dating to 2000 years after the building of the pyramids (665-525 BC). In any case, the shaft in which it was located did open up previously unexplored tunnels, but the world is still waiting for Hawass to make a public presentation documenting where these tunnels go, how extensive they are, and what they lead to.

This story is not dead but it has been quiet for some time now. To examine it further readers may click to an excellent series of articles written by Nigel Skinner-Thompson called "The Shaft, The Subway & The Causeway," or they may click to an article entitled "Ananda in the Hallway of Osiris" which contains a first-person account of what the tunnels and chambers contain and a number of color photographs.

From this adventure we can deduce that Zahi Hawass maintains a belief that Osiris was in fact a historical figure and that his grave, and possibly his mummified body, must still exist somewhere within the Giza complex. What is also clear is that, for some unknown reason, Hawass wants to make sure that when this tomb is found the whole world will be able to watch when its contents are revealed.

The French Initiative


From past excitement concerning the possible discovery of the tomb of Osiris we now direct our attention to current excitement regarding the "tomb of Khufu."

From September 6-12 of 2004 the 9th International Congress of Egyptologists met at Grenoble, France. This conference included a presentation given by two French researchers who publicized their theory (and book) that structural anomalies suggested the existence of a hidden chamber within the Great Pyramid itself. Gilles Dormion and Jean-Yves Verd'hurt admit to being amateurs in areas such as Egyptian history, culture and religion, but their specialty is in the field of architecture and their method has achieved success in the past when they were able to locate two previously unknown chambers in the Meidum Pyramid to the south of Giza.

Dormion and Verd'hurt's theory is that this hidden chamber exists underneath the Queen's Chamber at a symbolic location at the very heart of the Great Pyramid. As evidence for it they argue that the hole in the floor of the niche in the east wall of the Queen's Chamber was used to pass ropes through to install what are called "portcullis blocks" which are used primarily to block the entrances and exits of chambers or passageways.

Their theory appeared to have been confirmed in September of 2000 when ground probing radar was used on the floor of the Queen's Chamber revealing a passageway or void 3.5 meters below. Dormion and Verd'hurt also provided evidence that the paving stones of the Queen's Chamber had at one time been removed to gain access to this alleged passageway, which is illustrated in an article located here.

Dormion and Verd'hurt appear to have gained the support of much of the French Egyptological establishment, including Jean-Pierre Corteggiani of the French Institute of Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, and Nicolas Grimal the head of Egyptology at the Collège de France. Grimal even wrote the preface to their book La Chambre de Chèops (The Chamber of Cheops), writing that their ideas may lead to "without doubt, one of the greatest discoveries in Egyptology."

While this French initiative appears to have both solid evidence and high-level backing on its side it will inevitably go nowhere without the support of Dr. Zahi Hawass. To test their theory the French team has been lobbying for permission to drill through the floor of the Queen's Chamber and Zahi Hawass, who attended the Grenoble conference and listened to the presentation, refuses to allow this.

There are a couple of reasons why Hawass is opposed to the French initiative. In the first place, Dormion's theory is based on the idea that the Egyptian builders of the Great Pyramid were incompetent and that the location of Khufu's Tomb had to be changed from the King's Chamber to underneath the Queen's Chamber because the pyramid exhibited signs of structural failure as it was being built. This possibility does not appeal to Hawass, who happens to be an Egyptian himself, and neither does it appeal to the other two individuals consulted by Hawass, Mark Lehner of the USA and Rainer Stadelmann of Germany, who Hawass considers to be the top experts on the Great Pyramid.

The other reason that Hawass refuses to allow the French initiative to move forward is because he wants to focus on his own theory of where this hidden "tomb of Khufu" might be found within the Great Pyramid.

The Hawass Initiative


The current theory that Hawass holds regarding the location of the "Hidden Chamber of Khufu" traces back to the 1992-93 UPUAUT PROJECT led by Rudolf Gantenbrink. This was the project in which a robot was sent up the two anomalous shafts that project up and out, north and south, from the Queen's Chamber. On March 22, 1993, this robot made its way to the end of the southern shaft, 210 feet up and 54 feet from the surface of the pyramid, where it found what looked like a stone door fitted with metal handles. Subsequent testing showed that this "door" was only about three inches thick.

The discovery of a "door" at the end of the southern "star-shaft" created a storm of media attention and debate, but nothing was done about it until 2002. That was when another TV special was set up, funded by the National Geographic Society and broadcast live, as before, by the FOX TV Network on September 16, 2002. The world watched as a robot ascended the shaft to drill a tiny hole through "Gantenbrink's Door" after which a camera was inserted offering pictures of the other side. What it showed was simply the end of the shaft in the form of a rough hewn block, this time without metal handles. The robot was also able to successfully ascend the northern shaft and it found another smooth stone "door" with metal handles. However, in this case a decision was made not to drill through the "door."

To bring this story up to date we must go to the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology where Zahi Hawass gave a lecture in early July of 2005. According to a report carried by The Daily Star, this was when Zahi Hawass voiced his confidence that "the secret chamber of Khufu is hidden inside the pyramid."

Hawass explained that his hopes lay in what is beyond the "end" of the Queen's Chamber's southern shaft, and what is beyond the "door" of the northern shaft. According to Hawass, in October of 2005 a robot built by the University of Singapore will be sent up the shafts to drill through both of these blocks. This time, to avoid any major disappointment as before, Hawass says that the drilling will not be broadcast live, but the results will be announced in a press release. However Hawass did explain that "If something interesting is discovered, we're going to show it to people all over the world."


At the same time that the drilling is taking place in the Great Pyramid there will also be a team from Birmingham, England, performing radar mapping at select locations on the Giza plateau. Perhaps this has to do with the new tunnels that were opened up with the discovery of the so-called "Tomb of Osiris"?

The Giza Wall

Whatever may be in store for Giza this October, it appears that Zahi Hawass and the Egyptian authorities have been preparing for something big. In 2002 construction began of a massive concrete security wall to surround the Giza plateau which, for reasons unknown, also extends into the empty desert to encompass a total area of about eight square kilometers. Egyptologist and mystic J.J. Hurtak comments on this wall saying that such a wall was never needed for tourists, but can only be in preparation for a major discovery :

"The psychological reality of guards stationed as sentries at intervals along the entire wall carries the intrigue of a major feature film set, designed for the few experts who are to find an underground sphinx or obelisk, or a connection between Osiris and the constellation of Orion, rather than an open-door feature for thousands of well-behaved international students of history and archaeology who have never needed to be extensively controlled."

It is now 2005 and this wall must now be almost certainly complete. What kind of event could possibly be scheduled to demand such a high level of security and safety? What kind of discovery could possibly be expected?

It is interesting that Hurtak referred to the possibility of finding evidence connecting Osiris with Orion. This connection is something that is well-known to many researchers of the religion and history of ancient Egypt, but it is still unaccepted within the mainstream academic community of Egyptology. In the next article we will examine why this connection is important and we will argue that the Great Pyramid of Egypt, if it was indeed built as a tomb, is more likely to contain the mummy of Osiris, rather than that of Khufu the builder of the pyramid.

Postscript:

2005 has passed and there has been little activity regarding the search for the hidden chamber. However, in a December 12, 2005 interview[i] Dr. Hawass remained unshaken in his expectation that it will be found. Whether it exists near the top of the Great Pyramid or not remains a matter of debate. Perhaps it exists in the heart of the pyramid as argued by Dormion and Verd'hurt, or perhaps there is indeed a 250-foot high chamber near the base of the pyramid as alleged by independent researcher Larry Dean Hunter. Read on to learn how this discovery, whether it occurs as soon as 2006 or as late as 2012, will be remembered as the greatest archaeological discovery ever made in the history of mankind.


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Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.


Edited by Al-Afza, 16 July 2009 - 07:14 PM.


#169 Al-Afza

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Posted 21 July 2009 - 09:24 AM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam...As an epilogue or postscript :

--Because Akhet-Khufu[The Great Pyramid] was built specifically to view Musa's Neter[God], there is the very strong possibility that Khufu built an earlier pyramid. His own father Snefru built no less than three pyramids in a much shorter reign than Khufu's 63-year rule. It is only logical that Khufu built the Great Sphinx[Seshep-Ankh], his rite of self-deification; a first pyramid, in the tradition begun by Pharaoh Djoser and Grand Vizier Imhotep and finalized by his own father Pharaoh Snefru; and finally, the pyramid or tower(sarhan) to view Musa's Neter[God].

--The proposed location of this Khufu's lost pyramid would be just north of the Great Sphinx[Seshep-Ankh]. If Khufu's son and heir Djedef-Ra's very own lost pyramid was discovered at Abu Rawash, the possibility of Khufu's lost pyramid being discovered still looms about. Khufu's other son Khaf-Ra, had his causeway diverted south of the Great Sphinx for some unknown reason. The prevailing theory by archaeologists is that Khaf-Ra's causeway from his own pyramid, was diverted south of the Great Sphinx because of the presence of the Great Sphinx itself. That it blocked the causeway as it was built earlier than Khaf-Ra's reign. Even so, after analyzing Khaf-Ra's causeway, it is clear that the Great Sphinx would not have blocked it at all. In fact, had Khaf-Ra's causeway gone straight ahead rather than at a sharp southern direction, it would not have even come close to running up against the Great Sphinx. It would have missed it by several hundred feet. There had to have been another reason for this diversion of Khaf-Ra's causeway. I propose it could have been the location for Khufu's lost pyramid, just north of the Great Sphinx. In observing and analyzing the map of the area, there is sufficient empty space to house a "lost" pyramid underneath the sands.

--If there were to be any excavations attempted at the dried-up and defunct Pelusial terminus, there is a possiblilty of finding artifacts such as boats, oars, armaments, and human bones radiocarbondated to circa 2600 B.C., which would be remnants of Khufu's doomed convoy. That is of course if the Pelusiac terminus was indeed the spot where Khufu and his marine convoy had all drowned.

--The location of Khufu's yet undiscovered, intact tomb could very well be right below the solar boat museum, which is right in between the southern boat pits. The solar boat museum was constructed before the theory of Khufu's after-life voyages in the manjet and mesket became widespread, in either Egyptology or archaeology.

--The mystery of Khufu's mother's missing sarcophagus could be related to Khufu himself. His mother, Queen Hetep-heres, was originally said to have been buried at Dahshur beside her husband's burial complex. Archaeologists have theorized that it was moved to a second tomb at Khufu's Giza complex because her tomb was robbed. The problem with this theory is that if that were the case, some of her valuables that were discovered in her intact tomb were not taken. Also, these valuables were sizably small and could have easily been robbed. Furthermore, when Queen Hetep-heres' tomb was accidentally discovered in 1925 at Khufu's Great Pyramid complex, the tomb was intact and undisturbed since being sealed, but yielded minimal amount of her personal treasures. This is quite odd for a Chief Royal Wife and Queen Mother of a Pharaoh. There should have been even greater treasure than which was found in Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922. Tomb-robbing in ancient Egypt did not commence until the First Intermediate Period when the Dark Period occurred in ancient Egyptian history. This period began at the end of the 6th Dynasty and lasted through the first half of the 11th Dynasty. This was a period of over three centuries and was a time of sociopolitical chaos and disorder. This was when tomb-robbing of the pharaohs, and even earlier royalty, formally began. Prior to this period, it was absolutely taboo for even the most cynical grave-robber to conceive plundering any pharaonic or royal tomb. The soul-damning spells frightened off even the most hardened criminal. I would propose that it is possible that Khufu secretly emptied the most valuable treasures from his own mother's tomb himself. The reason for this would be to fund his excesses of building the Great Pyramid, after an already constructed earlier pyramid and before it, the Great Sphinx. It is a historical fact that the excesses of the 4th Dynasty royal family's building projects, caused the royal treasury to be heavily depleted. The evidence for this are the 5th and 6th Dynasty inferior quality mudbrick pyramids. And the fact that after the 6th Dynasty, pyramid building came to complete halt in ancient Egypt until the 12th Dynasty. The three-century-long recession and economic crisis in ancient Egypt resulted in desperate measures from the people. Tomb-robbing of the royals was part of this desperation. This, of course, points directly to the verse in the Holy Quran that mentions of Anbiya Musa[Moses] and Harun[Aaron] praying to the Almighty to decrease the great wealth of Pharaoh[i.e.Khufu], with which he misled the people of Egypt. And that the Almighty accepted their prayer...Consequently, it would not surprise me if Queen Hetep-heres' sarcophagus turns up within Khufu's very own, yet undiscovered tomb.

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

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#170 Al-Afza

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Posted 22 July 2009 - 09:19 AM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

To append to my previous posting on the proposed lost pyramid complex of Khufu, here are some following points :

--Khufu's initial pyramid complex was probably of identical size as that of his grandson Menkau-Ra's pyramid complex. Khufu probably did not want to outdo his father Snefru's Red Pyramid in size or scale. It is most probable that Khufu was more interested in his self-deification as the one-and-only living, omnipotent deity of Egypt. Thus, he could have decreed his initial pyramid complex and the Great Sphinx to be built simultaneously, nearby one another at Giza. As it stands today, Khufu's Great Pyramid is still the closest pyramid to the Great Sphinx. Not Djedef-Ra's own lost pyramid at Abu Rawash, nor Khaf-Ra's pyramid complex, also located at Giza. There is that vaste space of flatland with no apparent construction that is NW of the Great Sphinx. This vaste space should not have caused Khaf-Ra's pyramid causeway to divert south of the Great Sphinx. Something had to have obstructed Khaf-Ra's causeway's straight path...And it was not the Great Sphinx, as can be clearly observed from maps and aerial images of that entire area. Also, one can further observe that Menkau-Ra's pyramid causeway is straightforward. This indicates that Khaf-Ra's causeway should have also been straightforward, but it is not. And neither is Khufu's Great Pyramid's causeway...With Khufu's causeway, it is understandable why that one is also not straightforward. The Great Pyramid's causeway was not part of the original design plan, since the Great Pyramid was originally built to be a super-observatory to view the alleged "constellation" of Musa's Neter[God].

--The building of his second pyramid tower was originally for the express purpose of viewing Musa's Neter[God] from an observatory designed within. This would explain the purpose of the enigmatic notch that is 275 to 375 feet high up on the Great Pyramid of Giza. Later, after this objective was achieved, Khufu decided that this new super-structure should replace his earlier one near the Great Sphinx. Consequently, Khufu probably decreed Hemiunu[Haman] to build an entire new complex surrounding Akhet-Khufu[The Great Pyramid]. This would explain why there seems to be modifications made to the Great Pyramid with certain chambers left incomplete. This would further explain why the internal design of the Great Pyramid is like no other pyramid before or since in ancient Egyptian history. Thus, these inexplicable ongoing modifications of the Great Pyramid were not the result of hypothetical failure in some of its internal design. What occurred was that the function of this pyramid tower had been altered from its original designated purpose. From being a super-observatory to becoming the Pharaoh's after-life portal.

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

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Maps and aerial images of the Giza pyramid complexes, plus the image of the enigmatic notch of Khufu's Great Pyramid :

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GreatPyramid.jpg

Edited by Al-Afza, 22 July 2009 - 09:22 AM.


#171 Al-Afza

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Posted 22 July 2009 - 11:30 PM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam...

Below, is the key element of my proposed theory regarding Khufu's Great Pyramid being the sarhan[tower], which Khufu ordered Haman[Hemiunu] to build to view the "constellation" of Musa's Neter[God].

This key element being the enigmatic notch of Akhet-Khufu[Horizon Of Khufu], which is either 275 or 375 feet high up on the Great Pyramid of Giza. This notch was originally an observatory, I believe. It is the only such cavity of its kind within the Great Pyramid, while it also has a sealed-off tunnel leading right into the internal structure of the pyramid.

Here are some pictures of the enigmatic notch at the NE edge of Khufu's Great Pyramid of Giza; they were taken by Dr. Bob Brier's crew, and that is Dr. Brier in those photos...

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Here is an excerpt from Dr. Brier's book on the Great Pyramid regarding his initial experience climbing upto the enigmatic notch :

My climb was to investigate another piece of evidence mentioned in the article--a notch about 270 feet up the pyramid's northeast edge. Clearly visible from the ground, the notch measures about 18 feet on each side and is about 20 feet high. Is the notch merely the result of stone robbing, when the finely cut white limestone casing blocks were stripped from the exterior of the pyramid in antiquity? Or was it part of a system to raise blocks via the internal ramp, the remains of a corner left open so blocks could be turned to continue their journey up the next flight of the internal ramp? A closer look was needed, and while filming a National Geographic Channel documentary (Unlocking the Great Pyramid) on the Giza Plateau, we obtained permission to climb up to the notch. The effort was rewarded with discoveries that may help solve this riddle.

I had expected the floor of the notch to be flat, but it was quite uneven. Still, it was about 18 feet at its widest--plenty of room for turning blocks. I took photographs of everything Jean-Pierre had requested, then made measurements so he would have the dimensions for later analysis. The big surprise was that at the back of the notch there was a crevice about 18 inches wide and five feet high. As I peered in, I could see what looked like a small room formed of rough blocks. I slipped in and was greeted by the date "1845" painted in black ink on one of the blocks (the rest of the graffiti is illegible). This wasn't virgin territory, but it was still interesting, and I had never seen it mentioned in the pyramid literature. It was a fairly large L-shaped space, with each branch about 11 feet long, 5 feet wide, and 8 feet high. It wasn't the internal ramp, but what was a room like this doing so high up on the pyramid?

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Dr. Brier's interest in the notch is to prove French architect Jean-Pierre Houdin's internal ramp theory for the key to the Great Pyramid's construction...

My interest[which I had emailed Dr. Hawass about] is to prove that it is the observatory designed by Haman[Hemiunu], so Khufu could attempt to view the "constellation" of Nabih Musa's Almighty Neter[God] up in the heavens...

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 23 July 2009 - 12:17 AM.


#172 Al-Afza

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Posted 01 August 2009 - 09:35 AM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Salam.

According to Biblical-New Age author Peter D. Goodgame, Dr. Hawass is searching for the mummy of Osiris[Aser]...

It is a strong possibility that Dr. Hawass is really searching for Nabih Idris (a.s.), without formally acknowledging it or maybe even being aware of it...

Below are comparisons of the personages of Nabih Idris[Akhnook?] and Aser[Osiris] from a paragraphical excerpt of Peter D. Goodgame's website and an article excerpt from wikipedia :

Peter D. Goodgame's Red Moon Rising.com --

The Giza Necropolis was designed and built as a great memorial dedicated to the god Osiris, the legendary king of Egypt, who brought religion, writing, a system of laws, and other innovations necessary for civilization to Posted Imagethe Egyptians, and afterwards to the world. The mythology surrounding the life and death of Osiris and his resurrection on "the other side" as the Lord of the Underworld was covered in Part Two. Osiris became the divine figure at the heart of Egyptian religion and his cult was memorialized by the Giza Necropolis that was built in the Fourth Dynasty (c.2600-2500 BC). Several generations later the theology of the Osiris cult was codified by the Pyramid Texts that were inscribed on the walls of a complex built at Saqqara a few miles from Giza during the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties (C.2350-2150 BC). With these late manifestations of the Osiris cult it becomes likely that the origins of the cult, and the actual life of the historical Osiris, can be found not more than a few hundred years before the construction of the Great Pyramid, rather than originating thousands of years earlier as many Egyptologists assume.

Wikipedia.com --

Idris(A) is credited with learning many useful skills or inventing things which humans now use such as writing, mathematics, astronomy, etc. According to Islamic tradition, his time was one when many people had forgotten God, and the world was thus punished with a drought. However, Enoch prayed for them, and it began to rain, ending the drought. In Islamic tradition, according to the book The Prophet of God Enoch: Nabiyullah Idris, Idris(A) and Enoch are the same person. He is mentioned in the Qur'an as was preferred by God that he raised Idris(A) to Him (In the Enoch book of the bible preserved by the Ethiopian church, we also read that he was raised up by God). Enoch is said to have come back from heaven in the area of Gizan (current day Giza in Egypt) where he taught people writing, and he described how he saw in his journey the sources of water (i.e. the Snow caps of mountains, especially in the polar areas) and the reasons behind astronomy, he described different skies where he saw imprisoned devils and Jinns tormented by the angels, some of whom are awaiting punishment, and some awaiting release. He is a prominent prophet between Adam and Noah for Muslims.
One non-traditional explanation for the building of the pyramids is that they were built in reverence to him, since it is the area where he was said to have ascended back to heaven.

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In conclusion, a couple of points to reflect upon is that Osiris[Aser] has always had an anthropomorphic[human] representation and never a hybrid[human-bestial] representation. Secondly, Nabih Idris' traditional ascension into the next world and subsequent return to our terrestrial one and then his final ascension into the heavens, strongly resembles the placement of Osiris[Aser] as a deity of the afterlife...One who transcended mortality to rise up again.

Furthermore, Aser[Osiris] was depicted wearing the ceremonial Atef crown and holding a crook and flail. The crook has been the perennial symbol of a shepherd, while the flail has been the symbol of agriculture. It has been suggested by some Egyptologists that the symbols of the crook and flail belonged to an alleged precursor of Aser[Osiris] named Andjety--a minor deity. This has been disputed, however. Another disputed subject matter, is whether Aser[Osiris] was the oldest of all the ancient Egyptian mythic deities. Lastly, if Nabih Idris(a.s.) was a foreigner to ancient Egypt, it very unlikely that he would have eventually been deified as Aser[Osiris]. He had to have been a native Egyptian and not an early Ubaid dynasty Mesopotamian Iraqi.

Osiris[Aser] was regarded as an actual king of ancient Egypt who later became deified; he was credited with inventing the Hieratic script circa 4250 B.C. upon papyrus scrolls. Pictographs or iconographs were the earliest form of written communication. Both, Proto-Indus Valley Mehrgarh[Indo-Pak] culture and Proto-Sumerian Ubaid dynasty Iraq, employed picture-writing as the earliest form of written communication. However, the world's first cursive writing was said to have been invented in ancient Egypt in the form of Hieratic[ancient Musri] upon papyrus scrolls circa 4250 B.C.; the monotheist messenger Idris/Osiris was most probably the person who invented cursive writing period--in the form of Hieratic.

In my research, Nabih Idris/Aser[Osiris] was most likely the very first Nomarch[Sepat] of pre-monarchial ancient Egypt; in archaic Hieratic, the word Sepat was applied to both a Nome[Governorate] and its Nomarch[Governor-General]. Nabih Idris/Aser[Osiris] was most probably the founding father of the Age of the Nomarchies[4200-3700 B.C.] of ancient Egypt. He established a unified nomarchy(government) in Egypt, which following his passing, immediately split into the three nomarchies of Upper, Middle, and Lower Egypt. He was most crucial in transitioning Egypt from its shamanic culture of its Feudal Age[5000-4200 B.C.] to the civilization that Egypt became. Thus, Nabih Idris/Aser's timeline had to have been circa 4300-4200 B.C. When Egypt gradually started to transition from shamanism to early mythology circa 4500-4300 B.C., Nabih Idris/Aser[Osiris] appeared upon the scene to steer Egypt to monotheism and civilization. Being born circa 4310 B.C. in Upper Egypt, Nabih Idris/Aser[Osiris] intoduced the concept of the omnipotent Neter[God] to ancient Egypt.

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 01 August 2009 - 09:46 AM.


#173 Al-Afza

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Posted 03 August 2009 - 08:14 PM

http://www.guardians...awass/khufu.htm
http://www.guardians.net/hawass/


Bismillah,

Recapping some points :

--From a deep analysis of surah/ayat 10:92 of the Holy Quran, it is quite possible that the Firaun of the Holy Quran[i.e. Pharaoh of the Oppression and Exodus] is yet to be found.

--The Bani Israil tribe of Lower Egypt were virtually native Egyptians by circa 2650 B.C. and not foreigners. In closely reviewing all the ayah(verses) of the account of Nabih Musa (a.s.) and the Bani Israil, the former analysis is inevitable. In all the accounts of the person whom Nabih Musa slew, not once is the slain man referred to as "the Egyptian" or "al-Misri". Also, when Nabih Musa was informed of the pending plot of the chiefs(emirs) to kill him, they are not referred to as "the Egyptians". In the Biblical/Judeo-Christian accounts, Prophet Moses[Musa] has always been portayed as having slain "the Egyptian". And finally, not ONCE in the account of Nabih Musa[Moses] and the Bani[Children] of Israil, have any of them been referred to with the geographical identification of being Yahudi[Judeans]. The only plausible distinction between the Bani Israil of Lower Egypt and Pharaoh's people, would be that the Israili were worshippers of the omnipotent Neter[God] established by Nabih Idris/Aser[Osiris]; while Pharaoh's people were pure polytheists and idolaters. I would liken this distinction to the hunafa[gnostics] that were the Hashimite and Muttalib clans of Mecca [even before Nabih Muhammad's generation] in relation to the rest of the polytheist[mushrikun] Quraysh tribe.

--During the Nomarchial Age of ancient Egypt[4200-3700 B.C.], the nomarchs(governor-generals) were elected; when the three nomarchies evolved into three kingdoms, the kings were either appointed or elected, not hereditary; pharaonic or dynastic Egypt's rulers were hereditary; only under unusual circumstances were pharaohs appointed or elected.

--Nabih Idris/Aser[Osiris] was most probably the inventor of both cursive writing [in the form of Hieratic] and Egyptian hieroglyphics circa 4250 B.C.

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P.S.

Here is an excerpt from an article by none other than Dr. Zahi Hawass :

Egyptologists have multiple explanations for these shafts. Some believe that they were used for ventilation, but this cannot be true as they do not open up to the outside. Others believe that they have an astronomical function; the southern shaft connected to the star Sirius, and the northern shaft linked to Minoris, Ursa, and Beta. Stadelmann believes that these shafts are not for ventilation, but are tunnels through which the king’s soul will rise to the stars that never darken.

I believe that the shafts from the so-called Queen’s Chamber likely have no function, as they were blocked from the inside. If they had a religious function, they should have been left open, as were the shafts of the third burial chamber (the King’s Chamber). Since these open outside of the pyramid, I believe that Khufu’s soul was meant to travel through them. The south shaft was intended for Khufu to use as the sun god Ra. The south shaft opens exactly between the two boat pits to the south of the Pyramid. Khufu would take the two boats and use them as solar boats – one for the day trip, one for the evening trip. The north shaft was made for the soul of Khufu as Horus to travel to the stars in order to emerge from them as the sun god.

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From this column by Dr. Hawass, I came to the conclusion that a likely possibility for Khufu's undiscovered tomb would be right in between the southern boat pits, beneath the eastern solar boat museum. It could possibly be a 100-foot shaft leading downward, like the tomb of Khufu's mother, Queen Hetep-heres. Archaeologists and archaeoastronomers have theorized that the north and south shafts, leading out of the King's Chamber of the Great Pyamid[Akhet-Khufu] to the outside, were done so because it was Khufu's intended royal tomb. However, I theorize that those shafts Dr. Hawass wrote about, were not so much designed for Khufu's ba[soul] & ka[spirit or life-force; the will of the soul] to go out, as for them to come in. I figure that if Khufu possibly is buried right in between the southern boat pits, beneath the eastern boat museum, it would have been done so because his ka[spiritual will] makes his rounds upon the manjet and mesket as the sun-god Ra; meanwhile, his ba[soul] would enter from outside of the south shaft into the King's Chamber and out through the north shaft, upto the stars in the heavens, where he would emerge as Ra's alter ego, Haru[Horus]. The empty boat pits east of the Great Pyramid had the mortuary temple in between. The southern boat pits have apparently nothing in between them, but they do have the eastern solar boat museum standing right on top of that once empty surface space. This is what I emailed Dr. Hawass about. Inshallah, lets see where it leads...

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

#174 Al-Afza

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Posted 15 December 2009 - 10:53 AM

Postscript

The etymological origin of the very appellation Africa has had many colourful stories. The historicity of the appellation of AFRICA is that it was from the Tamazight name for "cave" which was ifri. To the Phoenicians[Ancient Lebanese], who founded the region of Carthage[Tunisia and Libya] in North Africa in 814 B.C., the Sahara was called afar[sand; dust; desert] in Phoenician language.

The ancient Lebanese[Phoenician] descendents in Tunisia and Libya came to be referred to as Africans just as the Imazighen[Berbers] by the Romans.

The Ancient Lebanese[Phoenicians] came into contact with the indigenous North Africans who would be generally called Beni Ifran or Bani Yafran. This term signified the indigenous North Africans as "Children of the Caves". This term also was not applied to any one particular tribe or clan of the indigenous North Africans who were the Imazighen[Berbers], but all of them collectively.

In medieval times during the Arab invasion, Tunisia's name was literally Ifriqiyah or Land of the Cave-dwellers.

The appellation "Africans" by the Romans specifically referred to the indigenous Saharans or North Africans who were the Imazighen[Berbers]. It DID NOT refer to Negroid "Africans". That is one of the great fallacies of history and scholarship.

Even in medieval times, the Arabs referred to the Imazighen[Berbers] as Banu Yafran or Beni Ifran. While all Negroes[Blacks] were generally or collectively referred to as Habashi or Habshi, whether Sub-Saharan or not; the region of Habash referred to Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, and Somalia combined, just as Sham included Palestine/Philistia[Falastin], Jordan[Urdunn], Phoenicia/Lebanon[Lubnan], and Syria/Aram[Suriyya/Irem] combined; pre-Arabic languages being Aramaic[Aramaya] for Palestine/Philistia, Nabataean[Urdoni] for Jordan, Phoenician[Lubnani] & Ugaritic for Lebanon/Phoenicia, and Aramaic[Aramaya] & Syriac[Suryani] for Syria/Aram.

The Sub-Saharan theory that the appellation Africa was derived from the Egyptian Old Hieratic word nefer* is totally incorrect. This includes Cheikh Anta Diop's Negrocentric theory that Ancient Egyptians were Negroid. This illogical, deluded claim completely overlooks that pure Egyptians of today are NOT NEGRO but actually share a common homogeneous origin with indigenous Saharans or North Africans that are the Imazighen[Berbers]. Not to mention anyone who views ancient Egyptian mummies can clearly observe that they are not negroid at all. Present-day Egyptians have a distinct look to them. Middle Easterners and Central Asians who have exposure and contact with Egyptians are clearly aware of this. Top Egyptologist and native Egyptian Dr. Zahi Hawass has publicly stated that the claim that ancient Egyptians were negro or black "has no element of truth to it".

Egypt has its own ethnic groups. The majority of Muslim Egyptians were direct descendents of ancient Egyptians of the Pharaonic age. Some ethnic Egyptians include the fellahin[working-class Egyptians], of whom many are biracial mixture of bedouins and Nubians; Bisharin bedouins; Qibtiyya[Copts] or Christian Egyptians, who are of ancient Lebanese[Phoenician] origin; Muslim Egyptians of Arab, Libyan, and Lebanese descent.

The appellation African has been incorrectly interpreted by many scholars as synonymous with being negroid. In comparison, the appellations Asian/Asiatic or oriental are also incorrectly synonymous with being mongoloid. Being Asian or Asiatic includes a wide array of biological races such as Near Easterners[e.g. Syrians, Arabians, Iraqis, Palestinians, Jordanians, etc.]; Turkomens[e.g. Turkestanis, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Kirghizis, etc.]; South Asians[e.g. Pakistanis, Indians, Bengalis, Nepalis, Sri Lankans, etc]; Caucasian Russians; Far East and Southeast Asians[e.g. Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Mongolians, Vietnamese, Burmese, Cambodians, etc.]. Oriental pertains to being "eastern", while occidental pertains to being "western".

Another example of an historical misnomer would be that of Native Americans or Meso-Americans of North, Central, and South America. Because Christopher Columbus initially thought that he had landed in India, Native Americans were forever dubbed Indians.

As for the Latin word negro, it literally means black as in the colour.

In summation, the Roman appellation Africa literally means Land of the Afri in Latin. It was adapted from the Tamazight[Berber] word Ifri of which its plural is Ifran; Ifri = Cave in Tamazight, the language of the Imazighen[Berber] people, who are the indigenous North Africans. The word Ifri was directly derived from the ancient Amazigh cave-goddess Afri or Efri. Also, there was a much later medieval coalition of Imazighen[Berber] tribes called the Beni Ifran which founded the Ifranid Dynasty and Kingdom of Morocco and Algeria from 790-1066 A.D.

A copy-pasted excerpt from an encyclopedic article :

Egypt was considered part of Asia by the ancients, and first assigned to Africa by the geographer Ptolemy (85 - 165 AD), who accepted Alexandria as Prime Meridian and made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa.

----------------------------------------

*Copy-paste of April McDevitt article :


Nefer

Posted Image

Appearance:

The origin of the hieroglyph is complex. It's appearance is sometimes described as a stylized stomach and windpipe. However, the hieroglyph is actually the heart and trachea. It originally may have been the esophagus and heart. The striations of the windpipe only appear in the hieroglyph following the Old Kingdom. The lower part of the sign has always clearly been the heart, for the markings clearly follow the form of a sheep's heart.

Meaning:


The term nefer was very popular throughout the ages with the ancient Egyptians. It appears with a dozen different meanings in their literature... all positive. It was also incorporated into many personal names, including those of the famous queens Nefertiti and Nefertari.

The nefer hieroglyph was used to convey the concepts of "goodness" and "beauty". This is poignantly illustrated in the statue to the right of Merytamun, the daughter of Rameses II. Her necklace is nothing but rows and rows of the 'nefer' hieroglyph. It also could carry the meaning of happiness, good fortune, youth and other related ideas. The sign was used in amulets and other decorative jewelry. Vases were also sometimes produced in the shape of the hieroglyph. The White Crown of Upper Egypt was sometimes called "the Nefer" or "the White Nefer."

----------------------------------------------------

Some images of preserved ancient Egyptian mummies and in marked contrast, the mummy of an 18th Dynasty Nubian Black(Negro) :

Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III
amenhotep III.jpg

Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose IV
totmes4_1.jpg
thut4.jpg

Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses II
ramesses_II.jpg

Unidentified Egyptian male
Thutmose IV_Unknown male_mummy.jpg

Unidentified Egyptian male
mummy-head-2a.jpg

Unidentified Egyptian elderly lady of KV35
elderlady01tomb-kv35.jpg

Egyptian Queen Hatshepsut
hatshepsut_hair.jpg
Queen_Hatshepsut.jpg

Egyptian Royal Courtier Yuya
Yuya_Tuya_mummies.jpg

Egyptian Lady Tuya
mummy-tuya.jpg

Nubian Prince Maiherpri
prince maiherpri_mummy.jpg

Tomb images of Nubian Prince Maiherpri
maiherpra1.jpg
maiherpri2.jpg

----------------------------------------------------------------

Wa Huwa Ala Kulli Shayin Qadir.

Edited by Al-Afza, 15 December 2009 - 11:22 AM.


#175 IMAnonymous

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Posted 19 December 2009 - 01:25 AM

Salam...

You are missing the whole point of the post, brother...

The very implication of Allah(swt) mentioning the name of Khufu's architect Haman (i.e. Hemiunu or Hemon) is PROOF of the AUTHENTICITY of the Holy Qur'an...

Do you NOW see the point being made in the original post ??

It is the undisputable AUTHENTICITY of the Holy Qur'an as the very word of Almighty Allah(swt) from an archaeological and historical standpoint as well.


I am wondering if this "undisputable authenticity of the Holy Quran" via naming Haman would then be "undisputable proof of the inauthenticity of the Holy Quran" if I can show the Exodus did not take place under Khufu? Or does this street not go two ways? :angel:

Just curious.




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