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اس پوسٹ کا مقصد درج ذیل لنک کا جواب اردو زبان میں دینا ھےؒ: درج ذیل میں اس گفتگو کی وڈیو موجود ہیں جو شیعہ اور سنی ، دیو بندی علما ک درمیان "خلافت ا و ر امامت " ک موضوع پر ھے https://www.shiatv.net/video/625034936 https://www.shiatv.net/video/1613780038 https://www.shiatv.net/video/2027812196 اس کے علاوہ اگر مزید تفصیل کی ضرورت ہے تو اس کو بۃی یہاں درج کیا جا ۓ۔ اور برادر علی احسن اگر کسی عا لم کا کوی جواب بہی ہو ت
In the name of Allah, the most beneficent, the most merciful. *IN THE ADHAN The third Shahadah is something you will find never missed out in almost every single Adhan, so much so it is pretty much part of the Adhan. However, to examine the origins of the third Shahadah - and this may come as a shock to many- we need to look at our most eminent scholars who lived very close to the time of the Imams a.s, who would have been exposed to bidahs and deviance's. Now, some individuals are going to say: "It is not part of the adhan , we recite it for the intention of seeking nearness to Allah swt". Before i go on, let me add, i believe in wilayah, i believe in the twelve chosen imams of the ahlulbayt a.s, the preservers of the sunnah of Muhammed pbuh, and Ali a.s is the rightful successor of Muhammed pbuh as ordained by Allah swt. And therefore i want to copy what the Imams a.s did without adding innovations. Holy Quran: "And when it is said to them, "Follow what Allah has revealed," they say, "Rather, we will follow that which we found our fathers doing." Even though their fathers understood nothing, nor were they guided?" However, such a view is flawed on the following premises: 1. Why did our Imams a.s, nor their companions, nor our classical scholars ever adhere to this view, or ever were informed of the added benefit of reciting it ? 2. Why did our Imams a.s not add it with the intention it is not part of the adhan, and its to seek nearness to Allah swt? 3. The fact is the 3rd shahdah being added into the Adhan came from the ghulaat who were upon ghuluw - without a doubt we can give great historical weight to this statement, and it is even testified by our classical scholars. 4. So that begs the question, why are we still doing it? Chances are, if you lived among the great shia scholars in the past, you would have never added this in the Adhan and they would have forbidden it. You may be shocked at reading the following: Allaamah Hillee(The man who wrote works on Shiism, and Ibn Taymiyyah wrote his famous refutation Minhaaj as sunnah) One of our great classical scholars (d. 726 AH) has said about the 3rd testimony in the Adhaan and Iqaamah: و لا يجوز قول «إن عليا ولي اللَّه» و «آل محمد خير البرية» في فصول الآذان، لعدم مشروعيته "And it is NOT permissible to say إن عليا ولي اللَّه and آل محمد خير البرية since there is no ruling for it in the sharee'ah" Source:1. 'Allaamah Hilli, Nihaayah Al-aHkaam fee ma'rifah al-aHkaam, vol. 1, pg. 412 ere is what Al-Toosi (one of our great reported scholars) (d. 460 AH) had to say about the 3rd testimony in the adhaan. و أمّا ما روي في شواذّ الأخبار من قول: «أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه و آل محمّد خير البريّة» فممّا لا يعمل عليه في الأذان و الإقامة. فمن عمل بها كان مخطئاTranslation: "The are some odd (shaadh) reports of saying أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه and آل محمّد خير البريّة. You must NOT do it in the Adhaan and Iqaamah. And whoever does this action is in mukhTi (error)" Source:1. Al-Toosi, Al-Nihaayah fee Mujarrad Al-Fiqh wa Al-Fataawaa, pg. 69 Sheikh Al Sadooq is one of our great scholars! He lived not too long after the major occultation, and infact, living so close to the time of the Imams a.s relative to the others means he had the ability to see historically events, when they originated and so on. He testifies that the addition of the third Shahadah in Adhan has come from a form of Ghullah, and that may Allah swt curse them! Here is what Al-Sadooq (d. 381 AH) has said concerning the 3rd testimony. Here are his actual words. هَذَا هُوَ الْأَذَانُ الصَّحِيحُ لَا يُزَادُ فِيهِ وَ لَا يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُ وَ الْمُفَوِّضَةُ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ قَدْ وَضَعُوا أَخْبَاراً وَ زَادُوا فِي الْأَذَانِ مُحَمَّدٌ وَ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ فِي بَعْضِ رِوَايَاتِهِمْ بَعْدَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ رَوَى بَدَلَ ذَلِكَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ لَا شَكَّ فِي أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَّهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً وَ آلَهُ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ وَ لَكِنْ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ فِي أَصْلِ الْأَذَانِ وَ إِنَّمَا ذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِيُعْرَفَ بِهَذِهِ الزِّيَادَةِ الْمُتَّهَمُونَ بِالتَّفْوِيضِ الْمُدَلِّسُونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ فِي جُمْلَتِنَاTranslation: "This is the Authentic / Correct (SaHeeH) adhaan; nothing is to be added or subtracted from it. The mufawwidah's (form of ghullah), may Allaah curse them, have fabricated traditions and have added to the adhaan مُحَمَّدٌ وَ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ (Muhammad and the family of Muhammad are the best of mankind) twice. In some of their traditions, after saying أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allaah) (they add) أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ (I bear witness that 'Alee is the Walee of Allaah) twice. Among them there are others who narrate this أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (I bear witness that 'Alee is the commander of the faithfull) twice. There is NO doubt that 'Alee is the walee of God and that he is the true commander of the faithful and that Muhammad and his family, peace be upon them, are the best of creatures. However, that is not [part] of the original adhaan. I have mentioned this so that those who have been accused of concocting tafweed and have insulated themselves in our ranks should be known." Source:1. Al-Sadooq, Man Laa YaHduruh Al-Faqeeh, vol. 1, pg. 290 - 291 Credit to Nader Zaveri, a man accused of attacking shi'ism but himself is perhaps the biggest advocate for pure shi'ism:http://www.revivingalislam.com/2010/06/3rd-testimony-in-adhaan-and-iqaamah.html An Ayatullah who is among the ranks of a marajah himself giving the following Fatawah(Modern day Fatwa's) Grand Ayatullah Sheikh Muhammed Hussain Najafi Grand Ayatollah Allama Shaikh Muhammad Hussain Najafi (Arabic/Persian/Urdu/Punjabi: آية الله العظمی علامہ الشیخ محمد حسین النجفي) (born April 1932) is a Twelver Shi'i alim from Pakistan and has been elevated to the status ofmarjiyyat. At present, there are two maraji of Pakistani descent, the other one Basheer Hussain Najafi. As Basheer Hussain Najafi has chosen to reside in Najaf, Iraq, Muhammad Hussain Najafi is the only marja' on Pakistani soil, running a Hawza in Sargodha. He was included in the lists "The 500 Most Influential Muslims" for the years 2010 and 2011 Question # 1: Why is it not permitted by you to say "Ali-un-Waliullah" in azan? If we don’t say this, what is the difference between us and the others? Answer: It is established through all Shia books of Hadith, Fiqh, etc. that the azaan which was made a creed by Allah, which Allah then revealed through Jibrail (as) to the Holy Prophet (SAWAW), which the Prophet (SAWAW) first taught to Hazrat Ali (as), which Hazrat Ali (as) then taught to Hazrat Bilal (ra) and he continued to pronounce it until the demise of the Holy Prophet (SAWAW), that azaan consisted of 18 sentences i.e. this sentence was not included in it. It was the azaan which the Imams of Ahl-e-Bait (as), starting from Hazrat Imam Ali (as) until the Ghaibat-e-Kubra of Hazrat Imam Mahdi (as), used to pronounce and let others pronounce. Therefore, we also pronounce the same azaan. As far as difference with others is concerned, the difference of "Hayya ala khair-il-amal" is enough. For us it is an integral part of azaan, while the Sunni brothers have excluded it from azaan. http://www.sibtain.com/en/Questions_Answers_Azan.aspx I will look at what Grand Ayatullah Fadllulah r.a said too and post it inshAllah
WALi and their Authority: 1- We need to know in the light of Quranic verses that who are Wali? 2- What is the Authority of Wali? A- Identification of Wali: 1- Allah is Wali of believers: اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ Allah is the guardian of those who believe. He brings them out of the darkness into the light; (2:257) إِنَّ وَلِيِّيَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ ۖ وَهُوَ يَتَوَلَّى الصَّالِحِينَ Surely my guardian is Allah, Who revealed the Book, and He befriends the good. (7:196) وَهُوَ الَّذِي يُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا قَنَطُوا وَيَنشُرُ رَحْمَتَهُ ۚ وَهُوَ الْوَلِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired, and He unfolds His mercy; and He is the Guardian, the Praised One. (42:28) Thus these verses prove that Allah is the Wali of believers. 2- The Prophet and Believers are also Wali: لَّا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلَّا أَن تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً ۗ وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ اللَّهُ نَفْسَهُ ۗ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ الْمَصِيرُ Let not the believers take the unbelievers for friends rather than believers; and whoever does this, he shall have nothing of (the guardianship of) Allah, but you should guard yourselves against them, guarding carefully; and Allah makes you cautious of (retribution from) Himself; and to Allah is the eventual coming. (3:28) الَّذِينَ يَتَّخِذُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَيَبْتَغُونَ عِندَهُمُ الْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا Those who take the unbelievers for guardians rather than believers. Do they seek honor from them? Then surely all honor is for Allah. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا O you who believe! do not take the unbelievers for friends rather than the believers; do you desire that you should give to Allah a manifest proof against yourselves? General Meaning of Wali: وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ And (as for) the believing men and the believing women, they are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger; (as for) these, Allah will show mercy to them; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise. (9:71) Special Meaning of Wali: Wila' in its special sense is the wila' of Ahlu 'l-bayt, the Household of the Prophet. There can be no room for debate over the fact that the noble Prophet has called and directed the Muslims to a kind of wila' in connection with his pure, sinless family; that is to say that even scholars from the Sunni sect make no controversy over this. The aayah of the pure relatives: قُلْ لَا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَىٰ Say: "I do not ask of you any reward for it but love of my near relatives" (42: 23) Sets down the matter of wila' in its special meaning. And it is also present in the famous and uncontested hadith of Ghadiri, where it is said: مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلاهُ فَهذا عَلِيٌ مَوْلاهُ “For whomsoever I am his mawla, `Ali is his mawla.” Hadith Thaqlayn: The Prophet chose his Household for the leadership and Imamate. He said: إِنّي تارِكٌ فِيكُمُ اَلَثَقَلَيْنِ: كِتابَ اللهِ وَ عِتْرَتي أَهْلَ بَيْتي, وَ إِنَّهُما لَنْ يَفْتَرِقا حَتَى يَريدا عَليّ الحَوْضَ, فَلا تَقَدَّمُوهُما فَتَهْلكِوا, وَ لا تَقْصُرواعَنْهُما فَتَهْلكِوا, وَ لا تُعَلِّمُوهُم فَإْنَّهُمْ اَعْلَمُ مِنْكُمْ “I leave among you two precious things: the Book of Allah and my Household. These two will not be separated until they encounter me at the pool of Kawthar (in Paradise). Do not run ahead of them, for you will be ruined; do not neglect them, for you will be ruined. And do not seek to instruct them, for they are wiser than you.” Verse of Wilayah: إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ Only Allah is your Vali and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow. (5:55) وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ And whoever takes Allah and His messenger and those who believe for a guardian, then surely the party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant. (5:56) Fakhru'd-Din ar-Razi, who, like az- Zamakhshari, is one of the great men of the Sunni school and of the whole community, said: "This ayah was revealed concerning `Ali, and scholars are all in agreement that the payment of zakat in the time of ruku` (the position of bowing down in prayer) did not take place except in the case of 'Ali."'(at-Taf siru 'l-kabir, vol.xii, p.30. (Egyptian print- ing, 1357) 3- The Shaitan is Wali (other than Allah): وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا and whoever takes the Shaitan for a guardian rather than Allah he indeed shall suffer a manifest loss. (4:119) يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَن يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٌ مِّنَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيْطَانِ وَلِيًّا O my father! surely I fear that a punishment from the Beneficent Allah should afflict you so that you should be a friend of the Shaitan. (19:45) تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ By Allah, most certainly We sent (messengers) to nations before you, but the Shaitan made their deeds fair-seeming to them, so he is their guardian today, and they shall have a painful punishment. (16:63) 4- Meaning of taking Wali other than Allah: اتَّبِعُوا مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا مِن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ ۗ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ Follow what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow guardians besides Him, how little do you mind. (7:3) This means that we should not take the Shaitan as Wali / guardian. Those who are appointed by Allah are Wali including messenger, Imam Ali (& 11 Imams after him), we shall follow them (as mentioned in verse 5:55, 56). وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ and (as to) those who disbelieve, their guardians are Shaitans who take them out of the light into the darkness; they are the inmates of the fire, in it they shall abide. (2:257) يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لَا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُم مِّنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنْهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوْآتِهِمَا ۗ إِنَّهُ يَرَاكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَوْنَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ O children of Adam! let not the Shaitan cause you to fall into affliction as he expelled your parents from the garden, pulling off from them both their clothing that he might show them their evil inclinations, he surely sees you, he as well as his host, from whence you cannot see them; surely We have made the Shaitans to be the guardians of those who do not believe. (7:27) فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الضَّلَالَةُ ۗ إِنَّهُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ A part has He guided aright and (as for another) part, error is justly their due, surely they took the Shaitans for guardians beside Allah, and they think that they are followers of the right (7:30) وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ ۗ أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِي وَهُمْ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ ۚ بِئْسَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ بَدَلًا And when We said to the angels: Make obeisance to Adam; they made obeisance but Iblis (did it not). He was of the jinn, so he transgressed the commandment of his Lord. What! would you then take him and his offspring for friends rather than Me, and they are your enemies? Evil is (this) change for the unjust. (18:50) So the Shaitan is addressed as the Wali other than Allah, instead of those who are appointed by Allah (the prophet and imams).. B- The Authority of Prophet and Imam (Wali): "Wilayat," derived from wila,' means power authority or a right of certain kind. In Shi'a theology, "wilayat" is the authority invested in the Prophet and the Ahlul Bayt as representatives of Almighty Allah on this earth. According to the late Murtaza Mutahhari, wilayat has four dimensions: -The right of love and devotion (wila'-e muhabbat): This right places the Muslims under the obligation of loving the Ahlul Bayt. -The authority in spiritual guidance (wila-'e imamat): This reflects the power and authority of the Ahlul Bayt in guiding their followers in spiritual matters. -The authority in socio-political guidance (wila'-e zi 'amat): This dimension of wilayat reflects the right that the Ahlul Bayt have to lead the Muslims in social and poitical aspects of life. -The authority of the universal nature (wila-e tasarruf): This dimension reflects universal power over the entire universe that the Prophet and Ahlul Bayt have been vested with by the grace of Almighty Allah. 1-The First Dimension: The Right of Love All Muslims unanimously accept the first dimension of wilayat of Ahlul Bayt. Loving the Ahlul Bayt is one of the essential parts of the Islamic faith." The inclusion of salawat in the daily ritual prayers is a sufficient proof of this. (Verse 42:23) 2-The second Dimension: The Right of Imamate Wila' meaning Imamate and leadership; or, in other words, the position of authority in the din (to which matters are referred for decision), that is, a position which others should follow, should take as an example for their actions and behavior, from whom they should learn the precepts of the din; or yet again, supremacy. (hadith thaqlayn, and verse of wilaya 5:55) 3-The Third & Fourth Dimensions: Socio-Political & Universal Authority The third and fourth dimensions of wilayat are also considered as part the essential parts of Shi'a believe." It is important to note the term "Imamate" or "Imam", encompasses all the four dimensions of wilayat. It includes the spiritual and universal authority and the social and political leadership. The fourth dimension is the universal authority that the Prophet and the Ahlul Bayt have been vested with by the Almighty Allah. It is an authority that makes it possible for the wali to exercise his power over everything that exists. In the words of Ayatullah al-Khumayni, "It is a vicegerency pertaining to the whole of creation, by virtue of which all the atoms in the universe humble themselves before the holder of authority."This authority of the chosen servant of Allah is totally dependent on His discretion and power. It should not be seen in the horizontal form but in the vertical form vis-a-vis the power of Almighty Allah. As long as we maintain the vertical hierarchy of the power, we have safeguarded the tawhid (unity of oneness). For example, all Muslims believe that it is Allah who gives life and death to the People. The Qur'an itself says, "Allah takes the souls at the time of their death." (39; 42) But at the same time, the Qur'an also attributes death to the angels by saying, "Say: It is the angel of death (who is given charge of you) who shall cause you to die." (32: 11) If you place the verses in the vertical form (with the power of the angels beneath and dependent upon the power of Allah), then you have safeguarded the tawhid. Similarly, if we place power and authority of the Prophets and the Imams in the vertical form (with the certain beleif that their power is beneath and dependent upon the power of Allah), then we have safeguarded the tawhid as well as the status of the chosen servants of Allah. The Qur'an gives various examples of the persons who had been given the authority on the universe. 1. Describing the powers that Allah, swt, had given to Prophet Isa bin Maryam (as), the Qur'an quotes him as follows: " I make out of the clay the form of a bird, then I breathe into it and becomes a [real, living, flying] bird with Allah's permission; I heal the blind and the leprous; and I bring the dead back to life with Allah's permission; and I inform you what you are eating and what you store in your houses ..." (3:48) 2. Describing the powers given to Prophet Sulayman, the Qur'an says: " Then We made the wind subservient to him; it blew by his command gently to wherever he desired. And (We also made subservient to him) the jinn: each (of them as) builder and diver, and others fettred in chains. This is Our gift, therefore give freely or withhold, without reckoning. Most surely he had a nearness to Us and an excellent resort." (38:36-40 also 21:81-82) 3. Describing the power of Asif bin Barkhiya, the vizier of Prophet Sulayman, the Qur'an describes the scene of the moments before the Queen of Sheba and her entourage came to visit him : "He (Sulayman) said, O Chiefs which one of you can bring her to me (i.e Queen of Sheba's) throne before they come to me in submission.' One audacious among the jinn, I will bring it to you before you rise from your place : and most surely I am strong and trustworthy for it. (But) one who had the knowledge of some of the Book said, I will bring it to you in the twinkling of an eye. Then when he saw it (i. e. the throne) settled beside him, he said. This is the grace of my lord that He may try me whether I am grateful or ungrateful ..."' ( 27; 38-40) In these three example from the Qur'an, we see that Almighty Allah had blessed some of his chosen servants with the power to breathe life to a shape of an animal, to bring the dead back to life, to cure the blind and the leprous, to subjugate the jinn for their work, to bring an item from far away in the twinkling of an eye, etc. These examples are sufficient to how those such powers can be given and have been given by Allah to those whom He likes. Allah has given various ranks to the Prophets and messengers (2: 253; 17; 55), and all Muslims are unanimous in believing that the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad al-Mustafa, is higher in rank than all the Prophets and messengers. All Prophet and (As-Sadiq, I'tiqadat, p.92-93; in its English translation, the Shi'ite Creed, p.84-85; al-Majlisi, "Risala fi l-I'tiqadat," p.310 ) messengers had come to prepare their societies for the acceptance of the final and universal Messenger of God, Muhammad (s. w. a.). If prophets like Sulayman, Dawud, 'Isa, and Musa, and also Sulayman's vizier, Asif, were blessed with power over the nature, then it follows by necessity that Prophet Muhammad must have been blessed with greater power over the universe. Two examples have been cleanly mentioned in the Qur'an. The ability of the Prophet of Islam to travel into space and beyond with his human body (17; 1: 53: 5-18), and the parting of the moon by pointing towards it with his finger (54;1)1 During the early days in Mecca, when the idol worshippers were rejecting the claim of the Prophet, Allah revealed a verse to console him by saying : "And those who disbelieve say, You are not a messenger, Say, Allah is sufficient as a witness (between me and you) and the one who has knowledge of the Book."(13; 43) (1. On parting of the moon, see in Shi'a sources, at-Tabrasi, Majma'u l-Bayan, vol.5.p 186; at-Tabtaba'i, al-Mizan fi Tafsiri l-Qur'an, vol.19.p 60-72 who also refutes the objections raised by the materialist minded Muslims how like to interpret all such verses in metaphorical sense. In Sunni sources, see al-Fakhr ar-Razi, at -Tafsiru l-kabir, vol.15, p.26; as-Suyuti, ad-Durru l-Manthur, vol, 6.p.133; Mawdudi, Tafhim l-Qur'an, vol.5, p.230-231. 2. As-Saduq I'tiqadat, p.92-93; in its English translation, The shi'ite Creed, p.84-85; al-Majlisi, "Risala fi I-Itiqadat" p.310) Prophet Muhammad is being consoled that it doesn't matter if the idolaters do not believe in your claim; it is sufficient that Allah and the one who has knowledge of the Book are witnesses to the truth of you claim. Whom is Allah referring to as a witness to the truth of the Prophet's claim? Who is this person 'who has knowledge of the Book? According to Shi'i report, supported by Sunni sources, it refers to Ali bin Abi Talib. This was definitely no one among the companions of the Prophet who could claim that he had more knowledge about Islam than Ali bin Abi Talib. ( Among Sunni references, see Ibn al-Maghazili ash-Shafi'i, Manaqib al-Imam Ali bin Abi Talib, p.313 (hadith # 358); as-Suyuti, ad-Duru l-Manthur, vol.4. (beirut: Dar al-Fikr, n.d.) p.669; al-Qanduzi, Yanabi'u l-Muwaddah (Beirut; 1390/1970) p.121. For further refrences, see ash-Shahid at-Tusari, Ihqaqu l-Haqq, vol.3, p.280, vol.14 p.362-365, vol.20, p.75-77. For a critical review of the counter reports cited by some Sunni scholars, see at-Tabataba'i, al-Mizan, vol.11. p.423-428). If, Asif Barkhiya, Sulayman's vizier, had so much power over nature that he could bring the throne of the Queen of Sheba before the "twinkling of an eye". Asif has been described as someone who had knowledge of a portion of the Book," not "the knowledge of the entire Book." In comparison to this, Imam Ali has been described by Allah as someone who had “knowledge of the Book", not just a portion of the Book. Therefore, it is not difficult to conclude that the power of Imam Ali over nature is many degrees greater than that of Asif Barkhiya who brought the throne from far away before the "twinkling of an eye". Again, as an important reminder, that this belief is to be held in the vertical form vis-as-vis the power of Alimighty Allah, and only in that format can we preserve the concept of tawhid in which Allah is the Absolute power and source of the all power. It is to remind us of the total dependency of the chosen ones upon Allah's will and power that He commands the Prophet to say, I do not control any benefit or harm for myself except as Allah pleases." (7: 188) This is not a denial of having power; it is affirmation of the belief that whatever power he has is according to the wish and pleasure of Almighty Allah.
1- OBEYING THE WALI (AS MENTIONED IN QURAN): A. The believers should not take Jews and Christians as Auliya: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَىٰ أَوْلِيَاءَ ۘ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ O you who have believed, do not take the Jews and the Christians as Auliya (allies) . They are [in fact] Auliya (allies) of one another. And whoever is an ally to them among you - then indeed, he is [one] of them. Indeed, Allah guides not the wrongdoing people. (5:51) It is mentioned here that AULIYA is plural form and its singular form is WALI. B. The believers should not take The people of Book and Disbelievers as Auliya: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا دِينَكُمْ هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَالْكُفَّارَ أَوْلِيَاءَ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ O you who have believed, take not those who have taken your religion in ridicule and amusement among the ones who were given the Scripture before you nor the disbelievers as Auliya (allies). And fear Allah , if you should [truly] be believers. (5:57) C. The believers should not take Disbelievers as Auliya instead of believers: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا O you who have believed, do not take the disbelievers as Auliya (allies) instead of the believers. Do you wish to give Allah against yourselves a clear case? (4:144) D. IF you take Disbelievers as Auliya instead of believers, is there honor in it: الَّذِينَ يَتَّخِذُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَيَبْتَغُونَ عِندَهُمُ الْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا Those who take disbelievers as Auliya (allies) instead of the believers. Do they seek with them honor [through power]? But indeed, honor belongs to Allah entirely. (4:139) E. Allah declares unbelievers as Auliya of Satan:: إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ Indeed, We have made the devils ٓAuliya (allies) to those who do not believe. (7:27) F. Allah declares unbelievers as Auliya of Satan and they are not guided ones: فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الضَّلَالَةُ ۗ إِنَّهُمُ اتَّخَذُوا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ A group [of you] He guided, and a group deserved [to be in] error. Indeed, they had taken the devils as Auliya (allies) instead of Allah while they thought that they were guided. (7:30) G. Those who take Auliya other than Allah their example is of weakest like spider web: مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ كَمَثَلِ الْعَنكَبُوتِ اتَّخَذَتْ بَيْتًا ۖ وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنكَبُوتِ ۖ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ The example of those who take Auliya (allies) other than Allah is like that of the spider who takes a home. And indeed, the weakest of homes is the home of the spider, if they only knew (29:41 ) H. Now the most important point is Who are declared Wali (Master) by Allah? إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ Your Wali (ally) is none but Allah and [therefore] His Messenger and those who have believed, who establish prayer and give zakah, while they bow [in worship] (5:55) وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ And whoever is an ally of Allah and His Messenger and those who have believed - indeed, the party of Allah - they will be the predominant (5:56) Now we need to look here who are declared here as Wali after Allah and the Prophet? It is unanimous that the verse descended about Imam Ali (AS) when he gave away in charity his ring while he was in a state of kneeling in his prayer. This is also authenticated successively according to the 12 Imams. Here are some of the Shi'ite references - Bihar al-Anwar, by Allama Majlisi - Tafseer al-Mizan, by Allama Tabatabai - Tafseer al-Kashaf, by Allama Muhammad Jawad Mughniyah - al-Ghadir, by Allama Abdul Husain Ahmad al-Amini - Asbat al-Hudate, by Allama Muhammad Ibn Hasan Amuli But for the sake of the readers I produce some Sunni references, and traditions in this respect through other sources. Many Sunni commentators of the Quran confirm the fact that the above verse descended on the honor of Imam Ali (as) and many Sunni scholars have also mentioned the unanimity or consensus of opinion in their books. Here are some references in this regard: (1) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Tha'labi, under Verse 5:55 (2) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v6, pp 186,288-289 (3) Tafsir Jamiul Hukam al-Quran, by Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Qurtubi, v6, p219 (4) Tafsir al-Khazin, v2, p68 (5) Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v2, pp 293-294 (6) Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, Egypt 1373, v1, pp 505,649 (7) Asbab al-Nuzool, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, Egypt 1382, v1, p73 on the authority of Ibn Abbas (8) Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi, on the authority of Ibn Abbas (9) Sharh al-Tjrid, by Allama Qushji (10) Ahkam al-Quran, al-Jassas, v2, pp 542-543 (11) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v5, p38 (12) Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, p391, Tradition #5991 (13) al-Awsat, by Tabarani, narrated from Ammar Yasir (14) Ibn Mardawayh, on the authority of Ibn Abbas I confine myself to a tradition occurring in the commentary of the Quran by Abi Is'haq Ahmad Ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Nisaboori al-Tha'labi. A few comments on the respected personality: He died in 337 AH and Ibn Khallikan gives an account of his death saying: "He was unique as a commentator of the Quran and his Tafsir al-Kabir is superior to all other interpretations." When he reached this verse he recorded this in his Tafsir al-Kabir on the authority of Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, who said: Both of my ears may turn deaf and both of my eyes may become blind if I speak a lie. I heard the Messenger of Allah, Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and his posterity, saying, "Ali is the guide of the righteous and the slayer of the infidels. he who has helped him is victorious and he who has abandoned him is forsaken." One day I said my prayers in the company of the Prophet. A beggar came to the mosque and begged for alms, but nobody gave him anything. Ali was in a state of kneeling in the prayer. He pointed out his ring to the beggar, who approached him and removed the ring from his finger. Thereupon the Prophet, Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and his posterity, implored Allah the Mighty and Glorious, saying: "O Allah! My brother Moses begged you saying, 'My Lord, delight my heart and make my task easy and undo the knot in my tongue so that they may understand me, and appoint from my kinsmen, Haroon, my brother, as my vizier, and strenghthen my back with him and make him participate in my mission so that we may glorify You and remember You more frequently. Certainly You see us.' And You inspired him: 'O Musa! All your requests have been granted.' O Allah! I am your slave and your prophet. Delight my heart and make my task easy and appoint from among my kinsmen Ali as my vizier and strengthen my back with him." Abu Dhar, then, proceeded By Allah, the Messenger of Allah, Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and his posterity had not yet finished his supplication when the trustworthy Gabriel descended to him with this Verse "Certainly Allah is Your Master, and His Prophet and those who believe who establish prayer and give charity while they bow. And whoever takes Allah and His Messenger and those who believe as a guardian, so surely the party of Allah will be victorious." Sunni reference: Tafsir al-Kabir, by al-Tha'labi under the commentary of verses 5:55-56 of Quran. Thus it confirms that Allah, the prophet Muhammad saw and his vizier (successor) Ali Ibne Abi Talib are Wali ( Master) of the believers. I- Quran mentions that obeying Wali (Master) is obligatory: قُلْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ Say, "Obey Allah and the Messenger." But if they turn away - then indeed, Allah does not like the disbelievers. (3;32) وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ And obey Allah and the Messenger that you may obtain mercy. . (3:132) يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds. . (47:33) This confirms since Allah and Muhammad are Wali and obeying them is obligatory. Similarly obeying the other Wali ie Ali ibne Abi Talib is obligatory. J- Quran mentions to obey the Allah, Muhammad saw and Ali (and Imams after him) in the following verse: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you (by Allah). (4:59) On the commentary of the verse 4:59 of Quran in which Allah orders us to obey Ulul-Amr, al-Khazzaz in his book, Kifayatul Athar, gives a tradition on the authority of the well-known companion of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), Jabir Ibn Abdillah al-Ansari (ra): When the verse (4:59) was revealed, Jabir asked the Prophet (PBUH&HF): "We know Allah and the Prophet, but who are those vested with authority whose obedience has been conjoined to that of Allah and yourself?" The Prophet (PBUH&HF) said: "They are my Caliphs and the Imams of Muslims after me. The first of them is Ali; then al-Hasan; then al-Husain; then Ali son of al-Husain; then Muhammad son of Ali who has been mentioned 'al- Baqir' in the Torah (the old testament). O Jabir! You will meet him. When you see him, convey my greetings to him. He will be succeeded by his son, Ja'far al-Sadiq (the Truthful); then Musa son of Ja'far; then Ali son of Musa; then Muhammad son of Ali; then Ali son of Muhammad; then al-Hasan son of Ali. He will be followed by his son whose name and nick name will be the same as mine. He will be Proof of Allah (Hujjatullah) on the earth, and the one spared by Allah (Baqiyyatullah) to maintain the cause of faith among mankind. He shall conquer the whole world from the east to the west. So long will he remain hidden from the eyes of his followers and friends that the belief in his leadership will remain only in those hearts which have been tested by Allah for faith." Jabir said: "O Messenger of Allah! Will his followers benefit from his seclusion?" The Prophet said: "Yes! by Him who sent me with prophethood! They will be guided by his light, and benefit from his leadership during his seclusion, just as people benefit from the sun even though it is hidden in the clouds. O Jabir! This is from the hidden secrets of Allah and the treasured knowledge of Allah. So guard it except from the people who deserve to know." (Kifayatul Athar, by al-Khazzaz, p53). Now that we know who "those vested with authority" are, it is evident that the question of obeying tyrant and unjust rulers does not rise at all. Muslims are not required by the above verse to obey rulers who may be unjust, tyrannical, ignorant, selfish and sunk in debauchery. They are, in fact, ordered to obey the specified Twelve Imams, all of whom were sinless and free from evil thoughts and deeds. Obeying them has no risks whatsoever. Nay, it protects from all risks; because they will never give an order against the order of Allah and will treat all human beings with love, justice, and equity. K- Quran mentions that Allah will judge who takes Wali other than Allah, Messenger and Momineen (Ali and Imams after him): أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تُتْرَكُوا وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا مِنكُمْ وَلَمْ يَتَّخِذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَا رَسُولِهِ وَلَا الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَلِيجَةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ Do you think that you will be left [as you are] while Allah has not yet made evident those among you who strive [for His cause] and do not take other than Allah, His Messenger and the believers as Wali (guardian)? And Allah is Acquainted with what you do. (9:16) Conclusion: Thus it is evident that Allah sees every one whether he takes Allah, Muhammad saww and Ali as his Wali or not. Only the believers take them as Wali, they are party of Allah and they will be prosperous.
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