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Found 378 results

  1. SalamAlaykum Brothers and Sister, I hope you are all well I was wondering if someone can tell me where in the Quran it says that the Old and New Testament is Corrupt. Because Muslims say that the Injeel and Torah was changed but where does it say that in the Quran. PLEASE DONT BRING VERSES WHICH TALK ABOUT THE WORDS BEING ALTERED ORALLY, But verses which mention that it was changed in writing. Jazakallah
  2. Zuhair Rizvi

    Quran

    A/w https://youtu.be/4uQaa2bOwmA this is a shiakh vedio he was saying that bibi maryam s.a is a hermaphrodite(means both male and female ) by doing quran tarjumma plzz help
  3. It is interesting to note that, there is a 'DUA OF THE DAY,' HADITH OF THE DAY', but, there is no 'VERSE OF THE DAY' IS THIS SUPPOSED TO BE AN ISLAMIC FORUM? So in what HADITH AFTER THIS will they believe? 77-50
  4. Miraculousness of the Qurān – Doctrine of al-Ṣarfah – A Historical Overview (Part 5) Original source: http://www.iqraonline.net/miraculousness-of-the-quran-doctrine-of-al-ṣarfah-a-historical-overview-part-5/ From the beginning of revelation up until the end of the 2nd century, the issue of i’jāz (miraculousness) of the Qurān was not a widely discussed topic amongst Muslim scholars. The Muslims before that were in general amazed by the Qurān and the concepts it discussed and expounded on, to such an extent that there never seemed to be a need to get into formal discussions regarding what made it a miracle. Two possible reasons exist for this lack of attention towards this aspect of the Qurān: 1) The Muslims had known that the Qurān is from God without a doubt, thus they did not develop the need to get into questions regarding the precise nature of its text, its sentence structure, its prose and so on. 2) The Muslims considered the Qurān a sacred book, and so they did not put forth any personal opinions regarding it. This is similar to why companions and the tābi’ūn (the followers and contemporaries of the companions) did not engage in extensive exegesis of the Qurān. Formal discussions on the miraculousness of the Qurān began between the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 3rd century hijrī. The earliest group engaging in discussions of i’jāz were the Mu’tazalīs, and thus the earliest formal opinion regarding its miracle also happened to be the doctrine of al-Ṣarfah – proposed by Abū Isḥāq Ibrahīm al-Naẓẓām (d. 231 AH / 845 CE). This was around the same time when dispute over the created nature of Qurān was also taking place between different scholars. Three groups sprung into existence during this period: 1) Those who believed that the Qurān was not miraculous at all. Some proponents of this view were Ibn Rāwandī the philosopher and the Mu’tazalī scholar ‘Īsa b. Ṣabīḥ al-Muzdār 2) Most Mu’tazalīs became proponents of the doctrine of al-Ṣarfah 3) Theologians who believed the miracle to be in the text and very nature of the Qurān – not outside of it In this post, we will go over the second opinion, although due to the extensive nature of the discussion, we can only explain it briefly. Al-Ṣarfah Al-Ṣarfah linguistically means to prevent, discourage, or divert. It has been used in Sūrah al-A’rāf as follows: سَأَصْرِفُ عَنْ آيَاتِيَ الَّذِينَ يَتَكَبَّرُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ [7:146] I will turn away from My signs those who are arrogant upon the earth However, in our technical discussion in the context of the miraculousness of the Qurān, it refers to the concept of God diverting the Arabs away from being able to produce anything like the Qurān. In other words, the Arabs could have brought something like the Qurān, but an external barrier prevented them from doing so.[1] Arabic was the language of the people of the time, they were well familiar with the way it was used and employed. The Qurān was revealed in Arabic making use of the same grammatical foundations popular amongst the Arabs, so then what was it that prevented them from bringing something like it? The doctrine formulated to respond to this question was al-Ṣarfah, but how exactly it worked had remained a matter of dispute. Al-Amīr Yaḥya b. Ḥamzah al-‘Alawī al-Zaydī (d. 749 AH) in his work al-Ṭarāz says there are three possibilities[2] regarding what the proponents of al-Ṣarfah believed in: 1) God had removed all motivation from them to bring anything similar to the Qurān and to challenge it, despite the fact that reasons for why they should have been motivated to do so were present. These reasons range from the Qurān essentially making a mockery of them, exposing their inability to bring something like it, or even discussing their defeat and downfall in the face of Islam. They had every reason to feel motivated to bring something like the Qurān to combat it, but they did not seem to be interested in doing so. 2) They were motivated to bring something like the Qurān, but God had diverted their attention away from the knowledge by which they could have produced something like it. There are two further explanations al-Amīr Yaḥya expounds on as far as this opinion is concerned, but we will suffice with what we have summarized here. 3) They had the motivation and as well as the necessary knowledge to bring something like the Qurān, but God forcefully prevented them from being able to do so. Āyatullah Hādī Ma’rifat says that it seems it was the second opinion many proponents of al-Ṣarfah believed in and that this is particularly true for the Shī’ī scholar Sayyid al-Murtaḍa – who was a staunch proponent of this doctrine.[3] Āyatullah Hādī Ma’rifat backs this up by citing a number of scholars, including Ibn Maytham al-Baḥrānī[4] (d. 679 AH) and Sa’d al-Dīn al-Taftāzānī[5] (d. 793 AH). A number of heavy-weights held the opinion of al-Ṣarfah, such as al-Naẓẓām, Abū Isḥāq al-Nuṣaybī, ‘Abbād b. Sulaymān, Hisham al-Qurṭūbī, Ibn Ḥazm al-Andalusī (d. 456 AH) – a Ẓāhirī scholar, Abū ‘Uthmān al-Jāḥiẓ (d. 255 AH) and others. However, for sake of conciseness, we will go over just three scholars. Al-Naẓẓām As mentioned earlier, al-Naẓẓām appears to be the earliest proponent of the view of al-Ṣarfah, though some have also made the claim that it was Wāṣil b. ‘Āṭā (d. 131 AH / 748 CE). In any case, as far as what al-Naẓẓam’s view regarding al-Ṣarfah was, we are not too sure because none of his works are extant today by which we can judge for ourselves, and so all we are left with are quotations from him or what later scholars understood from his words. Due to this, we find that some scholars have said he took on the first opinion regarding al-Ṣarfah, meaning God had simply removed any motivation from them to bring something similar to the Qurān[6], while others such as Ibn al-Zamlakānī (d. 651 AH) suggest[7] it was the second opinion, where God had removed their access to the knowledge by which they could have brought something similar to the Qurān. Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ash’arī (d. 320 AH) in his Maqālāt al-Islāmiyīn[8] explicitly states that it was, in fact, the third opinion al-Naẓẓām was a proponent of. In other words, all three opinions have been attributed to him. Some later scholars argue it was, in fact, the first opinion al-Naẓẓām ascribed to, especially when we see his student al-Jāḥiẓ alluding to it as well. Furthermore, some scholars have explained the difference between al-Naẓẓām’s version of al-Ṣarfah with that of Sayyid al-Murtaḍa’s, which once again leads us to believe that al-Naẓẓām ascribed to the first opinion, because it is widely accepted that al-Murtaḍa ascribed to the second view. Ibn Sinān al-Khafājī Amīr Abū Muḥammad ‘Abdullah b. Muḥammad b. Sinān al-Khafājī (d. 466 AH / 1074 CE) was an Imām Shī’ī scholar of the 5th century hijrī, who was eventually poisoned on the orders of the Amīr Maḥmūd b. Naṣr. In his Sirr al-Fiṣāḥa[9] he comes out as a strong proponent of al-Ṣarfah and even attempts to refute Abū al-Ḥasan al-Rummānī (d. 384 AH / 994 CE) who believed the miracle of the Qurān to be in its assonance and eloquence. In his attack on al-Rummānī, Ibn Sinān says that if one contemplates even a little over the Qurān and the eloquent speech of the Arabs, they will realize that there is not much difference between the two. In fact, someone who is familiar with the grammatical and literary foundations by which it could be claimed that a certain speech was eloquent, they will find phrases and speech amongst the Arabs that highly resembled the Qurānic verses. He says that the miraculous aspect of the Qurān is in the fact that God prevented the Arabs from being able to bring something like it simply by restricting their access to the specific knowledge that would be required to do so. Sayyid al-Murtaḍa Given that Sayyid al-Murtaḍa (d. 436 AH) is one of the greatest Shī’ī Imāmi scholars to ever live, and due to his vast expertise in the various Islamic sciences as well as his unique views in matters of theology, jurisprudence, Qurānic exegesis, grammar and so on, it only makes sense to understand his view on this doctrine. There is no dispute that Sayyid al-Murtaḍa was a proponent of al-Ṣarfah. From amongst al-Murtaḍa’s students, it appears Shaykh al-Ṭūṣi was a proponent of al-Ṣarfah initially, as it is apparent from his commentary on Sayyid al-Murtaḍa’s work Jumal al-‘Ilm wa al-‘Amal, but later retracts his view in his work al-Iqtiṣād bi-Taḥqīq Mabānī al-I’tiqād. His other student Abū al-Ṣalāḥ al-Ḥalabī (d. 447 AH) though, remained on the view of al-Ṣarfah and considered it one of the best explanations for what makes the Qurān miraculous.[10] Most scholars believe Sayyid al-Murtaḍa was a proponent of the second version of al-Ṣarfah – meaning God had divinely prevented access to the knowledge required to bring something like the Qurān. Al-Qutub al-Rāwandī[11] – who was also a proponent of al-Ṣarfah – explains that Sayyid al-Murtaḍa believed that the miraculousness of the Qurān is in the fact that God has prohibited the Arabs from producing anything like it, by preventing them from acquiring the required knowledge to produce something like it. One of the main arguments put forth by him and as well as some other proponents for al-Ṣarfah is as follows: If the eloquence of the Qurān was miraculous, then it would be necessary for it to have a significant difference from what was considered to be the most eloquent speech by an Arab – to such an extent that if these statements were to be placed together, one would not be confused as to which one is the Qurān and which one is the speech of an Arab. This is all the while we find numerous places where the speech of the Arabs resembles the Qurān very much. In fact, we find that there is hardly any difference between some of the shorter chapters of the Qurān and that which is considered the best of Arab poetry and speech. If this was not the case, there would be no need for us to refer to the strong Arab poets and eloquent speakers in order to understand the usage of some of the literary and grammatical devices employed in the Qurān itself. If someone were to respond and say that the view of al-Ṣarfah is against the consensus of the Muslims, and in fact accepting this view leads us to say that the Qurān is not the miracle, rather the act of prevention is the miracle, then it should be known – the proponents will say – that this is not a topic in which you can cite consensus as evidence. Furthermore, the claim that there is a consensus on this matter is itself invalid, because the matter is a disputed one. Secondly, the word miracle has a linguistic meaning and a colloquial meaning. Colloquially – which is what is relevant here and what people use to describe the Qurān – a miracle is something which implies that the person who has come forth with it is truthful in their claim, and the Qurān is a miracle in this sense even if we accept the view of al-Ṣarfah. If someone says the Qurān is not a miracle, what the laymen understand from that is that it is not evidence for the Prophethood of Muḥammad (p) and that people are able to produce something similar to it and then make the claim of Prophethood for themselves. No proponent of al-Ṣarfah says or implies such a thing through their doctrine. Shaykh al-Ṭūṣi summarizes the refutations of Sayyid al-Murtaḍa and the proponents of al-Ṣarfah to some of the explanations given for what makes the Qurān a miracle. For example, those who believe the miracle of the Qurān is in its order and prose and that it is impossible for one to reproduce such order, prose and eloquence in their speech, then al-Murtaḍa’s rebuttal to them would be that the verses of the Qurān are merely a combination of letters and words, which every human is inherently capable of doing. If someone hasn’t been able to bring something like it so far, does not necessarily mean that the order itself is miraculous, but rather it implies that people do not have enough knowledge to do so. This is similar to a person listening to a poet, yet they are not able to produce what a poet produces, not because the poetry in it and of itself is impossible to produce, but because the listener has not acquired the preliminaries required to produce poetry like it. For those who say that the miracle of the Qurān is in its reports regarding the unseen, then even though that is a miracle, but that is not what the Arabs were being challenged on. In fact, much of the Qurān is empty of any reports about the unseen. As for those who say that the miracle of the Qurān is in the absence of any contradictions in it, then once again this is not inherently miraculous, but rather one of the merits of the Qurān. This is because many humans, especially those who have strong memories and are attentive, can produce speech that is not contradictory – and no one says such a case is a miracle. While these are the arguments put forth by the proponents of this doctrine, it should be reiterated that none of them were suggesting that the Qurān is not highly eloquent and literary profound. Rather, their simple point was that it isn’t this aspect of the Qurān which makes it a miracle – it was something external to it. One Additional Argument One additional argument that proponents of al-Ṣarfah will bring are the Qurānic codices of Ibn Mas’ūd and Ubay b. Ka’b. What is famously agreed upon by the majority of Muslim scholars is that ‘Abdullah b. Mas’ūd did not have Sūrah al-Falaq and al-Nās in his Qurānic codex and in fact, he did not consider them part of the Qurān at all. On the contrary, it is also accepted that Ubay b. Ka’b had two extra chapters in his codex, namely Sūrah al-Ḥafd and al-Khala’. We will not be expanding on the historical discussion concerning these two codices of two of the most prominent companions of the Prophet (p) and scholars of the Qurān – those interested can look into it further, as much discussion exists regarding them. However, we can briefly explain how the proponents of al-Ṣarfah cited these two codices to defend their claim. If the miracle of the Qurān was in its very nature, in its text, in the way its verses are organized and in its eloquence, then how was it possible for someone like ‘Abdullah b. Mas’ūd to not be able to acknowledge this for Sūrah al-Falaq and al-Nās, to the extent that he did not even consider them to be part of the Qurān. If the eloquence and prose of the Qurān were enough to establish its miraculous nature then we would not have seen Ibn Mas’ūd omit these chapters from his codex. On the contrary, if the eloquence and prose of the Qurān was enough to establish its miraculous nature, then Ubay b. Ka’b should have been able to ascertain that regarding al-Ḥafd and al-Khala’ and should have known that these two are not chapters of the Qurān. If anyone is interested in reading a little more on the discussion concerning the codex of ‘Abdullah b. Mas’ud, please refer to the transcripts from lesson two and three of Shaykh Ḥaider Ḥobollah’s classes on Sūrah al-Falaq. God willing, in the next post, we will summarize some of the critiques presented by scholars on the doctrine of al-Ṣarfah and why it has not remained a popular position. [1] Al-Itqān fī ‘Ulūm al-Qurān, by Jalāl al-Dīn al-Ṣuyūṭī, vol. 4, pg. 7 [2] Al-Ṭarāz, by Al-Amīr Yaḥya b. Ḥamzah al-‘Alawī, vol. 3, pg. 391-392 [3] Al-Tamhīd, by Āyatullah Hādī Ma’rifat, vol. 4, pg. 140 [4] Qawā’id al-Marām, pg. 132 [5] Sharḥ al-Maqāṣid, vol. 2, pg. 184 [6] This is what Sayyid Shari al-Jurjāni (d. 816 AH) says in his Sharh al-Mawāqif, vol. 3, pg. 112 [7] Al-Burhān al-Kāshif ‘an I’jāz al-Qurān, pg. 53 [8] Maqālāt al-Islāmiyīn, vol. 1, pg. 296 [9] Sirr al-Fiṣāḥah, pg. 89-90 [10] In his work Taqrīb al-Ma’ārif, pg. 105-108 [11] In his al-Kharāij wa al-Jarā’ih, vol. 3, pg. 981-984
  5. Miraculousness of the Qurān – A Historical Overview (Part 4) Original source: http://www.iqraonline.net/miraculousness-of-the-quran-a-historical-overview-part-4/ Intellectual-Rational In this approach, the criterion used to establish the miraculousness of the Qurān is intellectualization and reason. One of the things that pushed scholars to take this approach was the significant amount of differences of opinions in the earlier approaches, such as the taste and feel approach, or even the semantic approach, where the standard at times comes across as very subjective. This pushed some scholars to argue for something more general, something that was accessible by a much larger range of people and they found that to be the intellect. Some of the scholars take issue with limiting the miracle of the Qurān in grammar and semantics and say that which is miraculous is that the Qurān contains material that can satisfy one’s intellect whether they are equipped with the grammatical background or not. In fact, this approach argues that the continuity of the Qurān’s miracle can only be explained by it being intellectually approachable and satisfactory. This also resolves the issue of not having to blindly imitate (taqlīd) someone else’s claim to the Qurān’s miraculous nature as one can readily contemplate over the verses themselves and reach this conclusion. These verses include those that take about the realities of this world and one’s life, information about things that the intellect could not have perceived on its own, such as information about past or future events, and more importantly, arguments made for certain theological beliefs, such as God’s Oneness.[1] Elucidation-Presentational (Bayān) The most famous opinion on what constitutes the miraculousness of the Qurān is the approach of elucidation and presentation (al-bayān). The proponents of this view maintain the challenge the Qurān puts forth is wholly related to the way it elucidates different meanings through its verses. Before explaining this approach any further, it is important to know about a division that has existed within the study of Arabic grammar for centuries. The science of ma’ānī, bayān and badī’ are three distinct subjects studied under the overarching science of balāgha. The science of ma’ānī discusses the rules of what makes an expression clear and unambiguous, the science of bayān deals with how any given meaning can be expressed in different ways and as such deals with the use of metaphors and figures of speech, while the science of badī’ deals with the rules of beautifying any given expression. A very simple definition for an expression that can be considered eloquent (balīgh) is one that follows both the rules studied in the science of ma’ānī and bayān, while the rules of badī’ are not a necessary condition. With this brief explanation, what we mean by a presentational approach is that the proponents believed the miracle of the Qurān is rooted in what is studied in the science of bayān. Before the revelation of the Qurān, poetry played an important role in conveying messages. It was during this period that the seven famous Hanged Poems were composed and rhymed prose (saj’) by the Arab fortunetellers (kāhin) were powerful examples of literary expertise. It was then that the Arabs were bewildered when they began hearing the verses of the Qurān, verses that were both meaningful and their presentation beyond what they had ever produced themselves. This was one of the reasons that led the polytheists to accuse the Prophet (p) of being a magician. These attacks were not limited to the Prophet (p) himself, but rather they also attacked the Qurān directly: [25:4] Those who disbelieve say: “This (the Quran) is nothing but a lie that he (Muhammad SAW) has invented, and others have helped him at it, so that they have produced an unjust wrong (thing) and a lie.” [16:103] And We certainly know that they say, “It is only a human being who teaches the Prophet.” The tongue of the one they refer to is foreign, and this Qur’an is [in] a clear Arabic language. As mentioned earlier, scholars formally began looking at the Qurān as a literary masterpiece from 2nd-century Hijri onwards, and from the very beginning, the approach focusing on elucidation was prevalent. Interestingly, a lot of early works found expounding on this view happened to be works written by Mu’tazalī scholars. Abū ‘Abdillah Muḥammad b. Zayd al-Wāsiṭī (d. 309 AH / 919 CE), Abū ‘Ali Muḥammad al-Jubbā’ī (d. 303 AH / 915 CE) and his son Abū Hāshim al-Jubbāyī (d. 321 AH / 933 CE) were from among those who focused on establishing the miracle of the Qurān through its bayān. Abū Muslim al-Isfahānī (d. 322 AH / 934 CE) was one of the earliest scholars – a Mu’tazalī as well – who tried to reconcile the views of al-sarfah and the miracle rooted in the Qurān’s presentation. One of the most popular exegetical works, Tafsīr al-Kashshāf of al-Zamakhsarī (d. 538 AH / 1143 CE), is based on this approach as the author accepted the notion of an ordered-system in the Qurān which was evident through its presentation. Literary Criticism This is not really a separate approach to establishing the miracle of the Qurān but serves as an annex to the method discussed above. The intent here is to explain the historical context in which the Qurān was revealed in to be able to better understand how it has remained a miracle. Many of the Arabs were known to be strong poets and would engage in competing with one another through poetry. Naturally, this also meant that they were critics of one another and would try to expose the weaknesses of their opponents’ poetry whenever possible. It was in this setting the Qurān comes and challenges them to produce something similar – as duels and challenges were a norm amongst the Arab poets – yet they were unable to match the style of the Qurān in this specific challenge. Over the next few centuries, the Qurān essentially became the main criterion by which the sciences of literary criticism were developed, and the quality of expressions and poetry were judged. Scholars would be forced to investigate poetry from the era of ignorance to show the validity of some of the grammatical principles employed in the Qurān, that while were valid, were not commonly used. The Qurānic text also pushed scholars to venture into discussions they had never had before, such as the nature of the Qurān itself, whether its meanings and words were created or pre-eternal, the notion of metaphors, ordered-system, philology and so on. After the revelation of the Qurān, the standards of literary criticism, tropes, phenomenology etc. that were somewhat common amongst the Arab elites, all went through a significant change and their standards were raised. Despite centuries of effort put in to extract grammatical rules and principles of eloquence, it is the fact that no one has been able to produce anything like the Qurān which attests to its miraculous nature. God willing, from the next post onwards, we will begin looking at the view of al-sarfah in more detail and the critiques that have been laid against it. [1] Al-Tamhīd fī ‘Ulūm al-Qurān, by Āyatullah Hādī Ma’rifat, vol. 4, pg. 91
  6. Miraculousness of the Qurān – A Historical Overview (Part 3) Original source: http://www.iqraonline.net/miraculousness-of-the-quran-a-historical-overview-part-3/ Semantic – Philological Most Muslim scholars agree that the Qurān was not revealed in the Arabic language without any wisdom.[1] [26:193-195] This is indeed [a Book] sent down by the Lord of all the worlds, brought down by the Trustworthy Spirit upon your heart (so that you may be one of the warners), in a clear Arabic language. [16:103] We certainly know that they say, ‘It is only a human that instructs him.’ The language of him to whom they refer is non-Arabic, while this is a clear Arabic language. These verses seem to show that the Qurān was revealed in Arabic for the mere fact that it is a clear language whose vocabulary is able to convey very precise meanings. From 2nd century hijrī Muslim scholars began exerting all their efforts in trying to understand the language of the Qurān, the words employed in it, the grammatical principles and foundations upon which the chapters were formed and so on. A semantic and philological approach to the Qurān thus looks at the style of the Qurān from the perspective of its vocabulary and the way these words are organized and used in their compound form, in order to attest to its miraculous nature. An exhaustive list of scholars who took on this approach would be too long for this post, but we will go through the opinions of a few proponents anyways. One of the earliest works written expounding on this approach is Majāz al-Qurān by Abū ‘Ubaydah Ma’mar b. al-Muthanna (d. 210 AH / 825 CE). One of his motives for writing the book was because someone questioned him regarding the verse: [37:65] Its spathes are as if they were devils’ heads The questioner insisted that the figurative use in this verse was not something the Arabs were familiar with. In response, Abū ‘Ubaydah cites a line of poetry from Imru’ al-Qays to show that the Qurānic style was in fact in line with what was considered correct and known in the Arabic language. In his work he cites numerous examples of metaphors used in the Qurān and in the general Arabic language – poetry or otherwise – to show that there is little difference between their usage. The book served almost like a textbook for both Arabs and non-Arabs to facilitate their understanding of the Qurān.[2] Ibn Qutaybah (d. 276 AH / 889 CE) was a 3rd century hijrī scholar who in his work Tawīl Mushkil al-Qurān goes on to explain the usage of various words and metaphors in the Qurān. As a philologist, what made the Qurān stand out for him was its composition. In his work, he dedicates a decent portion to discussing the difficult verses of the Qurān, something Abū ‘Ubaydah often referred to as metaphors. Ibn Qutaybah defines these metaphors and figurative verses to be the ways and methods of speech and the modes of handling it. He compares the language of the Qurān with a speech given by an Arab preacher, who delivers a talk in a variety of ways, depending on the place, occasion and audience. The metaphors in the Qurān, however, are superior to those of any human speaker, since the Quran not only has more methods of speech, but it also often uses them all simultaneously.[3]These methods range from metaphors, inversions, ellipsis, abbreviations, repetitions, pleonasms, metonyms, allusions, idioms and so on.[4] This would essentially render the Quranic text untranslatable according to Ibn Qutaybah, because the non-Arabs lack the variety of methods that the Arabic language has at its disposal. He doesn’t just stop there, but even discusses cases where the Qurān addresses a single person with a plural pronoun, or multiple people with singular pronouns, uses a constrained and restricted word to mean something general or uses a general word to mean something constrained and restricted. He argues all of these usages exist in the Arabic language and the Arabs were known to speak in this manner.[5] Abū Sulaymān Ḥamd b. Ibrahīm al-Khaṭṭābī al-Bustī[6] (d. 388 AH / 998 CE) in his Bayān I’jāz al-Qurān is another scholar who was of the view that the key to understanding the miracle of the Qurān was to recognize its coherence, as well as its linguistic & phonetic order system.[7] He argues that the Qurān is a miracle because it uses clear words in the most beautiful of manners, in order to convey the most precise meanings. If a word in a verse were to be replaced with another word that would generally be considered a synonym by laymen, the coherence of the whole verse would be ruined or at the very least its eloquence will be diminished. Artistic Imagery The root cause of this approach can be found in criticism against taking a strictly philological approach to explaining what the Qurānic miracle is. Furthermore, relatively recent discussions in literary criticism raised in the West also pushed some Muslim scholars to look at the Qurān through perspectives that were often not considered in the past. As discussions in linguistics and the general arts developed, a lot of the explanations given by those who were proponents of the philological approach were not convincing enough for all linguists. One of the criticisms laid against the previous approach was its high dependency on the apparent form of the Qurān, while not addressing its immense use of artistic imagery and its psychological effects on the listener. Amongst classical scholars, very few scholars approached the Qurān through this perspective, and even those who did allude to it in some parts of their works were not necessarily trying to establish the miraculous nature of the Qurān to it. For example al-Rummānī (d. 384 AH / 994 CE) in his al-Nukat fi I’jāz al-Qurān, Abū Hilāl al-‘Askarī (d. 395 AH / 1005 CE) in his al-Ṣanā’atayn, and Ibn Abī al-Aṣba’ (d. 654 AH / 1256 CE) in his Badī’ al-Qurān and Taḥrīr al-Taḥbīr were some scholars who alluded to this aspect of the Qurān in certain areas of their works. One of the prominent scholars who brought this approach to light was Sayyid Quṭb al-Dīn (d. 1966 CE), in two of his works, namely al-Taṣwīr al-Fann fi al-Qurān and Mashāhid al-Qiyāmah fi al-Qurān. In these works, Quṭb tried to bring out the aesthetics, imagination, and as well as the elegance of the Qurān’s storytelling, with its deep psychological dimensions.[8] Dr. Ṣubḥi al-Ṣāliḥ (d. 1986 CE) in his Mabāḥith fī ‘Ulūm al-Qurān also expounds on this dimension and considers it an independent factor in determining the miraculousness of the book. The famous professor ‘Āisha ‘Abd al-Raḥmān (d. 1998) – who wrote under the pen name Bint al-Shāṭi – in her al-I’jāz al-Bayānī lil-Qurān, Bakrī Shaykh Amīn in his al-Ta’bīr al-Fannī fi al-Qurān, Ḥanafī Muḥammad Sharaf in his I’jāz al-Qurān al-Bayānī bayn al-Naẓariyyah wa al-Taṭbīq, ‘Umar al-Salāmī in his al-I’jāz al-Fannī, Muḥammad ‘Abdullah Darrāz in his al-Naba al-‘Aẓīm and Fāḍil al-Sāmarāī in his al-Ta’bīr al-Qurānī all write regarding this dimension of the Qurān that expand on its imagery and symbolism. All aforementioned proponents of this approach believe that the miracle of the Qurān is in its artistic imagery and that is what astonished the Arabs of the time and left them speechless. Some of these individuals and their works will be dealt with in more detail in future posts. In the next post, we will look into the rational-intellectual approach and an approach that considers the miracle of the Qurān to be in its elucidation. [1] A small number of contemporary Muslim scholars, who also often happen to be reformists, will argue that the Qurān is in Arabic simply because it was revealed in Arabia. Otherwise, there is nothing special about the language itself – they claim – and as a matter of fact if the verses were to be revealed in, let’s say Greece in the Greek language, it may even have been more precise. [2] Abu Ubaidah’s “Majaz Al-Qur’an” as the Beginning of a New Trend in the Practice of Tafsir, by Mamedova K. [3] Literary Structures of Religious Meaning in the Qu’ran, by Issa J Boullata, pg. 278 [4] Ibid [5] Tawīl Mushkil al-Qurān, by Ibn Qutaybah, pg. 20-21 [6] The present-day name for al-Bust is Lashkargah – a city in Southern Afghanistan [7] This is a reference to a principle known as al-naẓm – it will be explained further in future posts [8] Sayyid Qutb: The Life and Legacy of a Radical Islamic Intellectual, by James Toth, pg. 45
  7. Miraculousness of the Qurān – A Historical Overview (Part 2) Original source: http://www.iqraonline.net/miraculousness-of-the-quran-a-historical-overview-part-2/ In this post, we will begin looking into six different approaches scholars have put forth to explain how the miraculous nature of the Qurān can be attested. Taste and Feel This approach says that in order to sense the beauty of a text, one must develop the ability to differentiate between good and bad speech. This taste and feel can either be attained by living in a certain environment, alongside making use of one’s intellect and emotions, or it can be attained by learning the principles of speech used by a group of people in any given environment. A person with such experience would eventually develop the ability to critique speech which isn’t up to par with the language constructs laid down by any given group of people. In other words, in order to experience the miracle of the Qurān, one would be required to develop a taste of the Arabic language. Ibn Khaldūn alludes to this in his work: Something of it may be understood by those who have a taste for it as the result of their contact with the (Arabic) language and their possession of the habit of it. They may thus understand as much of the inimitability of the Qur’an as their taste permits. Therefore, the Arabs who heard the Qur’an directly from (the Prophet) who brought it (to them) had a better understanding of its (inimitability than later Muslims). They were the champions and arbiters of speech, and they possessed the greatest and best taste (for the language) that anyone could possibly have.[1] Based on this approach, the miraculous nature of the Qurān was first and foremost realized by the Arabs living at the time of the Prophet (p). Perhaps not every Arab living around the Prophet (p) was on the same level of literary expertise, but many of them would have had a strong affinity with the language. Hence, we see the polytheists discouraging and preventing others from even simply listening to the Qurān: [41:26] The faithless say, ‘Do not listen to this Qur’ān and hoot it down so that you may prevail [over the Apostle].’ Perhaps they were fully aware of the consequences simply listening to the Qurān could have had on a person, as they would have been able to experience and feel the beauty of the verses. One of the scholars who was a proponent of this view was Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Ṭayyib al-Bāqilānī (d. 403 AH/1013 CE). He has dedicated a whole work on the subject, titled I’jāz al-Qurān, in which he claims that anyone who has a strong feel for the language will be able to tell that the Qurān is a miracle the moment they hear its verses. Through this, he also critiqued one of the prevailing theories at his time which claimed that the Qurān was only a miracle for the Arabs living during the time of the Prophet (p). He considered the miracle of the book to be rooted in the way its verses are organized and its high degree of eloquence. In his work, he explains the difference between poetry, rhymed prose and other technicalities regarding speech generally studied in Arabic rhetoric and eloquence and then goes on to say what preliminaries need to be understood in order to understand the miraculous nature of the Qurān.[2] Below is a summary[3] of what he puts forth in his work over the course of 20 pages: 1) The literary style of the Qurān along with varying forms is beyond the prevailing literary styles in Arabic literature. 2) Arabs had no literary legacy that might be equated with the Qurān in its rhetoric so much as it might have preserved the beauty of style as well as the length in the measurement as that of the Qurān. 3) The Qurān interacted a variety of subjects ranging from the orders and the prohibitions, the promises and the warnings, to the stories and the historical events; all this was brought in the style unmatched by the best selection of the prose and poetry. The poets and the orators might do excellence in any one or few subjects. The Qurān, in contrast, performed excellently in all the subjects simultaneously. 4) We find the kinds of expression varying in the writings of dignitaries and celebrities even though they interact a single subject especially when they move from one idea to the other. The Qurān, in contrast, combines all the varying dimensions and brings them out in a method that demonstrates them as a harmonious unit. 5) The literary style of the Qurān is not only higher than the style of the human being, but it also supersedes the style of the Jinn cited by the Arabs. 6) Different styles of expression available in Arabic literature like bast (the elaboration) and ījāz(the conciseness); jam’ (the hold together) and tafrīq (the separation); isti’ārah (the metaphor) andtasrīh (the clarification), etc. These styles are, however, higher and more impressive as well as more communicative than others if compared with. 7) Composing the words and sentences in a novel idea is difficult than composing them in a familiar one. The Qurān interprets the newer thoughts in a method inaccessible to the human being. 8) The excellence of the order and exaltedness of the rhetoric incorporated in the Qurān exhibits when any word of the Qurān is borrowed to be accommodated in any prose or poetry and attracts the attention of the reader or listener forcefully. 9) The Alphabets in Arabic are 29 in number, and the number of chapters that being with the disjointed letters total 28. 14 letters of the Arabic Alphabet have been used in these disjointed letters and signifies that the miracle of the Qurān is through the organization and ordering of these letters. 10) The language of the Qurān is convenient, and its meaning may be easily understood, and no abstruse word or construction disturbs them. But there is no scope for the human style to be in conformity with the Qurānic one. Numerous other scholars agreed that the Qurānic miracle is one that is to be experienced, and not one that can be simply described for others. One would need to acquire the taste of the language and only then would they be able to attest that it is a miracle. Someone like Ibn Sinān al-Khafājī (d. 466 AH / 1073 CE) in his Sirr al-Faṣāḥah, al-Zamakhsharī (d. 538 AH / 1143 CE) in his al-Kashshāf, al-Sakkākī (d. 626 AH / 1229 CE) in his Miftāḥ al-‘Ūlūm, and others all point towards this literary nature of the Qurān being miraculous in it and of itself and that its attestation is dependant on one’s feel and taste of the language. In fact, al-Khafājī argues that even if one happens to be a proponent of the theory of al-ṣarfah, one would still need to possess a strong familiarity with the sciences of Arabic rhetoric and eloquence and an affinity with the language in order to even enter the discussion concerning the miracle of the Qurān. In our next post, we will give an overview of another approach taken by scholars, which though remains within the realm of linguistics, but is concerned more with the semantics of the Qurānic text. [1] The science of syntax and style and literary criticism, in The Muqaddimah, of Ibn Khaldūn. Translated by Franz Rosenthal [2] I’jāz al-Qurān, by Abū Bakr Muḥammad bin al-Ṭayyib, pg. 51-71, ed. Al-Sayyid Aḥmad Ṣaqir [3] Translation is taken from The I’jāz al-Qurān: A Study of the Classical Scholars, by Obaidullah Fahad pg. 18-19 – with minor changes made by myself
  8. I have been uploading posts on my own personal blog (IqraOnline.net) regarding the miraculousness of the Qurān (I'jāz al-Qurān). These are posts where I have tried to avoid technical jargon as much as possible and the posts are also not super lengthy either. I am writing these for a very general audience - especially those who have absolutely no information regarding the subject - to get introduced to the matter. I have decided to put up these posts on the ShiaChat Blog as well since it may attract readers that are not following my blog already. Feel free to share feedback and comments, although I cannot promise responses to all or any of the comments due to other priorities. ------------------ Miraculousness of the Qurān – A Historical Overview (Part 1) What follows is the first of a series of posts going over the discussion on the miraculousness of the Qurān. I will try to keep the posts as simple and non-technical as possible so that non-seminarians can benefit as well. This of course also means I will have to leave out a lot of details. The information is being taken from a few different works, but the overall outline is being taken from the work Sayr Tarikhi I’jāz-e Qurān by Sayyid Ḥusayn Sayyidi. That the Qurān is a miracle, is a belief not disputed by the Muslims. The belief remains a central pillar for them and denying such a belief could possibly render the book irrelevant. What remained contested, however, was the nature of its miracle. What aspect of the Qurān was miraculous? What was understanding its miracle dependant on? Was the miracle in the way words were employed or in the meanings they implied? It was these questions that forced Islamic scholarship to discuss these various aspects of the Holy Book and provide explanations. Before looking at the miraculous aspect of the Qurān as explained by Muslim scholars over the centuries, what needs to be known is that no book revealed on a previous Messenger has been deemed a miracle. This is all the while different Prophets (p) were given miracles, yet these miracles remained of an empirical nature. Even though numerous empirical miracles have also been attributed to the Messenger of Islam (p), it appears that the Qurān – if it is to be considered an everlasting miracle – is not merely an empirical miracle, rather there is an aspect to it which demands intellectualization. As human intellectual capacity grows and their knowledge with regards to their selves and their surroundings increases, the Qurān is still meant to remain a miracle. As such, while most miracles of the Prophets (p) ceased to exist after a certain period of time, or with the demise of a Prophet (p) himself, the miracle of the last Messenger (p) is considered to be everlasting and accessible by all those who come after him (p). Another major difference between the Qurān and other miracles, as pointed out by Ibn Khaldūn in his al-Muqaddimah, is that unlike other Prophetic miracles, the Qurān is revelation itself. This is all the while other miracles demonstrated by previous Prophets (p) or even Prophet Muḥammad (p) himself were not divine revelation. Though these and other qualities are what makes the Qurān stand out, the question regarding what constitutes its miraculous aspect remains to be explained. The opinions of Muslim scholars with respects to the Qurān and its miraculous dimension can be divided into two very general categories. Firstly, those who believed that the miracle of the Qurān is not in its text, but rather it is something external to it. Secondly, those who believe that the miracle is contained within the text of the Qurān itself. The first opinion upholds the view that what makes the Qurān miraculous is not its literary style and nor its text, rather the great poets and eloquent individuals of the time were literally rendered incapable to produce anything like it. This incapacitation was bestowed upon them through Divine interference and it was this external aspect that makes the Qurān a miracle. This view is famously known as al-ṣarfah and we will get into it more in subsequent posts. The second opinion – which constitutes the opinion of the majority – is that the miracle of the Qurān is contained within the text itself. Some of the scholars in this camp argue against the view of al-ṣarfah saying such a view would mean that the Qurānic text is not any different than the books revealed upon previous Prophets (p). However, what do the scholars in this second camp understand the miracle of the Qurān to be? We can narrow down their opinions into four general notions: 1) Its eloquence 2) It being clear and understandable 3) Its organization and style 4) Its reports regarding the unseen and absence of contradictions The Challenge A second aspect of any miracle is its accompanying challenge. Āyatullah Jawādī Āmulī explains how the Qurān puts forth this challenge to mankind: If this book is not the word of God, then it is the word of a human. If it is a word of a human, then since you are also a human, bring forth something like it. If you are able to bring something like it, it will prove that the book is the word of a human. If you are unable to bring something like it, it will prove that it is not the word of a human – and it being a miracle will be shown, subsequently proving the claim of Prophethood and the message.[1] The Qurān puts forth its challenge in a number of verses. We will list them below: [17:88] Say, ‘Should all humans and jinn rally to bring the like of this Qur’ān, they will not bring the like of it, even if they assisted one another.’ [10:38] Do they say, ‘He has fabricated it?’ Say, ‘Then bring a sūrah like it, and invoke whomever you can, besides Allah, should you be truthful.’ [11:13] Do they say, ‘He has fabricated it?’ Say, ‘Then bring ten sūrahs like it, fabricated, and invoke whomever you can, besides Allah, should you be truthful.’ [52:33-34] Do they say, ‘He has improvised it [himself]?’ Rather they have no faith! Let them bring a discourse like it, if they are truthful. [2:23-24] And if you are in doubt concerning what We have sent down to Our servant, then bring a sūrah like it, and invoke your helpers besides Allah, should you be truthful. And if you do not—and you will not—then beware the Fire whose fuel will be humans and stones, prepared for the faithless. There are a number of points that can be extracted from these verses. 1) The earliest chapter in which a challenge is put forth is Sūrah al-Isrā, a Makkī chapter revealed during the final years of the Prophet (p) in Makkah. The last chapter in which we find a challenge is Sūrah al-Baqarah, which was revealed soon after the Prophet’s (p) migration. This shows that the challenges revealed in the Qurān were during the time period when the polytheists had increased their pressure on the Prophet (p) up until his migration to Medīnah. 2) All the verses are addressing the polytheists and in context of establishing the truth of the Prophet’s (p) message. 3) What they are being challenged on is different, at times being asked to bring something like the Qurān itself, or 10 chapters like it, or even just 1 chapter. It thus appears that the challenge put forth to the Arab polytheists of the time is to bring something like the Qurān, in terms of its prose, literary style and eloquence. In the next post, we will look at six different approaches scholars have taken to identify the ways by which the miracle of the Qurān can be identified and experienced. [1] Tafsīr Mawḍū’ī Qurān, vol. 1, pg. 138 – by Ayatullah Jawādī Āmulī Source: http://www.iqraonline.net/miraculousness-of-the-quran-a-historical-overview-part-1/
  9. Shaykh Zainuddin Ali bin Fazil Mazandarani narrates that I asked Sayyid Shamsuddin Muhammad Aalam (may Allah give him a long life) to permit me to ask him some questions related to the Islamic law and also to recite the Holy Quran before him. He accepted my request and told me to begin with the Quran. So I started reciting the Quran and on points of difference of reciters, I used to say: Hamza has read it in this way, Kasai has said this and that is the view of Asim, the recitation of Abu Amr bin Kathir is such. The Sayyid said: I have no concern with them, when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) performed the last Hajj, Jibraeel descended and said: O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.), please recite the Holy Quran to me so that you may be informed about the beginning and end of the chapters and their contexts of revelations. Thus Amirul Momineen (a.s.) and his sons, Imam Hasan (a.s.) and Imam Husain (a.s.), Ubayy bin Kaab, Abdullah bin Masud, Huzaifah Yamani, Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari, Abu Saeed Khudri, Hissan bin Thabit and other companions gathered in the company of the Prophet and he recited the Quran from the beginning to the end. Jibraeel Amin explained the proper reading on the points where there was difference and Amirul Momineen (a.s.) wrote it on leather. Thus the whole of Quran is according to the reading of Amirul Momineen, the successor of the Messenger of the Lord of the world. I said: “Chief, I want to know why some verses are unconnected to the preceding and succeeding verses?” He replied: “You are right, it is so because when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) passed away and the seat of caliphate was occupied by others, Imam Ali (a.s.) brought the Quran that he had compiled and said: This the Quran as revealed by the Almighty Allah and the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) had ordered me to get it for you so that it may exhaust the proof.” They (Abu Bakr and Umar) said: “We are not in need of your Quran.” Amirul Momineen (a.s.) said: “My beloved, the Prophet had informed me about this reply of yours also, but I just wanted to exhaust the proof.” Then he brought that Quran home. But he was saying again and again:There is no god except You. You are truth. You are one without any partner. No one can reject that which has passed your knowledge. None can stop that which is the demand of Your wisdom. Thus when the day all would be present before You, You should be a witness for me. Then Muslims were ordered: All of you who have verses or chapters of Quran should bring to the caliphs. Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah, Uthman, Saad bin Abi Waqqas, Muawiyah bin Abu Sufyan, Abdur Rahman bin Auf, Talha bin Abdullah. Abu Saeed Khudri, Hissan bin Thabit and others came and compiled the Quran and they removed the verses, which condemned the enemies of Ahle Bayt (a.s.) openly. That is why you find those verses unconnected. And the Quran written by Imam Ali (a.s.) is in the possession of Imam Zamana (a.s.). It contains the description and explanation of every point. It even mentions the penalty of a bruise. There is not doubt that the present Quran is the word of Allah and this has reached us from Imam Zamana (a.s.). Refrence: English Translation of Biharul Anwar, Volume 13 (Old Edition)/Volumes 51-52-53 (New Edition) Part 2 Page 67-68
  10. Hello. Is this true ? Someone said this to my friend.
  11. Salaam alaykum I was reading the Qur'an and came across a verse that I didn't quite understand, heres the verse; Allah eliminates what He wills or confirms, and with Him is the Mother of the Book. [13:39] and in the Quranic text is the actual word used for mother, who is this "mother" that it is refering to?
  12. Assalamualaikum Can someone please provide me tafseer of Surah Ahfaq 46:9 SAHIH INTERNATIONAL Say, "I am not something original among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I only follow that which is revealed to me, and I am not but a clear warner."
  13. Salaam, So I got into an interesting discussion with a Sunni brother about what is more important - the Prophet (saw) or the Quran? I said, "Prophet" He said, "Quran" Thoughts?
  14. Why Allah uses different names for the fire ? Like sometimes naar, sometimes hutamat ( surah hamza ayat 4) and some times havia(surah alqaria ayat 9)? What is the differnce between these names ?
  15. just a muslim

    who is your favorite recitor?

    so, who is your favorite recitor? and what do you like? quick or slow?
  16. DOES THE QURAN DISRESPECT THE SAHABA? The verses of Quran address the companions (sahaba) of the prophet saww in different tone which include praising, warning and taunting that they may turn back from Islam. These are true facts which are exposed by the Quran for believers. The discussion on this matter is detailed below: 1. For the First Tone of Quran Praising the companions (sahaba) the following verses can be quoted: مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah ; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward. (48:29) In the above verse Allah swt has mentioned that he has promised for those as given below: “Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.” These are the companions who are believers and forgiveness and great reward (paradise) has been promised from them. The above verse indicates that this promise is only for the believers doing the righteous deeds and it excludes those who do not perform the righteous deeds. For this faction of the Companions promised paradise, Quran has more verses in their praise: وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آوَوا وَّنَصَرُوا أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ حَقًّا ۚ لَّهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ But those who have believed and emigrated and fought in the cause of Allah and those who gave shelter and aided - it is they who are the believers, truly. For them is forgiveness and noble provision. (8;74) الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ The ones who have believed, emigrated and striven in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives are greater in rank in the sight of Allah . And it is those who are the attainers [of success]. (9:20) يُبَشِّرُهُمْ رَبُّهُم بِرَحْمَةٍ مِّنْهُ وَرِضْوَانٍ وَجَنَّاتٍ لَّهُمْ فِيهَا نَعِيمٌ مُّقِيمٌ Their Lord gives them good tidings of mercy from Him and approval and of gardens for them wherein is enduring pleasure. (9:21) These are those who believed in Allah swt, believed in the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and gave all they could for the sake of Islam. These are the highest in rank. These companions ALWAYS supported the Prophet and were WITH him. They never disobeyed him in every other issue, nor did they ever accused him of talking non-sense! (may Allah protect us). 2. For the Second Tone of Quran Warning the Companions (sahaba) the following verses are quoted: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمُ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ۚ أَرَضِيتُم بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ O you who have believed, what is [the matter] with you that, when you are told to go forth in the cause of Allah , you adhere heavily to the earth? Are you satisfied with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But what is the enjoyment of worldly life compared to the Hereafter except a [very] little. (9:38) إِلَّا تَنفِرُوا يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ وَلَا تَضُرُّوهُ شَيْئًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ If you do not go forth, He will punish you with a painful punishment and will replace you with another people, and you will not harm Him at all. And Allah is over all things competent. (9;39) This is a clear indication that some of the companions were lazy during the call to Jihad and other activities, and, thus, deserved the above reprimand by Allah swt. This is not the only instance where Allah swt threatened to replace them: هَا أَنتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ تُدْعَوْنَ لِتُنفِقُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَمِنكُم مَّن يَبْخَلُ ۖ وَمَن يَبْخَلْ فَإِنَّمَا يَبْخَلُ عَن نَّفْسِهِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ الْغَنِيُّ وَأَنتُمُ الْفُقَرَاءُ ۚ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْا يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُونُوا أَمْثَالَكُم Here you are - those invited to spend in the cause of Allah - but among you are those who withhold [out of greed]. And whoever withholds only withholds [benefit] from himself; and Allah is the Free of need, while you are the needy. And if you turn away, He will replace you with another people; then they will not be the likes of you. (47:38) يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet or be loud to him in speech like the loudness of some of you to others, lest your deeds become worthless while you perceive not. (49:2) وَإِذَا رَأَوْا تِجَارَةً أَوْ لَهْوًا انفَضُّوا إِلَيْهَا وَتَرَكُوكَ قَائِمًا ۚ قُلْ مَا عِندَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ مِّنَ اللَّهْوِ وَمِنَ التِّجَارَةِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ But when they saw a transaction or a diversion, [O Muhammad], they rushed to it and left you (prophet) standing. Say, "What is with Allah is better than diversion and than a transaction, and Allah is the best of providers." (62:11) These are few verses where Quan has used Warning tone to address the believers who falls below to perform righteous deeds. 3. For the Third Tone of Quran Taunting the Companions (sahaba) who may turn away from the religion, the following verses are quoted: These are actually hypocrites (Al-munafiqeen) who were among the companions. The Quran has one complete Sura “Al-Munafiqqon, No. 63” to address them. Also, the following verses describe them: وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ ۚ أَفَإِن مَّاتَ أَوْ قُتِلَ انقَلَبْتُمْ عَلَىٰ أَعْقَابِكُمْ ۚ وَمَن يَنقَلِبْ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ فَلَن يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئًا ۗ وَسَيَجْزِي اللَّهُ الشَّاكِرِينَ Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels [to unbelief]? And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allah at all; but Allah will reward the grateful. (3:144) This verse was revealed when some of the companions ran away from the battle of Uhud, when they falsely heard that Prophet was killed. Although they were forgiven by Prophet later, but the above verse gives a possibility that some of the companions may abandon Islam if the Prophet (PBUH&HF) dies. But Allah swt makes exceptions: of the “grateful” ones. Allah also states: يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَن يَرْتَدَّ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَخَافُونَ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ O you who have believed, whoever of you should revert from his religion - Allah will bring forth [in place of them] a people He will love and who will love Him [who are] humble toward the believers, powerful against the disbelievers; they strive in the cause of Allah and do not fear the blame of a critic. That is the favor of Allah; He bestows it upon whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing. (5:54) It is a known fact that the companions quarreled after the death of the Prophet (PBUH&HF), and wars were waged. The fact, again and again, that the companions were divided is illuminated by Allah swt in the following verse: وَلْتَكُن مِّنكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ تَفَرَّقُوا وَاخْتَلَفُوا مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ And let there be [arising] from you a nation inviting to [all that is] good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and those will be the successful. And do not be like the ones who became divided and differed after the clear proofs had come to them. And those will have a great punishment. (3:104, 105) The above verse shows among the companion there were a group (Ummah) who will remain righteous. The verse emphasizes that this Ummah is AMONG THEM so it does not cover all of them. However. the latter part the verse describes the group who were turned back on their faith after the Prophet (PBUH&HF) died (Ref. Sahih Bukhari, Vol 8, Book 76, Hadith 585, English Translation). The verse indicates that on the Day of Judgment, there will be two factions: one with white-lit faces, and the other with black-lit faces; that's another hint that the companions will be divided. Here are some more verses from the Quran that address the group of companions who has been warned in the Quran for their actions: يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ مَا قَالُوا وَلَقَدْ قَالُوا كَلِمَةَ الْكُفْرِ وَكَفَرُوا بَعْدَ إِسْلَامِهِمْ وَهَمُّوا بِمَا لَمْ يَنَالُوا ۚ وَمَا نَقَمُوا إِلَّا أَنْ أَغْنَاهُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۚ فَإِن يَتُوبُوا يَكُ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ ۖ وَإِن يَتَوَلَّوْا يُعَذِّبْهُمُ اللَّهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَا لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ They swear by Allah that they did not say [anything against the Prophet] while they had said the word of disbelief and disbelieved after their [pretense of] Islam and planned that which they were not to attain. And they were not resentful except [for the fact] that Allah and His Messenger had enriched them of His bounty. So if they repent, it is better for them; but if they turn away, Allah will punish them with a painful punishment in this world and the Hereafter. And there will not be for them on earth any protector or helper. (9:74) فَأَعْقَبَهُمْ نِفَاقًا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يَلْقَوْنَهُ بِمَا أَخْلَفُوا اللَّهَ مَا وَعَدُوهُ وَبِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ So He penalized them with hypocrisy in their hearts until the Day they will meet Him - because they failed Allah in what they promised Him and because they [habitually] used to lie. (9:77) الْأَعْرَابُ أَشَدُّ كُفْرًا وَنِفَاقًا وَأَجْدَرُ أَلَّا يَعْلَمُوا حُدُودَ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ The bedouins (Arabs) are stronger in disbelief and hypocrisy and more likely not to know the limits of what [laws] Allah has revealed to His Messenger. And Allah is Knowing and Wise. (9:97) أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا Have you not seen those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you? They wish to refer legislation to Taghut, while they were commanded to reject it; and Satan wishes to lead them far astray. (4:60) فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللَّهُ مَرَضًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ In their hearts is disease, so Allah has increased their disease; and for them is a painful punishment because they [habitually] used to lie. (2:10) أَلَمْ يَأْنِ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَن تَخْشَعَ قُلُوبُهُمْ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَمَا نَزَلَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ وَلَا يَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلُ فَطَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَمَدُ فَقَسَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۖ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنْهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ Has the time not come for those who have believed that their hearts should become humbly submissive at the remembrance of Allah and what has come down of the truth? And let them not be like those who were given the Scripture before, and a long period passed over them, so their hearts hardened; and many of them are defiantly disobedient. (57:16) There may be some translations which state that the above verse is meant to address the Jews and the Christians. That is not true, because it contradicts the verse itself. First, Allah swt is addressing the companions and THEN comparing them to the Jews and the Christians. How then could it be that Allah swt tells the Jews and the Christians: " Has the time not come for those who have believed that their hearts should become humbly submissive at the remembrance of Allah..." and then tell them: "...and And let them not be like those who were given the Scripture before,..." Why would Allah swt compare the Christians (or the Jews) to themselves? No, and Allah swt doesn't contradict Himself Rather, the verse was revealed as a questioning by Allah swt regarding some of the Muhajiroon (the Immigrants), who 17 years after the Quran was revealed, had still not fully believed in their HEARTS. Allah swt as a result, showed disapproval. Again, at the end, Allah points out that among them are many defiantly disobedient. Conclusion: We have seen that Quran addresses the groups of companions (Sahaba) in different tones including praising, warning and taunting that they may turn away from religion. Thus in this manner when Quran categorizes the sahaba we believe that truth is revealed in Quran.
  17. *Nine Lessons from Surah Hujurat* "When a glass breaks, the sound of breaking disappears immediately, whereas the glass pieces are scattered all over, hurting whoever walks over it". Similarly, "When you say something that hurts someone's emotions and feelings, your words disappear, but in the heart remains pain for long." Therefore, don't say anything except good and always remember the nine advises and prohibitions that Allah has given in Surah Hujurat (The Surah of manners) before you say anything to anyone: 1.-فتبينوا: "Fa Tabayyanu": Investigate: whenever you receive an information, lest you harm people out of ignorance. 2.-فأصلحوا: "Fa Aslihu": Make settlement: between your brothers as believers are brothers. 3.-وأقسطوا: "Wa Aqsitu": Act justly: whenever there is a dispute try for settlement and act justly among both parties as Allah loves those who act justly. 4.-لا يسخر: "La Yaskhar": Don't ridicule people, perhaps they may be better than you to Allah. 5.-ولا تلمزوا: "Wa La Talmizu": Don't insult one another. 6.-ولا تنابزوا: "Wa La Tanabazu": Don't call each other with offensive nicknames. 7.-اجتنبو كثيرا من الظن: "Ijtanibu Kathiiran min Aldhan": Avoid negative assumptions, indeed some of the assumptions are sins. 8.-ولا تجسسوا: "Wa La Tajassasu": Don't spy on each other. 9.-ولا يغتب بعضكم بعضا: "Wa La Yaghtab": Don't backbite about each other. It's a major sin equivalent to eating your dead brother's flesh. Lastly, Allah says in the Qur'an "Remind, because the reminder benefits believers".
  18. As the Quran mentions in Surah 10 aya 47, there is a warner/messenger to every group of people and also you will find such a verse in surah 16 aya 36 and so on. If this is true then how does it say Surah 36 aya 6 that O Muhammed you may warn people who are not warned and their forefathers are not warned and so they are unaware. Isnt this a contradiction and as a Muslim this confuses me. If any of our brothers and sisters are able to clarify then please do.
  19. Wikipedia notes: as well as: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahweh So, is YHWH the same as Allah? As a Christian, I certainly consider him my God, the only true God of all things, and the only one deserving of worship. I would consider Allah the Islamic "spin off" (I don't mean that in a rude or offensive way) of YHWH. Thoughts or other opinions/viewpoints?
  20. Salaam Alaikum brothers and sisters! "But that day belongs to the Lord, the LORD Almighty-- a day of vengeance, for vengeance on his foes. The sword will devour till it is satisfied, till it has quenched its thirst with blood. For the Lord, the LORD Almighty, will offer sacrifice in the land of the north by the River Euphrates." Jeremiah 46:10 Thoughts on this verse? Do you guys think it is in reference to Imam Mahdi (as).
  21. Salaam Hope everything is good with you and your family. May the Imam of time (ajtf) bless you all with great blessings in this world and success hereafter. It is my utmost pleasure to introduce our brothers and sisters about the Quran application that MAHRAM (Maulana Aejaz Husain Rizvi Academic mission) team from Lucknow, India, has developed for the iOS and is available for download on Apple Appstore (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/the-last-reminder-holy-quran/id1303541064?mt=8) You may wonder what prompted me (member of MAHRAM team) to burn my midnight oil for last 5 months to develop a Quran application while there are loads of Quran application already available on Appstore and Playstore? Because none of the Quran application available have any Quran translation from Shi’a Ulama or Commentaries (Tafasir) from our Ulama, especially in English language. You would be surprised to know that alone in India, daily 3 million people search for the keyword “Quran” in Apple Appstore and they are downloading the apps which are available in top 10 positions (search results). So far, we have launched the iOS basic version (all Quran chapters, translations of our Ulama in English, Urdu, Persian etc. and Tafsir like Tafsir Al-Mizan (12 volumes) in English and Study Quran Tafsir by Sayyed Hussein Nasr). I have put my lot of efforts in developing this application but I do not have budgets for full scale marketing. Therefore, can I request my brothers and sisters who have been blessed with great number of following to help me spread the word about this application so that maximum number of believers get benefited? I would recommend you all if you are using an iPhone or Android to try it yourself the application to witness the hard-work and if you feel delighted with the work, then pray for the success of efforts and share feedback on Appstore or Playstore. Download it either by searching the keyword “The Last Reminder - Holy Quran” in Appstore/Playstore or download it from respective Application stores: iOS App: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/the-last-reminder-holy-quran/id1303541064?mt=8 Android App: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=in.hexalab.holyquran May Allah’s choicest blessings be upon Muhammad pbuh and his holy progeny. Wassalamo Alaykum http://www.thelastreminderapp.com http://facebook.com/thelastreminderapp
  22. Musa A

    Imamah in Quran

    I'm a sunni I want to know 1 aya that says imam Ali is imam in the quran. I don't want to hear the ruku argument cuz abu bakr also gave zakat in Ruku.
  23. Following the Prophet: The following verses describe the instruction to follow the Prophet saaw. لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا Ye have indeed in the Apostle of Allah a beautiful pattern of (conduct) for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day and who engages much in the praise of Allah. (33:21) يُحْبِبْكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ َ فَٱتَّبِعُونِى قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ ٱللَّه : Say: "If ye do love Allah follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins for Allah is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." (3:31) قُلْ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ {٣٢} 003:032 Say, ‘Obey Allah and the Messenger.’ But if they turn away, indeed Allah does not like the faithless. يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَلَا تَوَلَّوْا۟ عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ {٢٠} 008:020 O you who have faith! Obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not turn away from him while you hear [him]. قُلْ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا۟ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُم مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ ۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُوا۟ ۚ وَمَا عَلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ إِلَّا ٱلْبَلَٰغُ ٱلْمُبِينُ {٥٤} 024:054 Say, ‘Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger.’ But if you turn your backs, [you should know that] he is only responsible for his burden and you are responsible for your own burden, and if you obey him, you will be guided, and the Messenger’s duty is only to communicate in clear terms. ۞ يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوٓا۟ أَعْمَٰلَكُمْ {٣٣} 047:033 O you who have faith! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and do not render your works void. ٣_١٣٢ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ 003:132 and obey Allah and the Messenger so that you may be granted [His] mercy. ٥_٩٢ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَٱحْذَرُوا۟ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّمَا عَلَىٰ رَسُولِنَا ٱلْبَلَٰغُ ٱلْمُبِينُ 005:092 And obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and beware; but if you turn your backs, then know that Our Messenger’s duty is only to communicate in clear terms. وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَلَا تَنَٰزَعُوا۟ فَتَفْشَلُوا۟ وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ ۖ وَٱصْبِرُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلصَّٰبِرِينَ {٤٦} 008:046 And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute, or you will lose heart and your power will be gone. And be patient; indeed Allah is with the patient. وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَىٰ رَسُولِنَا ٱلْبَلَٰغُ ٱلْمُبِينُ {١٢} 064:012 Obey Allah and obey the Messenger; but if you turn away, then Our Messenger’s duty is only to communicate in clear terms. يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تُقَدِّمُوا۟ بَيْنَ يَدَىِ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ ۖ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ {١} 049:001 O you who have faith! Do not venture ahead of Allah and His Messenger, and be wary of Allah. Indeed Allah is all-hearing, all-knowing. How to Follow the Prophet?: First Example: Mubahila The Verse of Malediction (Mubahala). فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ "But whoever disputes with you (O' Muhammad) in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and our selves (anfus) and your selves, then let us beseech Allah and invoke His curse upon the liars" Our'an(3:61) This verse points towards an epoch-making event, narrated by all historians and commentators; an event which revealed to the Muslims how near and dear the progeny of the Prophet are to Allah the Exalted. This event which clearly marked out the distinct status of the AhIul-Bait, is known in the annals of Islamic history as Mubahala, that is invoking Allah's malediction on the liars. Historians and exegists have narrated the event as follows: A deputation (5) from the Christians of Najran came to the Prophet of Islam to argue the merits of their faith. The Holy Prophet advanced to them arguments showing that Jesus the son of Mary was a human-being and a Prophet, and it was blasphemy to regard him as a son of God, because Allah the Exalted is high above all such human characteristics. It was, when the Prophet having argued to the point fully and convincingly, found them still deliberately persisting in their false belief in the deity of Prophet Jesus. that Allah revealed this verse. It was a challenge to the Christians, to pray and invoke Allah that the curse may overtake the party that insisted upon falsehood. Early the next morning on the 24th of the lunar month of Dhilhijja, the Prophet in accordance with Allah's command came out to the meeting grounds, carrying Husain in his arms and leading Hasan (our sons) by his hand, followed by his beloved daughter Fatima (our women), behind whom came Ali (our selves) carrying the banner of Islam. Seeing the Prophet was accompanied by his immediate family and convinced that Muhammad (s.a.w.) was truthful, otherwise he would not have dared to bring his dearest of kin along, the Christians hacked away from the maledictory confrontation and agreed to pay Jizya instead. Zamakhshari says in his book Al-Kashshaf: That (when this verse was revealed) the Prophet asked the Christians to a Mubahala (malediction) to invoke the curse of Allah on the liars. The Christians held a discourse among themselves that night. in which their leader Abdul Massih stated his views as follows: "By God, O Christians, you know that Muhammad is a God-sent Prophet, who has brought to you the final message from your Lord. By God, no nation ever dared to challenge a Prophet for malediction, but woe befell them. Not only will they perish hut their children will also be afflicted with the curse". Saying that it is better to reach a compromise with the Prophet. rather than challenge his truth and perish, Abdul Massih advised his party to stop hostilities and retain their religion, by submitting to the Prophet's terms. "So if you persist (for a confrontation), we will all perish. But if you want to keep your faith you should refuse (to have a showdown) and remain as you are. Therefore make peace with the man (the Prophet) and return to your land'. Zamakhshari continues: "the next day the Prophet. carrying Husain in his arms, leading Hasan by the hand; followed by his daughter Fatima, behind whom came Ali, entered the appointed place and was heard saying (to his AhluI-Bait): "When I invoke Allah, you all say: Amen. The pontiff of Najran on seeing the Prophet and his AhluI-Bait, addressed the Christians: "O' Christians, I am beholding such faces that if God wishes (for their sake), He would move mountains from their places. Do not accept their challenge for Mubahala for if you do you would all perish and there would remain no Christian on the face of the earth till the Day of Resurrection.' Heeding his advice the Christians said to the Prophet: "O Abul Qasim, we decided not to hold Mubahala with you. You keep your religion and we will keep ours. The Prophet told them: "If you refuse to hold (Mubahala), then submit, (accept Islam) and you will receive what the Muslims receive, and contribute what the Muslims contribute. . The Christians saying they had no desire to fight the Arabs. proposed a treaty asking for peace, and freedom from forced compulsion to make them forsake their religion. In return they agreed to pay the Muslims an annual tribute of two thousand suits; one thousand of which in the month of Safar and the remaining one thousand in Rajab, besides thirty coats of iron mail. Accepting the proposal the Prophet remarked: "By the One Who has my soul in His hand, death was looming large over the people of Najran. (Had they dared to accept the challenge of Mubahala'). They would have been transformed into apes and swines, and the valley would have been set ablaze. Allah would have destroyed Najran with its people, sparing not even the birds on the treetops, and before the passing of the year the Christians would have all been dead." Continuing his comments on the Mubahala verse', Zamakhshari lays emphasis on the position of the AhluI-Bait by quoting the following narration from the Prophet's wife Aa'isha: He mentioned them Ahllul -Bait before mentioning the word selves in order to highlight their position and their proximity (to Allah), and to stress their preference to selves', which could be sacrificed for them. ..There is no stronger evidence than this regarding the merits of the Ahl aI-Kisa(6). It is the proof of the truthfulness of the Prophet's mission, because nobody however biased has narrated that they(the Christians) dared to accept that (the challenge for Mubahala) . Fakhruddin Razi in his al-Tafsir al-Kabir', gives an identical narration and after having stated what Zamakhshari has said; adds: Mind, that all interpreters (of the Qur'an) and narrators (of the Prophet's traditions) are unanimous about the authenticity of this narration . Allama Muhammad Husain Tabataba'i the renowned modern day exegist, in his monumental commentary on the Holy Qur'an, Tafsir al-Mizan', referring to the verse those through whom Allah has cursed their enemies', says that these are none other than the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain. He adds ...this narration has been related by all traditionists and recorded by all compilers (of traditions) in their collections, such as Muslim in his Sahih' and Tirmidhi in his Sahih', besides historians have confirmed it as well. Ever since the interpreters have related it without any objection or doubt, including such famous traditionists and historians as Tabari, Abul Fida, Ibn Kathir, Suyuti and others.' Thus in the light of the above discussions it is clear that all interpreters have unanimously defined the Ahlul-Bait as Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain. The very mention of them in the Mubahala verse, which makes them the means for invoking Allah is a clear pointer to their lofty and sanctified stature. The fact that Allah asked His Messenger to bring these pure personalities along with him to the malediction grounds is once again a clear proof of their purity. The challenge for invoking Allah's curse on His enemies, discloses in what high esteem they were held by the Almighty. Since the confrontation was between truth and falsehood, two directly opposite currents, the situation demanded that faith be represented by its very best, upon whom the whole edifice of Islam stood. And no one was more qualified to accompany the Prophet to Mubahala, on whose outcome hung the fate of Islam, than his Ahlul-Bait: the torch of guidance and virtue. The Almighty -bearers Allah, Who Himself had bestowed on them the mantle of purity earlier in the Holy Qur'an, once again made them the cynosure of all eyes, proving the truth of Islam through them. In fact, He, the All-wise was indicating to the faint-hearted Muslims that the continuation of divine mission will not stop with the Seal of the Prophets, but will continue through his infallible progeny. No invocation of theirs would be ignored and no word of theirs could be belied; even mountains would move, by their mere utterances as was well understood by the Christians. This itself is sufficient to remove the last lingering doubts from the minds of certain segments about these immaculate personalities; the result of centuries of hypocrisy, which misled many simple souls. With the clearing of the mist, the picture gradually emerges all the more vivid that what we have received from the Ahlul-Bait; of teachings, thoughts, interpretations, narrations, jurisprudence etc... .is the pure unpolluted nectar of Islam, bequeathed by the Prophet and sincerely preserved and conveyed to the Muslims by his Household. Through them the Qur'an challenged the enemies of Islam, and made it clear for all time that those who oppose them are nothing but liars, deserving to be cursed and punished: ...invoke the curse of Allah upon those who lie.' Had it not been for their eternal truth and unwavering steadfastness, Allah would never have bestowed upon them such an honour, and the Qur'an would not have spoken of them in such glowing terms. There are some minute linguistic points in this verse which are worthy of note. This group (Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain) is used as the adjunct, and the Prophet as the possessor, in a genetive term, as is seen in our sons', our women' and ourselves'. Had not the Prophet taken Fatima along with him, people would have thought that our women' means the Prophet's wives and our sons' refers to Fatima though she was a female and ourselves' indicates his sacred self alone. But by taking along only these four and no one else besides the Prophet was showing the Muslims, that the best example for women is Fatima and the best example for boys are Hasan and Husain, according to the Qur'an's wordings, which also delicately used the word our selves for Ali, thereby pointing to his close proximity with the Prophet, and solving the question of succession once and for all. Verse of Mubahila فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ 1. Prophet Muhammad SAWW 2. Imam Ali AS 3. Fatima Al Zahra SA 4. Imam Hassan AS 5. Imam Hussain Ahl albayat are true followers of the foot step of the prophet to declare the victory and truth of the religion. No one else including wives and Companions have this status. Second Example: Verse of Purification إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا 1. Narrated Aisha: One day the Prophet (S) came out afternoon wearing a black cloak (upper garment or gown; long coat), then al-Hasan Ibn ‘Ali came and the Prophet accommodated him under the cloak, then al-Husayn came and entered the cloak, then Fatimah came and the Prophet entered her under the cloak, then ‘Ali came and the Prophet entered him to the cloak as well. Then the Prophet recited: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O’ People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a perfect purification (the last sentence of Verse 33:33)." Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet (S), 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61. 2- "The Tradition of Cloak”which is related to Safiyya who was another wife of the Prophet (S). Ja’far Ibn Abi Talib narrated: When the Messenger of Allah noticed that a blessing from Allah was to descent, he told Safiyya (one of his wives): "Call for me! Call for me!”Safiyya said: "Call who, O the Messenger of Allah?”He said: "Call for me my Ahlul-Bayt who are ‘Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn.”Thus we sent for them and they came to him. Then the Prophet (S) spread his cloak over them, and raised his hand (toward sky) saying: "O Allah! These are my family (Aalee), so bless Muhammad and the family (Aal) of Muhammad.”And Allah, to whom belong Might and Majesty, revealed: "Verily Allah intends to keep off from you every kind of uncleanness O’ People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt), and purify you a thorough purification (Qur’an, the last sentence of Verse 33:33)". References: • al-Mustadrak by al-Hakim, Chapter of "Understanding (the virtues) of Companions, v3, p148. The author then wrote: "This tradition is authentic (Sahih) based on the criteria of the two Shaikhs (al-Bukhari and Muslim)." 3-Another version of the "Tradition of Cloak”is written in Sahih al-Tirmidhi, which is narrated in the authority of Umar Ibn Abi Salama, the son of Umm Salama (another wife of Prophet), which is as follows: The verse "Verily Allah intends to ... (33:33)" was revealed to the Prophet (S) in the house of Umm Salama. Upon that, the Prophet gathered Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn, and covered them with a cloak, and he also covered ‘Ali who was behind him. Then the Prophet said: "O’ Allah! These are the Members of my House (Ahlul-Bayt). Keep them away from every impurity and purify them with a perfect purification.”Umm Salama (the wife of Prophet) asked: "Am I also included among them O Apostle of Allah?”the Prophet replied: "You remain in your position and you are toward a good ending." Reference: Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, pp 351,663 4. In the tradition of al-Hakim the wording the last question and answer is as follows: Umm Salama said: "O Prophet of Allah! Am I not one of the members of your family?”The Holy Prophet replied: "You have a good future but only these are the members of my family. O Lord! The members of my family are more deserving." Reference: al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p416 Also the wording reported by al-Suyuti and Ibn al-Athir is as follows: Umm Salama said to the Holy Prophet: "Am I also one of them?”He replied: "No.You have your own special position and your future is good." Reference: • Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v2, p289 • Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v5, p198 Thus confirming that the traditions narrated by the wives of the prophet indicate that Fatima, Ali, Hasan, and Hussain are ahl albayt of the prophet. Also it is confirmed that the wives are not covered under the scope of the verse of purification. Verse of Purification for Prophet and Ahl albayat إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا 1. Prophet Muhammad Saww 2. Imam Ali AS 3. Fatima Al Zahra SA 4. Imam Hassan AS 5. Imam Hussain AS Ahl albayat are true Followers of the prophet as per verse of Mubahila. They followed the foot step of the prophet to declare the victory and truth of the religion. They also share the verse of Purification to declare their purification ie the same level of purification as that of the prophet himself covered in the verse of purification. No one else including wives and companions share this status. Third Eevnt: Verse of Muwadah: قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَىٰ It has been widely reported by the Sunni commentators of the Holy Qur’an that: Ibn Abbas narrated: When the above verse (42:23) was revealed, the companions asked: "O’ the Messenger of Allah! Who are those near kin whose love Allah has made obligatory for us?”Upon that the Prophet (S) said: "‘Ali, Fatimah, and their two sons.”He (S) repeated this sentence thrice. References: 1. Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Part 27, pp 165-166 2. Tafsir al-Tha’labi, under the commentary of verse 42:23 of Qur’an 3. Tafsir al-Tabari, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, under verse 42:23 4. Tafsir al-Qurtubi, under commentary of verse 42:23 of Qur’an 5. Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, under commentary of verse 42:23 6. Tafsir al-Baidhawi, under the commentary of verse 42:23 of Qur’an 7. Tafsir al-Kalbi, under commentary of verse 42:23 of Qur’an 8. al-Madarik, in connection with verse 42:23 9. Dhakha’ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p25 10. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 11. al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p259 12. Shawahid al-Tanzeel, Hakim Hasakani, al-Hanafi, v2, p132 13. Many others such as Ibn Abi Hatam, al-Tabarani, etc. Then the Prophet (S) continued: "Verily Allah has dedicated my wage (of prophethood) to love of my Ahlul-Bayt, and I shall question you about it on the day of judgment." References: • Dhakha’ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p26 • al-Sirah, by al-Mala The Messenger of Allah (S) said: "I advice you to be kind to my Ahlul-Bayt for verily I will dispute you about them on the day of Judgment, and whoever I dispute him shall enter the Fire.”He (S) also said: "One who regards me by regarding my Ahlul-Bayt, he has taken a promise from Allah (to enter the Paradise)." References: • al-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa’d • al-Sirah, by al-Mala • al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p231 Furthermore, al-Kateeb and Ibn Hajar narrated on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik saying: The Prophet (S) said: "The title of the Book (Saheefah) of believer is love of ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib." References: • Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi • al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 9, section 2, p193 Thus for following the prophet we need to follow their true followers Ahl albayt kept pure by the verse of purification and they have been following the true footsteps of the prophet. The Prophet Declared to follow his Ahl albayat: The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said it at Arafat, in front of all the Muslims during his Farewell Sermon. . Imam Tirmidhi in his Sunan (Vol. 5, p. 662, no. 3786) records the following tradition: Jabir ibn `Abd Allah said: "I saw the Messenger of Allah - upon whom be God's peace and benedictions - in the course of his hajj pilgrimage on the day of `Arafah. The Prophet (S) was seated on his camel, alQaswa', and was delivering a sermon. I heard him say: 'O people, I am leaving among you that which if you hold on to you shall never go astray: the Book of Allah and my kindred, my household." Imam Tirmidhi states that the same tradition has been narrated by Abu Dharr, Abu Sa`id, Zayd ibn Arqam and Hudhayfah ibn Usayd. FIVE Companions have narrated it, and there is thus absolutely NO doubt about its authenticity. Mullah Ali al-Qari puts it nicely here: Holding firmly onto the Ahl al-Bayt (as in Hadith Thaqalayn) means loving them, defending their rights, acting by their narrations (of the Sunnah) and basing one’s religion upon their words. Mirqat al-Mafatih, Vol. 9, p. 3974 We all know who Mullah Ali al-Qari is of course! He is one of the highest ranking Sunni Imams ever! Shaykh al-Munawi states: The Holy Prophet (pbuh) made the Holy Qur’an and the Ahl al-Bayt his successors and instructed his Ummah to be kind to them both, to place their rights above their own and to hold onto them both in the religion. Fayd al-Qadeer, Vol. 3, p. 20 Shaykh Hasan al-Saqqaf writes: Holding firmly onto the Ahl al-Bayt (as in hadith Thaqalayn) means loving them, defending their rights, copying their manners, following their guidance and conduct, acting by their narrations (of the Sunnah), basing one’s religion upon their opinions, statements and jurisprudence and to prefer them above all others. Sahih Sharh al-Aqidat al-Tahawiyah, p. 653 Ibn al-Athir said: The two (i.e. Qur’an and Ahl al-Bayt) have been called Thaqalayn (i.e. the Two Weighty Things) because holding firmly onto them and acting by their instructions is a heavy (responsibility), and it is said that everything that is weighty is precious. The two have been called Thaqalayn in recognition of their authority and importance. Al-Nihayah fi Gharib al-Hadith, Vol. 1, p. 216 Al-Nawawi said: The scholars said: The two have been called Thaqalayn to show their ealtedness and the greatness of their importance. It has also been said that the word is used to show the heaviness of the (responsibility to) act by their instructions. Sharh Sahih al-Muslim, Vol. 15, p. 180 Al-Zamakhshari states: Jinn and man have been called the Two Weighty Things (i.e. Thaqalaan, as in Qur’an 55:31) because both of them dwell on the earth, and are actually the two most important beings on it. The Qur’an and the itrah have been likened to them because the good health and survival of the religion is dependent upon them, just as the survival of the earth is dependent upon the existence of jinn and man on it. Al-Faiq fi Gharib al-Hadith, Vol. 1, p. 150, Dar al-Kutub al-Alamiyah, Beirut http://www.shiachat.com/forum/topic/234958370-hadith-thaqalayn-genuine-sunni-view/ Narrated Umm Salama: The Messenger of Allah said: "‘Ali is with Qur’an, and Qur’an is with ‘Ali. They shall not separate from each other till they both return to me by the Pool (of Paradise)." References: • al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p124 on the authority of Umm Salama • al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 9, section 2, pp 191,194 • al-Awsat, by al-Tabarani; also in al-Saghir • Tarikh al-Khulafaa, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p173 The above tradition gives evidence to the fact that Imam ‘Ali and Qur’an are non-separable. If we accept the "Qur’an and Sunnah” version to be authentic, then one can conclude that the one who carries the Sunnah of Prophet is Imam ‘Ali since he is the one who has been put beside Qur’an. "Tradition of the Ship”in which the Prophet (S) stated: "Behold! My Ahlul-Bayt are like the Ark of Noah. Whoever embarked in it was SAVED, and whoever turned away from it was PERISHED." إنَّما مثلُ أهلُ بيتي كَمَثل سَفينَةُ نوح مَنْ رَكَبها نَجى و مَنْ تَخَلَّفَ عنها هَلكْ. References: 1. al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p343, v3, pp 150-151 on the authority of Abu Dharr. al-Hakim said this tradition is authentic (Sahih). 2. Fadha’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p786 3. Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, under the commentary of verse 42:23, Part 27, p167 4. al-Bazzar, on the authority of Ibn Abbas and Ibn Zubair with the wording "drowned”instead of "perished". 5. al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p234 under Verse 8:33. Also in section 2, p282. He said this Hadith has been transmitted via numerous authorities. 6. Tarikh al-Khulafaa and Jami’ al-Saghir, by al-Suyuti 7. al-Kabir, by al-Tabarani, v3, pp 37,38 8. al-Saghir, by al-Tabarani, v2, p22 9. Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu’aym, v4, p306 10. al-Kuna wal Asmaa, by al-Dulabi, v1, p76 11. Yanabi al-Mawaddah, by al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, pp 30,370 12. Is’af al-Raghibeen, by al-Saban The Prophet (S) said about Ahlul-Bayt: "Do not be ahead of them for you will perish, do not turn away from them for you will perish, and do not try to teach them since they know more than you do!" لا تتقدموهم فتهلكوا ولا تتخلفوا عنهم فتهلكوا ولا تعلموهم فإنهم أعلم منكم. References: 1. al-Durr al-Manthoor, by al-Suyuti, v2, p60 2. al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, p230, quoted from al-Tabarani, also in section 2, p342 3. Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir, v3, p137 4. Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, by al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, p41, and P335 5. Kanz al-Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v1, p168 6. Majma’ al-Zawa’id, by al-Haythami, v9, p163 7. Aqabat al-Anwar, v1, p184 8. A’alam al-Wara, pp 132-133 9. Tadhkirat al-Khawas al-Ummah, Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, pp 28-33 10. al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p273 Here is another one: The Messenger of Allah (S) said: "My Ahlul-Bayt are like the Gate of Repentance of the Children of Israel; whoever entered therein was forgiven." إنما مثل أهل بيتي فيكم مثل باب حطة في بنى إسرائيل من دخله غفر References: • Majma’ al-Zawa’id, by al-Haythami, v9, p168 • al-Awsat, by al-Tabarani, Tradition #18 • Arba’in, by al-Nabahani, p216 • al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, section 1, pp 230,234 Conclusion: In the light of the above verses and the mentioned hadith thaqlayn leaves no room for the believers that the following the prophet means to follow Quran and his Ahl albayat (pure progeny of the prophet saww),
  24. MohammadAli1993

    Is the Qur'an from GOD?

    SalamAlaykum Dear Brothers and Sister, This question might have been asked a several times on SC but what evidence do we have that the Qur'an has no ERRORS and that it is from GOD What is the biggest EVIDENCE that makes you say "YES THE QURAN IS WITHOUT A DOUBT FROM Allah AND THERE NO MISTAKES" As we also are aware, there are VARIANTS of the QURAN such as HAFS and WARSH. If the QURAN is the UNALTERED Word from the CREATOR then why are there VARIANTS The VARIANTS arent the main focus of this THREAD but the EVIDENCE for it being from the CREATOR and that it has no ERRORS PLEASE DO NOT BRING VERSES WHICH MENTION IT IS FROM Allah OR THAT IT DOESNT CONTAIN ERRORS AS THAT IS A CIRCULAR ARGUMENT Peace
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