Qa'im

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  1. I read the book, needless to say I don't think the author understood the depth of Islamic monotheism. Many modernist Muslims wrongfully believe that we have a Protestant God, whom everyone can know directly without any institution of divine representation. They'll brag about how their Islam has "no clergy", and that after the Seal of Prophets, the world is more or less naturalistic. The reality is, shirk is not limited to believing in two gods - few people do, and even the jahili Arabs believed in one ultimate Creator. Jews for example are very "monotheistic", but in 9:31 in the Quran, they were described as taking their rabbis as gods besides Allah. This isn't because they prostrated to their rabbis, this was because (according to all tafasir, Sunni and Shia) they obeyed their rabbis at the expense of obeying God and His Messenger. Everyone must follow a guide and a leader, and that guide then leads you either to Allah or to Satan. Following Satan is shirk, period, even if it is done by a monotheist. So wilaya is not just God's oneness, which even deists accept, but it's recognizing God's authority and aligning with it. True tawhid on the day of `Ashura' was not to do tawaf around the Ka`ba, it was to recognize Husayn's role in this world as God's spokesman, know his goodness and his justice in God's name, and to stick with him by any means necessary to achieve God's deliverance. True monotheism forces one to act in obedience to God, who appointed vicegerents (khulafa') to represent Him. In our theology, God's essence is a mystery. He cannot be seen by the eyes or grasped by the imaginations. His essence is completely veiled from us, and so the only way to know Him is through His ayat. Through this universe, we know there is a cosmological and ontological Creator. But to truly know God more intimately, one must know the hujja. The hujja is a representation of God's goodness, justice, mercy, and leadership. His likes are God's likes, and his dislikes are God's dislikes. Ma`rifa of God is only possible through ma`rifa him. No, he does not replace God, or embody God; he is not an incarnation of God. He is however the highest sign of God in the creation. The hujja is the theophany (mathhar) through whom God is known and obeyed. God connected to us through the creation - the natural signs, the Arabic Quran, the salat - but that highest connection that holistically represents Him is the hujja. The hadiths even say that associating partners with the Imam (making people equal or greater than the hujja of the time) is a form of shirk. Even Sunnis and non-Muslims have historically connected to God through sanctified people. Sufis have their qutbs and saints after the Prophet, whose presence reminded people of their duties toward God. The word khalifa itself implies divine representation and vicegerency, especially when the khulafa' were regarded as khalifat rasulAllah and khalifat Allah. So ultimately it's incorrect to pin it all on the Safavids or the Arabs - just read al-Kafi, Basa'ir al-Darajat, Tafsir al-Qummi, Tafsir al-`Ayashi, Tafsir Furat al-Kufi, and other early works, which state these concepts very plainly yet remain very consistent with Quranic principles. The internalism vs. externalism discussion is interesting in the book (he attributes the "ghuluw" and chauvinism of Safavid Iran to non-Persian "external" scholars), but this dichotomy does not mean that non-externalists have the "correct religion" while the Safavids (he attacks Majlisi) got it wrong. If anything, the Buyids played a big role in demystifying and grounding Shiism into fiqh and mantiq in an effort to court the Zaydis and Sunnis of Iran. The Safavids swung the pendulum in the other direction, and modern Iran went back the other way.
  2. 72 - وباسناده إلى الربيع بن مسلم قال: سمعت أبا الحسن عليه السلام وسئل عن الصمد فقال: الصمد الذي لا جوف له. And by its isnad to ar-Rabee` b. Muslim. He said: I heard Abu'l Hasan عليه السلام being asked about the Self-Subsisting. So he said: The Self-Subsisting is He who has no openings. 73 - وباسناده إلى محمد بن مسلم عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: إن اليهود سألوا رسول الله فقالوا: انسب لنا ربك فلبث ثلاثا لا يجيبهم، ثم نزلت هذه السورة إلى آخرها، فقلت: ما الصمد؟فقال: الذي ليس بمجوف. And by its isnad to Muhammad b. Muslim from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام. He said: The Jews asked the Messenger of Allah and said: Describe the attribution of your Lord to us. So he remained three days, then this entire Surah was revealed. So I said [to Abu `Abdillah]: What is the Self-Subsisting? So he said: He who is not hollow. 74 - أبى رضي الله عنه قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى عن ابن فضال عن الحلبي وزرارة عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلم قال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى أحد صمد ليس له جوف، وانما الروح خلق من خلقه نصر وتأييد وقوة يجعله الله في قلوب الرسل والمؤمنين. My father رضي الله عنه said: Sa`d b. `Abdulah narrated to us. He said: Ahmad b. Muhammad b. `Isa narrated to us from Ibn Faddal from al-Halabi and Zurara from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام. He said: Allah تبارك وتعالى is One, Self-Subsisting, and has no openings. The Spirit is a creation from His creations. It is a support, aid, and strength that Allah puts into the hearts of messengers and believers. 75 - وباسناده إلى هارون بن عبد الملك عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام أنه قال: في حديث طويل: والله نور لا ظلام فيه وصمد لا مدخل فيه. By its isnad to Harun b. `Abd al-Malik from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام. He said: In a long hadith: Allah is a light in which there is no darkness, and He is a foundation in which there is no entrance.
  3. 71 - قال وهب بن وهب القرشي سمعت الصادق عليه السلام يقول: قدم وفد من أهل فلسطين على الباقر عليه السلام فسئلوه عن مسائل فأجابهم، ثم سئلوه عن الصمد؟فقال: تفسيره فيه الصمد خمسة أحرف، فالألف دليل على انيته، وهو قوله عز وجل: " شهد الله انه لا إله إلا هو " وذلك تنبيه وإشارة إلى الغايب عن درك الحواس، واللام دليل على إلهيته بأنه هو الله، والألف واللام مدغمان لا يظهران على اللسان، ولا يقعان في السمع، ويظهران في الكتابة ودليلان على أن إلهيته لطيفة خافية لا يدرك بالحواس، ولا يقع في لسان واصف، ولا اذن سامع، لان تفسير الاله هو الذي اله الخلق عن درك ماهيته وكيفيته بحس أو بوهم، لابل هو مبدع الأوهام وخالق الحواس، وانما يظهر ذلك عند الكتابة، فهو دليل على أن الله سبحانه أظهر ربوبيته في ابداع الخلق وتركيب أرواحهم اللطيفة في أجسادهم الكثيفة، فإذا نظر عبد إلى نفسه لم ير روحه، كما أن لام الصمد لاتبين ولا تدخل في حاسة من الحواس الخمس، فإذا نظر إلى الكتابة ظهر له ما خفى ولطف، فمتى تفكر العبد في ماهية الباري وكيفيته اله فيه وتحير ولم تحط فكرته بشئ يتصور له، لأنه عز وجل خالق الصور، فإذا نظر إلى خلقه ثبت له انه عز وجل خالقهم ومركب أرواحهم في أجسادهم، واما الصاد فدليل على أنه عز وجل صادق وقوله صدق وكلامه صدق; ودعا عباده إلى اتباع الصدق بالصدق ووعد بالصدق دار الصدق، واما الميم فدليل على ملكه وانه الملك الحق لم يزل ولا يزال ولا يزول ملكه; واما الدال فدليل على دوام ملكه وانه عز وجل دائم تعالى عن الكون و الزوال، بل هو الله عز وجل مكون الكائنات الذي كان بتكوينه كل كائن. ثم قال عليه السلام: لو وجدت لعلمي الذي اتاني الله عز وجل حملة لنشرت التوحيد والدين والاسلام والشرايع من الصمد، وكيف بي بذلك ولم يجد جدي أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام حملة لعلمه حتى كان يتنفس الصعداء (10) ويقول على المنبر: سلوني قبل ان تفقدوني، فان بين الجوانح منى علما جما، هاه هاه، لا أجد من يحمله، الا وانى عليكم من الله الحجة البالغة " فلا تتولوا قوما غضب الله عليهم قد يئسوا من الآخرة كما يئس الكفار من أصحاب القبور " ثم قال الباقر عليه السلام: الحمد لله الذي من علينا ووفقنا لعبادته الاحد الصمد الذي لم يلد ولم يولد ولم يكن له كفوا أحد، وجنبنا عبادة الأوثان حمدا سرمدا وشكرا واصبا. Wahab b. Wahab al-Qarshi said: I heard as-Sadiq عليه السلام say: A delegation from the people of Palestine came to al-Baqir عليه السلام, and they asked him questions and he answered them. Then, they asked him about the [meaning of] Self-Subsisting. So he said: Self-Subsisting (as-Samad) has five letters. The alif is an indicator to His subtlety, and that is His عز وجل saying: "Allah bears witness that there is no god except He" (3:18), and that is an indicator to He who is hidden from the comprehension of the senses. The lam is an indicator to His divinity, that He is Allah. The alif and the lam [in the word as-Samad] are both subtle and do not appear upon the tongue, nor do they strike the hearing, but they appear in the text as an indicator that His divinity is subtle and hidden, and is not comprehended by the senses, nor can it be described by the tongue, nor can it be heard by the ears. The meaning of al-ilah is that His essence and modality is above the comprehension, senses, and imagination of the creation. Rather, He is the Originator of the imagination and the Creator of the senses, and that becomes clear in the text. This indicates that Allah سبحانه made His lordship apparent through His origination of the creation, and instilling their benign souls into their rigid bodies. If a worshiper were to look into himself, he would not see his soul, just as the lam in as-Samad is unclear and unattainable to the five senses. But once he looks at the text, that which was hidden and subtle becomes apparent. Whenever a worshiper contemplates over the pure essence and His modality, he becomes perplexed, and he is unable of defining or giving a form to Him in his thoughts; because He عز وجل is the Creator of forms. So if he looks to His creation, it will become clear to him that He عز وجل is its Creator and the one who instilled the souls into the bodies. As for the sod, it is an indicator that He عز وجل is truthful (sadiq) - His speech is true, and His words are true. He called His servants to following the truth with truth, and He truthfully promised the Abode of Truth. As for the meem, it is an indicator to His kingdom (mulk), and that He is the True King that does not cease nor disappear, and His kingdom will never cease. As for the daal, it is an indicator to the longevity of His kingdom (dawam mulkihi), and that He is eternally (da'im) above the universe and vulnerability. Yea, He is Allah عز وجل, who, with His ability, created the every being. Then he عليه السلام: said: If you were to look to my knowledge, which Allah عز وجل has given me to carry, you would have spread monotheism, the religion of Islam, and the laws from the Self-Subsisting. Let alone my grandfather Amir al-Mu'mineen عليه السلام, who carried his knowledge until he would breathe heavily (gasping for air). He would say upon the pulpit: Ask me before you lose me. I am surrounded by delinquents, and I cannot find anyone to bear my knowledge. Surely, I am a speaking Proof from Allah upon you. "Do not take a people whom Allah is angry with as authorities. They have despaired of the Hereafter just as the disbelievers have despaired the inhabitants of the graves." (60:13). Then al-Baqir عليه السلام said: Praise be to Allah who blessed us and supported us for His servants. The One, the Self-Subsisting, He who does not beget, nor is He begotten, nor is there anything like unto Him. He averted us from the worship of idols. Eternal praises and thanks to Him.
  4. 62 - في كتاب التوحيد باسناده إلى محمد بن مسلم عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام أنه قال: من صفة القديم انه واحد أحد صمد أحدى المعنى ليس بمعاني كثيرة مختلفة. In Kitab at-Tawheed: By its isnad to Muhammad b. Muslim from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام. He said: From the primordial characteristics is that He is One, Alone, Self-Subsisting, and one in meaning, not many and diverse in meaning. 63 - في نهج البلاغة الاحد لا بتأويل عدد. In Nahj al-Balagha: "The One" and not in a numerical sense. 64 - في كتاب الاحتجاج للطبرسي (ره) وروى أبو هاشم داود بن القاسم الجعفري قال: قلت لأبي جعفر الثاني عليه السلام: " قل هو الله أحد " ما معنى الاحد؟قال: المجمع عليه بالوحدانية. اما سمعته يقول: " ولئن سألتهم من خلق السماوات والأرض وسخر الشمس والقمر ليقولن الله " بعد ذلك له شريك وصاحبة؟ In Kitab al-Ihtijaj of al-Tabrisi: And Abu Hisham Dawud b. al-Qasim al-Ja`fari said: I said to Abu Ja`far the Second عليه السلام: "Say: He is Allah, the One" (112:1) What is the meaning of "the One"? He said: The universal meaning of oneness. Have you not heard Him say: "And if you ask them who created the heavens and the Earth, and subjected the Sun and the Moon, they will say, 'Allah'." (29:61) After that, would He have a partner or a [female] companion? 66 - في أصول الكافي علي بن محمد ومحمد بن الحسن عن سهل بن زياد عن محمد بن الوليد ولقبه شباب الصيرفي عن داود بن القاسم الجعفري قال: قلت لأبي جعفر الثاني عليه السلام ما الصمد؟قال: السيد المصمود إليه (7) في القليل والكثير. In Usul al-Kafi: `Ali b. Muhammad and Muhammad b. al-Hasan from Sahl b. Ziyad from Muhammad b. al-Waleed and his cognomen is Shibab as-Sayrafi from Dawud b. al-Qasim al-Ja`fari. He said: I said to Abu Ja`far the Second عليه السلام: What is "the Self-Subsisting"? He said: The Master upon which everything relies, in little and in much. 67 - عدة من أصحابنا عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله عن محمد بن عيسى عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن عن الحسن بن السرى عن جابر بن يزيد الجعفي قال: سألت أبا جعفر عليه السلام عن شئ من التوحيد؟فقال: ان الله تبارك وتعالى أسماؤه التي يدعى بها، وتعالى في علو كنهه، واحد توحد بالتوحيد في توحده (8) ثم اجراه على خلقه فهو واحد صمد قدوس، يعبده كل شئ ويصمد إليه كل شئ، ووسع كل شئ علما فهذا هو المعنى الصحيح (9) في تأويل الصمد لا ما ذهب إليه المشبهة ولو كان تأويل الصمد في صفة الله عز وجل المصمت لكان مخالفا لقوله عز وجل: " ليس كمثله شئ " لان ذلك من صفة الأجسام المصمتة التي لا أجواف لها، تعالى الله عن ذلك علوا كبيرا، فاما ما جاء في الاخبار من ذلك فالعالم عليه السلام أعلم بما قال " انتهى ". Several of our companions from Ahmad b. Abu `Abdillah from Muhammad b. `Isa from Yunus b. `Abd ar-Rahman from al-Hasan b. as-Sira from Jabir b. Yazeed al-Ju`fi. He said: I asked Abu Ja`far عليه السلام something about monotheism, so he said: Allah تبارك وتعالى, who is called to by His names, is exalted in His being. He is One, united solitarily in His oneness. He then made His creatures and thus He is One, Self-Subsisting and Holy. He is worshiped by all things, and all things depend on Him. His knowledge expands over all things. This is the correct meaning of the Self-Subsisting. He cannot be likened to anything. And if the meaning of the Self-Subsisting as an attribute of Allah عز وجل is that He is solid, it would contradict His عز وجل saying: "There is nothing like unto Him." (42:11), because that is an attribute of solid, unopened bodies. Allah is greatly above that. 68 - في كتاب التوحيد قال الباقر عليه السلام: حدثني أبي زين العابدين عن أبيه الحسين بن علي عليهم السلام أنه قال الصمد الذي لا جوف له، والصمد الذي لا ينام، والصمد الذي لم يزل ولا يزال. In Kitab at-Tawheed: Al-Baqir عليه السلام said: My father Zayn al-`Abideen narrated to me from his father al-Husayn b. `Ali عليهم السلام that: The Self-Subsisting is He who has no openings, and the Self-Subsisting is He who does not sleep, and the Self-Subsisting is He who does not cease nor disappear. قال الباقر عليه السلام: كان محمد بن الحنفية (رضي الله عنه) قال: الصمد القائم بنفسه الغنى عن غيره، وقال غيره: الصمد المتعالى عن الكون والفساد، والصمد الذي لا يوصف بالتغاير. قال الباقر عليه السلام: الصمد السيد المطاع الذي ليس فوقه آمر وناه. قال: وسئل علي بن الحسين زين العابدين عليهما السلام عن الصمد؟فقال: الصمد الذي لا شريك له، ولا يؤده حفظ شئ ولا يعزب عنه شئ. Al-Baqir عليه السلام said: Muhammad b. al-Hanifiyya رضي الله عنه said: The Self-Subsisting is He who is Self-Existent and needless of others. And he also said: The Self-Subsisting is He who is higher than the universe and corruption, and the Self-Subsisting is He who is not described with change. Al-Baqir عليه السلام said: The Self-Subsisting is the Obeyed Master, who does not have one who commands or prohibits above Him. And he aid: `Ali b. al-Husayn Zayn al-`Abideen عليهما السلام was aksed about the Self-Subsisting. So he said: The Self-Subsisting is He who does not have a partner, no one aids Him in preserving anything, and nothing escapes from Him. 69 - قال وهب بن وهب القرشي: قال زين العابدين عليه السلام: الصمد الذي إذا أراد شيئا قال له كن فيكون، والصمد الذي أبدع الأشياء فخلقها اضدادا واشكالا وأزواجا وتفرد بالوحدة بلا ضد ولا شكل ولا مثل ولا ند. Wajab b. Wahab al-Qarshi said: Zayn al-`Abideen عليه السلام said: The Self-Subsisting is He who, if He wants anything, He says to it "Be! And it is." (2:117) The Self-Subsisting is He who originated the things, so He created them into opposites, forms, and pairs. He is unique in oneness, and has no opposite, nor a form, nor an example, nor a counterpart. - قال وهب بن وهب القرشي: وحدثني الصادق جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه الباقر عن آبائه عليهم السلام ان أهل البصرة كتبوا إلى الحسين بن علي عليه السلام يسئلونه عن الصمد فكتب إليهم: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم اما بعد فلا تخوضوا في القرآن و لا تجادلوا فيه ولا تتكلموا فيه بغير علم فقد سمعت جدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يقول: من قال في القرآن بغير علم فليتبوء مقعده من النار، وان الله سبحانه قد فسر الصمد فقال: الله أحد الله الصمد، ثم فسره فقال: " لم يلد ولم يولد ولم يكن له كفوا أحد " وستسمع تمام هذا الخبر عند قوله " لم يلد " الخ إن شاء الله تعالى. Wahab b. Wahab al-Qarshi said: as-Sadiq Ja`far b. Muhammad narrated to me from his father al-Baqir from his forefathers عليهم السلام that the people of Basra wrote to al-Husayn b. `Ali عليه السلام asking him about [the meaning of] the Self-Subsisting, so he wrote to them: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Do not fight over [the interpretation of] the Qur'an, and do not debate over it, and do not talk about it without knowledge, for I have heard my grandfather the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله say: Whomever speaks about the Qur'an without knowledge shall take his seat in the Fire. Allah سبحانه explained [the meaning of] the Self-Subsisting: "He does not beget, nor was He begotten, and there is nothing like unto Him." (112:3-4) You will understand this meaning at His saying: "He does not beget" by Allah's تعالى permission.
  5. 61 - في أصول الكافي علي بن إبراهيم عن المختار بن محمد المختار الهمداني ومحمد بن الحسن عن عبد الله الحسن العلوي جميعا عن الفتح بن يزيد الجرجاني عن أبي الحسن عليه السلام قال: سمعته يقول: وهو اللطيف الخبير السميع البصير الواحد الاحد الصمد لم يلد ولم يولد ولم يكن له كفوا أحد، لو كان كما يقول المشبهة لم يعرف الخالق من المخلوق ولا المنشئ من المنشأ لكنه المنشئ فرق بين من جسمه وصوره وانشأه إذ كان لا يشبهه شئ ولا يشبه هو شيئا، قلت: أجل جعلني الله فداك لكنك قلت: الاحد الصمد، وقلت: لا يشبهه شئ والله واحد والانسان واحد، أليس قد تشابهت الوحدانية؟قال: يا فتح أحلت (6) ثبتك الله انما التشبيه في المعاني، فاما في الأسماء فهي واحدة وهي دلالة على المسمى، وذلك أن الانسان وان قيل واحد فإنه يخبر انه جثة واحدة وليس باثنين، والانسان نفسه ليس بواحد لان أعضاءه مختلفة وألوانه مختلفة ومن ألوانه مختلفة غير واحد، و هو أجزاء مجزاة ليست بسواء، دمه غير لحمه ولحمه غير دمه، وعصبه غير عروقه و شعره غير بشره وسواده غير بياضه، وكذلك ساير جميع الخلق، فالانسان واحد في الاسم ولا واحد في المعنى، والله جل جلاله هو واحد لا واحد غيره لا اختلاف فيه و لا تفاوت ولا زيادة ولا نقصان، فاما الانسان المخلوق المصنوع المؤلف من اجزاء مختلفة وجواهر شتى غير أنه بالاجتماع شئ واحد، قلت: جعلت فداك فرجت عنى فرج الله عنك، والحديث طويل أخذنا منه موضع الحاجة. In Usul al-Kafi: `Ali b. Ibrahim from al-Mukhtar b. Muhammad al-Mukhtar al-Hamadani and Muhammad b. al-Hasan from `Abdillah al-Hasan al-`Alawi together from al-Fat`h b. Yazeed al-Jarjani from Abu'l Hasan عليه السلام. He said: I heard him say: He is the Subtle, the Aware, the Hearing, the Seeing, the One, the Only, the Self-Subsisting, He does not beget, nor was He begotten, nor is there anything like unto Him. If He were as those who liken Him [to His creation], the Creator would not be distinguishable from the creation, nor the Maker from the made. Rather, He is the Maker who differentiated between bodies and forms, and no thing is likened to Him. I said: May Allah make me your sacrifice, you said: "The Only, the Self-Subsisting", and you said: "No thing is likened to Him", but Allah is One, and a human is one - are they not likened to one another in their oneness? He said: O Fat`h, may Allah make you steadfast. Likening (tashbeeh) is in meaning, but as for names, "one" is an indicator to that which is named. If a human is said to be one, it means that he is one body and not two, but a human is not just one, because his organs are different and his colours are different. He whose colours are different cannot be one [united essence]. Rather, he is comprised of different components; his blood is not his flesh, and his flesh is not his blood, his nerves are not his veins, his hair is not his skin, and his blackness is not his whiteness. And that is the way of all created things. A human is one in name but he is not one in meaning, while Allah جل جلاله is One, and no one is One except Him. He has not differentiation, nor variance, nor additions, nor increases, nor decreases. As for the created and made human, he is comprised of different parts and qualities, and he is not one solitary thing. I said: May I be your sacrifice, you have relieved me. May Allah relieve you. And the hadith is long, and we have taken the relevant portion.
  6. 60 - وباسناده إلى المقدام بن شريح بن هاني عن أبيه قال: إن أعرابيا قام يوم الجمل إلى أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين أتقول: ان الله واحد؟قال: فحمل الناس عليه وقالوا: يا أعرابي أما ترى ما فيه أمير المؤمنين من تقسم القلب؟فقال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: دعوه فان الذي يريده الاعرابي هو الذي نريده، من القوم، ثم قال: يا أعرابي: ان القول في أن الله واحد على أربعة أقسام فوجهان منها لا يجوزان على الله عز وجل، ووجهان يثبتان فيه، فاما اللذان لا يجوزان عليه فقول القائل واحد يقصد به باب الاعداد، فهذا لا يجوز لان مالا ثاني له لا يدخل في باب الاعداد، ألا ترى انه كفر من قال: ثالث ثلاثة، وقول القائل هو واحد من الناس يريد به النوع من الجنس فهذا ما لا يجوز عليه لأنه تشبيه وجل ربنا عن ذلك وتعالى، واما الوجهان اللذان يثبتان فيه فقول القائل هو واحد ليس له في الأشياء شبيه كذلك ربنا، و قول القائل انه ربنا عز وجل إحدى المعنى يعنى به انه لا ينقسم في وجود ولا عقل ولا وهم كذلك ربنا عز وجل. By its isnad to al-Muqdam b. Shareeh b. Hani from his father. He said: A bedouin came to Amir al-Mu'mineen عليه السلام on the day of [the Battle of] Jamal and said: O Amir al-Mu'mineen, do you say that Allah is One? So the people rushed to him and said: O bedouin, do you not see that Amir al-Mu'mineen is busy? So Amir al-Mu'mineen عليه السلام said: Bring him, for what the bedouin wants is what we want from these people (the enemy). Then, he said: O bedouin, the saying that 'Allah is One' can be understood in four different perspectives - two of which are impossible for Allah عز وجل, and two are well-established. As for the two that are impossible for Him: (1) The saying that 'one' is understood through numbering, and this is impossible because He has no second, and He cannot be brought into a numerical system. Do you not see that those who say 'three, trinity' have disbelieved? (2) The saying that He is one of the people, meaning that He is from a species and genus, and this is impossible for Him, for that is likening Him [to His creation], and our Lord is too majestic and too high for that. As for the two well-established perspectives: (1) The saying that He is One, and has no similarity to the things; that is our Lord. (2) The saying that our Lord عز وجل is One in the sense that He cannot be divided in reality, nor in the intellect, nor in the imagination; that is our Lord عز وجل.
  7. 56 - وفيه وقال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: الله معناه المعبود الذي يأله فيه الخلق ويؤله إليه، والله هو المستور عن درك الابصار والمحجوب عن الأوهام والخطرات. And Amir al-Mu'mineen عليه السلام said: "Allah" means that which is worshiped, and taken as a deity by the creation. Allah is shrouded from the comprehension of the sights and veiled from imagination and thoughts. 57 - قال الباقر عليه السلام: معناه المعبود الذي اله الخلق عن درك مائيته والإحاطة بكيفيته، ويقول العرب: اله الرجل إذا تحير في الشئ فلم يحط به علما، ووله: إذا فزع إلى شئ مما يحذره ويخافه، فالإله هو المستور عن حواس الخلق. And al-Baqir عليه السلام said: Its meaning is that which is worshiped, that which the creation takes as a God that they cannot comprehend and is beyond modality. And the Arabs say: The God of the man who becomes perplexed by a thing and is not able to comprehend it. And: If he panics at a thing that cautions him and scares him, then his God is He who is shrouded from the senses of the people. 58 - وفيه كلام للرضا عليه السلام في التوحيد وفيه أحد لا بتأويل عدد. And therein there are words from ar-Rida عليه السلام regarding monotheism, and that "the One" (112:1) is not a reference to numbering. 59 - قال الباقر عليه السلام: الاحد الفرد المتفرد والاحد والواحد بمعنى واحد، وهو المتفرد الذي لا نظير له، والتوحيد الاقرار بالوحدة وهو الانفراد، والواحد المتباين الذي لا ينبعث من شئ، ولا يتحد بشئ، ومن ثم قالوا: إن بناء العدد من الواحد وليس الواحد من العدد، لان العدد لا يقع على الواحد بل يقع على الاثنين، فمعنى قوله: " الله أحد " أي المعبود الذي يأله الخلق عن ادراكه والإحاطة بكيفيته، فرد بالإلهية متعال عن صفات خلقه. Al-Baqir عليه السلام said: The One, the Only, the Unique, the One in the meaning of one. He is the Unique that has no counterpart. Monotheism is the declaration of His oneness, which is uniqueness. The One, the Dissimilar, who is not emitted from anything, nor is He united with anything. Numbering is built upon the one, but the one is not from numbering, because numbering is not ascribed to the one, rather it is ascribed to the two. So the meaning of His saying: "Allah, the One" means that which is worshiped, which the creation takes as a God that they cannot comprehend and is beyond modality. He is alone in godhood, and is above the characteristics of His creation.
  8. Dramatic foreshadowing of their next destination.
  9. May Allah guide her and guide us all. "You did not know the Book, nor the faith, but We made it a light, guiding thereby whom We please of Our servants." (42:52)
  10. 54 - في عيون الأخبار في باب العلل التي ذكر الفضل بن شاذان في آخرها انه سمعها من الرضا عليه السلام مرة بعد مرة وشيئا بعد شئ، قال قائل: فلم وجب عليهم الاقرار والمعرفة بان الله واحد أحد؟قيل: لعلل، منها انه لو لم يجب عليهم الاقرار والمعرفة لجاز أن يتوهموا مدبرين أو أكثر من ذلك، وإذا جاز ذلك لم يهتدوا إلى الصانع لهم من غيره، لان كل انسان منهم لا يدرى لعله انما يعبد غير الذي خلقه، و يطيع غير الذي أمره، فلا يكون على حقيقة من صانعهم وخالقهم، ولا يثبت عندهم أمر آمر ولا نهى ناه إذا لا يعرف الامر بعينه ولا الناهي من غيره. ومنها انه لو جاز أن يكون اثنين لم يكن أحد الشريكين أولى بان يعبد ويطاع من الاخر، وفى إجازة ان يطاع ذلك الشريك إجازة ان لا يطاع الله، وفى إجازة ان لا يطاع الله عز وجل كفر بالله وبجميع كتبه ورسله، واثبات كل باطل، وترك كل حق وتحليل كل حرام وتحريم كل حلال، والدخول في كل معصية والخروج من كل طاعة. وإباحة كل فساد وابطال كل حق. ومنها انه لو جاز أن يكون أكثر من واحد لجاز لإبليس ان يدعى انه ذلك الاخر حتى يضاد الله تعالى في جميع حكمه، ويصرف العباد إلى نفسه، فيكون في ذلك أعظم الكفر وأشد النفاق. In `Uyun al-Akhbar: In the chapter on the reasons, in which at the end, al-Fadl b. Shadhan mentions that he heard ar-Rida عليه السلام repeat it again and again and say something after it. He said: So he said: Then why was it made obligatory for them to declare and recognize that Allah is One and Only? He said: For reasons, from which is that if He did not make their declaration and recognition obligatory, they may imagine that there were two Planners (gods) or more. Then, they would not be guided to the [true] Creator amidst the others, for every person would not be able to know who created them so that they may worship Him, or who ordered them so that they may obey Him. They would not know who in reality made them and created them, nor would they be able to confirm who commanded or admonished them, since they would not be able to recognize the One who issues orders and admonishes against others. Another reason is that were it possible for there to be two [gods], then neither partner would be more deserving than the other to be worshiped and obeyed. The permission to obey one of the partners is a permission to disobey Allah. The permission to not obey Allah عز وجل كفر would imply disbelief in Allah and all of His Books and messengers, guaranteeing what is wrong, abandoning every responsibility, allowing all that is forbidden, forbidding all that is allowed, enjoining in every sin, abandoning all forms of obedience, allowing all corruption and abolishing every responsibility. Another reason is that if it were possible for there to be more than one [god], then it would allow Iblees to declare himself to be another [god], so that he may oppose Allah تعالى in all of His decrees, and invite the worshipers to himself. This would result in the greatest disbelief and severest hypocrisy. 55 - في كتاب التوحيد باسناده إلى أبى البختري وهب بن وهب عن أبي عبد الله الصادق جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه محمد بن علي الباقر عليه السلام في قول الله تبارك وتعالى: " قل هو الله أحد " قال: قل أي أظهر ما أوحينا إليك ونبأناك بتأليف الحروف التي قرأناها لك ليهتدى به من القى السمع وهو شهيد، و " هو " اسم مكنى ومشار إلى غائب فالهاء تنبيه عن معنى ثابت، والواو إشارة إلى الغايب عن الحواس، كما أن قولك " هذا " إشارة إلى الشاهد عند الحواس، وذلك أن الكفار نبهوا عن آلهتهم بحرف إشارة الشاهد المدرك، فقالوا: هذه آلهتنا المحسوسة المدركة بالابصار، فأشر أنت يا محمد إلى الهك الذي تدعو إليه حتى نراه وندركه ولا نأله فيه. فأنزل الله تبارك وتعالى " قل هو الله أحد " فالهاء تثبيت للثابت، والواو إشارة إلى الغايب عن درك الابصار، ولمس الحواس; وانه تعالى عن ذلك بل هو مدرك الابصار ومبدع الحواس In Kitab at-Tawheed: By its isnad to Abu'l Bakhtari Wahab b. Wahab from Abu `Abdillah as-Sadiq Ja`far b. Muhammad from his father Muhammad b. `Ali al-Baqir عليه السلام, regarding the saying of Allah تبارك وتعالى "Say: He is Allah, the One." (112:1) He said: "Say" means make apparent that which We have revealed to you and given you news of in the letters that We have recited to you, so that you may guide those who listen, and He is a Witness. "He" (huwa) is a name and an indicator to absence: the "h" is a caution from [interpreting] a fixed definition [for Allah], and the "w" is an indicator to His absence from the senses, just as your saying "this" (hatha) is an indicator to that which is present to the senses. This is because the disbelievers would describe their gods with letters that indicate their perceptible presence. So they would say: "These are our gods, which can be comprehended by senses and by sight. So Muhammad, point to your God whom you call to so that we may see Him and comprehend Him. So Allah تبارك وتعالى revealed: "Say: He is Allah, the One." (112:1) So the "h" establishes the established, and the "w" is an indicator to He who is absent from the comprehension of sights and senses. He is above that, rather, He comprehends all sights, and He creates the senses.
  11. Their rulings are discussed in their books and their classes. These websites give simple answers to questions rather than providing a long discussion involving ayat, hadiths, linguistics, logic, history, rijal, etc. Lay people do taqleed because they're not qualified to assess these arguments, which come from years of study and debate. They're not doing taqleed of just anyone, they do taqleed of the person they believed is the most learned in the world in what has been revealed to us.
  12. 45 - في مجمع البيان وروى في الحديث لكل شئ نسبة ونسبة الله سورة الاخلاص. In Majma` al-Bayan: It is narrated in the hadith: For everything there is an attribution, and the attribution of Allah is Surat al-Ikhlas. 46 - في أصول الكافي محمد بن يحيى عن أحمد بن محمد عن الحسين بن سعيد عن النضر بن سويد عن عاصم بن حميد قال: سئل علي بن الحسين صلوات الله عليه عن التوحيد فقال: ان الله عز وجل علم أنه يكون في آخر الزمان أقوام متعمقون، فأنزل الله تعالى: قل هو الله أحد والآيات من سورة الحديد إلى قوله " عليم بذات الصدور " فمن رام وراء ذلك فقد هلك. In Usul al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Husayn b. Sa`eed from an-Nadr b. Suwayd from `Asem b. Humayd. He said: `Ali b. al-Husayn صلوات الله عليه was asked about monotheism, so he said: Allah عز وجل knew that there would be deep-thinking communities in the End Times, so Allah تعالى revealed qul huwallahu ahad and the first six verses of Surat al-Hadeed. So whoever accepts anything otherwise is destroyed. 47 - أحمد بن إدريس عن محمد بن عبد الجبار عن صفوان بن يحيى عن أبى أيوب عن محمد بن مسلم عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: إن اليهود سألوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقالوا: انسب لنا ربك، فلبث ثلاثا يجيبهم ثم نزلت قل هو الله أحد إلى آخرها. Ahmad b. Idris from Muhammad b. `Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan b. Yahya from Abu Ayyub from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abu `Abdllah عليه السلام. He said: The Jews asked the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله: Describe the attribution of your Lord to us. So he remained three days, then qul huwallahu ahad was revealed. 48 - في كتاب الاحتجاج للطبرسي (ره) قال أبو محمد الحسن العسكري عليه السلام: سأل عبد الله بن صوريا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقال: اخبرني عن ربك ما هو؟فنزلت قل هو الله أحد إلى آخرها فقال ابن صوريا: صدقت يا محمد، والحديث طويل أخذنا منه موضع الحاجة. In Kitab al-Ihtijaj of Tabrisi: Abu Muhammad al-Hasan al-`Askari عليه السلام said: `Abdillah b. Suraya asked the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله: Tell me about your Lord, what is He? So qul huwallahu ahad was revealed. So Ibn Suraya said: You have spoken the truth, O Muhammad. And the hadith is long, and we have taken the relevant portion. 49 - في الخرايج والجرايح قال أبو هاشم: قلت في نفسي اشتهى ان اعلم ما يقول أبو محمد عليه السلام في القرآن أهو مخلوق أم غير مخلوق؟فاقبل على وقال: أو ما بلغك ما روى عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام لما نزلت قل هو الله أحد خلق الله أربعة آلاف جناح، فما كانت تمر بملاء من الملائكة الا خشعوا لها، وقال: هذه نسبة الرب تبارك وتعالى. In al-Khara'ij wal Jara'ih: Abu Hisham said: I said to myself: "I wish I knew what Abu Muhammad عليه السلام says about the Qur'an being created or not created." So he turned to me and said: Have you not been told about what was narrated from Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام: When qul huwallahu ahad was revealed, Allah created four thousand wings. It would not pass by the elite angels except that they humbled themselves to it. And he said: This is the attribution of the Lord تبارك وتعالى. 50 - في كتاب معاني الأخبار باسناده إلى الأصبغ بن نباتة عن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام حديث طويل يقول فيه عليه السلام: نسبة الله عز وجل قل هو الله. In Kitab Ma`ani al-Akhbar: By its isnad to al-Asbagh b. Nubata from Amir al-Mu'mineen عليه السلام in a long hadith in which he عليه السلام says: The attribution of Allah عز وجل is qul huwallah. 51 - في كتاب علل الشرايع باسناده إلى أبى عبد الله عليه السلام حديث طويل ذكرته بتمامه أول الاسراء مسندا وفيه يقول أبو عبد الله عليه السلام حاكيا عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وعن الله جل جلاله أنه قال له: اقرأ قل هو الله أحد كما أنزلت فإنها نسبتي ونعتي. In Ktiab `Ilal ash-Shara'i`: By its isnad to Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام in a long hadith that I have mentioned in full at the beginning of al-Isra' with its isnad. Therein Abu `Abdillah عليه السلام narrated a conversion between the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله and Allah جل جلاله; He said to him: Recite qul huwallahu ahad as it was revealed, for it is My attribution and My epithet. 52 - وباسناده إلى إسحاق بن عمار عن أبي الحسن موسى بن جعفر عليهما السلام حديث طويل ذكرنا بتمامه أول الاسراء أيضا وفيه يقول عليه السلام حاكيا عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وعن الله جل جلاله: ثم أمره ان يقرأ نسبة ربه تبارك وتعالى بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم " قل هو الله أحد الله الصمد " ثم أمسك عنه القول فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قل هو الله أحد الله الصمد فقال: قل: " لم يلد ولم يولد ولم يكن له كفوا أحد " فامسك عنه القول فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: كذلك الله ربى، كذلك الله ربى، كذلك الله ربى. And by its isnad to Is`haq b. `Ammar from Abu'l Hasan Musa b. Ja`far عليهما السلام in a long hadith that we mentioned in full at the beginning of al-Isra' as well. Therein he عليه السلام narrated a conversation between the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله and Allah جل جلاله: Then He ordered him to recite the attribution of his Lord تبارك وتعالى: "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Say: Allah is One. Allah, the Self-Subsisting." Then, He withheld His speech. So the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: Say: Allah is One. Allah, the Self-Subsisting. So He said: Say: "He does not beget, nor was He begotten, and there is nothing like unto Him." Then, He withheld His speech. So the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: That is Allah, my Lord; that is Allah, my Lord; that is Allah, my Lord. 53 - في كتاب التوحيد باسناده إلى محمد بن عبيد قال: دخلت على الرضا عليه السلام فقال لي: قل للعباسي يكف عن الكلام في التوحيد وغيره، ويكلم الناس بما يعرفون، ويكف عما ينكرون. وإذا سألوك عن التوحيد فقل كما قال الله عز وجل: " قل هو الله أحد * الله الصمد * لم يلد ولم يولد * ولم يكن له كفوا أحد " وإذا سألوك عن الكيفية قل كما قال الله عز وجل: " ليس كمثله شئ " وإذا سألوك عن السمع فقل كما قال الله عز وجل " هو السميع العليم " كلم الناس بما يعرفون. In Kitab at-Tawheed: By its isnad to Muhammad b. `Ubayd. He said: I entered upon ar-Rida عليه السلام so he said to me: Tell the Abbasid to stop talking about monotheism and other topics, and to talk to the people about that which they recognize (understand), and to stop from that which they deny. And if they ask you about monotheism, then say what Allah عز وجل said: "Say: Allah is One. Allah, the Self-Subsisting. He does not beget, nor was He begotten, and there is nothing like unto Him." (112:1-4) And if they ask you about His modality, then say what Allah عز وجل said: "There is nothing like unto Him." (42:11) And if they ask you about His Hearing, then say what Allah عز وجل said: "He is the Hearing, the Knowing." Talk to the people about that which they recognize.
  13. 43 - وعن انس عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله قال: من قرأ قل هو الله أحد مرة بورك عليه، ومن قرأها مرتين بورك عليه وعلى أهله، فان قراها ثلاث مرات بورك عليه وعلى أهله وعلى جميع جيرانه، فان قرأها اثنتي عشرة مرة بنى له اثنى عشر قصرا في الجنة وتقول الحفظة: انطلقوا بنا ننظر إلى قصر أخينا، فان قراها مأة مرة كفر عنه ذنوب خمس وعشرين سنة ما خلا الدماء والأموال، فان قرأها أربعمأة مرة كفرت عنه ذنوب أربعمأة سنة، فان قرأها الف مرة لم يمت حتى يرى مكانه من الجنة أو يرى له. And from Anas from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله. He said: Whomever recites qul huwallahu ahad is blessed. Whomever recites it twice is blessed with his family. Whomever recites it three times is blessed with his family and all of his neighbours. Whomever recites it twelve times will have twelve castles built for him, and its guards will say: "Let us go look at the castle of our brother". Whomever recites it one hundred times, twenty five years of his sins will be covered, except for his sins related to blood and wealth. Whomever recites it four hundred times, four hundred years of sins will be covered. Whomever recites it one thousand times, he will not die until he sees his place in Paradise; it will be shown to him. 44 - وعن سهل بن سعد الساعدي قال: جاء رجل إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وآله فشكى إليه الفقر وضيق المعاش، فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: إذا دخلت بيتك فسلم إن كان فيه أحد; وان لم يكن فيه أحد فسلم واقرأ قل هو الله أحد مرة واحدة ففعل الرجل فأفاض الله عليه رزقا حتى أفاض على جيرانه. And from Sahl from Sa`d as-Sa`di. He said: A man came to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله and complained to him about poverty and a meager living, so the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said to him: When you enter your house, give salaam if there is anyone therein; and if there is no one, then give salaam and recite qul huwallahu ahad once. So the man did that, and Allah granted him and his neighbours sustenance.
  14. 37 - فيمن لا يحضره الفقيه وقال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: من أحب ان يخرج من الدنيا وقد تخلص من الذنوب كما يتخلص الذهب الذي لا كدر فيه ولا يطلبه أحد بمظلمة فليقل في دبر الصلوات الخمس نسبة الرب تبارك وتعالى (5) اثنى عشر مرة ثم يبسط يده ويقول: اللهم إني أسئلك باسمك المكنون المخزون الطهر الطاهر المبارك و أسئلك باسمك العظيم وسلطانك القديم ان تصلى على محمد وآله محمد، يا واهب العطايا يا مطلق الأسارى يا فكاك الرقاب من النار أسئلك ان تصلى على محمد وآل محمد، وان تعتق رقبتي من النار، وان تخرجني من الدنيا آمنا وأن تدخلني الجنة سالما، وان تجعل دعائي أوله فلاحا وأوسطه نجاحا وآخره صلاحا انك أنت علام الغيوب ثم قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: هذا من المغيبات مما علمني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وأمرني ان أعلم الحسن والحسين عليهما السلام. In Man La Yahduruhul Faqih: And Amir al-Mu'mineen عليه السلام said: Whomever would like to come out of this world purified of sin, just as gold is purified of its impurity, without anyone a debt to anyone, then he should say the attribution of the Lord تبارك وتعالى after each of the five prayers twelve times. Then, he stretches his hands forth and says: "O Allah, I ask you by Your hidden, treasured, clean, pure, blessed name, and I ask You by Your mighty name and Your primordial power, I ask You to bless Muhammad and the Family of Muhammad, O giver of gifts, and O freer of captives, and O emancipator of the necks from the Fire. I ask You to bless Muhammad and the Family of Muhammad, and to liberate my neck from the Fire, and to take me out of this world secure, and to bring me into the Garden safely, and to make the beginning of my supplication a success, its middle a prosperity, and its end a goodness. Surely, you are the Knower of the unseen. Then Amir al-Mu'mineen عليه السلام said: This is from the rarities that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله taught me, and he commanded me to teach it to al-Hasan and al-Husayn عليهما السلام. 38 - في مصباح الكفعمي روى أن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله لذعته عقرب وهو في الصلاة فلما فرغ قال لعن الله العقرب ما تدع مصليا ولا غيره الا لذعته وتناول نعله فقتله بها، ثم دعا بماء وملح فجعل يمسح ذلك عليها ويقرأ التوحيد والمعوذتين. In Misbah al-Kaf`ami: It is narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله was stung by a scorpion while he was praying. So when he finished, he said: May Allah curse the scorpion, it does not spare the one praying nor anyone else except that it stings him. He took his sandal and killed it with it. Then, he called for water and salt, and he began wiping it (the sting), and he recited Surat al-Ikhlas and the mu`awadhatayn. 39 - في كتاب طب الأئمة عليهم السلام باسناده إلى أبي بصير عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: شكوت إليه وجع أضراسي وانه يسهر بي الليل، قال: فقال: يا أبا بصير إذا أحسست بذلك فضع يدك عليه واقرأ سورة الحمد وقل هو الله أحد ثم اقرأ " وترى الجبال جامدة وهي تمر مر السحاب صنع الله الذي أتقن كل شئ انه خبير بما يفعلون " فإنه يسكن ثم لا يعود. In Tubb al-A'immah عليهم السلام: By its isnad to Abu Baseer from Abu Baseer from Abu Ja`far عليه السلام. He said: I complained to him about a pain in my teeth that caused me to remain awake during the night. He said: O Abu Baseer, if you feel that, then place your hand upon it and recite al-Fatiha and qul huwallahu ahad, then recite: "And you see the mountains, thinking them rigid, while they will pass as the passing of clouds. [It is] the work of Allah, who perfected all things. Surely, He is Acquainted with that which you do." (27:88) Then, it (the pain) will settle and not return. 40 - وباسناده إلى عمر بن يزيد الصيقل عن الصادق عليه السلام قال شكى إليه رجل من أوليائه الفراغ فقال: كتب له أم القرآن وسورة الاخلاص والمعوذتين ثم تكتب أسفل ذلك أعوذ بوجه الله العظيم وبعزته التي لا ترام وبقدرته التي لا يمتنع منها شئ من شر هذا الوجع ومن شر ما فيه، ثم نشر به على الريق بماء المطر، تبرأ بإذن الله تعالى. By its isnad to `Umar b. Yazeed as-Sayqal from as-Sadiq عليه السلام. He said: A man from his servants complained to him, so he wrote Umm al-Qur'an (al-Fatiha) and Surat al-Ikhlas and the mu`awadhatayn for him. Then beneath that, he wrote: "I seek refuge in the Great Face of Allah, and His glory that does not desist, and His power that is never overcome by any evil, from this pain and the evil therein." Then, he sprinkled rain water upon him, and he was healed by the permission of Allah تعالى. 41 - وباسناده إلى سلمة بن محرز قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: من لم تبرئه سورة الحمد وقل هو الله أحد لم يبرأه شئ، وكل علة تبريها هاتين السورتين By its isnad to Salama b. Mahraz. He said: I heard Abu Ja`far عليه السلام say: Whomever is not healed by Surat al-Fatiha and qul huwallahu ahad will not be healed by anything. Every defect can be healed by these two surahs. 42 - في مجمع البيان وعن أبي الدرداء عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله قال: أيعجز أحدكم ان يقرء ثلث القرآن في ليلة؟قلت: يا رسول الله ومن يطيق ذلك؟قال: اقرأوا قل هو الله أحد. In Majma` al-Bayan: And from Abu'l Darda' from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله. He said: Are any of you able to recite one third of the Qur'an in one night? I said: O Messenger of Allah, who is able to do that? He said: Recite qul huwallahu ahad.
  15. May Allah marry you to a better and more honest man. Were you able to verify that he was married? Is there a possibility that you misheard the conversation?