Islamic Salvation

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Islamic Salvation last won the day on August 20 2014

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  1. 2.49. Khayran al-Khadim https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/khayran-al-khadim [1/154] رجال الكشي: حمدويه وإبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن خيران الخادم قال: وجهت إلى سيدي ثمانية دراهم وكتبت اليه: قد وجهت إليك ثمانية دراهم كانت أهديت إلي من طرسوس دراهم منهم، وكرهت أن أردها على صاحبها، أو أحدث فيها حدثا دون أمرك، فهل تأمرني في قبول مثلها أم لا؟ لأعرفها إن شاء الله وانتهى إلى أمرك. فكتب وقرأته: أقبل منهم إذا أهدي إليك دراهم أو غيرها، فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم لم يرد هدية على يهودي ولا نصراني. قال: و قلت: جعلت فداك ... قال: اعمل في ذلك برأيك فإن رأيك رأيي، و من أطاعك فقد أطاعني [1/154] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Khayran al-Khadim who said: I sent to my master [al-Jawad] eight Dirhams and wrote to him: I have sent your way eight Dirhams which had been gifted to me from Tarsus being silver coins from them [non-Muslims in the Roman empire]. I did not want to refuse to accept them or to do anything with them without your instruction. Do you allow me to accept its like [in the future] or not. [I ask] so that I can know what to do - if Allah wills - and to make sure I obey your order? So he wrote [and I the narrator read it]: accept any amount from them if it is gifted to you whether it be monetary or otherwise, for the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم never refused a gift whether it be from a Jew or a Christian. He [Khayran] said: I also said: may I be made your ransom … he said: decide on it based on your own discretion, for your decision is my decision, and whoever obeys you has obeyed me. NOTES: Tarsus is a historic town in what is now south-central Turkey close to the Mediterranean. During the Roman Empire, Tarsus was the capital of the province of Cilicia. It is known for being the birthplace of Paul the Apostle. It remained contested between the Byzantines and the Muslim Caliphate for several decades before al-Ma`mun returned it to Muslim control and recommenced offensive campaigns against Byzantium using it as a base. It seems that some non-Muslims sent coins to Khayran from this mixed-faith town because of their love for the Imam. This prompted Khayran to write to the Imam asking him what to do with them. Khayran al-Khadim (the servant) was a Mawla (freed slave) of al-Ridha and lived to the time of al-Hadi because he is enumerated as one of his companions. It would seem from this narration that he acted as a Wakil (agent) of al-Jawad. He is considered Thiqa by al-Tusi. The Imam had such trust in him that he considers obedience to Khayran equivalent to obedience to him and this alludes to his esteemed station which only a few could attain.
  2. 2.48. Khuzayma b. Thabit https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/khuzayma-b-thabit [-/1] فروع الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن معاوية بن وهب عن ابي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: كان البلاط حيث يصلى على الجنائز سوقا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يسمى البطحاء يباع فيها الحليب والسمن والاقط وإن أعرابيا أتى بفرس له فأوثقه فاشتراه منه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ثم دخل ليأتيه بالثمن فقام ناس من المنافقين فقالوا: بكم بعت فرسك؟ قال: بكذا وبكذا قالوا: بئس مابعت، فرسك خير من ذلك وإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله خرج إليه بالثمن وافيا طيبا فقال الاعرابي: ما بعتك والله، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: سبحان الله بلى والله لقد بعتني، و ارتفعت الاصوات فقال الناس: رسول الله يقاول الاعرابي فاجتمع ناس كثير فقال أبوعبدالله عليه السلام: ومع النبي صلى الله عليه وآله أصحابه إذ أقبل خزيمة بن ثابت الانصاري ففرج الناس بيده حتى انتهى إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وآله فقال: أشهد يا رسول الله لقد اشتريته منه فقال الاعرابي أتشهد ولم تحضرنا؟ وقال له النبي صلى الله عليه وآله: أشهدتنا؟ فقال له: لا يا رسول الله ولكني علمت أنك قد اشتريت أفأصدقك بما جئت به من عند الله ولا اصدقك على هذا الاعرابي الخبيث قال: فعجب له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وقال: يا خزيمة شهادتك شهادة رجلين [1/-] Furu al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Muawiya b. Wahb from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: al-Balat – where the prayers for the dead are prayed [in our times] – was an open market in the time of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله called al-Batha` which was sold milk, butter-fat, and milk curds. Once a Bedouin came with a horse and the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله inspected it and bought it from him, then he entered inside to bring him the amount. A group of hypocrites who were around stood and said [to the Bedouin]: how much did you sell it to him for? He said: at such and such price, they said: what a bad bargain, your horse is better than that. The messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله came out with the full agreed-upon price but the Bedouin said: by Allah I have not sold it you, the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: glory be to Allah! yes by Allah you have indeed sold it to me, and voices were raised, the people said: the messenger of Allah is arguing with a Bedouin and a crowd gathered around, Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله was surrounded by his companions when Khuzayma b. Thabit al-Ansari approached, parted the people with his hand, until he reached the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله and said: I bear witness O messenger of Allah that you bought it from him, the Bedouin said: how can you witness when you were not even present! The prophet said to him: did you witness it with your eyes? He said: no O messenger of Allah, but I know that you bought it from him - should I consider you truthful in that which you came with from Allah but then doubt your truthfulness over this nasty Bedouin! He (al-Sadiq) said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله was very pleased at that and said: O Khuzayma, your witness is equal to the witnessing of two men. NOTES: This narration explains the origin of Khuzayma b. Thabit’s title ‘Dhu al-Shahadatyn’. Khuzayma b. Thabit was an early Ansari companion of the messenger of Allah among the Aws. He participated in Badr and the rest of the battles. He carried the banner on behalf of the Khatma [his sub-tribe] on the day of the conquest of Makka. He is sometimes included in the list of companions who withheld giving the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr until after Ali had done so. Some have cast doubt on this because he is also mentioned as a participant who cooperated with the official program of compiling a standard unified Mushaf of the Qur’an under Uthman. Khuzayma willingly confirmed Ali when he challenged the companions at Rahba to bear witness about the saying of the messenger of Ali “to whomsoever I am a master than Ali is also his master” at Ghadir Khumm. He became particularly close to Ali in later years and even accompanied him to Jamal and Siffin wherein he was martyred in 37 AH. He was a capable poet and composed a number of fine pieces to mark various landmark events. These should be studied in depth as they can act as early confirmation of the elevated status of Ali in early Shi`ism as seen by his contemporaries. I quote here one of his famous pieces of poetry. Al-Hakim narrates in his Mustadrak from al-Aswad b. Yazid al-Nakhai that: when Ali b. Abi Talib was given the pledge of allegiance while seated on the puplit of the messsenger of Allah – Khuzayma b. Thabit said after standing in front of the pulpit: اذا نـحـن بـايـعـنـا عليـاً فـحـسبنا أبـو حـسن ممـا نـخـاف من الفتن وجـدنـاه أولى الناس بالنــاس إنـه أطـب قـريـش بالكتاب وبالسنن وإن قـريـشــاً ما تـشـق غــبـــاره إذا ما جرى يوما على ضمَّر البـدن فـفـيـه الـذي فيهم من الخير كـلـه وما فيهم مثل الذي فيه من حسـن If we have given the pledge to Ali then sufficient for us is Abu Hasan to save us from what we fear of strife We found him to be the best men among men He is the most knowledgeable of the Quraysh in the Book and the Norms The Quraysh cannot cleave through his raised dust When he rides out some day on the lean-bodied swift ones (horses) In him is all that which is in them of good But they do not have all that which he has of merit “cannot cleave through his raised dust” is a metaphor for someone who is “peerless/unsurpassed”. It refers to a horseman who out-rides others leaving them behind, they cannot even reach his dust.
  3. 2.47. Hayyan al-Sarraj https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/hayyan-al-sarraj [1/152] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن الحسن بن موسى، عن محمد بن أصبغ، عن مروان بن مسلم، عن بريد العجلي قال: دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال لي: لو كنت سبقت قليلا أدركت حيان السراج قال: و أشار إلى موضع في البيت فقال: و كان هاهنا جالسا فذكر محمد بن الحنفية و ذكر حياته و جعل يطريه و يقرظه، فقلت له: يا حيان أ ليس تزعم و يزعمون و تروي و يروون لم يكن في بني إسرائيل شي‏ء إلا و هو في هذه الأمة مثله قال: بلى قال: فقلت: فهل رأينا و رأيتم أو سمعنا و سمعتم بعالم مات على أعين الناس فنكح نساؤه و قسمت أمواله و هو حي لا يموت فقام و لم يرد علي شيئا [1/152] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Hasan b. Musa from Muhammad b. Asbagh from Marwan b. Muslim from Burayd al-Ijli who said: I entered upon Abi Abdillah عليه السلام so he said to me: if you had come in a little earlier you would have met Hayyan al-Sarraj, he (Burayd) said: and he (al-Sadiq) pointed out a place in the room and said - he (Hayyan) was sat there, then he (Hayyan) brought up Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya and talked about his life (continued existence), and he began praising him and extolling him. So I (al-Sadiq) said to him: O Hayyan! don't you and others claim and narrate: ‘there is nothing that happened to the Bani Israil except that it is also to occur in this Umma’, he (Hayyan) replied: yes, so I (al-Sadiq) said: then have we or you seen or heard - a Scholar (divine leader) - who died in the estimation of the people (as far as the people were concerned), and his wives were married off, and his inheritance was redistributed, while he was still alive not dead?!, so he (Hayyan) stood up (to leave) and did not answer me anything. [2/153] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن الحسن بن موسى، عن أصحابنا، عن عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: أتاني ابن عم لي يسألني أن آذن لحيان السراج فأذنت له، فقال لي: يا أبا عبد الله إني أريد أن أسألك عن شي‏ء أنا به عالم إلا أني أحب أن أسألك عنه، أخبرني عن عمك محمد بن علي مات قال: قلت: أخبرني أبي أنه كان في ضيعة له فأتى فقيل له أدرك عمك قال: فأتيته و قد كانت أصابته غشية فأفاق، فقال لي: ارجع إلى ضيعتك، قال: فأبيت، فقال: لترجعن، قال: فانصرفت فما بلغت الضيعة حتى أتوني فقالوا: أدركه فأتيته فوجدته قد اعتقل لسانه، فدعا بطست، و جعل يكتب وصيته فما برحت حتى غمضته و غسلته و كفنته و صليت عليه و دفنته، فإن كان هذا موتا فقد و الله مات، قال: فقال لي: رحمك الله شبه على أبيك، قال: قلت: يا سبحان الله أنت تصدف على قلبك قال: فقال لي: و ما الصدف على القلب قال: قلت: الكذب [2/153] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Hasan b. Musa from our companions from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: one of the sons of my paternal uncle came to me seeking permission to allow Hayyan al-Sarraj to meet me so I granted it to him. He (Hayyan) said to me: O Aba Abdillah - I want to ask you something about which I have knowledge but would like you to confirm it, inform me about your paternal uncle - Muhammad b. Ali - did he die? He (al-Sadiq) said: I said: my father (al-Baqir) informed me that he was in one of his farm lands when they came to him and said: go to your paternal uncle, he (al-Baqir) said: so I came to him, and he was overcome by unconsciousness, then he regained his senses, he (Ibn al-Hanafiyya) said to me: return to your property, he (al-Baqir) said: I refused, but he said: you must return, so I left, I had not reached the property when they came to me again and said: go to him, I came to him and found that his tongue had been seized (he could not talk anymore), he called for a tray and began writing his will. I did not leave until I had closed his eyes, washed him, enshrouded him, prayed over him, and buried him, so if this is death - then he has - by Allah - died! He (al-Sadiq) said: so he (Hayyan) said to me: may Allah have mercy on you, it was made to appear so to your father, I said: glory be to Allah! you turn away from your own heart! he said to me: and what is turning away from the heart? I said: lying (to it). NOTES: Hayyan al-Sarraj (the saddler) was a Kaysani. These were an early Shi’ite splinter grouping who believed that Muhammad b. Ali b. Abi Talib (Ibn al-Hanafiyya) was the Mahdi. They did not accept his apparent death and maintained that he was in concealment (Ghayba) in the Radwa mountains. They awaited his triumphant return. These narrations indicate that they were still active in the time of al-Sadiq. The Imam argues against Hayyan using a well-known narration as well as the testimony of his father.
  4. 2.46. Hamza b. Bazi` https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/hamza-b-bazi [1/151] غيبة الطوسي: أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن الحسين ابن أبي الخطاب، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن إبراهيم بن يحيى بن أبي البلاد قال: قال الرضا عليه السلام: ما فعل الشقي حمزة بن بزيع؟ قلت: هو ذا قد قدم، فقال عليه السلام: يزعم أن أبي حي؟! هم اليوم شكاك ولا يموتون غدا إلا على الزندقة ... [1/151] Ghayba of al-Tusi: Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Yahya from his father from Muhammad b. al-Husayn b. Abi al-Khattab from Safwan b. Yahya from Ibrahim b. Yahya b. Abi al-Bilad who said: al-Ridha عليه السلام said: what’s happened to the wretched Hamza b. Bazi`? I said: he is here - come to see you, so he عليه السلام said: he claims that my father is alive?! today they are doubters but tomorrow they won’t die except upon heresy [other than islam] … NOTES: Hamza b. Bazi` was a Waqifi who rejected the Imama of al-Ridha because they claimed that al-Kadhim was alive.
  5. Wa Alaykum Salam I have not counted the exact number. But this is a good idea. Will get back to you.
  6. Wa Alaykum Salam. It is Muwathaq because of Abdallah b. Bukayr who was a Fathi in Madhhab.
  7. Abu Amra al-Ansari - A Forgotten Man in Early Shi`ism “I Swear to Thee … Obedience unto Death” و عدّه البرقي في أولياء أصحاب أمير المؤمنين عليه السّلام و في شرطة خميسه Al-Barqi confirms that he was among the closest companions of the commander of the faithful عليه السّلام and adds that he was part of his Shurta al-Khamis. There has been an ongoing debate about the etymology of Shurta al-Khamis and its origins. The most convincing explanation is that Khamis, meaning five, is a synonym for the whole army, because armies at the time were normally divided into five divisions. Thus the ‘Shurta of the army’ would be its elite vanguard. Our sources inform us that Ali’s Shurta al-Khamis consisted of around 6000 soldiers. The Shurta would be at the tip of the formation bearing the brunt of any offensive. They would see the riskiest action being the first to penetrate enemy lines. A clue as to what made them distinct from the rest of the army is provided by a narration in al-Ikhtisas of pseudo-Mufid where a man asks al-Asbagh b. Nubata, himself a member of the Shurta, the secret behind the name: قلت له: كيف سميتم شرطة الخميس يا أصبغ؟ فقال: إنا ضمنا له الذبح وضمن لنا الفتح I said to him: how was it that you came to be called the Shurta al-Khamis O Asbagh? He said: we guaranteed to fight for him and he guaranteed victory for us [in this world or the next]. This indicates that the Shurta were Ali’s most loyal soldiers because they had sworn a personal oath to him in their zeal for him. Agreeing to join the Shurta meant fighting Ali’s enemies until death or victory, whichever comes first, without turning back. The Shurta were the backbone of Ali’s force whom he could expect to remain steadfast when others faltered. This contingent fought not for worldly gain or political expedient but because they recognized him as their only leader. They were always around him like worker bees around their queen. He said to them once: أنتم الأنصار على الحقّ، والإخوان في الدين، والجُنَن يوم البأس، والبِطانة دون الناس، بكم أضرب المُدبِر، وأرجو طاعة المُقبِل، فأعينوني بمناصحةٍ خَلِيّة من الغشّ، سليمة من الريب؛ فوَاللَّه إنّي لأولى الناس بالناس You are supporters of truth, brothers in religion, shields on the day of attack, you are the faithful apart from the rest, by you do I strike the one lagging behind, and by you do I compel the outriders to obedience, so aid me with an assistance free of any deception and safe from any doubt, for by Allah I am the most rightful of men among all men [Nahj al-Balagha] If Ali could not mobilize enough men to renew his attack against Muawiya after Nahrawan it is only because most of the Shurta had already given their lives in previous battles. A fact which he never stopped grieving over. Contribution to the War Effort عمرو بن محصن ... هو الذى جهز أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام بمائة ألف درهم في مسيره إلى الجمل Al-Tusi notes in his Rijal that Amr b. Mihsan [sic. Abu Amra b. Amr b. Mihsan] … supplied the commander of the faithfulعليه السلام with one hundred thousand Dirhams when he began his march to Jamal. Delegate to Muawiya He was chosen by Ali to be part of the team that makes first contact with Muawiya at Siffin. This shows the level of trust the Imam had on this old hand [Ta`rikh al-Tabari]: تاريخ الطبري عن عبدالملك بن أبي حرّة الحنفي - بعد ذكر القتال على الماء -: مَكث عليّ يومين لا يرسل إلى معاوية أحداً، ولا يرسل إليه معاوية. ثمّ إنّ عليّاً دعا بشير بن عمرو بن محصن الأنصاري، وسعيد بن قيس الهمداني، وشبث بن ربعي التميمي، فقال: ائتوا هذا الرجل، فادعوه إلى اللَّه، وإلى الطاعة والجماعة Ali did not send anyone to Muawiya for two whole days nor did Muawiya send anyone to him. Then Ali called Bashir b. Amr b. Mihsan al-Ansari, Sa`id b. Qays al-Hamdani and Shabath b. Rib`i al-Tamimi and said to them: go to this man and call him to Allah and to obedience and unity. فقال له شبث بن ربعي: يا أميرالمؤمنين!ألا تُطمعه في سلطان تولّيه إيّاه، ومنزلة يكون له بها اُثرة عندك إن هو بايعك؟ Shabath b. Rib`i said to him: O commander of the faithful! won’t you tempt him with a rule which you could promise to hand over to him or by appointing him to a position which he desires so that he can incline towards you - if he were to give you the pledge of allegiance? فقال عليّ: ائتوه فالقوه واحتجّوا عليه، وانظروا ما رأيه. - وهذا في أوّل ذي الحجّة Ali said: go meet him, reason with him, and observe what he intends. [This was in the beginning of Dhul Hijja] فأتوه، ودخلوا عليه، فحمد اللَّه وأثنى عليه أبوعمرة بشير بن عمرو، وقال: يا معاوية! إنّ الدنيا عنك زائلة، وإنّك راجع إلى الآخرة، وإنّ اللَّه عزّوجلّ محاسبك بعملك، وجازيك بما قدّمت يداك، وإنّي أنشدك اللَّه عزّوجلّ أنْ تفرّق جماعة هذه الاُمّة، وأن تسفك دماءها بينها They went and entered upon him, then Abu Amra Bashir b. Amr praised and extolled Allah and said: O Muawiya! this world will recede away from you and you are to be returned to the next abode wherein Allah the Mighty and Majestic will take you to account for your deeds, and recompense you for what your hands sent before. I beseech you in the name of Allah Mighty and Majestic that you shatter the unity of this Umma and you shed blood between them. فقطع عليه الكلام، وقال: هلّا أوصيت بذلك صاحبك؟ He (Muawiya) interrupted his speech and said: didn’t you say all this to your man [Ali]? فقال أبوعمرة: إنّ صاحبي ليس مثلك، صاحبي أحقّ البريّة كلّها بهذا الأمر في الفضل والدين والسابقة في الإسلام، والقرابة من الرسول صلى اللّه عليه وآله وسلم Abu Amra said: my man is not your equal, my man is the most rightful of all men in this matter [Khilafa] if you are to look at merit, religion, precedence in accepting Islam and closeness in ties to the messenger صلى اللّه عليه وآله وسلم قال: فيقول ماذا؟ He (Muawiya) said: what does he (Ali) say? قال: يأمرك بتقوى اللَّه عزّوجلّ، وإجابة ابن عمّك إلى ما يدعوك إليه من الحقّ، فإنّه أسلم لك في دنياك، وخير لك في عاقبة أمرك He (Abu Amra) said: he (Ali) orders you to fear Allah Mighty and Majestic, and to submit to your cousin (Bani Hashim and Umayya are related afterall) in what he calls you towards which is the truth, for that is more secure in your worldy affairs and better for you in terms of your final destiny. قال معاوية: ونُطلّ دم عثمان! لا واللَّه، لا أفعل ذلك أبداً Muawiya said: and we are to leave the blood of Uthman unavenged! No by Allah! that will never happen! فذهب سعيد بن قيس يتكلّم، فبادره شبث بن ربعي فتكلّم، فحمد اللَّه وأثنى عليه، وقال: يا معاوية! إنّي قد فهمت ما رددت على ابن محصن، إنّه واللَّه، لا يخفى علينا ما تغزو وما تطلب Sa`id b. Qays wanted to speak but was beaten to it by Shabath b. Rib`i who praised and extolled Allah and then said: O Muawiya! I have understood your answer to Ibn Mihsan, by Allah it is not hidden from us what you are fighting for and what you seek! Martyrdom کان ابن محصن من اعلام اصحاب علي (ع)، قتل في المعرکه، و جزع علي (ع) لقتله Nasr b. Muzahim: He was among the most knowledgeable of Ali’s companions. He died in battle [of Siffin]. Ali was greatly saddened by his death. روى عبادة بن زياد عن محمد ابن الحنفية قال: رأَيت أَبا عَمرَةَ الأَنصاري يوم صِفَّيْن، وكان عَقَبيًا بَدْرِيًّا أُحُدِيًّا، وهو صائم يتلوّى من العَطَش، فقال لغلام له: تَرِّسْنِي، فَتَرَّسَه الغُلاَم، ثم رمى بسهم في أَهل الشام، فنزع نزعًا ضعيفًا، حتى رمى بثلاثة أَسهم، ثم قال: إِني سَمِعتُ رسول الله صَلَّى الله عليه وسلم يقول: مَنْ رَمَى بِسَهْمٍ فِي سَبِيْلِ الله، فَبَلَّغَ أَوْ قَصَّرَ، كَانَ ذَلِكَ الْسَّهْمُ لَهُ نُورًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، وقتل قبل غروب الشمس Ubada b. Ziyad narrates from Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya who said: I saw Abu Amra al-Ansari at Siffin, he was an Aqabi [was there at the pledge at Aqaba], a Badri and an Uhudi, he was fasting and bent-over [weak] because of thirst, he said to a servant of his: shield me, and the servant shielded him, then he placed the arrow to his bow very weakly, and could only throw three of them, then he said: I heard the messenger of Allahصَلَّى الله عليه وسلم say: whoever throws an arrow in the way of Allah, whether he hits the target or not, that arrow will be for him a light in the day of judgment, he was killed before the setting of the sun [al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihayn] In Memoriam There could not be a greater honour among the Arabs then to have your death being important enough to merit poetry on your behalf. This is what happened for Ibn Mihsan. It came from opposing sides. Najashi the poet of Iraq [who was on the side of Ali] composed a long poem mourning his death, it begins: لنعم فتى الحيّين عمرو بن محصن What a good man was Amr b. Mihsan … On the other hand, an anonymous Syrian woman taunted Ali and his followers with this invective: لا تعدموا قوما أذاقوا ابن ياسر Do not deem as insignificant a people who have sent Ibn Yasir to his death And ends with: فنحن قتلنا اليثربي ابن محصن خطيبكم و ابني بديل و هاشم For we are the ones who killed the Yathribi Ibn Mihsan … your pre-eminent speaker, and the two sons of Badiyl and Hashim [b. Mirqal] too In conclusion, any historical study of early Islam must take into account the wealth of poetry we have about the period. These have not been analyzed thoroughly because of the difficulty of dealing with the highly complex language involved. An argument can be made that that these can serve as more reliable than prose documentation because of the difficulty of fabricating things in the medium. A treasure trove awaits any historian brave enough to delve into them.
  8. 2.45. Humran b. A`yan https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/humran-b-ayan [-/1] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن أذينة، عن زرارة قال: قدمت المدينة و أنا شاب أمرد فدخلت سرادقا لأبي جعفر عليه السلام بمنى، فرأيت قوما جلوسا في الفسطاط و صدر المجلس ليس فيه أحد، و رأيت رجلا جالسا ناحية يحتجم، فعرفت برأيي أنه أبو جعفر عليه السلام فقصدت نحوه فسلمت عليه، فرد السلام علي، فجلست بين يديه و الحجام خلفه فقال: أمن بني أعين أنت فقلت: نعم أنا زرارة بن أعين، فقال: إنما عرفتك بالشبه، أحج حمران؟ قلت: لا و هو يقرئك السلام، فقال: إنه من المؤمنين حقا لا يرجع أبدا، إذا لقيته فأقرئه مني السلام و قل له لم حدثت الحكم بن عتيبة عني أن الأوصياء محدثون لا تحدثه و أشباهه بمثل هذا الحديث فقال زرارة: فحمدت الله تعالى و أثنيت عليه فقلت الحمد لله، فقال هو الحمد لله، ثم قلت أحمده و أستعينه، فقال هو أحمده و أستعينه، فكنت كلما ذكرت الله في كلام ذكره كما أذكره حتى فرغت من كلامي [1/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Zurara who said: I journeyed to Madina when I was a young man and entered a pavilion of Abi Ja`far عليه السلام in Mina. I saw a group sitting in the tent and no one was at the front of the gathering. I saw a man seated at the back being cupped. I felt that it was Abu Ja`far عليه السلام came near and greeted him, he replied the greeting. I sat in front of him while the cupper was behind him. He said: are you from the children of A`yan? I said: yes, I am Zurara b. A`yan, he said: I recognized you because of your familiar looks, did Humran make the Hajj? I said: no, but he sends you greetings, he عليه السلام said: he is truly a believer who will never turn back, if you meet him convey my greetings to him and say to him: why did you narrate to al-Hakam b. Utayba my saying that the Awsiya are Muhadath [spoken to by angels], do not narrate such narrations to him and his fellows. Zurara said: then I praised Allah the Exalted and extolled Him by saying: “All praise belongs to Allah” he also said: “All praise belongs to Allah” then I said: “I praise Him and seek His aid” he in turn said: “I praise Him and seek His aid”. Whenever I would mention Allah in my talk he would also mention Him in the same way I did until I finished my conversation. NOTES: The Imam confirms the status of Humran as a believer and declares that he will never turn back from that. The Banu A`yan were formerly associated with the pseudo-Sunni scholar al-Hakam b. Utayba. The Imam asks Humran not to narrate to him the narrations which are reserved only for those whom he took as his Shia. We also see the Imam practicing a Sunna by echoing the praise to Allah in the same manner as he hears it - a way of affirming what has been said. [2/149] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن حسن، عن العباس بن عامر، عن أبان، عن الحارث قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: إن حمران كان يقول: نمد الحبل من جاوزه من علوي و غيره برئنا منه [2/149] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. Hasan from al-Abbas b. A`mir from Aban from al-Harith who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: Humran used to say: we stretch out a rope [as our marker] then we disassociate from whoever over-steps it - whether he be an Alawi or otherwise. NOTES: Note that the Imam is quoting a statement of Humran. This confirms his exalted status in so far as the Imam saw merit in what he had said. What Humran wishes to convey by this is that: it is the Shia who are the possessors of the standard by which to judge what is correct and what is not. They possess the criterion to distinguish between truth and falsehood. Whenever a claimant makes any claim, be he an Alawi [from which many pretenders arose making use of their lofty genealogy to corrupt others] or otherwise makes no difference in this regard. Whoever exceeds the bounds is to be disassociated from. [3/150] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم، عن حجر بن زائدة، عن حمران بن أعين قال: قلت لأبي جعفر عليه السلام: إني أعطيت الله عهدا لا أخرج من المدينة حتى تخبرني عما أسألك قال: فقال لي: سل قال: قلت: أمن شيعتكم أنا؟ قال: نعم في الدنيا و الآخرة [3/150] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam from Hujr b. Zaida from Humran b. A`yan who said: I said to Abi Ja`far عليه السلام: I have made an oath to Allah that I will not depart from Madina until you inform me the answer to what I ask. He said to me: ask. I said: am I of your Shia? He said: yes, in this world and the next. Who was Humran b. A`yan? Humran b. A`yan had met al-Sajjad and was one of the earliest companions of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq. He was the first of the famous Banu A`yan to turn to the `Aimma after having formerly associated with al-Hakam b. Utayba. محمّد بن مسعود، عن محمّد بن نصير، عن العبيدي و عن حمدويه، عنه، عن الحسن بن عليّ بن يقطين قال: حدّثني المشايخ أنّ حمران و زرارة و عبد الملك و بكيرا و عبد الرحمان بني أعين كانوا مستقيمين، و مات منهم أربعة في زمان أبي عبد اللّه عليه السّلام و كانوا من أصحاب أبي جعفر عليه السّلام و بقي زرارة إلى عهد أبي الحسن عليه السّلام فلقي ما لقي Muhammad b. Mas`ud – Muhammad b. Nusayr – al-Ubaydi; Hamduwayh – al-Uabydi; al-Hasan b. Ali b. Yaqtin said: the Mashayikh narrated to me that Humran, Zurara, Abd al-Malik, Bukayr and Abd al-Rahman - the sons of A`yan - were all steadfast [on the correct Madhhab]. Four of them died in the lifetime of Abi Abdillah عليه السّلام but they were the companions of Abi Ja`far عليه السّلام before that. Only Zurara remained to the time of Abi al-Hasan عليه السّلام and faced what he faced.. To know his exalted status just consider the narration below [which is backed up by other narrations despite it weak chain] و عن العيّاشي، عن عليّ بن محمّد، عن محمّد بن أحمد، عن محمّد بن موسى الهمداني، عن منصور بن العبّاس، عن متروك بن عبيد، عمّن رواه، عن زيد الشحّام، قال: قال لي أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام ما وجدت أحدا أخذ بقولي و أطاع أمري و حذا حذو أصحاب أبي غير رجلين: عبد اللّه بن أبي يعفور و حمران بن أعين. أما أنّهما مؤمنان خالصان من شيعتنا أسماؤهم عندنا في كتاب أصحاب اليمين الذي أعطى اللّه محمّدا صلّى اللّه عليه و آله Al-Ayyashi – Ali b. Muhammad – Muhammad b. Ahmad – Muhammad b. Musa al-Hamdani – Mansur b. al-Abbas – Matruk b. Ubayd – from the one who he narrated from – Zayd al-Shahham - Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said: I have not found anyone who takes my word and obeys my commands and walks in the footsteps of the companions of my father except two men: Abdallah b. Abi Ya`fur and Humran b. A`yan. Verily they are two sincere believers among my Shia, their names are with us in the book of the people of the right which Allah had given to Muhammad. He is considered among the Tabi`in and was an all-round complete scholar being a specialist both in the Qur`an and the Hadith among other sciences. As his descendant Abu Ghalib al-Zurari says in a letter: قال أبو غالب في رسالته: لقي سيّدنا سيّد العابدين عليّ بن الحسين عليه السّلام و كان من أكبر مشايخ الشيعة المفضّلين الذين لا يشكّ فيهم، و كان أحد حملة القرآن و من يعد و يذكر اسمه في كتب القراء، و روي أنه قرأ على أبي جعفر محمّد بن عليّ عليهما السّلام و كان مع ذلك عالما بالنحو و اللغة He met our master and the master of the worshipers Ali b. al-Husayn عليه السّلام. He was the foremost among the merituous teachers of the Shia about whom there is no doubt. He was one of the bearers of the Qur`an and among those who are enumerated and mentioned in the books of Qira`a. It is narrated that he recited the Qur`an to Abi Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Ali عليهما السّلام [as a student of his]. He was also apart from that a scholar of grammar and language. This is borne out because he features in the chain of the Qira`a known as Khalaf an Hamza or Khallad an Hamza. Some scholars have argued that this would be the closest Qira’a to us because of the presence of numerous Kufan narrators with Shi`i leanings in them apart from Humran. Humran is featured as having got this recitation from al-Baqir > al-Sajjad > al-Husayn > Ali. His ability in grammar can be seen in the following narration العيّاشي، عن عليّ بن محمّد بن يزيد القمّي، عن محمّد بن أحمد بن يحيى، عن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن محمّد بن حمّاد، عن الحسن بن إبراهيم، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمان، عن يونس بن يعقوب، عن هشام بن سالم قال: كنّا عند أبي عبد اللّه عليه السّلام جماعة من أصحابه، فورد رجل من أهل الشام، فاستأذن فاذن له فلمّا دخل سلّم، فأمره أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام بالجلوس، ثمّ قال له: حاجتك أيّها الرجل؟ قال: بلغني أنّك عالم بكلّ ما تسأل عنه فصرت إليك لأناظرك، فقال أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: في ماذا؟ قال: في القرآن و قطعه و إسكانه و خفضه و نصبه و رفعه، فقال أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: يا حمران دونك الرجل! فقال الرجل: إنّما اريدك أنت لا حمران! فقال أبو عبد اللّه عليه السّلام: إن غلبت حمران فقد غلبتني فأقبل الشامي يسأل حمران حتّى ضجر و ملّ و عرض و حمران يجيبه! فقال: كيف رأيت يا شامي؟ قال: رأيت حاذقا ما سألته عن شي‏ء إلّا أجابني فيه al-Ayyashi – Ali b. Muhammad b. Yazid al-Qummi – Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya – Ibrahim b. Hashim – Muhammad b. Hammad – al-Hasan b. Ibrahim – Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman – Yunus b. Ya`qub – Hisham b. Salim who said: a group of Abi Abdillah’s عليه السّلام companions were with him when a man from Syria came and sought permission to enter which was given, when inside he greeted and Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام asked him to be seated. Then he said: what have you come for O man? He said: I have been informed that you are knowledgeable of all that which you are questioned about so I have come to debate you. Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said to him: in what topic? He said: about the Qur`an, its Qat` (disconnection), Iskan (deletion in jussive), Khafd (genitive), Nasb (accusative) and Raff (nominative). Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said: O Humran face the man! The man said: I want to face you not Humran! Abu Abdillah عليه السّلام said: if you can defeat Humran then you have defeated me, so the Syrian began asking Humran until he became tired, exhausted, whatever he brings up is answered by Humran! The Imam said: how have you found him O Syrian? He said: I have found him proficient, whatever I ask him about is answered in full!
  9. 2.44. Hammad b. Isa https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/hammad-b-isa [1/148] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن العبيدي، عن حماد بن عيسى قال: دخلت على أبي الحسن الأول عليه السلام فقلت له: جعلت فداك ادع الله لي أن يرزقني دارا و زوجة و ولدا و خادما و الحج في كل سنة فقال: اللهم صل على محمد و آل محمد و ارزقه دارا و زوجة و ولدا و خادما و الحج خمسين سنة، قال حماد: فلما اشترط خمسين سنة علمت أني لا أحج أكثر من خمسين سنة، قال حماد: و حججت ثمانيا و أربعين سنة و هذه داري قد رزقتها و هذه زوجتي وراء الستر تسمع كلامي و هذا ابني و هذا خادمي قد رزقت كل ذلك ... [1/148] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Ubaydi from Hammad b. Isa who said: I entered upon Abi al-Hasan the First عليه السلام and said to him - may I be made your ransom, supplicate to Allah for me that he grants me a house, a wife, a son, a servant, and the ability to perform Hajj every year. He عليه السلام said: O Allah bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad and grant him a house, a wife, a son, a servant, and the ability to perform Hajj for fifty years. Hammad said: so when he limited it to fifty years I knew that I will not perform the Hajj exceeding fifty. Hammad also said: I have gone to Hajj for forty eight years, and this is my house which I have been granted, and this is my wife behind the veil hearing my voice, and this is my son, and this is my servant, I have been granted all that … NOTES: Hammad b. Isa al-Juhni was a resident of Basra. He was very young when he met al-Sadiq for the first time. He is quoted as confirming having correctly memorized only about 20 narrations from al-Sadiq. Among these is the famous and widely transmitted narration wherein al-Sadiq teaches him how to pray. He died in the lifetime of al-Jawad in a flood which occurred close to Madina when he was going to the Hajj in the year 209. He was a very prolific narrator of Hadith [graded Thiqa by both al-Najashi and al-Tusi] occurring in the Asanid of about 1036 narrations found in our books [Ref. to Mu`jam al-Ahadith of al-Khoei]. In most of these he is narrating from Hariz who is narrating from Zurara [this is a particularly important chain because it has preserved a lot of Zurara’s narrations from the two Imams about Salat and other important Fiqhi Masail].
  10. 2.43. al-Hakam b. Utayba https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-hakam-b-utayba [1/147] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن العباس بن عامر و جعفر بن محمد بن حكيم، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن أبي بصير قال: سألت أبا جعفر عليه السلام عن شهادة ولد الزنا أ تجوز؟ قال: لا، فقلت: إن الحكم بن عتيبة يزعم أنها تجوز، فقال: اللهم لا تغفر ذنبه، ما قال الله للحكم إِنَّهُ لَذِكْرٌ لَكَ وَ لِقَوْمِكَ، فليذهب الحكم يمينا و شمالا فو الله لا يوجد العلم إلا في أهل بيت نزل عليهم جبريل عليه السلام [1/147] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan b. Fadhal from al-Abbas b. A`mir and Ja`far b. Muhammad b. Hukaym from Aban b. Uthman from Abi Basir who said: I asked Aba Ja’far عليه السلام about the Shahada (giving witness) of a Walad Zina (child born out of Nikah) - is it permissible? he عليه السلام said: No. I said: al-Hakam b. Utayba holds it to be permissible, so he عليه السلام said: O Allah - do not forgive his sin! Allah was not addressing al-Hakam when He said: ‘it is a reminder unto you and your Qawm (relations)’ (43:44). al-Hakam can go to the right and to the left, for by Allah he will not find true knowledge except with the Ahl al-Bayt upon whom Jibril عليه السلام descended. NOTES: The Imam has a novel interpretation of ‘your Qawm’ in the verse. They are the Ahl al-Bayt who alone have kinship ties to Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم al-Hakam was one of the scholars within the Butriyya movement. He considered ʿAlī to be more virtuous (afḍal) than Abū Bakr and ʿUmar; but found every form of what he considered Shīʿite “extremism” to be disagreeable. If he was particularly noticed by the Imāmite tradition, this was probably because Zurāra b. Aʿyan, the most prominent early Imami, had studied with him. The Butriyya limited themselves to political Shi’ism. While it is true that they considered the Ahl al-Bayt to be worthy of leadership of the Umma, they did not see them as the sole arbiters whose interpretation of the Shari`a should be taken as final. They set themselves up as independent authorities and in this way misguided the masses. An example of this can be seen in this narration wherein the Imam repudiates the Fatwa of al-Hakam about the Shahada of a Walad al-Zina being admissible in the court of law.
  11. Abu Amra al-Ansari - A Forgotten Man in Early Shi`ism قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: ارتد الناس إلا ثلاثة: أبو ذر، و سلمان، و المقداد؟ قال: فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: فأين ... أبو عمرة الأنصاري؟ I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: all the people turned back except for three - Abu Dhar, Salman and Miqdad? Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: so where is … Abu Amra al-Ansari? Who was Abu Amra? There exists Ikthilaf over the real name of Abu Amra among the scholars but it is most likely Bashir. The problem is compounded when he is confused in the sources for his father Amr b. Mihsan. al-Kalbi gives it as follows [See: Nasab Ma`ad wa al-Yaman al-Kabir] ابو عمرة بشير بن عمرو بن مِحصن بن عَمرو بن عَتِيك بن عمرو بن مَبْذول، واسمه عامر بن مالك بن النجار بن ثعلبة بن عمرو بن الخزرج الأَنصاري Abu Amra Bashir b. Amr b. Mihsan b. Amr b. Atik b. Amr b. Mabdhul - and his i.e. Mabdhul’s name was A`mir - b. Malik b. al-Najjar b. Tha`laba b. Amr b. al-Khazraj al-Ansari. This means he was from the Ansar, helpers who welcomed the prophet in Madina, specifically, from the Amr b. Mabdhul of the Banu al-Najjar who were Khazraji. Abu Nuaym says [See: Ma`rifat al-Sahaba]: شهد بدرًا وأُحدًا والمشاهد He witnessed Badr, Uhud and the rest of the battles. He was a very early convert to Islam and participated in all the battles which gives him a station that we cannot fathom. He has a few narrations from the prophet recorded in the books of Hadith. The Banu Najjar Connection The Muslim sources on genealogy assert that Ali and Muhammad’s great grandmother, the mother of Abd al-Muttalib b. Hashim, was Salma bint Amr from the clan of Banu Najjar of the Khazraj. Abd al-Muttalib spent his childhood with his mother in Madina, before he was claimed by his uncle Muttalib and brought to Makka after the death of his father Hashim. This explains why the Banu Hashim always saw the Banu Najjar of the Khazraj as their Akhwal [maternal uncles]. Abd al-Muttalib said in verse [See: Ta`rikh al-Tabari] أبلغ بني النجار إن جئتهم ... أني منهم وابنهم والخميس Tell the Bani al-Najjar if you reach them … That I am one of them, their son and of their company And also: يا طول ليلي لأحزاني وأشغالي ... هل من رسول إلى النجار أخوالي O how long is my night due to my sorrows and worries … Would someone serve as a messenger to my maternal uncles (the Bani) Najjar Another piece of evidence is that most accounts regarding the circumstances preceding the death of the prophet’s father, Abdallah, place his final illness in Madina, where he is said to have stayed with his maternal uncles, the Banu Adiyy b. al-Najjar, among whom he eventually died and was buried This pre-existing relation helps explain why this particular branch of the Khazraj were overly represented in the move of the prophet from Makka to Madina. A move which gave him safety when all other doors were closed. As`ad b. Zurara of the Bani Najjar was critical to the prophet’s migration to Madina. He was the first to accept Islam from among the inhabitants of Yathrib. This happened when he and a small group of five others [all from Khazraj, including another member of the Bani Najjar] happened to meet the prophet when they went to seek settlement for a dispute from the Qurayshi elders [specifically Utba b. Rabi`a]. They returned next year in what is called the first pledge of Aqaba [delegation of the inhabitants of Yathrib that pledged their support to Muhammad prior to the Hijra]. In the accounts of the first pledge of Aqaba, 10 of the 12 men listed were from the Khazraj and 3 of those were from the Banu al-Najjar. Of the 70 or so men and 2 women who pledged their allegiance to Muhammad during the second meeting of Aqaba, 62 men and one woman were from the Khazraj and 12 of these were of the Banu al-Najjar. The prophet initially resided with them when he emigrated to Madina [specifically with Abi Ayyub al-Ansari who was of the Banu Najjar], similarly, his Masjid and later homes were built in the Najjari quarter. No surprise then that the prophet said [See: Sahih al-Bukhari]: خير دور الأنصار بنو النجار The best of the Ansari homes [in terms of genealogical honour] are those of the Banu Najjar. It is my thesis that Abu Amra being from the Najjar would have added reason to support Ali because there was a familial relation between them. But this is not the main reason why most of the Ansar placed their hope in Ali. How do we explain Ansari support? There is no doubt that the major driving force behind it was the coalescing of grievance felt by the Ansar as a result of the consolidation of the Qurayshi monopoly. They saw in the sympathetic figure of Ali [who had also been sidelined by the Qurashis] someone who could redress that balance. A Witness at Ghadir وفي اسد الغابة لابن الاثير روى بسنده عن الاصبغ بن نباتة قال: نشد علي (ع) الناس في الرحبة: من سمع النبي (ص) يوم غدير خم ما قال الا قام، ولايقوم الا من سمع رسول اللّه (ص) يقول، فقام بضعة عشر رجلا فيهم ابو ايوب الانصاري، وابو عمرة بن عمرو بن محصن ... فقالوا: نشهد انا سمعنا رسول اللّه (ص) يقول: الا ان اللّه عزوجل وليي، وانا ولي المؤمنين، الا فمن كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه، واحب من احبه، وابغض من ابغضه، واعن من اعانه Ibn Athir reports in Usd al-Ghaba via his chain to al-Asbagh b. Nabata who said: Ali عليه السلام called out to the people in al-Rahba: whoever heard what the prophet صلى الله عليه واله وسلم said on the day of Ghadir should stand, no one should stand except if he heard the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله وسلم directly. More than ten men stood up among them Abu Ayyub al-Ansari and Abu Amra b. Amr b. Mihsan … they said: we bear witness that we heard the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله وسلم saying: Verily Allah Mighty and Majestic is my master, and I am the master of the believers, whomsoever’s master I am then Ali is also his master, O Allah be a guardian to the one who takes him as a guardian, and be an enemy to the one who makes him an enemy, and love the one who loves him and hate the one who hates him and aid the one who comes to his aid. The Secret Bay`a We are told that the first Bay`a [pledge of allegiance] to Ali was given at Abu Amra’s home by a few of the closest Ashab. Kufan tradition maintains that it was al-Ashtar who extended his hands first. This happened, in one of the greatest ironies of history, on Friday the 18th of Dhul Hijja 35 AH. It was followed by the public pledge at the Masjid the next day. The fact that he got this private Bay`a from the Ansari warriors of the Bani Najjar [who were the core of the early Muslim armies] is significant. Ansari support in Madina was critical to nullifying the claims of Talha and Zubayr in that period of paralysis when Madina was over-run by forces from the provinces. قال ابن السَّمَرْقَنْدِي: أخبرني العباس بن هشام عَن أبيه قال: بويعَ علي بن أبي طالب بن عَبْد المُطَّلِب بن هاشم بن عَبْد مَنَاف بالمدينة، يوم الجُمعة حين قُتِل عُثْمَان، لاثنتي عشرة ليلة بقيت من ذي الحجة فاستقبلَ المُحرم سنة ستّ وثلاثين وقال غير عباس: وكانت بيعتهُ في دار عمرو بن محصن الأنصاري ثم أحد بني عمرو بن مبذول يوم الجمعة، ثم بويع بيعة العامة من الغد، يوم السبت في مسجد رَسُول اللَّه (ص) Ibn al-Samarqandi said: al-Abbas b. Hisham narrated to me from his father that: Ali b. Abi Talib b. Abd al-Muttalib b. Hashim b. Abd Manaf was given the Bay`a in Madina, on Friday, the day Uthman was murdered, twelve nights remaining from the month of Dhul Hijja, the coming Muharram being the new year thirty six [after Hijra]. And someone other than Abbas said: His Bay`a was in the house of Amr b. Mihsan al-Ansari whereupon Bani Amr b. Mabdhul swore fealty on a Friday, then the public oath was on the next day, Saturday, in the Masjid of the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله وسلم ابي المليح قال: لما قتل عثمان، خرج علي الى السوق، وذالك يوم السبت لثماني عشره ليلة خلت من ذى الحجة، فاتبعه الناس وبهشوا في وجهه، فدخل حائط بني عمرو بن مبذول، وقال لأبي عمرة بن عمرو بن محصن: اغلق الباب فجاء الناس فقرعوا الباب فدخلوا ... Ibn Mulayh said: when Uthman was killed, Ali came out to the market, and that was on Saturday, eighteen nights having passed from Dhul Hijja, the people followed him and thronged in front of him, so he entered the walled garden of Bani Amr b. Mabdhul and said to Abi Amra b. Amr b. Mihsan: close the door, but the people came and banged on the door and entered … To be continued ...
  12. 2.41. al-Husayn b. Qayama https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-husayn-b-qayama [1/145] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن الحسن بن موسى، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران، عن الحسين بن بشار قال: استأذنت أنا و الحسين بن قياما على الرضا عليه السلام في صريا فأذن لنا قال: افرغوا من حاجتكم قال له الحسين: تخلو الأرض من أن يكون فيها إمام؟ فقال: لا، قال: فيكون فيها اثنان قال: لا إلا واحد صامت لا يتكلم، قال: فقد علمت أنك لست بإمام! قال: و من أين علمت؟ قال: إنه ليس لك ولد و إنما هي في العقب، فقال له: فو الله أنه لا تمضي الأيام و الليالي حتى يولد لي ذكر من صلبي يقوم بمثل مقامي، يحيي الحق و يمحي الباطل [1/145] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from al-Hasan b. Musa from Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Najran from al-Husayn b. Bashir who said: I sought permission for myself and al-Husayn b. Qayama to meet al-Ridha عليه السلام in Surya, he granted it and said: finish all your needs [ask all your questions]. al-Husayn (b. Qayama) said to him: is the earth ever devoid of an Imam? He عليه السلام said: no, he (al-Husayn) said: does it ever happen that there are two Imams (together)? He عليه السلام said: no, except if one is silent and not talking, he (al-Husayn) said: I have come to know that you are not an Imam! He عليه السلام said: and how did you come to know that? he (al-Husayn) said: you do not have a son and it [Imama] is through posterity [lineal descendants], so he عليه السلام said: by Allah, the days and the nights will not pass except a son will be born to me from my loins who will assume the position I have, he will enliven the truth and efface the falsehood. NOTES: al-Husayn b. Qayama was a Waqifi who did not believe in the Imama of al-Ridha. One of the arguments of the Waqifa against al-Ridha was his lack of male descendants as he had not got a son for a very long time. Finally the prediction of the Imam came true and al-Jawad was born to him late in life.
  13. 2.39. - 2.40. al-Hasan and al-Husayn the two sons of Zurara https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-hasan-and-al-husayn-the-two-sons-of-zurara [1/144] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن، عن عبد الله بن زرارة قال: قال لي أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: اقرأ مني على والدك السلام و قل له: ... و لقد أدى إلي ابناك الحسن و الحسين رسالتك، حاطهما الله و كلأهما و رعاهما و حفظهما بصلاح أبيهما كما حفظ الغلامين ... [1/144] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman from Abdallah b. Zurara who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: convey my salutations to your father and say to him: … and your two sons al-Hasan and al-Husayn brought me your letter, may Allah guard, defend, watch over and protect them because of the goodness of their father, the way He had protected the two boys (the orphans in Surat al-Kahf).
  14. 2.37. - 2.38. Abu Ali b. Rashid and Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/abu-ali-b-rashid-and-ali-b-al-husayn-b-abd-rabbi [1/142] غيبة الطوسي: ابن أبي جيد، عن محمد بن الحسن بن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن محمد بن عيسى قال: كتب أبوالحسن العسكري عليه السلام إلى الموالي ببغداد والمدائن والسواد وما يليها: قد أقمت أبا علي بن راشد مقام علي بن الحسين بن عبد ربه ومن قبله من وكلائي، وقد أوجبت في طاعته طاعتي، وفي عصيانه الخروج إلى عصياني، وكتبت بخطي [1/142] Ghayba of al-Tusi: Ibn Abi Jayyid from Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. al-Walid from al-Saffar from Muhammad b. Isa who said: Abu al-Hasan al-Askari عليه السلام wrote to his followers in Baghdad, Madain, the Sawad [Kufa], and surrounding areas [the following]: I have appointed Aba Ali b. Rashid to the position which was formerly occupied by Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi and those who preceded him from among my agents. I have made obedience to him to be obedience to me and opposition to him to be opposition to me. I have written this letter in my own hand. [2/143] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن محمد بن نصير، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى قال: نسخت الكتاب مع ابن راشد إلى جماعة الموالي الذين هم ببغداد المقيمين بها و المداين و السواد و ما يليها أحمد الله إليكم ما أنا عليه من عافيته و حسن عادته، و أصلي على نبيه و آله أفضل صلواته و أكمل رحمته و رأفته، و إني أقمت أبا علي بن راشد مقام علي بن الحسين بن عبد ربه و من كان قبله من وكلائي، و صار في منزلته عندي، و وليته ما كان يتولاه غيره من وكلائي قبلكم، ليقبض حقي، و ارتضيته لكم و قدمته على غيره في ذلك، و هو أهله و موضعه، فصيروا رحمكم الله إلى الدفع إليه ذلك و إلي، و أن لا تجعلوا له على أنفسكم علة، فعليكم بالخروج عن ذلك و التسرع إلى طاعة الله و تحليل أموالكم و الحقن لدمائكم، وَ تَعاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَ التَّقْوى، وَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ، وَ اعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعاً، وَ لا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَ أَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ، فقد أوجبت في طاعته طاعتي و الخروج إلى عصيانه الخروج إلى عصياني، فألزموا الطريق يأجركم الله و يزيدكم من فضله، فإن الله بما عنده واسع كريم، متطول على عباده، رحيم، نحن و أنتم في وديعة الله و حفظه، و كتبته بخطي، و الحمد لله كثيرا [2/143] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Muhammad b. Nusayr from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa who said: I made a copy of the letter [from the Imam] in the possession of Ibn Rashid to the group of followers who reside in Baghdad, Madain, the Sawad [Kufa], and surrounding areas: I praise Allah to you because of what I am in of good health granted by Him and His fair dealing with me. I invoke blessings upon His prophet and his family, the best of His blessings and most complete of His mercy and affection. I have appointed Aba Ali b. Rashid to take the place of Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi and whoever came before him from among my agents. He (Abu Ali) has attained the same status the latter had with me. I give him authority over all that which the other agents had authority over among you so that he can collect my dues. I have chosen him for you and have given him precedence over others in this regard because he is the most suited and deserving of that. So fall in line - may Allah have mercy on you - in handing that over to him and to me, and do not give him any reason to fault you over, for it is incumbent upon you to avoid that, and to hasten to the obedience of Allah, and to legitimize your wealth and preserve your blood - “and assist each other in righteousness and piety (5:2), and fear Allah so that you may be mercied (49:10), and hold onto the rope of Allah all together (3:103), and do not die except as Muslims (3:102)”. I have equated obedience to him with my obedience and embarking upon disobedience to him with embarking upon my disobedience. So stick steadfastly to the path and Allah will reward you and increase you from his own grace, for Allah is expansive and generous with what He has, bountiful to his servants, merciful. You and us are in the safe-guard of Allah and His protection. It is my own handwriting, and I praise Allah effusively. NOTES: It seems that this is one letter which has been truncated by al-Tusi in his Ghayba and given in a more complete form by al-Kashshi. The historical document sheds light on the financial network of the later Imams which had evolved considerably from earlier times. It serves the purpose of introducing a new agent (Abu Ali b. Rashid) to the Shia of Baghdad, Madain, Sawad and surrounding environs as a replacement for the former agent (Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi). This would mean that the Imam had one man at the top of a pyramid-like structure overseeing the affairs of what may be called the Iraq sector. Undoubtedly, another individual would be ultimately responsible for the vast Iran sector including greater Khorasan. Who was Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi? Both al-Barqi and al-Tusi count Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi among the companions of al-Hadi. He was an agent (Wakil) of Abi al-Hasan al-Askari [i.e. al-Hadi] as the two narrations above show. The status of Ali b. al-Husayn must have been very high for the Imam to have such confidence about him i.e. obedience to him was to be absolute. Al-Kashshi includes two reports which shed light on the circumstances around his death. حمدويه، عن محمّد بن عيسى، عنه قال: سألته أن ينسأ في أجلي، فقال: أو تلقى ربّك ليغفر لك خير لك فحدّث بذلك عليّ بن الحسين إخوانه بمكّة، ثمّ مات بالخزيميّة في المنصرف في سنته، و هذا في سنة تسع و عشرين و مائتين رحمه اللّه فقال: و قد نعي إليّ نفسي كان وكيل الرجل قبل أبي عليّ بن راشد Hamduwayh - Muhammad b. Isa - [Ali b. al-Husayn] who said: I asked him to put-off my death, he said: ‘that you meet your Lord so that he can forgive you is better for you’. Ali b. al-Husayn narrated this [conversation] to his brothers in Makka and went on to die in Khuzaymiyya when departing from the Hajj in the same year, that was the year two hundred and ninety nine, may Allah have mercy on him. And he had said [when the Imam had answered him in this way]: he has foretold my death for me! He was the agent of the man before Abi Ali b. Rashid. محمد بن مسعود، قال: حدثنا محمد بن نصير، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد ابن عيسى، قال: كتب إليه علي بن الحسين بن عبد ربه يسأله الدعاء في زيادة عمره حتى يرى ما يحب، فكتب إليه في جوابه: تصير إلى رحمة الله خير لك، فتوفي الرجل بالخزيمية Muhammad b. Masud - Muhammad b. Nusayr - Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa who said: Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi wrote to him asking him [the Imam] to supplicate for him to have a longer life until he can see what he loves, so he wrote to him in answer: that you depart to the mercy of Allah is better for you, then the man died in Khuzaymiyya. Who was Abu Ali b. Rashid? Abu Ali al-Hasan b. Rashid, was the Wakil of the Imam who took the position of Ali b. al-Husayn after the latter’s death. He is counted among the companions of both al-Jawad and al-Hadi. al-Tusi gives him an outright Tawthiq in his Rijal. And why wouldn’t he be trustworthy when the Imam has just described in such glowing terms in his letter of introduction to the Shia. وجدت بخط جبرئيل بن أحمد حدثني محمد بن عيسى اليقطيني قال: كتب عليه السلام إلى علي بن بلال في سنة اثنتين وثلاثين ومائتين: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم أحمد الله إليك وأشكر طوله وعوده، واصلي على محمد النبي وآله صلوات الله ورحمته عليهم، ثم إني أقمت أبا علي مقام حسين بن عبدربه فائتمنته على ذلك بالمعرفة بما عنده الذي لا يقدمه أحد وقد أعلم أنك شيخ ناحيتك فأحببت إفرادك وإكرامك بالكتاب بذلك فعليك بالطاعة له، والتسليم إليه جميع الحق قبلك، وأن تحض موالي على ذلك وتعرفهم من ذلك ما يصير سببا إلى عونه وكفايته، فذلك توفير علينا، ومحبوب لدينا، ولك به جزاء من الله وأجر، فان الله يعطي من يشاء أفضل الاعطآء والجزاء برحمته، أنت في وديعة الله، وكتبت بخطي وأحمد الله كثيرا Jibrail b. Ahmad - Muhammad b. Isa al-Yaqtini who said: He عليه السلام wrote to Ali b. Bilal in the year two hundred and thirty two [the following]: in the name of Allah the Beneficent the Merciful. I praise Allah to you and thank Him for His bounty and favour. I invoke blessings upon Muhammad the prophet and his family, the blessings of Allah and His mercy be upon them. I have appointed Aba Ali in the place of Ali b. al-Husayn b. Abd Rabbi and have entrusted this [position] to him being aware of what he has [of merit] in which no one precedes him. I know that you are the chief of your locality [also appointed by the Imam] so I wished to single you out and distinguish you by sending you a personal letter on the matter. Therefore, upon you is obedience to him, and to submit to him all the dues that you have with you, and to encourage my followers to do this and create awareness among them such that it becomes a cause for support and aid to him. That will be a provision for us and is beloved to us, and for you will be a goodly recompense from Allah and a reward, for Allah does give to the one He likes the best of recompenses and rewards by His mercy. You are in the safe-guard of Allah. I have written it by me own hand and I praise Allah effusively. This letter was written in 232 and Ali died in 299, an incongruity which needs to be explained. It could be that the position was unfilled for the intervening period, or that the letter was written at least a year after Abu Ali's appointment. حدثني محمد بن قولويه، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، قال: حدثنا أحمد ابن هلال، عن محمد بن الفرج، قال: كتبت إلى أبي الحسن عليه السلام أسأله عن أبي علي بن راشد، وعن عيسى بن جعفر بن عاصم، وابن بند؟ فكتب إلي: ذكرت ابن راشد رحمه الله، فإنه عاش سعيدا ومات شهيدا ودعا لابن بند، والعاصمي، وابن بند ضرب بالعمود حتى قتل، وابن جعفر ضرب ثلاثمائة سوط ورمي به في دجلة Muhammad b. Qulawayh - Sa`d b. Abdallah - Ahmad b. Hilal - Muhammad b. al-Farj who said: I wrote to Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام asking him about Abi Ali b. Rashid, Isa b. Ja`far b. Asim and Ibn Band, so he wrote to me: you have mentioned Ibn Rashid - may Allah have mercy on him - for he lived virtuously and died a martyr, and he supplicated for Ibn Band and al-Asimi. Ibn Band was killed by being hit by rods until he died, and Ibn Ja`far was whipped three hundred strokes and thrown into the Tigris. This establishes that Abu Ali b. Rashid was martyred in the lifetime of Imam al-Hadi (because of his job for the Imam?) and did not continue his work into the Imama of al-Askari.
  15. What does this have to do with the narrations included here? I am not sure of the point you are trying to make. Are you accusing al-Muhsini of not believing in the birth? Just come ahead and state it if so. The problem seems to be that you are relying on a copy and paste which I am not sure you understand fully. Five quick points: (i) al-Muhsini has his own Manhaj in authenticating Ahadith which other scholars might not agree with. (ii) Historical births are not proven necessarily by Asanid. (iii) What you bring about is just a summation of one Bab - what of the other chapters which contain authentic narrations acc. to al-Muhsini? [these prove his existence indirectly, see above for some] (iv) There exists a concept of multiple chains strengthening each other. (v) There are fictional narratives which were fabricated about the incident, however, this topic is not for collecting those. Here I presented some Ahadith which are of a higher strength [to most scholars]. If you have anything to comment about these then you are welcome.