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Islamic Salvation

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Islamic Salvation last won the day on August 20 2014

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  1. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.148. Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh (Shaykh al-Saduq) https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-ali-b-al-husayn-b-musa-b-babawayh-shaykh-al-saduq [1/250] غيبة الطوسي: جماعة، عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن موسى بن بابويه وأبي عبدالله الحسين بن علي أخيه عن أبوجعفر محمد بن علي الاسود رحمه الله قال: سألني علي بن الحسن بن موسى بن بابويه رضي الله عنه بعد موت محمد بن عثمان العمري قدس سره أن أسأل أبا القاسم الروحي قدس الله روحه أن يسأل مولانا صاحب الزمان عليه السلام أن يدعو الله أن يرزقه ولدا ذكرا قال: فسألته فأنهى ذلك، ثم أخبرني بعد ذلك بثلاثة أيام أنه قد دعا لعلي بن الحسين رحمه الله فإنه سيولد له ولد مبارك ينفع الله به، وبعده أولاد ... قال: فولد لعلي بن الحسين رضي الله عنه تلك السنة إبنه محمد بن علي وبعده أولاد ... قال أبو جعفر بن بابويه: وكان أبو جعفر محمد بن علي الأسود كثيرا ما يقول لي - إذا رآني أختلف إلى مجلس شيخنا محمد بن الحسن بن الوليد رضي الله عنه وأرغب في كتب العلم وحفظه - ليس بعجب أن تكون لك هذه الرغبة في العلم وأنت ولدت بدعاء الإمام عليه السلام [1/250] Ghayba of al-Tusi: A large number from Abi Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh and his brother Abi Abdallah al-Husayn b. Ali both of them from Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali al-Aswad رحمه الله who said: Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh رضي الله عنه asked me - after the death of Muhammad b. Uthman al-Amri قدس سره - to request Aba al-Qasim al-Ruhi قدس سره to implore our Leader the Master of the Age عليه السلام to supplicate to Allah that He grant him a male child. He [al-Aswad] says: I asked him [al-Ruhi] but he refused it. Then he informed me after three days that he [the Imam] had supplicated for Ali b. al-Husayn رحمه الله and ‘will be born to him a blessed son through whom Allah will benefit many and after him other sons’. He [al-Aswad] said: Muhammad b. Ali was born to Ali b. al-Husayn رضي الله عنه that same year and after him other children … Abu Ja’far b. Babawayh (al-Saduq) said: Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali al-Aswad would always say to me - when he sees me going to the study session of our Shaykh Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. al-Walid رضي الله عنه and after observing my motivation for studying the books of knowledge and gaining mastery over them: it is not strange that you have this desire for knowledge for you were born because of the supplication of the Imam عليه السلام NOTES: Shaykh al-Saduq was born through the supplication of the Twelfth Imam. His father Ali b. al-Husayn was not granted off-spring for many years. He decided to send a plea to the Imam via the Third Safir [Na'ib Khass] Abu al-Qasim b. al-Ruh. The reply was that he will be granted a son who would grow up to become a learned scholar of the religion who benefits many through his knowledge. This was indeed fulfilled for the believers gain benefit from the books authored by him to this day.
  2. Born Through the Dua of the Imam

    Born Through the Dua of the Imam Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh, famously known as Shaykh al-Saduq (d. 381), is not a new name to Shi’i readers. He was a great Hadith scholar whose magnum opus Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih is considered one of the Four books. Less commonly known about him is that he was born through the supplication of the Twelfth Imam. His father Ali b. al-Husayn was not granted off-spring from his first wife for many years. He decided to send a plea to the Imam via the Third Safir [Na'ib Khass] Abu al-Qasim b. al-Ruh, the reply was that he would be granted two male sons from a Daylami bond-woman and that both would grow up to become learned scholars of the religion. The aim of the post is to gather documentary evidence for this historical incident. I. وأخبرنا جماعة، عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن موسى بن بابويه وأبي عبدالله الحسين بن علي أخيه قالا:حدثنا أبوجعفر محمد بن علي الاسود رحمه الله قال: سألني علي بن الحسن بن موسى بن بابويه رضي الله عنه بعد موت محمد بن عثمان العمري قدس سره أن أسأل أبا القاسم الروحي قدس الله روحه أن يسأل مولانا صاحب الزمان عليه السلام أن يدعو الله أن يرزقه ولدا ذكرا قال: فسألته فأنهى ذلك، ثم أخبرني بعد ذلك بثلاثة أيام أنه قد دعا لعلي بن الحسين رحمه الله فإنه سيولد له ولد مبارك ينفع الله به، وبعده أولاد ... قال: فولد لعلي بن الحسين رضي الله عنه تلك السنة إبنه محمد بن علي وبعده أولاد ... قال أبو جعفر بن بابويه: وكان أبو جعفر محمد بن علي الأسود كثيرا ما يقول لي - إذا رآني أختلف إلى مجلس شيخنا محمد بن الحسن بن الوليد رضي الله عنه وأرغب في كتب العلم وحفظه - ليس بعجب أن تكون لك هذه الرغبة في العلم وأنت ولدت بدعاء الإمام عليه السلام [Ghayba of al-Tusi] A large number – Abi Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh and his brother Abi Abdallah al-Husayn b. Ali – Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali al-Aswad رحمه الله who said: Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh رضي الله عنه asked me - after the death of Muhammad b. Uthman al-Amri قدس سره - to request Aba al-Qasim al-Ruhi قدس سره to implore our Leader the Master of the Age عليه السلام to supplicate to Allah that He grant him a male child. He [al-Aswad] says: I asked him [al-Ruhi] that but he refused to do that. Then he informed me three days after that that he [the Imam] had supplicated for Ali b. al-Husayn رحمه الله and that ‘will be born for him a blessed son through whom Allah will benefit [many] and after him many sons’. He said: so was born to Ali b. al-Husayn رضي الله عنه that same year his son Muhammad b. Ali and after him other children … Abu Ja’far b. Babawayh (al-Saduq) said: Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali al-Aswad would always say to me - when he sees me going to the Majlis of our Shaykh Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. al-Walid رضي الله عنه and after observing my motivation for the books of knowledge and mastery over them: it is not strange that you have this desire for knowledge for you were born because of the supplication of the Imam عليه السلام II. وقال أبو عبد الله بن بابويه: عقدت المجلس ولي دون العشرين سنة، فربما كان يحضر مجلسي أبو جعفر محمد بن علي الأسود، فإذا نظر إلى إسراعي في الأجوبة في الحلال والحرام يكثر التعجب لصغر سني ثم يقول لا عجب لأنك ولدت بدعاء الإمام عليه السلام [Ghayba of al-Tusi] Abu Abdallah b. Babawayh (the brother of al-Saduq) said: I began leading a study-session when I was not yet twenty years old. Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Ali al-Aswad would sometimes attend these sessions. He would be greatly amazed after seeing my quickness in answering questions about the Halal and Haram despite my young age and would say: there is no surprise - for you were born through the supplication of the Imam عليه السلام III. قال أبو العباس أحمد بن علي بن نوح: وحدثني أبوعبدالله الحسين بن محمد بن سورة القمي حين قدم علينا حاجا قال: حدثني علي بن الحسن بن يوسف الصائغ القمي ومحمد بن أحمد بن محمد الصيرفي المعروف بابن الدلال وغيرهما من مشايخ أهل قم أن علي بن الحسين بن موسى بن بابويه كانت تحته بنت عمه محمد بن موسى بن بابويه فلم يرزق منها ولدا فكتب إلى شيخ أبي القاسم الحسين بن روح رضي الله عنه أن يسأل الحضرة أن يدعو الله أن يرزقه أولادا فقهاء فجاء الجواب إنك لاترزق من هذه وستملك جارية ديلمية وترزق منها ولدين فقيهين [Ghayba of al-Tusi] Abu al-Abbas Ahmad b. Ali b. Nuh– Abu Abdallah al-Husayn b. Muhammad b. Sura al-Qummi [when he came to us making the Hajj] – Ali b. al-Hasan b. Yusuf al-Saigh al-Qummi and Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sayrafi better known as Ibn al-Dalal and others among the Shuyukh of the people of Qum that: Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babawyh had married the daughter of his paternal uncle Muhammad b. Musa b. Babawayh. He was not granted a son through her. He wrote to the Shaykh Abi al-Qasim al-Husayn b. Ruh رضي الله عنه asking him to request the holy presence to supplicate to Allah to grant him knowledgeable off-spring. There came in reply: ‘You will not be granted through this one, but you will have ownership of a Daylami slave and you will be granted through her two knowledgeable sons’ قال: وقال لي أبوعبدالله بن سورة حفظه الله: ولابي الحسن بن بابويه ثلاثة أولاد محمد والحسين فقيهان ماهران في الحفظ يحفظان مالا يحفظ غيرهما من أهل قم ولهما أخ اسمه الحسن وهو الاوسط مشتغل بالعباده والزهد لايختلط بالناس ولا فقه له قال ابن سورة: كلما روى أبوجعفر وأبوعبدالله ابنا علي بن الحسين شيئا يتعجب الناس من حفظهما ويقولون لهما: هذا الشان خصوصية لكما بدعوة الامام عليه السلام لكما، وهذا أمر مستفيض في أهل قم He [Abu al-Abbas] said: Abu Abdallah b. Sura said to me: Abi al-Hasan b. Babawayh had three sons. Muhammad and al-Husayn became jurists, very capable in memorization. They could memorize what others could not among the residents of Qum. They had a brother called al-Hasan who was the middle brother. He spent a lot of his time in worship and abstinence [from the worldly things]. He used not to mix with people. He was not learned in Fiqh. Ibn Sura said: Whenever Abu Ja’far and Abu Abdallah the two sons of Ali b. al-Husayn would narrate something the people would wonder at their memorization capacity and say to them both: this merit is unique to you two because of the supplication of the Imam عليه السلام for you [to be born]. This matter [that they were born by the supplication of the Imam] is widely known among the people of Qum. IV. قدم (علي بن الحسين بن موسى بن بابويه) العراق واجتمع مع أبي القاسم الحسين بن روح رحمه الله وسأله مسائل ثم كاتبه بعد ذلك على يد علي بن جعفر بن الأسود يسأله أن يوصل له رقعة إلى الصاحب عجل الله تعالى فرجه يسأله فيها الولد، فكتب إليه: قد دعونا الله لك بذلك وسترزق ولدين ذكرين خيرين، فولد له أبو جعفر وأبو عبد الله من أم ولد وكان أبو عبد الله الحسين بن عبيد الله يقول: سمعت أبا جعفر يقول: أنا ولدت بدعوة صاحب الامر عليه السلام، ويفتخر بذلك [Fihrist of al-Najashi] He (Ali b. al-Husayn b. Musa b. Babawayh) came to Iraq and met up with Abi al-Qasim al-Husayn b. Ruh رحمه الله and asked him questions. Then he wrote to him via the mediation of Ali b. Ja’far b. al-Aswad (sic. Muhammad b. Ali al-Aswad) asking him to carry a note on his behalf to the Master عجل الله تعالى فرجه asking him for a son. He [the Imam] wrote to him: ‘We have supplicated to Allah about that for you and you will be granted two male sons who are good’. After which was born to him Abu Ja’far and Abu Abdallah from a female slave. Abu Abdallah al-Husayn b. Ubaydallah (al-Ghadhairi) used to say: I heard Aba Ja’far (al-Saduq) saying: I was born through the supplication of the Master of the Order عليه السلام, and pride himself because of that. I say: And it is such a thing which is befitting for pride.
  3. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.147. Muhammad b. Ali b. Bilal https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-ali-b-bilal [-/1] رجال الكشي: حكى بعض الثقات بنيسابور: أنه خرج لإسحاق بن إسماعيل من أبي محمد عليه السلام توقيع: يا إسحاق بن إسماعيل ... و يا إسحاق اقرأ كتابنا على البلالي رضي الله عنه فإنه الثقة المأمون العارف بما يجب عليه ... [1/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: One of the Thiqat in Naysabur relayed to us that: There came out a signed rescript [Tawqi] from Abi Muhammad عليه السلام to Ishaq b. Ismail saying: O Ishaq b. Ismail … and O Ishaq - read this letter of ours to al-Bilali - may Allah be well pleased with him - for he is the Thiqa and the trusted one, the one who recognizes what is incumbent on him … [2/249] الكافي: علي بن محمد، عن محمد بن علي بن بلال قال: خرج إلي من أبي محمد عليه السلام قبل مضيه بسنتين يخبرني بالخلف من بعده، ثم خرج إلي من قبل مضيه بثلاثة أيام يخبرني بالخلف من بعده [2/249] al-Kafi: Ali b. Muhammad from Muhammad b. Ali b. Bilal who said: There came to me from Abi Muhammad [al-Askari] عليه السلام [a letter] informing me of the identity of the successor after him two years before his [al-Askari’s] death. Then there came to me [a letter] informing me of the successor after him three days before his death. NOTES: al‑Bilali was a highly trusted agent at first, but he went on to deny that Abu Ja’far al-Amri was the Safir of the lesser occultation and claimed the position for himself, leading to his downfall. al-Tusi says about him in his book al-Ghayba in a section titled - المذمومين الذين ادعوا البابية لعنهم الله - ‘the disparaged individuals who claimed Babhood [deputyship to the Final Imam] may Allah curse them’: ومنهم أبوطاهر محمد بن علي بن بلال وقصته معروفة فيما جرى بينه وبين أبي جعفر محمد بن عثمان العمري نضر الله وجهه وتمسكه بالاموال التي كانت عنده للامام وامتناعه من تسليمها وادعاؤه أنه الوكيل حتى تبرأت الجماعة منه ولعنوه وخرج من صاحب الزمان عليه السلام ماهو معروف Among them also was Abu Tahir Muhammad b. Ali b. Bilal. The story of what occurred between him and Abi Ja’far Muhammad b. Uthman al-Amri [the second Safir] is famous. He withheld the wealth which was with him for the Imam and refused to hand it over. He claimed that he was the Wakil. This caused a large number to disassociate from him and curse him. There came out from the Master of the Age عليه السلام that which is well-known [i.e. a Tawqi exposing him]. al-Muhsini: This fall from grace, if it occurred, while not far-fetched in of itself, casts doubt on the authenticity of the Tawqi above [No. 1/-]. There we have him described as ‘Thiqa and trusted one’ despite the Imam having fore-knowledge of his coming deviation. This is improbable. Unless it is said that the Bilali in the Tawqi is different from the one described by al-Tusi. This too is improbable. Another way to reconcile the two would be to hold the position that the ‘Aimma do not know the specifics of every event that is to occur in the future.
  4. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.146. Muhammad b. Ali the Commander of the Faithful https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-ali-the-commander-of-the-faithful [1/248] توحيد الصدوق: ابن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن ابن أبي الخطاب، عن ابن بشير، عن الحسين بن أبي حمزة قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: قال أبي عليه السلام: إن محمد بن الحنفية كان رجلا رابط الجأش - وأشار بيده - وكان يطوف بالبيت فاستقبله الحجاج، فقال: قد همت أن أضرب الذي فيه عيناك، قال له محمد: كلا إن الله تبارك اسمه في خلقه في كل يوم ثلاثمائة لحظة أو لمحة، فلعل إحداهن تكفك عني [1/248] Tawhid al-Saduq: Ibn al-Walid from al-Saffar from Ibn Abi al-Khattab from Ibn Bashir from al-Husayn b. Abi Hamza who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: My father [al-Baqir] عليه السلام said: Muhammad b. al-Hanafiyya was a man with a fearless heart - and he [the Imam] pointed with his hand [to his chest]. He [Ibn al-Hanafiyya] was making Tawaf around the House [Ka’ba] when Hajjaj encountered him. He [Hajjaj] said: I desire to strike that which holds your eyes [i.e. cut off your head]! Muhammad said to him: Never! Verily Allah - Blessed is His Name - has three hundred moments each day over His creatures [in which his decree is enacted], perhaps one of them [these moments] can get rid of you for me. NOTES: Hajjaj was the murderous tyrant who was appointed by the Umayyads to rule Iraq. The bravery of Muhammad b. Ali [Ibn al-Hanafiyya] is well attested in the annals of history [see especially his exploits in the battle of Siffin].
  5. Wiladat Al-qaim Al-mahdi

    أبوه، ومحمد بن الحسن، ومحمد بن موسى ابن المتوكل - رضي الله عنهم، عن عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري قال: سألت محمد بن عثمان العمري رضي الله عنه فقلت له: رأيت صاحب هذا الامر عليه السلام؟ فقال: نعم، وآخر عهدي به عند بيت الله الحرام وهو يقول: اللهم أنجز لي ما وعدتني، قال محمد بن عثمان رضي الله عنه وأرضاه: ورأيته صلوات الله عليه متعلقا بأستار الكعبة في المستجار وهو يقول: اللهم انتقم لي من أعدائك His [al-Saduq’s] father, Muhammad b. al-Hasan and Muhammad b. Musa b. al-Mutawakkil - may Allah be pleased with them all - from Abdallah b. Ja’far al-Himyari who said: I asked Muhammad b. Uthman al-Amri رضي الله عنه: Have you seen the Master of this Orderعليه السلام ? He said: Yes. My last meeting with him was at the Sanctified House of Allah [Ka’ba], he was saying: ‘O Allah - fulfill for me what you promised me’. Muhammad b. Uthman رضي الله عنه وأرضاه said: I also saw him صلوات الله عليه clinging to the covering of the Ka’ba at the Mustajar [place of refuge - wall opposite the Yamani corner of the Ka’ba] saying: ‘O Allah - seek revenge for me from your enemies’. Reference: Man La Yahdhuruhu al-Faqih, Vol 2, Pg. 520. Grading: Sahih.
  6. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.144. - 3.145. Muhammad b. Uthman b. Sa’id al-Amri and his father, the two Envoys of the Hujja, the Qaim https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-uthman-b-said-al-amri-and-his-father-the-two-envoys-of-the-hujja-the-qaim [-/1] الكافي: محمد بن عبدالله ومحمد بن يحيى جميعا، عن عبدالله بن جعفر الحميري قال: اجتمعت أنا والشيخ أبوعمرو رحمه الله عند أحمد بن إسحاق فغمزني أحمد بن إسحاق أن أسأله عن الخلف فقلت له: يا أبا عمرو إني اريد أن أسألك عن شئ ... وأخبرني أبوعلي أنه سأل ابا محمد عليه السلام عن مثل ذلك، فقال له: العمري وابنه ثقتان، فما أديا إليك عني فعني يؤديان وما قالا لك فعني يقولان، فاسمع لهما وأطعمها فإنهما الثقتان المأمونان ... [1/-] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Abdallah and Muhammad b. Yahya from Abdallah b. Ja’far al-Himyari who said: We gathered - myself and the Shaykh Abu Amr [al-Amri] رحمه الله at Ahmad bin Ishaq’s place. Ahmad b. Ishaq gestured at me to ask him [al-Amri] about the Successor [al-Mahdi] so I said to him: O Aba Amr - I want to ask you something … Abu Ali [Ahmad b. Ishaq] also informed me that he had asked Aba Muhammad [al-Hasan b. Ali al-Askari] عليه السلام about the same matter and he [the Imam] said to him: al-Amri and his son are two trustees. What they give to you on my behalf then their giving is truly on mine behalf, and what they say to you on my behalf then their saying is truly on mine behalf. Therefore listen to them and obey them, for they are both trustworthy and reliable … [2/247] غيبة الطوسي: باسناده عن عبد الله بن جعفر قال: خرج التوقيع إلى الشيخ أبي جعفر محمد بن عثمان بن سعيد العمري قدس الله روحه في التعزية بأبيه رضي الله تعالى عنه وفيه: ... أجزل الله لك الثواب وأحسن لك العزاء، رزيت ورزينا، وأوحشك فراقه وأوحشنا، فسره الله في منقلبه، كان من كمال سعادته أن رزقه الله تعالى ولدا مثلك، يخلفه من بعده، ويقوم مقامه بأمره، ويترحم عليه، وأقول الحمد الله فإن الأنفس طيبة بمكانك، وما جعله الله عز وجل فيك وعندك، وأعانك الله وقواك، وعضدك ووفقك، وكان لك وليا وحافظا، وراعيا، وكافيا [2/247] Ghayba of al-Tusi: Via his chain to Abdallah b. Ja’far who said: A Tawqi [signed rescript] came out to the Shaykh Abi Ja’far Muhammad b. Uthman b. Sai’d al-Amri قدس الله روحه condoling him for the death of his father رضي الله تعالى عنه. In it was written: … May Allah amplify your reward and beautify your mourning. We grieve just as you grieve. It [his death] has left you bereft just as it has left us bereft. May Allah delight him after his return [to Him]. One aspect of the perfect felicity [he attained] is that Allah the Exalted granted him a son like you, who succeeds him after his departure, stands in his place as per his command, and supplicates for mercy for him. I say ‘All praise belongs to Allah’ for the souls are comforted due to the position you have assumed [after him] and because of what Allah Mighty and Majestic has bestowed in you and with you. May Allah support and strengthen you. May He aid you and facilitate you. May He be a Guardian over you, a Protector, a Guide and Sufficient [for you]. NOTES: This is the letter which officially appointed Abu Ja’far Muhammad b. Uthman b. Sa’id al-Amri as the second Envoy [Naib Khass] of the Twelfth Imam after his father. [-/3] الفقيه: باسناده عن عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري قال: سألت محمد بن عثمان العمري رضي الله عنه فقلت له: رأيت صاحب هذا الامر عليه السلام؟ فقال: نعم، وآخر عهدي به عند بيت الله الحرام وهو يقول: اللهم أنجز لي ما وعدتني، قال محمد بن عثمان رضي الله عنه وأرضاه: ورأيته صلوات الله عليه متعلقا بأستار الكعبة في المستجار وهو يقول: اللهم انتقم لي من أعدائك [3/-] al-Faqih: Via his chain to Abdallah b. Ja’far al-Himyari who said: I asked Muhammad b. Uthman al-Amri رضي الله عنه: Have you seen the Master of this Order عليه السلام? He said: Yes. My last meeting with him was at the Sanctified House of Allah [Ka’ba], he was saying: ‘O Allah - fulfill for me what you promised me’. Muhammad b. Uthman رضي الله عنه وأرضاه said: I also saw him صلوات الله عليه clinging to the covering of the Ka’ba at the Mustajar [place of refuge - wall opposite the Yamani corner of the Ka’ba] saying: ‘O Allah - seek revenge for me from your enemies’.
  7. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.143. Muhammad b. Abdallah al-Tayyar https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-abdallah-al-tayyar [1/245] رجال الكشي: حمدويه ومحمد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم قال: قال لي أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: ما فعل ابن الطيار؟ قال: قلت: مات قال: رحمه الله ولقاه نضرة وسرورا فقد كان شديد الخصومة عنا أهل البيت [1/245] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Muhammad from Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: What happened to Ibn al-Tayyar? I said: he died. He said: May Allah have mercy on him and grant him radiance and joy, for he was an intensely vocal defender on our behalf - the Ahl al-Bayt. [2/246] رجال الكشي: حمدويه ومحمد، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن أبي جعفر الأحول عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: ما فعل ابن الطيار؟ فقلت: توفي فقال: رحمه الله أدخل الله عليه الرحمة والنضرة فإنه كان يخاصم عنا أهل البيت [2/246] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Muhammad from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Abi Ja’far al-Ahwal from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: What happened to Ibn al-Tayyar? I said: he died. He said: May Allah have mercy on him and make mercy and radiance enter upon him, for he used to verbally defend us the Ahl al-Bayt. [-/3] رجال الكشي: حمدويه ومحمد ابنا نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن أبان الأحمر، عن الطيار قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: بلغني أنك كرهت مناظرة الناس فقال: أما كلام مثلك فلا يكره، من إذا طار يحسن أن يقع، وإن وقع يحسن أن يطير، فمن كان هكذا لا نكرهه [3/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh and Muhammad the two sons of Nusayr from Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Hakam from Aban al-Ahmar from al-Tayyar who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: It has reached me that you dislike us debating the people? He said: As for the speaking of someone like you then it is not disliked. The one who if he flies is able to land well, and when he lands is able to fly well. Whomever is like this then we do not dislike him [to debate]. NOTES: Ibn al-Tayyar and al-Tayyar both refer to the same man Muhammad b. Abdallah, who was one of the companions of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq. He was not just an average narrator of Hadith but was a scholar in his own right. He was an expert in fields such as the Qur’an, inheritance laws [Fiqh] and Kalam [theology]. The Imam was so confident of his abilities that he excluded him from the general ban against debating [See No. 3/- above] and even wanted to show him off to others - as if to say: ‘whom do you have who is good as this student of mine’ [See below] قال محمد بن مسعود حدثني محمد بن نصير، قال حدثني محمد بن الحسين، عن جعفر بن بشير، عن ابن بكير، عن حمزة بن الطيار قال: سألني أبو عبد الله عليه السلام عن قراءة القرآن فقلت: ما أنا بذلك، قال: لكن أبوك، قال: فسألني عن الفرائض فقلت أنا: و ما أنا بذلك فقال: لكن أبوك، قال: ثم قال: إن رجلا من قريش كان لي صديقا و كان عالما قارئا، فاجتمع هو و أبوك عند أبي جعفر عليه السلام، فقال ليقبل كل واحد منكما على صاحبه و يسائل كل واحد منكما صاحبه ففعلا، فقال القرشي لأبي جعفر عليه السلام: قد علمت ما أردت أردت أن تعلمني أن في أصحابك مثل هذا، قال: هو ذاك كيف رأيت Muhammad b. Masud – Muhammad b. Nusayr – Muhammad b. al-Husayn – Ja’far b. Bashir – Ibn Bukayr – Hamza b. al-Tayyar who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام asked me about the recitation of the Qur'an [how good was I in it], I said: I am not all that [proficient in it], he عليه السلام said: but your father was. He [Hamza] said: then he asked me about my knowledge of the inheritance laws, so I said: I am not all that [good at it], he عليه السلام said: but your father was. Then he [Abu Abdillah] said: there was a man from the Quraysh who was a friend of mine, he was both knowledgeable and a scholar of the Qur’an, it happened once that he and your father gathered together at Abu Ja'far's عليه السلام, he [Abu Ja'far] said: let the both of you face each other and begin questioning one another [about different Masail], so they did as they were told, afterwards the Qurayshi man said to Abi Ja’far عليه السلام - I have realized what you wanted by this, you wanted to show me that among your companions there is someone like him [i.e. Hamza's father - Muhammad b. Abdallah al-Tayyar], he [Abu Ja'far] said: that is so - how did you find [him]?
  8. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.142. Muhammad b. Abdallah b. al-Hasan b. al-Hasan al-Mujtaba al-Nafs al-Zakiyya https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-abdallah-b-al-hasan-b-al-hasan-al-mujtaba-al-nafs-al-zakiyya [-/1] بصائر الدرجات: عبد الله بن جعفر، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن صفوان، عن العيص، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: ما من بني ولا وصي ولا ملك إلا في كتاب عندي، لا والله ما لمحمد بن عبد الله بن الحسن فيه اسم [1/-] Basair al-Darajat: Abdallah b. Ja’far from Muhammad b. Isa from Safwan from al-Iys [b. al-Qasim] from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: there is not a prophet or a successor or a king except that he is found in a book which is with me. No by Allah! the name of Muhammad b. Abdallah b. al-Hasan is not in there. NOTES: This is one of the signs of the Imama of al-Sadiq for he prophesied that the revolt of Muhammad b. Abdallah b. al-Hasan [a descendant of Imam al-Hasan] would end in failure and that this pretender who claimed to be the Mahdi would be put to death by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur. The Imam repeated this prediction a number times, many years before the actual occurrence, most prominently at the meeting of the Hashimis at Abwa. This became widely known from him, such that even a Sunni authority like Ibn Khaldun makes a mention of it in his Muqadimma. al-Muhsini: Perhaps what is meant by ‘kings’ are those up to the time of the ‘Aimma. To have the names of all kings from the beginning of creation to the end of the world, over all countries and for all time, would require several volumes, how large would this book be in size? In any case, al-Muhsini does not accept the reliability of this particular narration because of his doubts about Basair as a source.
  9. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.141. Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Layla al-Ansari al-Qadhi https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-abd-al-rahman-b-abi-layla-al-ansari-al-qadhi [1/244] معاني الاخبار: عن أبيه، عن سعد بن عبدالله، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن علي بن الحكم، عن أبان الاحمر، عن عبد الله بن سنان قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن امرأة أوصت بثلثها يقضى به دين ابن أخيها وجزء منه لفلان وفلانة، فلم أعرف ذلك، فقدّماني إلى ابن أبي ليلى فقال: ليس لهما شيء، فقال: كذب والله، لهما العشر من الثلث [1/244] Ma’ani al-Akhbar: His father from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ali b. al-Hakam from Aban al-Ahmar from Abdallah b. Sinan who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about a woman who wills that one-third [of her inheritance] should be used to pay off her debt and a “portion” of it should be given to a man and a woman [her relatives]. I [Abdallah b. Sinan] did not know that [i.e. what “portion” meant]. They took me to Ibn Abi Layla who said: they are to be given nothing. He [the Imam] said: He has lied by Allah! they are to be given one-tenth of the one-third. NOTES: Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Layla (d. 148) was a contemporary of al-Sadiq who was appointed to be the judge of Kufa by the Abbasids. His father was a Tabi’i who fought on the side of Ali in the battles. Ibn Abi Layla had a tinge of Tashayyu [in the sense of love towards Ali and his descendants] like most Kufans of his time. Despite this, he set himself up as an independent authority in the religion. He based his rulings on considered opinion [Ra’y] which was denounced by the ‘Aimma. According to Islamic law, a person who dies and leaves inheritance may apportion one-third of their estate as per their wishes, and the remaining two-thirds are distributed automatically according to pre-set inheritance laws. The narration has to do with a woman who instructs that her one-third be used to pay off her debt and a “portion” of it to be given to someone. Words are very significant in Islam especially in the context of oaths and pledges. What does it mean when someone says a جزء i.e. “portion” of my wealth should be given to someone. How do we quantify this numerically? It is a question that has implication in real-life scenarios. The answer cannot be based on guess-work but linguistic analysis grounded in revelation. A more detailed variant of this narration is found in al-Kafi. It expands further on the reasoning behind the Imam's answer that “portion” equals one-tenth. Note that Abdallah b. Sinan is narrating from Abd al-Rahman b. Sayyaba [indicating that the above chain in Ma’ani is not complete]. على بن ابراهيم، عن أبيه، ومحمد بن يحيى، عن احمد بن محمد جميعا، عن ابن محبوب، عن عبدالله بن سنان، عن عبدالرحمن بن سيابة قال: ان امرأة أوصت الي فقالت: ثلثى يقضى به دينى وجزء منه لفلانة فسألت عن ذلك ابن أبى ليلى فقال: ماأرى لها شيئا ما ادرى ما الجزء فسألت عنه أبا عبدالله عليه السلام بعد ذلك وخبرته كيف قالت المرأة وما قال ابن أبى ليلى فقال: كذب ابن أبى ليلى لها عشر الثلث إن الله عزوجل أمر ابراهيم عليه السلام فقال: اجْعَلْ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ جَبَلٍ مِّنْهُنَّ جُزْءًا وكانت الجبال يومئذ عشرة والجزء هو العشر من الشئ Ali b. Ibrahim from his father and Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad all together from Ibn Mahbub from Abdallah b. Sinan from Abd al-Rahman b. Sayyaba who said: A woman willed to me saying: My one-third should be used to pay off my debts and a portion of it is for such and such woman. I asked Ibn Abi Layla about that so he said: I do not think the woman is to be given anything for I do not know what the “portion” is [should be]. I then asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about it. I informed him what the woman had said and what Ibn Abi Layla had said. He [the Imam] said: Ibn Abi Layla has lied, she is to be given one-tenth of the third. Allah Mighty and Majestic ordered Ibrahim عليه السلام saying: “place on each hill a portion of them” (2:260), and there were ten hills, thus a “portion” is one-tenth of something [whole]. Observe how the Imam is able to derive the answer from the Qur’an and the History of the Prophets. They truly were treasure-troves of knowledge to give such an answer without hesitation. When the Imam says Ibn Abi Layla has كذب ابن أبى ليلى he does not necessarily mean that Ibn Abi Layla has consciously spoken a falsity, ratherكذب in Arabic is nuanced and can mean - has got it wrong.
  10. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.139. - 3.140. Muhammad b. Salih b. Muhammad al-Hamdani al-Wakil al-Dihqan and his father https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-salih-b-muhammad-al-hamdani-al-wakil-al-dihqan-and-his-father [-/1] رجال الكشي: حكى بعض الثقات بنيسابور أنه خرج لإسحاق بن اسماعيل من أبي محمد عليه السّلام توقيع: يا اسحاق بن اسماعيل سترنا اللّه و اياك بستره ... فإذا وردت بغداد فاقرأه على الدهقان وكيلنا و ثقتنا و الذي يقبض من موالينا ... [1/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: One of the trustworthy narrators in Naysabur reported that a Tawqi [signed rescript] came out addressed to Ishaq b. Ismail from Abi Muhammad عليه السلام saying: O Ishaq b. Ismail, may Allah protect both you and us with His protection … so when you reach Baghdad then read it [this Tawqi] to al-Dihqan, our Wakil [agent], our Thiqa [trustworthy one], and the one who receives from our followers [the dues] … NOTES: This narration has already come under Urwa b. Yahya al-Nakhkhas. It is being repeated here because it is not clear whether the al-Dihqan mentioned references Urwa or Muhammad b. Salih, both of whom were Wukala and shared the same descriptor. al-Muhsini assumes that it is Muhammad thereby establishing his Wathaqa. He is then free to accept Muhammad’s personal testimony as in the two narrations below. [2/242] الكافي: علي بن محمد، عن محمد بن صالح قال: لما مات أبي وصار الامر لي، كان لابي على الناس سفاتج من مال الغريم، فكتبت إليه اعلمه فكتب: طالبهم واستقض عليهم، فقضاني الناس إلا رجل واحد كانت عليه سفتجة بأربعمائة دينار فجئت إليه اطالبه فماطلني واستخف بي ابنه وسفه علي، فشكوت إلى أبيه فقال: وكان ماذا؟ فقبضت على لحتيه وأخذت برجله وسحبته إلى وسط الدار وركلته ركلا كثيرا، فخرج ابنه يستغيث بأهل بغداد ويقول: قمي رافضي قد قتل والدي، فاجتمع علي منهم الخلق فركبت دابتي وقلت: أحسنتم يا أهل بغداد تميلون مع الظالم على الغريب المظلوم، أنا رجل من أهل همدان من أهل السنة وهذا ينسبني إلى أهل قم والرفض ليذهب بحقي ومالي، قال: فمالوا عليه وأرادوا أن يدخلوا على حانوته حتى سكنتهم وطلب إلي صاحب السفتجة وحلف بالطلاق أن يوفيني مالي حتى أخرجتهم عنه [2/242] al-Kafi: Ali b. Muhammad from Muhammad b. Salih who said: When my father died and the matter [i.e. Wikala] devolved to me - I found to have been in his possession bills of exchange [given] by some people [instead of money] as part of the wealth owed to al-Gharim [i.e. the Twelfth Imam]. I wrote to him [the Imam] informing him of that so he wrote: ‘Seek them out and demand payment from them’. All of them paid me except a single individual who had a bill worth four hundred gold coins. I went to him to request it [the amount] but he put me off [sought postponement] while his son made light of me and ridiculed me. I complained to his father but he said: What was that? I grabbed his beard, took hold of him by his legs and dragged him to the middle of the house and began kicking him quite a number of times. His son came out shouting for help from the people of Baghdad saying: A Qummi Rafidhi has killed my father! A large number of them gathered around me so I got on my horse and said [sarcastically]: Well done O people of Baghdad! You side with the oppressor against an oppressed stranger! I am a man from the people of Hamadan and of the Ahl al-Sunnah, this one is ascribing me to the people of Qum and Rafdh as a pretext to usurp my rights and wealth. He said: they [the crowd] turned against him and wanted to enter his shop until I quietened them down. The man whose bill of exchange it was sought me out and swore at the point of divorce that he will return the wealth to me if I could take them away from him. NOTES: al-Gharim was a code-word for the Twelfth Imam. It was widely used by the Shia instead of the personal name to keep the Imam's identity secret for the purposes of Taqiyya [Refer to al-Mufid in his Irshad]. Al-Gharim literally means the one who owes a debt [creditor], the twelfth Imam was given this name because to him belongs a portion of the wealth of the Shia e.g. Khums etc. Note how strongly Qum was linked to Rafdh even in that time. Muhammad b. Salih did not lie but made Tawriyya for he was originally from Hamdan and we the Shia are the true followers of the Sunna. [3/243] كمال الدين: أبي و ابن الوليد معا، عن الحميري، عن محمد بن صالح الهمداني قال: کتبت إلي صاحب الزمان عليه السلام إن أهل بيتي يؤذونني و يقرعونني بالحديث المروي عن آبائک عليهم السلام أنهم قالوا: قوامنا و خدامنا شرار خلق الله فکتب عليه السلام: ويحکم أما قرأتم قول الله عز و جل وَ جَعَلْنا بَيْنَهُمْ وَ بَيْنَ الْقُرَى الَّتِي بارَكْنا فِيها قُرىً ظاهِرَةً و نحن و الله القري التي بارک الله فيها و أنتم القري الظاهرة [3/243] Kamal al-Diin: My father and Ibn al-Walid together from al-Himyari from Muhammad b. Salih al-Hamdani who said: I wrote to the Master of the Age عليه السلام: the people of my household disturb and rebuke me using the narration narrated on the authority of your forefathers that they said: ‘Our managers [who oversee the wealth i.e. agents] and servants are the worst creatures of Allah’. He wrote: Woe be upon you! have you not read the words of Allah Mighty and Majestic: “and We placed between them and the cities which We had blessed [many] visible cities” (34:18) – We are by Allah the cities that Allah has blessed and you [i.e. our agents] are the cities that are visible. NOTES: While it is undeniable that proximity to power and influence corrupted a number of the Wukala of the Imam, who became deceived by this lowly world and sold guidance to buy perdition, not all of them succumbed in this way. There was a core of very faithful servants of the ‘Aimma who served them loyally, achieving through this an incomparable status. As the Imam points out using an allegorical interpretation of a Qur’anic verse, if the Imams are the ‘blessed cities’ then they need interfaces through whom they can get their message across to the believers, these are the ‘cities which are visible’, the agents who perform the irreplaceable work of taking their teaching to the laity.
  11. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.135. - 3.138. Muhammad b. Sinan al-Zahiri, Safwan b. Yahya, Zakariyya b. Adam, and Sa’d b. Sa’d https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-sinan-al-zahiri-safwan-b-yahya-zakariyya-b-adam-and-sad-b-sad [-/1] رجال الكشي: عن أبي طالب عبد الله بن الصلت القمي قال: دخلت على أبي جعفر الثاني عليه السلام في آخر عمره فسمعته يقول: جزى الله صفوان بن يحيى و محمد بن سنان و زكريا بن آدم عني خيرا فقد وفوا لي و لم يذكر سعد بن سعد، قال: فخرجت فلقيت موفقا، فقلت له: إن مولاي ذكر صفوان و محمد بن سنان و زكريا بن آدم و جزاهم خيرا، و لم يذكر سعد بن سعد قال: فعدت إليه فقال: جزى الله صفوان بن يحيى و محمد بن سنان و زكريا بن آدم و سعد بن سعد عني خيرا فقد وفوا لي [1/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: From Abi Talib Abdallah b. al-Salt al-Qummi who said: I entered in to see Abi Ja’far the Second [al-Jawad] عليه السلام towards the end of his life. I heard him saying: ‘May Allah grant a goodly recompense to Safwan b. Yahya, Muhammad b. Sinan and Zakariyya b. Adam on my behalf - for they have been loyal to me’, but he did not name Sa’d b. Sa’d. He [Abu Talib] said: I encountered Muwaffaq [a servant of al-Jawad] while leaving and said to him: My master mentioned Safwan, Muhammad b. Sinan and Zakariyya b. Adam supplicating for their good, but he did not name Sa’d b. Sa’d. He [Abu Talib] said: then I returned to him [i.e. the Imam] a second time and he said: ‘May Allah grant a goodly recompense to Safwan b. Yahya, Muhammad b. Sinan, Zakariyya b. Adam and Sa’d b. Sa’d on my behalf - for they have been loyal to me’. NOTES: Is this narration reliable? The chain as provided by al-Kashshi contains only the primary narrator [Abu Talib al-Qummi] who is narrating directly from the Imam. Scholars who argue for its reliability [such as al-Khoei among others] contend that the lower part of the chain is identical to the one found in the previous narration [al-Kashshi has been known to truncate his chains in this way]. al-Muhsini does not consider it reliable because he cannot rule out the possibility that it is an entirely independent narration whose narrators are missing. He points to the fact that al-Kashshi begins the chain saying: عن أبي طالب عبد الله بن الصلت القمي instead of وعن أبي طالب. That is, he begins without a connective ‘و’ which you would expect if he wanted to indicate that the second chain is based on the first chain. How do we reconcile the import of the narration with the negative assessment of Muhammad b. Sinan in the books of Rijal? The narration seems to contain straight-forward praise for the four individuals mentioned. The first thing to note is that all four happen to be Wakils [agents of the Imam]. A similar themed narration which mentions Safwan b. Yahya and Muhammad b. Sinan together puts it as follows: محمد بن مسعود، قال: حدثني علي بن محمد، قال: حدثني أحمد بن محمد، عن رجل، عن علي بن الحسين بن داود القمي قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يذكر صفوان بن يحيى ومحمد بن سنان بخير وقال: رضي الله عنهما برضاي عنهما، فما خالفاني وما خالفا أبي عليه السلام قط Muhammad b. Masud – Ali b. Muhammad – Ahmad b. Muhammad – a man – Ali b. al-Husayn b. Dawud al-Qummi who said: I heard Aba Ja’farعليه السلام mention Safwan b. Yahya and Muhammad b. Sinan with positive words, and he [the Imam] said: may Allah be pleased with them because of my pleasure with them, for they never disobeyed me or my father ever. The picture that emerges from both narrations is that these men were loyal agents of the Imam. So far so good, but there follows a parenthetical statement, presumably belonging to al-Kashshi, whose interpretation had always eluded me. He says: بعد ما جاء فيهما ما قد سمعه غير واحد This [praise] after it had come about them that which was heard by more than one What had come about them [from the Imam] which was heard by more than one? An answer to this question was only obtained when parts of the parenthetical statement above was found in another narration, proving the importance of scrutinizing the inter-textuality between narrations [i.e. reading them together]. محمد بن مسعود، قال حدثني علي بن محمد القمي، قال حدثني أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى (عن ابيه محمد بن عيسى القمي) قال: بعث إلي أبو جعفر عليه السلام غلامه و معه كتابه، فأمرني أن أصير إليه فأتيته فهو بالمدينة نازل في دار بزيع، فدخلت عليه و سلمت عليه، فذكر في صفوان و محمد بن سنان و غيرهما مما قد سمعه غير واحد، فقلت في نفسي أستعطفه على زكريا بن آدم لعله أن يسلم مما قال في هؤلاء، ثم رجعت إلى نفسي فقلت من أنا أن أتعرض في هذا و في شبهه مولاي هو أعلم بما يصنع، فقال لي يا أبا علي ليس على مثل أبي يحيى يعجل، و قد كان من خدمته لأبي عليه السلام و منزلته عنده و عندي من بعده، غير أني احتجت إلى المال الذي عنده (فلم يبعث) فقلت جعلت فداك هو باعث إليك بالمال، و قال لي إن وصلت إليه فأعلمه أن الذي منعني من بعث المال اختلاف ميمون و مسافر، فقال احمل كتابي إليه و مره أن يبعث إلي بالمال فحملت كتابه إلى زكريا، فوجه إليه بالمال، قال، فقال لي أبو جعفر عليه السلام ابتداء منه ذهبت الشبهة ما لأبي ولد غيري فقلت صدقت جعلت فداك Muhammad b. Masud – Ali b. Muhammad al-Qummi – Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa – his father Muhammad b. Isa al-Qummi who said: Abu Ja’far [al-Jawad] عليه السلام sent a servant to me with a letter ordering me to go to him. I came to him while he was in Madina residing in the house of Bazi`. I entered in to see him and greeted him. He [the Imam] spoke about Safwan, Muhammad b. Sinan and others in the way which more than one had heard from him. I said to myself: I will try to excuse Zakariyya b. Adam so that he may be saved from being included in that which he says about these others. Then I reproached myself saying: who am I to intervene in this matter and its like, my master is more aware of what he is doing. He [the Imam] said to me: O Aba Ali, the likes of Abi Yahya [Zakariyya] are not to be hurried [in normal circumstances], for he has a long record of serving my father and had an esteemed status with him, and with me after him, but I have a need of the money which is with him [but he hasn’t sent it]. I [Muhammad] said: may I be made your ransom, he is sending you the amount! he [Zakariyya] had said to me ‘if you reach him [the Imam] then inform him that the thing which prevented me from sending the money to him [before] was the controversy between Maymun and Musafir [two servants of the Imam]’. He [the Imam] said: carry this letter of mine to him and order him to send me the amount. I carried his letter to Zakariyya and he went on to send him the amount. He [Muhammad] said: Abu Ja’far عليه السلام also said to me without my prompting him: the doubt has abated, my father did not have any other son except me, I said: you have spoken the truth may I be made your ransom. The narration holds the key to unlocking the whole puzzle by providing context for the Imam’s praise of Muhammad b. Sinan and the others. It becomes clear that the Imam was initially angry at Muhammad b. Sinan, Safwan b. Yahya and the other agents including Zakariyya because of their delay in sending him the collected amount. This is why Muhammad b. Isa al-Qummi wanted to intervene to defend Zakariyya [who happens to be his relative] and make an excuse for him. al-Kashshi’s motive to include the parenthetical statement was to note that the praise of the Imam was coming after what had come before i.e. criticism from the Imam ‘which had been heard by more than one’. The historical context shows that Imam al-Jawad assumed the position of Imama at a very young age and there was controversy about his succession. Furthermore, the Imam was called away to the court of Ma’mun in Baghdad and returned to Madina many years later. Throughout this period, the Wikala continued its activities as independently as it could. Many agents had got used to the long years of relative non-interference and did not want to relinquish their autonomy. When the Imam was allowed to return to Madina he wished to assume full command of the machinery and demanded his dues from Safwan b. Yahya, Muhammad b. Sinan and the other agents. They were tardy in meeting this instruction. This led to the Imam’s criticism of them at first, but they soon sent it to the Imam who became pleased with their conduct. Since the companions took the words of the Imam very seriously, his initial criticism became widespread, and the Imam had to go out of his way to praise them to show that they had not rebelled outright. Thus, the narrations of praise have to be understood in the context of rapprochement between al-Jawad and his Wukala who ultimately proved loyal to him. Confirmation that the Imam was initially displeased with these agents is found in another narration: حدثني محمد بن قولويه، قال: حدثني سعد، عن أحمد بن هلال، عن محمد بن إسماعيل بن بزيع أن أبا جعفر عليه السلام كان يخبرني بلعن صفوان ابن يحيى، ومحمد بن سنان فقال: إنهما خالفا أمري، وقال: فلما كان من قابل قال أبو جعفر عليه السلام لمحمد بن سهل البحراني: تول صفوان بن يحيى ومحمد بن سنان فقد رضيت عنهما Muhammad b. Qulawayh – Sa’d – Ahmad b. Hilal – Muhammad b. Ismail b. Bazi` that: Abu Ja’far عليه السلام used to inform me about his cursing of Safwan b. Yahya and Muhammad b. Sinan and say: they disobeyed my command. He [Muhammad b. Ismail b. Bazi`] said: when it was a new year Abu Ja’far عليه السلام said to Muhammad b. Sahl al-Bahrani: associate [consider your ally] with Safwan b. Yahya and Muhammad b. Sinan for I am pleased with them. In conclusion, the Imam’s subsequent praise of Muhammad b. Sinan and the other agents should be seen solely in context of their obedience in delivering the dues after an initial delay. It has nothing to do with their status as narrators. Trying to exonerate the weak status of Muhammad b. Sinan [as found in the books of Rijal] on the basis of this narration is misplaced. Being a loyal Wakil does not necessitate being a reliable narrator, especially if one is accused of lying and Ghulu.
  12. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.134. Muhammad b. Hukaym https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-hukaym [1/241] رجال الكشي: عن حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسي، عن يونس، عن حماد قال: كان أبو الحسن عليه السلام يأمر محمد بنحكيم أن يجالس أهل المدينة في مسجد رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله وأن يكلمهم ويخاصمهم حتى كلمهم في صاحب القبر وكان إذا انصرف إليه قال: ما قلت لهم وما قالوا لك ويرضى بذلك منه [1/241] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Hammad who said: Abu al-Hasan عليه السلام used to order Muhammad b. Hukaym to sit with the people of Madina in the Masjid of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله and talk to them and debate with them - such that he even debated with them regarding the companion of the grave [i.e. Abu Bakr] - and when he [Muhammad b. Hukaym] used to go to meet him [the Imam] - he [the Imam] would ask: How did you argue with them [which points did you use]? How did they argue with you? and he used to be pleased with that from him. NOTES: Debates required on the spot reasoning. It would be easy to stray from the firm groundings of revelatory knowledge into error. This explains the 'Aimma’s general disapproval of them. The narration confirms however that this was not an absolute stance but that there were some companions like Muhammad b. Hukaym who were allowed to engage in them because of their knowledge [mastery of the subject] and ability to negotiate tricky aspects without contravening Taqiyya. The Imam trusted Muhammad b. Hukaym to represent authentically the Imami positions on a wide range of issues including controversial ones. This narration had already been numbered before [See: No. 4/69] and should not have been given one here.
  13. Betrayal of Ali bin ismail. Truth or not?

    Yes it is correct. But his name was Muhammad bin Ismail. Read this:
  14. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.133. Muhammad b. Ismail b. Ja’far al-Sadiq https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/muhammad-b-ismail-b-jafar-al-sadiq [-/1] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن موسى بن القاسم البجلي، عن علي بن جعفر قال: جاء ني محمد بن إسماعيل وقد اعتمرنا عمرة رجب ونحن يومئذ بمكة، فقال: يا عم إني أريد بغداد وقد أحببت أن اودع عمي أبا الحسن - يعني موسى بن جعفر عليه السلام - وأحببت أن تذهب معي إليه، فخرجت معه نحو أخي وهو في داره التي بالحوبة وذلك بعد المغرب بقليل، فضربت الباب فأجابني أخي فقال: من هذا فقلت: علي، فقال: هوذا أخرج - وكان بطئ الوضوء - فقلت: العجل قال: وأعجل، فخرج وعليه إزار ممشق قد عقده في عنقه حتى قعد تحت عتبة الباب، فقال علي بن جعفر: فانكببت عليه فقبلت رأسه وقلت: قد جئتك في أمر إن تره صوابا فالله وفق له، وإن يكن غير ذلك فما أكثر ما نخطي قال: وما هو؟ قلت: هذا ابن أخيك يريد أن يودعك ويخرج إلى بغداد، فقال لي: ادعه فدعوته وكان متنحيا، فدنا منه فقبل رأسه وقال: جعلت فداك أوصني فقال: اوصيك أن تتقي الله في دمي فقال مجيبا له: من أرادك بسوء فعل الله به وجعل يدعو على من يريده بسوء، ثم عاد فقبل رأسه، فقال: يا عم أوصني فقال: اوصيك أن تتقي الله في دمي فقال: من أرادك بسوء فعل الله به وفعل، ثم عاد فقبل رأسه، ثم قال: يا عم أوصني، فقال: اوصيك أن تتقي الله في دمي فدعا على من أراده بسوء، ثم تنحى عنه ومضيت معه فقال لي أخي: يا علي مكانك فقمت مكاني فدخل منزله، ثم دعاني فدخلت إليه فتناول صرة فيها مائة دينار فأعطانيها وقال: قل لابن أخيك يستعين بها على سفره قال علي: فأخذتها فأدرجتها في حاشية ردائي ثم ناولني مائة اخرى وقال: أعطه أيضا، ثم ناولني صرة اخرى وقال: أعطه أيضا فقلت: جعلت فداك إذا كنت تخاف منه مثل الذي ذكرت، فلم تعينه على نفسك؟ فقال: إذا وصلته وقطعني قطع الله أجله، ثم تناول مخدة أدم، فيها ثلاثة آلاف درهم وضح وقال: أعطه هذه أيضا قال: فخرجت إليه فأعطيته المائة الاولى ففرح بها فرحا شديدا ودعا لعمه، ثم أعطيته الثانية والثالثة ففرح بها حتى ظننت أنه سيرجع ولا يخرج، ثم أعطيته الثلاثة آلاف درهم فمضى على وجهه حتى دخل على هارون فسلم عليه بالخلافة وقال: ما ظننت أن في الارض خليفتين حتى رأيت عمي موسى بن جعفر يسلم عليه فالخلافة، فأرسل هارون إليه بمائة ألف درهم فرماه الله بالذبحة فما نظر منها إلى درهم ولا مسه [1/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa from Musa b. al-Qasim al-Bajali from Ali b. Ja’far who said: Muhammad b. Ismail [b. Ja’far] approached me when we were in Makka and had just completed the Umra in the month of Rajab - he said: O uncle, I want to travel to Baghdad but first I wish to bid farewell to my uncle Aba al-Hasan - that is Musa b. Ja’far. I would like it if you accompany me to meet him. I came out with him heading towards my brother who was in his house in Huba. We reached a little after Maghrib. I knocked the door and was answered by my brother who said: who is that? I said: Ali, he said: I am just coming - he was someone who took long in making the ablution - so I said: make haste, he said: I will. Eventually he came out wearing a lower garment [waist-wrapper] dyed in an earthish hue, knotted at his neck and proceeded to sit at the threshold [step] of the door. Ali b. Ja’far said: I bent towards him, kissed his forehead and said: I have come to you concerning a matter, if you find it to be appropriate then it is Allah who facilitated it, and if it is not [if you find it disagreeable] then how often do we err [as humans]. He said: what is it? I said: this is the son of your brother, he wishes to bid you farewell and depart towards Baghdad. He [the Imam] said to me: call him [Muhammad b. Ismail]. I called him and he was close by. He [Muhammad b. Ismail] came near him, kissed his forehead and said: May I be made your ransom, advise me, he [the Imam] said: I advise you to fear Allah concerning my blood, he replied to him: May Allah do such to whoever wishes ill for you, and he began supplicating against the one who harbors ill-feeling towards him. Then he kissed his forehead a second time and said: O uncle, advise me, he said: I advise you to fear Allah concerning my blood, he said: May Allah do such and such to whoever wishes ill for you [and He has already done so]. Then he kissed his forehead a third time and said: O uncle, advise me, he said: I advise you to fear Allah concerning my blood, so he supplicated against the one who wishes ill towards him, then he turned away from him [to depart], I too began walking away with him, but my brother said to me: O Ali, [stop] where you are. I halted, he called me and I entered [the house]. He outstretched a pouch which contained a hundred gold coins and handed it to me and said: tell the son of your brother [nephew] to make use of it on his journey. Ali said: I took it and twisted it around the hem of my cloak, then he handed me another hundred and said: give it to him, then he handed me another pouch and said: give it to him also. I said: may I be made your ransom, if you fear him doing what you described then why are you aiding him against yourself [by helping him]? he said: If I maintain my ties with him and he cuts me off then Allah will cut off his life-time. Then he took to hand a tanned leather pillow [hollowed out to store money] in which were three thousand fine silver coins and said: give this to him as well. He [Ali b. Ja’far] said: I came out and gave him the first hundred whereupon he became extremely delighted and supplicated for his uncle, then I gave him the second and the third. He became so happy that I thought he will turn back and not depart [for Baghdad]. Lastly I gave him the three thousand silver coins. Nevertheless, he departed on his mission until he went in to see Harun [the Abbasid Caliph] and greeted him by acknowledging his Caliphate [said: peace be upon you O Commander of the Faithful]. Then he said: I never thought that there could be two Caliphs on earth [at the same time] until I saw my uncle Musa b. Ja’far being greeted with the Caliphate [people referring to him as the Caliph when greeting him]. Harun sent him one hundred thousand silver coins [as a reward for his reporting about his uncle] but Allah afflicted him [Muhammad b. Ismail] with an ailment [in which an ulcer grows and chokes the passage in the throat] and he did not get the chance to even take a look at a single silver coin [that he had been gifted] let alone touch it. NOTES: This Muhammad is the seventh “Imam” of the Ismailiyya about whose life very little is known even in their own sources. This narrations fills in some pieces of the puzzle. The picture it reveals is of an ambitious fellow who was instrumental in heightening Harun’s suspicion towards Musa al-Kadhim leading to the latter’s summons, arrest and eventual killing. Muhammad sold his Akhera for the Dunya, despite the Imam supporting him with his own wealth to alleviate his evil and fulfill the ties of kinship. He faced the consequences of this betrayal.
  15. Reliable Narrations: Intellect and Knowledge

    Wa Alaykum Salam. What you have quoted from Tafsir al-Safi goes back to Tafsir al-Askari [a Tafsir which claims to originate from the Eleventh Imam]. This is the translation: قال رجل للصادق عليه السلام فإذا كان هؤلاء العوام من اليهود لا يعرفون الكتاب الا بما يسمعونه من علمائهم لا سبيل لهم إلى غيره فكيف ذمّهم بتقليدهم و القبول من علمائهم و هل عوام اليهود الا كعوامنا يقلّدون علمائهم فان لم يجز لأولئك القبول من علمائهم لم يجز لهؤلاء القبول من علمائهم فقال عليه السلام بين عوامنا و علمائنا و بين عوام اليهود و علمائهم فرق من جهة و تسوية من جهة أما من حيث استووا فان اللَّه قد ذمّ عوامنا بتقليدهم علماءهم كما قد ذمّ عوامهم و أمّا من حيث افترقوا فلا، A man said to al-Sadiq عليه السلام: If the common people among the Jews did not have any other way to obtain knowledge of the Book except through what they heard from their scholars - then why did He blame them for their following of the scholars and acceptance from them? Further, is it not the case that the common people among the Jews are like our common people for they [our common people] too follow their scholars, so if it is not permitted for them [the Jews] to accept from their scholars then is it not also impermissible for these [our common people] to accept what their scholars say? He عليه السلام said: Between our common people and our scholars and the laity among the Jews and their scholars there is a difference in one aspect and similarity in another aspect. As far as the similar aspect is concerned then just as Allah censured our common people for the blind following of their scholars He did the same in censuring their common people, but as for the divergent aspect then No [he did not censure it]. قال بيّن لي ذلك يا بن رسول اللَّه قال إنّ عوام اليهود كانوا قد عرفوا علمائهم بالكذب الصريح و بأكل الحرام و الرّشا و بتغيير الأحكام عن واجبها بالشفاعات و العنايات و المصانعات و عرفوهم بالتعصب الشديد الذي يفارقون به أديانهم و إنهم إذا تعصبوا أزالوا حقوق من تعصبوا عليه و اعطوا ما لا يستحقه من تعصبوا له من اموال غيرهم و ظلموهم من أجلهم و عرفوهم يقارفون المحرّمات و اضطروا بمعارف قلوبهم إلى أن من فعل ما يفعلونه فهو فاسق لا يجوز ان يصدق على اللَّه و لا على الوسائط بين الخلق و بين اللَّه فلذلك ذمّهم لما قلّدوا من قد عرفوا و من قد علموا أنّه لا يجوز قبول خبره و لا تصديقه في حكايته و لا العمل بما يؤديه إليهم The Narrator said: Explain it for me O the son of the messenger of Allah. He عليه السلام said: the common people among the Jews knew that their scholars used to lie outright, eat the forbidden wealth, were corrupt, changed the laws from what they should be based on intercession, favours and bribes. They also knew that their scholars were excessively partisan, that they used to split up their religion because of this rivalry and used to trample the rights of those they were against and give those they are partial towards what they do not deserve of the wealth of others, they used to oppress them [the enemies of their allies] to please their biases. They knew them to perpetrate the forbidden. They [the common people] knew it in their hearts [had intrinsic knowledge] that the one who does what they used to do is a Fasiq, and it is not acceptable to consider them truthful in what they attribute to Allah or to the intermediaries between the creation and Allah. That is why He censured them when they followed those they knew for a fact it was forbidden to accept their reports or consider them truthful in what they say, or to act based on what they instruct. وكذلك عوام امتنا إذا عرفوا من فقهائهم الفسق الظاهر ، والعصبية الشديدة والتكالب على حطام الدنيا وحرامها ، وإهلاك من يتعصبون عليه إن كان لاصلاح أمره مستحقا ، وبالترفق بالبر والاحسان على من تعصبوا له ، وإن كان للاذلال والاهانة مستحقا فمن قلّد من عوامنا مثل هؤلاء الفقهاء، فهم مثل اليهود الذين ذمّهم الله تعالى بالتقليد لفسقة فقهائهم Likewise, the laity of our community, if they recognize signs of clear-cut Fisq from their scholars, extreme partisanship, their turning towards amassing the wealth of this world and its prohibited items, destroying the affair of the one they are biased against even though extending assistance to him is what is appropriate, showing compassion, good-will and charity to the one they are biased towards even thought humiliating and chastising them is the appropriate response - then the one among our common people who follows such Fuqaha are like the Jews and those who are censured by Allah the Elevated because of their following of corrupt scholars. فأما من كان من الفقهاء صائناً لنفسه، حافظاً لدينه، مخالفاً لهواه، مطيعاً لأمر مولاه، فللعوام أن يقلدوه. وذلك لا يكون إلاّ بعض فقهاء الشيعة، لا جميعهم فان من يركب من القبائح و الفواحش مراكب فسقة فقهاء العامّة فلا تقبلوا منهم عنا شيئاً و لا كرامة لهم. As for the one among the Fuqaha who protects his soul, preserves his religion, opposes his caprice [desires], and obeys the command of his Master then it is upon the laity to follow him. There are only some of the Fuqaha of the Shia who are like this, not all. As for those who perpetrate the despicable and abominable acts the way the `Amma [proto-Sunni] scholars do then do not not accept from them about us anything and they are not to be honoured.
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