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Islamic Salvation

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  1. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.105. - 3.106. Kathir al-Nawwa, his companions and Umm Khalid https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/kathir-al-nawwa-his-companions-and-umm-khalid [1/223] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال، عن العباس بن عامر و جعفر بن محمد بن حكيم، عن أبان بن عثمان الأحمر، عن أبي بصير قال: كنت جالسا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام إذ جاءت أم خالد التي كان قطعها يوسف تستأذن عليه، قال، فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: أيسرك أن تشهد كلامها قال: فقلت: نعم جعلت فداك، فقال: أما الان فأدن، قال: فأجلسني على الطنفسة، ثم دخلت فتكلمت فإذا هي امرأة بليغة، فسألته عن فلان و فلان، فقال لها: توليهما قالت: فأقول لربي إذا لقيته إنك أمرتني بولايتهما؟ قال: نعم قالت: فإن هذا الذي معك على الطنفسة يأمرني بالبراءه منهما، و كثير النواء يأمرني بولايتهما فأيهما أحب إليك؟ قال: هذا و الله و أصحابه أحب إلي من كثير النواء و أصحابه، إن هذا يخاصم فيقول مَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الْكافِرُونَ، وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ، وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الْفاسِقُونَ، فلما خرجت قال: إني خشيت أن تذهب فتخبر كثيرا فيشهرني بالكوفة، اللهم إني إليك من كثير بري‏ء في الدنيا و الآخرة [1/223] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan b. Fadhal from al-Abbas b. A’mir and Ja’far b. Muhammad b. Hukaym from Aban b. Uthman al-Ahmar from Abi Basir who said: I was seated at Abi Abdillah’s عليه السلام place when Umm Khalid – whose hand had been cut by Yusuf [b. Umar] – came seeking permission to see him. Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said [to me]: Would you like to hear her speech? I said: Yes, may I be made your ransom. He said: Then draw near, and he made me sit upon the rug [which he was seated on]. She entered and spoke and I found her to be a very eloquent woman. She asked him about so and so [Abu Bakr and Umar], so he said to her: Deem them to be your leaders, she said: Do you allow me to say to my Lord when I meet Him that you ordered me to take them as my authorities? He said: Yes. She said: [I ask this] because this one who is with you on the rug [i.e. Abu Basir] orders me to disassociate from them while Kathir al-Nawwa orders me to take them as authorities, so which one is more beloved to you? He [the Imam] said: This one [i.e. Abu Basir] and his companions are by Allah more beloved to me than Kathir al-Nawwa and his fellows. This one [i.e. Abu Basir] argues by saying: “whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the disbelievers” (5:44), “and whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the wrongdoers” (5:45), “and whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed - then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient” (5:47). So when she had departed he said: I feared that she will go and inform Kathir [if I would have answered her to disassociate from the two directly] who would then make this infamous about me in Kufa. O Allah I resort to you in disassociating myself from Kathir in this world and the hereafter. NOTES: Umm Khalid was a pious and learned lady who was implicated for supporting Zayd’s revolt. She paid for her Tashayyu by having a hand cut by the tyrant Yusuf b. Umar [the governor of Kufa]. It comes as no surprise that she knew of Kathir al-Nawwa [the date-pit seller] - a “Shi’i” narrator of Hadith active in Kufa and a fellow supporter of Zayd. The Zaydiyya believed in armed insurrection and held that the most deserving of political rule was any qualified descendant of Ali who came out in revolt. It must be understood that early Shi’ism was a spectrum. It contained those who possessed only an emotional attachment to the Ahl al-Bayt, those who saw them as the rightful candidates for political authority and nothing more, and those who gave them their rightful status. It is in this context that Kathir's Tashayyu should be seen. Specifically, he is identified with the so-called Shia Zaydi Butriyya. In fact, one opinion for the origin of the word Butri is that it derives from al-Abtar, a pejorative Laqab for Kathir, making him the eponymous founder after whom this sub-sect is named. The Butriyya reconciled their belief in the supremacy of Ali with the historical reality of the first two Caliphs by admitting Saqifa as an error but continuing to consider the two as legitimate leaders and extolling their rule [hence you find Kathir instructing Umm Khalid to consider the two Caliphs as leaders]. This was a form of having your cake and eating it. Consequently, the Butriyya were seen as a diluted form of the Amma [Sunnis] by the true followers of al-Sadiqayn, and they in turn had a fierce rivalry towards those they labelled Rafidha [because they reviled the first two Caliphs], considering them to be exaggerators of the status of the Imam [e.g. in believing in the Infallibility of the Imam] Proto-Sunni scholars who were always on the lookout for any deviation from what they saw as orthodoxy did not fail to anathematize Kathir and his narrations despite lacking the nuance to identify his exact form of Shi’ism. قال ابن عدي: كان غاليا في التشيع مفرطا فيه Ibn Adi said: He was an extremist [Ghali] in Tashayyu and went over-board in it The Imam clarifies to Abu Basir [in private] that his answer given to Umm Khalid [that she deem them as legitimate authorities] was in Taqiyya because he did not feel safe from the negative consequences of his disassociation from the two making its way to a harmful person such as Kathir who would spread it in Kufa. This shows how strict Taqiyya was as far as this sensitive topic is concerned and how only a few of the closest companions were trusted in it. Despite this, there are enough clues in the answer of the Imam to have indicated what his true position is. First, he explicitly prefers Abu Basir and his Rafidi companions when asked to choose between them and Kathir and his fellows. Second, he even alludes to the true status of the two by putting into the mouth of Abu Basir his putative quotation of the verses which describes those who do not rule by what Allah has revealed to be Kafir, Dhalim and Fasiq.
  2. Reliable Narrations: Intellect and Knowledge

  3. A small collection of 82 reliable narrations concerning Intellect and Knowledge translated into English with annotated footnotes. Download PDF: https://www.scribd.com/document/361632457/Book-of-Intellect-and-Knowledge-Mu-jam-1-1 This is an UNSECURED version to aid copy and paste Preamble The first book of the first volume is the book of Intellect and Knowledge. Some short words on the Islamic conception of both is in order. Aql is the vehicle through which the initial queries about the reality of life and nature of the world is made. It is also an essential component towards the Ma’rifa [recognition] of Allah. Thus it becomes the preliminary ‘inner prophet’ which can lead to ‘outward’ guidance and consequently obedience of Allah. It has been attributed to al-Sadiq that he said when asked to define Aql: ما عبد به الرحمن واكتسب به الجنان That by which the Rahman [Most Merciful] is worshipped and by which the Gardens are acquired[1] Aql is what will be held accountable. The more perfect the Aql of the one doing the deed the more complete it becomes and vice versa. The messenger of Allah is supposed to have said: إذا رأيتم الرجل كثير الصلاة كثير الصيام فلا تباهوا به حتى تنظروا كيف عقله؟ If you see a man who prays a lot and fasts a lot then do not be overly impressed with him until you observe how his Aql is[2] Knowledge and its pursuit has been given such importance in Islam that a Western Scholar like Rosenthal could speak of the ‘Empire of Reason’. Knowledge is of many types, but the one which has been obligated is acquiring the knowledge which will make one succeed in this world and hereafter i.e. knowledge of the creator and one’s obligations towards Him. It is not enough to gain knowledge in theoretical terms, in fact the very definition of knowledge is the one which is put into practise. This is best summed up in a narration attributed to the Commander of the Faithful: حسبك من العلم أن تخشى الله، وحسبك من الجهل أن تعجب بعلمك It is enough to be considered knowledge that you be in awe of Allah, and it is enough to be considered ignorance that you feel proud with that which you know[3] [1] al-Kafi: 1/11 [2] al-Kafi: 1/26 [3] Amali of al-Tusi: 1/62
  4. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.104. Qays https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/qays [1/222] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن، عن معمر بن خلاد قال: قال أبو الحسن الرضا عليه السلام: إن رجلا من أصحاب علي عليه السلام يقال له قيس كان يصلي فلما صلى ركعة أقبل أسود (سالخ) فصار في موضع السجود، فلما نحى جبينه عن موضعه تطوق الأسود في عنقه ثم أنساب في قميصه (وذهب ولم يقطع صلاته)، و إني أقبلت يوما من الفرع، فحضرت الصلاة فنزلت فصرت إلى ثمامة، فلما صليت ركعة أقبل أفعى نحوي، فأقبلت على صلاتي لم أخففها و لم ينتقص منها شي‏ء فدنا مني ثم رجع إلى ثمامة، فلما فرغت من صلاتي و لم أخفف دعائي دعوت بعضهم معي فقلت دونك الأفعى تحت الثمامة، و من لم يخف إلا الله كفاه [1/222] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan from Mu’ammar b. Khallad who said: Abu al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام said: A man from among the companions of Ali عليه السلام called Qays was praying, after he finished the first unit a large black snake came and crawled onto the place of prostration, when he [Qays] lowered his forehead near it the snake latched onto his neck, encircled it and left slithering through his inner garment [but he did not break his prayer]! I [the Imam] was returning one day from al-Fur` [a place between Makka and Madina] when the time of prayer entered. I dismounted and proceeded near a Thumama [panic grass] shrub. When I completed a single unit a snake came near me, but I continued with my prayer and did not shorten it in any way nor did I allow any deficiencies to come into it. It came near me then returned to the shrub. Only when I had completed my prayer and followed it up by my normal supplication did I call the one who was with me and said: Keep away from the snake under the shrub. Whoever fears none except Allah then He suffices for him. قال أبو عمرو محمد بن عمر الكشي: في أصحاب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أربعة نفر و أكثر يقال لكل واحد قيس فلا أعلم أيهم هذا، أول الأربعة: قيس بن سعد بن عبادة و هو أميرهم و أفضلهم، و قيس بن عباد البكري و هو خليق أيضا بهذا إن كان، و قيس بن قرة بن حبيب غير خليق به لأنه هرب إلى معاوية، و قيس بن مهران أيضا خليق ذلك به، فكل هؤلاء صحبوا أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام و لا أدري أيهم أراد أبو الحسن الرضا عليه السلام Abu Amr Muhammad b. Umar al-Kashshi said: Among the companions of the Commander of the Faithful عليه السلام there were four or more going by the name of Qays, so I do not know which one of them is meant [in this narration]. The first of the four was Qays b. Sa’d b. Ubada who was their leader and the best out of them. Then Qays b. Abbad al-Bakri who is a plausible candidate for this if it is indeed him [his conduct matches with what has been described]. Qays b. Qurra b. Habib is not a viable candidate for this because he deserted and ran away to Muawiya. Lastly, Qays b. Mihran who is also suited to be identified as the person in question. All these were companions of the Commander of the Faithful عليه السلام and I do not know which one them Abu al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام had in mind.
  5. A Snake during Salat!

    Imam al-Ridha عليه السلام narrates an incident involving Qays, a companion of the Commander of the Faithful, and a snake, followed by a personal encounter. It speaks to the importance of Salat and the need to preserve it. رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن، عن معمر بن خلاد قال: قال أبو الحسن الرضا عليه السلام: إن رجلا من أصحاب علي عليه السلام يقال له قيس كان يصلي فلما صلى ركعة أقبل أسود (سالخ) فصار في موضع السجود، فلما نحى جبينه عن موضعه تطوق الأسود في عنقه ثم أنساب في قميصه (وذهب ولم يقطع صلاته)، و إني أقبلت يوما من الفرع، فحضرت الصلاة فنزلت فصرت إلى ثمامة، فلما صليت ركعة أقبل أفعى نحوي، فأقبلت على صلاتي لم أخففها و لم ينتقص منها شي‏ء فدنا مني ثم رجع إلى ثمامة، فلما فرغت من صلاتي و لم أخفف دعائي دعوت بعضهم معي فقلت دونك الأفعى تحت الثمامة، و من لم يخف إلا الله كفاه Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan from Mu’ammar b. Khallad who said: Abu al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام said: A man from among the companions of Ali عليه السلام called Qays was praying, after he finished the first unit a large black snake came and crawled onto the place of prostration, when he [Qays] lowered his forehead near it the snake latched onto his neck, encircled it and left slithering through his inner garment [but he did not break his prayer]! I [the Imam] was returning one day from al-Fur` [a place between Makka and Madina] when the time of prayer entered. I dismounted and proceeded near a Thumama [panic grass] shrub. When I completed a single unit a snake came near me, but I continued with my prayer and did not shorten it in any way nor did I allow any deficiencies to come into it. It came near me then returned to the shrub. Only when I had completed my prayer and followed it up by my normal supplication did I call the one who was with me and said: Keep away from the snake under the shrub. Whoever fears none except Allah then He suffices for him. قال أبو عمرو محمد بن عمر الكشي في أصحاب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أربعة نفر و أكثر يقال لكل واحد قيس فلا أعلم أيهم هذا، أول الأربعة: قيس بن سعد بن عبادة و هو أميرهم و أفضلهم، و قيس بن عباد البكري و هو خليق أيضا بهذا إن كان، و قيس بن قرة بن حبيب غير خليق به لأنه هرب إلى معاوية، و قيس بن مهران أيضا خليق ذلك به، فكل هؤلاء صحبوا أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام و لا أدري أيهم أراد أبو الحسن الرضا عليه السلام Abu Amr Muhammad b. Umar al-Kashshi comments: Among the companions of the Commander of the Faithful عليه السلام there were four or more going by the name of Qays, so I do not know which one of them is meant [in this narration]. The first of the four was Qays b. Sa’d b. Ubada who was their leader and the best out of them. Then Qays b. Abbad al-Bakri who is a plausible candidate for this if it is indeed him [his conduct matches with what has been described]. Qays b. Qurra b. Habib is not a viable candidate for this because he deserted and ran away to Muawiya. Lastly, Qays b. Mihran who is also suited to be identified as the person in question. All these were companions of the Commander of the Faithful عليه السلام and I do not know which one them Abu al-Hasan al-Ridha عليه السلام had in mind. This should not be taken to mean that the Fiqhi ruling of preserving one's life has no importance, or that one should endanger one's life, indeed Salat can be broken at such times. But not everyone is in the same station in faith and there are those whose communion with God and confidence in Him is to powerful to be distracted.
  6. A slave whose heart has been tried for faith

    I will have to look for narrations that expand on this. The verse should be read "these are they whose hearts have been tried-and-tested for Taqwa by Allah (and have been found to possess it) for them will be forgiveness and a great reward" The Qur'an has employed a literary technique which is quite common in the book i.e. Hadhf of the Ibara (clause) within the brackets. The clause has not been explicitly spelled out, but implied strongly, and an Arab speaker would interpret it in such way. Now how did Allah test them? Most likely the way we are all tested, having to contend against temptations of sin but restraining oneself, patience in the face of suffering, gratefulness borne out of bounty etc. the individuals spoken about pass with flying colours, rising to the challenge every time. Think of the great trial of Ibrahim, which he fulfilled and was raised in station as a result, but at a minor scale. Why is the heart tested? this is a deep topic where all ayat and ahadith have to be gathered and harmonized to gain a wholistic perspective of "heart" in Islam. But in short, the "heart" has been considered the repository of faith.
  7. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.103. Qanbar https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/qanbar [1/221] الفقيه: باسناده عن محمد بن قيس عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام: أن عليا عليه السلام كان في مسجد الكوفة فمر به عبدالله بن قفل التيمي ومعه درع طلحة فقال علي عليه السلام: هذه درع طلحة اخذت غلولا يوم البصرة، فقال ابن قفل: يا أمير المؤمنين اجعل بيني وبينك قاضيك الذي ارتضيته للمسلمين فجعل بينه وبينه شريحا فقال علي عليه السلام: هذه درع طلحة اخذت غلولا يوم البصرة فقال شريح: يا أمير المؤمنين هات على ما تقول بينة فأتاه بالحسن بن علي عليه السلام فشهد أنها درع طلحة اخذت يوم البصرة غلولا فقال شريح: هذا شاهد ولا أقضي بشاهد حتى يكون معه آخر، فأتى بقنبر فشهد أنها درع طلحة اخذت غلولا يوم البصرة، فقال: هذا مملوك ولا أقضى بشهادة المملوك، فغضب علي عليه السلام، ثم قال: خذوا الدرع فإن هذا قد قضى بجور ثلاث مرات فتحول شريح عن مجلسه وقال: لا أقضي بين اثنين حتى تخبرني من أين قضيت بجور ثلاث مرات؟ فقال له علي عليه السلام: إني لما قلت لك: إنها درع طلحة اخذت غلولا يوم البصرة فقلت هات على ما تقول بينة، وقد قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله: حيثما وجد غلول اخذ بغير بينة، فقلت: رجل لم يسمع الحديث، ثم أتيتك بالحسن فشهد فقلت: هذا شاهد واحد ولا أقضي بشاهد حتى يكون معه آخر وقد قضى رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله بشاهد ويمين، فهاتان اثنتان، ثم أتيتك بقنبر، فشهد فقلت: هذا مملوك، وما بأس بشهادة المملوك إذا كان عدلا فهذه الثالثة، ثم قال عليه السلام: يا شريح إن إمام المسلمين يؤتمن من أمورهم على ما هو أعظم من هذا، ثم قال أبوجعفر عليه السلام: فأول من رد شهادة المملوك - رمع [1/221] al-Faqih: Via his chain to Muhammad b. Qays from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام that: Ali عليه السلام was in the Masjid of Kufa when Abdallah b. Kufl al-Taymi passed by with an armour belonging to Talha. Ali عليه السلام said: this is the armour of Talha which was taken by treachery in the battle of Basra [Jamal]. Ibn Kufl said: O Commander of the Faithful - place between us your judge whom you have chosen over the Muslims [to decide the case], so he [Ali] appointed Shurayh to adjudicate between them. Ali عليه السلام said: this is the armour of Talha which was taken by treachery in the battle of Basra. Shurayh said: O Commander of the Faithful - produce evidence for what you say. He [Ali] brought al-Hasan b. Ali عليه السلام who testified that the armour belonged to Talha and was taken treacherously in the battle of Basra. Shurayh said: this is one witness, and I do not rule based on a sole witness unless there is another one with him [to corroborate]. Then he [Ali] brought Qanbar and he too testified that it was the armour of Talha taken treacherously in the battle of Basra. He [Shurayh] said: this one is a slave, and I do not rule based on the testimony of a slave. Thereupon Ali became angry and said: take away the armour [from Abdallah b. Kufl] for this one [Shurayh] has transgressed in his ruling three times! Shurayh abandoned his judgment seat and said: I will not judge between two – ever - unless you inform me how I have transgressed thrice in my rulings? Ali said to him: when I said: ‘this is the armour of Talha which was taken by treachery in the battle of Basra’ you said: ‘produce evidence for what you say’ while the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله had said: “wherever a usurped booty is found it is taken without any evidence [required]”, I [Ali] said [to myself]: the man has not heard the Hadith [is unaware of it]. Then I brought al-Hasan who testified so you said: ‘this is one witness, and I do not rule based on a sole witness unless there is another one with him [to corroborate]’ while the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه واله used to give judgment based on [the evidence of] a single witness and an oath [if the witness backs up what he says by swearing an oath]. Finally, I brought Qanbar who testified so you said: ‘this one is a slave’ but there is no problem with the testimony of a slave if he is Adil [possessing moral probity]. This then was the third [transgression you made]. Then he عليه السلام said: O Shurayh the Imam of the Muslims is entrusted to oversee their affairs in regards things which are much greater than this! Abu Ja’far عليه السلام said: The first to reject the testimony of slaves was RUMA NOTES: This report is included here because it shows that Qanbar - the long time slave of Ali and much beloved by his master - was Adil [as the Imam declares]. Adala is that power which inclines someone towards fulfilling the obligations of the religion and safeguards him from sins. A person with this power is not known to commit Kabair in public. It is an important condition required of a witness in court, a leader of prayers in congregation and a narrator of Hadith. Muhammad b. Qays al-Bajali (d. 151), a Kufan narrator described as ‘Ayn’ and ‘Thiqa’ by al-Najashi, authored a very famous book of the Qadha [judgments in disputes] given by the Commander of the Faithful. Muhammad compiled it by asking questions from the Imam al-Baqir who transmitted examples from Ali’s handling of cases in his rule. There is no doubt that this narration goes back to this same book. al-Saduq is quoting directly from this book and his reliable chain to it is as follows: وما كان فيه عن محمد بن قيس فقد رويته عن أبي رحمه الله عن سعد بن عبدالله عن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن عبدالرحمن بن أبي نجران، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن محمد بن قيس Whatever is in it [my book al-Faqih] from Muhammad b. Qays then I have narrated it from my father – may Allah have mercy on him – from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Ibrahim b. Hashim from Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Najran from A’sim b. Humayd from Muhammad b. Qays غلول Ghulul refers to a piece of war booty which has been taken treacherously (i.e. stolen before booty is divided legally). Talha was killed while turning back after the Kufans started gaining the upper hand at the battle of Jamal. It is most likely Marwan who hit him from behind with an arrow - avenging him for his role in the death of Uthman. Continued attempts to stop the bleeding failed and Talha died in a house of the Banu Sa'd Tamim. This being the case, his armour was not part of the war booty in the field of action nor was he killed by the supporters of Ali who were on the side of truth. It should also be known that Ali did not treat his defeated opponents as apostates or apply the common rules of warfare to them. He ordered at the beginning of the battle that wounded or captured enemies should not be killed, those throwing away their arms should not be fought, and those fleeing from the battleground should not be pursued. Only captured weapons and animals were to be considered war booty. After the battle he announced a general pardon and the prisoners of war were set free by Ali after they pledged allegiance. Thus, no war prisoners, women or children were to be enslaved and the property of slain enemies was to go to their legal Muslim heirs. As a compensation he paid 500 dirhams to each of his men out of the Basran treasury. These rules were to become authoritative in Islam for the warfare against Muslim rebels (bughat). The prophet said: ‘Wherever a usurped booty is found it is taken without any evidence [required]’. This is in need of explanation. Normally, possession is considered a decisive factor in the Law. The one in possession of something is considered its default owner unless evidence to the contrary is brought forward. However, in the case of war-booty, especially when the original owner is widely known and when there is suspicion about how exactly someone has come to possess it, then the onus falls on the current possessor to explain how he came to it. RUMA is an anagram of the second Caliph UMAR. His name was written in this way - either by al-Saduq or transmitters before him - for the sake of Taqiyya. Umar had a very pro-Arab nationalistic racial policy in which converted foreigners [most of them Mawali slaves] were not treated on the same level as Arab Muslims. This report indicates that he even refused such individuals to give testimony in the court contrary to the actual position of the Divine Law. This can be added to the long list of innovations that were officially mandated after the death of the prophet. It is such grievances among others that led to his death at the hand of the Persian Abu Lulu. Finally, when Ali says that ‘the Imam of the Muslims is entrusted to oversee their affairs in regards things which are much greater than this!’ he has the Ma’sumin in mind. It is these who are responsible for the preservation of the religion and guidance of the believers by teaching them the true creed and rituals. This is a much more important task in which they are to be followed without reservation. What is a lowly case like this in comparison? and why should undue doubts be raised against someone of such a caliber?
  8. A slave whose heart has been tried for faith

    Most likely the words of the Imam allude to a verse such as: إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۚ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ Qur'an 49:3
  9. A slave whose heart has been tried for faith

    Because it appealed to my sense of the flow of words. More importantly, it was not used inappropriately [it conveys the same meaning as the Arabic]. I am not sure why it would sound odd or wrong when it is a word in usage and having a fixed set of possible meanings [the intended is very clear via the context]. The try here is related to 'trial' which is equivalent to test / exam. Not really. I have not come across this distinction before. A common expression is 'we tried out a certain player ...' or 'we tried it/him and found it/him wanting' etc. In any case, this is literally just semantics. Tested could have been equally used and is more common.
  10. A slave whose heart has been tried for faith

    I must demur because the translation was made by me 'tried' here was used in the same sense as your 'test' http://www.dictionary.com/browse/tried try [trahy] verb (used with object), tried, trying. 2. to test the effect or result of (often followed by out): to try a new method; to try a recipe out. 4. to test the quality, value, fitness, accuracy, etc., of: Will you try a spoonful of this and tell me what you think of it? 6. to put to a severe test; subject to strain, as of endurance, patience, affliction, or trouble; tax: to try one's patience. And this is also what the OP understood
  11. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.102. Qutayba al-A`sha https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/qutayba-al-asha [1/220] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد، عن علي بن الحكم، عن قتبية الاعشى قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: عاديتم فينا الآباء والابناء والازواج وثوابكم على الله عزوجل أما إن أحوج ما تكونون إذا بلغت الانفس إلى هذه - وأومأ بيده إلى حلقه [1/220] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad from Ali b. al-Hakam from Qutayba al-A`sha who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام say: You [the Shia] have made enemies of your fathers, sons, wives [who are not Shia] because of us [by allying yourself to us] and your reward is upon Allah Mighty and Majestic. Verily the most needful you will be [of our Wilaya] is when the souls will reach here - and he pointed with his hand to his throat i.e. while dying. NOTES: In a variant of this same narration: عنه، عن أبيه، عن النضر، عن يحيى الحلبي، عن قتيبة الاعشى، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: أما إن أحوج ما تكونون فيه إلى حبنا حين تبلغ نفس أحدكم هذه (وأومى بيده إلى نحره) ثم قال: لا، بل إلى ههنا (وأومى بيده إلى حنجرته)، فيأتيه البشير فيقول: أما ما كنت تخافه فقد أمنت منه al-Mahasin: Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid – his father – al-Nadhr – Yahya al-Halabi – Qutayba al-A’sha – Abi Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: Verily the most needful you will be to our love is when the soul of one of you will reach – and he pointed with his hand to his upper chest – then he said: No, rather when it will reach here – and he pointed with his hand to his throat, then a messenger of glad tidings will come to him and say: As for that which you used to fear then you have been saved from it. This narration indicates how difficult it must have been for the few followers of the ‘Aimma to live in the wider society when even their own families were at best ignorant of their loyalty to the ‘Aimma and at worst inimical to it. We have a lot of narrations that confirm that the Muwali will be comforted at this most serious of junctures by glimpsing the Imam, and he will congratulate himself for making the right decision. علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن حماد بن عثمان، عن عيسى بن السري قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: حدثني عما بنيت عليه دعائم الاسلام إذا أنا أخذت بها زكى عملي ولم يضرني جهل ما جهلت بعده، فقال: شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله والاقرار بما جاء به من عند الله وحق في الاموال من الزكاة ; والولاية التي أمر الله عزوجل بها ولاية آل محمد صلى الله عليه وآله، فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله قال: من مات ولا يعرف إمامه مات ميتة جاهلية، قال الله عزوجل: " أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول وأولي الامر منكم " فكان علي عليه السلام، ثم صار من بعده حسن ثم من بعده حسين ثم من بعده علي بن الحسين، ثم من بعده محمد بن علي، ثم هكذا يكون الامر، إن الارض لاتصلح إلا بإمام ومن مات لايعرف إمامه مات ميتة جاهلية وأحوج مايكون أحدكم إلى معرفته إذا بلغت نفسه ههنا قال: وأهوى بيده إلى صدره يقول حينئذ: لقد كنت على أمر حسن al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim – Muhammad b. Isa – Yunus – Hammad b. Uthman – Isa b. al-Sarri who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: Inform me about those things upon which the mainstays of Islam are built, if I were to hold on to them my deeds would be purified, and my ignorance of anything beyond them would not harm me. He said: To bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; to affirm that which he came with from Allah; [to give out] the obligation which is present in the wealth of Zakat; and the Wilaya which Allah Mighty and Majestic has mandated – the Wilaya of the family of Muhammad صلى الله عليه وآله, for the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله had said: Whoever dies without recognizing his Imam dies the death of Jahiliyya, Allah Mighty and Majestic says: “Obey Allah, and obey the messenger, and the possessors of authority among you” so it was Ali, then Hasan after him, and Husayn after him, then Ali b. al-Husayn followed by Muhammad b. Ali, and likewise is the affair. The earth is not sustainable except with the presence of an Imam, whoever dies without recognizing his Imam dies the death of Jahiliyya. The most needful one of you is to this “recognition” of his is when his soul reaches here – and he pointed with his hand towards his chest – he will say at that juncture: ‘indeed I was following a good order’
  12. A Comprehensive Compilation of Reliable Narrations

    3.101. al-Fudhayl b. Yasar https://sites.google.com/site/mujamalahadith/vol1/book-of-narrators/al-fudhayl-b-yasar [1/218] رجال الكشي: إبراهيم بن محمد بن عباس، عن أحمد بن إدريس المعلم القمي، عن محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى عن الحسن بن علي بن النعمان، عن العباس بن عامر، عن أبان بن عثمان، عن فضيل بن عثمان قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إن الأرض لتسكن إلى الفضيل بن يسار [1/218] Rijal al-Kashshi: Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Abbas from Ahmad b. Idris al-Mu`allim al-Qummi from Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya from al-Hasan b. Ali b. al-Nu`man from al-Abbas b. Amir from Aban b. Uthman from Fudhayl b. Uthman who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: Verily the Earth finds comfort in al-Fudhayl b. Yasar. [2/219] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن عدة من أصحابنا قال: كان أبو عبد الله عليه السلام إذا نظر إلى الفضيل بن يسار مقبلا قال: بَشِّرِ الْمُخْبِتِينَ و كان يقول: إن فضيلا من أصحاب أبي و إني لأحب الرجل أن يحب أصحاب أبيه [2/219] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Ibn Abi Umayr from a number of our companions who said: When Abu Abdillah عليه السلام used to look at al-Fudhayl b. Yasar approaching he would say: “give glad tidings to the humble” (22:34), and he used to say: Fudhayl was one of the companions of my father and I do love it for a man that he loves the companions of his father. NOTES: Fudhayl b. Yasar al-Nahdi was a companion of both al-Baqir and al-Sadiq. He was originally from Kufa and later settled in Basra. He died in the lifetime of al-Sadiq. al-Najashi gives him Tawthiq and then quotes the following narration from him as a sample of his output: عن أبي مسور الفضيل ابن يسار قال: قال لي جعفر بن محمد عليه السلام: رضاع اليهودية والنصرانية خير من رضاع الناصبية Abi Musawar al-Fudhayl b. Yasar said: Ja’far b. Muhammad عليه السلام said to me: Breast-feeding from a Jewess or a Christian woman is better than the breast milk of a Nasibi woman [who hates the Ahl al-Bayt]. al-Kashshi includes his name among the Ashab al-Ijma saying: اجتمعت العصابة على تصديق هؤلاء الاولين من أصحاب ابي جعفر عليه السلام، وأصحاب ابي عبد الله عليه السلام، وانقادوا لهم بالفقه. فقالوا: افقه الاولين ستة، زرارة، ومعروف بن خربوذ وبريد، وأبو بصير الاسدي، والفضيل بن يسار The whole community is agreed in considering truthful these foremost ones among the companions of Abi Ja’far عليه السلام and Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, and they have conceded to them [yielded to their authority] in Fiqh, so they said: the most knowledgeable of the foremost ones are six: … al-Fudhayl b. Yasar … He is found in the chains to around 254 surviving narrations found in our books.
  13. Download My Book [PDF]

    There is an important reliable narration relevant to the topic that al-Muhsini missed. حدّثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال: حدّثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن أحمد بن أبي محمد بن أبي نصر، عن ثعلبة بن ميمون، عن معمر بن يحيى قال: قلت لأبي جعفر عليه السلام: ما بال الناس يعقلون ولا يعلمون؟ قال: إنّ الله تبارك وتعالى حين خلق آدم جعل أجله بين عينيه وأمله خلف ظهره، فلما أصاب الخطيئة جعل أمله بين عينيه وأجله خلف ظهره، فمن ثمّ يعقلون ولا يعلمون [al-Saduq] – My father – Muhammad b. Yahya al-Attar – Ya`qub b. Yazid – Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr – Tha`laba b. Maymun – Mu`ammar b. Yahya who said: I said to Abi Ja`far [al-Baqir] عليه السلام: What is the matter with people - they can think [reason] but do not understand [know]? He said: When Allah Blessed and Elevated created Adam He placed his fate [death] between his eyes [in front of him] and his hopes behind his back, then when he committed the error he placed his hopes in between his eyes and his fate behind his back, it is because of this that they can think but do not understand. NOTES: When man forgets his destination and is beguiled by ambitions he loses the ability to understand Ref: Bihar al-Anwar: 1/161 No. 2; Ilal al-Shara`i: 1/92 No. 1
  14. Download My Book [PDF]

    With the Grace of God - I have tidied up the Book of Intellect and Knowledge from Vol.1 of Mu'jam al-Ahadith al-Mu'tabara with footnotes. You can download the PDF of an extract of it by clicking here: Direct Download Link Feedback is welcome.
  15. Uthman b. Madh`un - The Righteous Predecessor

    Indeed Khabbab b. Aratt is Madhlum despite being so early in Islam even before the prophet began preaching at Dar al-Arqam and was persecuted for it. He could well be the sixth person to enter into it.
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