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Ibn al-Hussain

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About Ibn al-Hussain

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  • Birthday 12/24/1988

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  1. Yes - it is allowed. Though it could possibly be Makruh for the both of you - since it is Makruh to have sexual intercourse during the day time in Ramadhan (for those who are not fasting, of course). 1733. It is Makrooh for a traveller and for a person who cannot fast owing to some excuse, to have sexual intercourse or to eat or drink to his fill, during the day time in Ramadhan. Source: https://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2279/
  2. Ibn al-Hussain

    Can we break fast at Sunni maghrib time?

    Hardly any marja' has a fatwa on this ruling. Everyone either has an Ihtiyat Wajib, or Ihtiyat Mustahabb, or no Ihtiyat at all. If you follow one of the marja' that says Ihtiyat Wajib you can follow the next most learned marja' and if they say it is Ihtiyat Mustahabb or don't give any Ihtiyat, then you can pray and open your fast at the time the sun sets (rather than when the redness disappears - i.e. "Sunni" time). These are a number of contemporary marja' that consider Maghrib prayers to be at sunset (i.e. "Sunni" time - I don't like calling it Sunni time, since the ruling can be proven through our own traditions as well and has been a view of many of our scholars): Sayyid Sadiq Rouhani: On the Arabic website it says وقت المغرب والعشاء للمختار ما بين غروب الشمس (أو المغرب) و نصف الليل Source: http://www.rohani.ir/ar/idetail/2802/هل--ن--وقت-صلاة-المغرب-و-العشا--ممتد-ال---ذان-الفج On the Farsi website, it says گاهاً حدود 15دقیقه تا اذان مغرب، زمان هست، که به غروب آفتاب مشهور است. حال زمان افطار، غروب آفتاب است یا اذان مغرب؟ جواب: باسمه جلت اسمائه - به فتوای من زمان افطار غروب آفتاب است ولی مقتضای احتیاط این است که تا مغرب صبر کنید Basically implying it is Ihtiyat Mustahabb to wait (not necessary). Source: http://www.rohani.ir/fa/idetail/977/زمان-افطار--غروب-آفتاب-است-یا-اذان-مغرب- Sayyid al-Hakeem: The time of Maghrib prayer is the setting of the sun. If there is doubt about it, then one should wait till he is certain that the sun has set. The disappearance of the redness in the eastern sky is an indication that the sun has indeed set. The prime time of the Maghrib prayer is from the sunset till the disappearance of the redness from the western horizon. Source: http://www.alhakeem.com/en/questions/952 Shaykh Makarem Shirazi: Issue No.675 - Maghrib is the time when the sun disappears in the horizon. *As a measure of precaution, one should wait till the redness that appears in the east after sunset passes over head towards west. The time for Maghrib and Isha prayers arrives at sunset and continues till midnight. Source: https://makarem.ir/main.aspx?reader=1&lid=1&mid=36328&catid=36365&pid=61939 *Precaution after a Fatwa means Ihtiyat Mustahabb. Sayyid Taqi Modaressi: On his Arabic website it says the following وقت صلاة المغرب هو عند سقوط قرص الشمس وغروبها، والذي يُعرَف عادة بارتفاع الحمرة المشرقية وانفصالها عن أفق الأرض Source: http://almodarresi.com/estifta/question/view/6184 On his Farsi website it sayss: زمان افطار، فرارسیدن مغرب شرعی است. بنابراین اگر اذان آنان مطابق با مغرب شرعی باشد، جایز است Source: http://almodarresi.com/fa/estefta/question/view/47 Shaykh Saanei: مغرب همان غروب عرفى است كه خورشيد غروب مى كند و در تحقّق مغرب، ذهاب حُمره مشرقيّه بر طرف شدن سرخى طرف مشرق، لازم نيست Source: http://saanei.org/index.php?view=01,02,09,2128,0
  3. Original source: http://www.iqraonline.net/allamah-tabatabai-treatment-different-readings-quran/ One of the most extensive and important discussions within Qurānic studies is regarding its variant readings (qirā’āt). The readings are generally discussed within commentaries themselves and even within historical discussions regarding the collection and transmission of the Qurān. Utilizing a 25-page research paper titled Rawish Shināsi Ruyikard ‘Allāmeh Ṭabāṭabā’ī Dar Ikhtilāf Qirā’āt by Muḥamad Khāmehgar of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, we will look at how ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabā’ī treats these different readings in his seminal work Tafsīr al-Mīzān. ‘Allāmah discusses or points out differences in readings in around 160 places. These remarks include the following: Differences in vowels and diacritics on words: 72 times Differences in the type of letters or their quantity: 42 times Differences in the formation of a word, or in its root-word, or in it being singular or plural, or in it being in passive or active voice, or which paradigm from thulāthī mazīd the word is from: 36 times Differences in one or more words being extra: 4 times Differences in a word present in a place of another word: 6 times Differences in a word missing: 0 times Differences in words being moved around: 0 times Differences in a sentence being added or removed: 0 times In the first 3 cases, there is no discrepency between the text of the codex and its recitation. However, in the fourth case when there is an extra word in one of the recitations, ‘Allāmah either rejects it – like in the case of (8:1) يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَنفَالِ which has also been recited as يَسْأَلُونَكَ الْأَنفَال, or he considers it to be an exegesis done in the middle of the verse like in the case of: (20:15) إِنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ أَكَادُ أُخْفِيهَا لِتُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا تَسْعَىٰ It has been reported that Ibn ‘Abbās and Imām al-Ṣādiq (a) recited the verse as follows: أَكَادُ أُخْفِيهَا عن نفسي. ‘Allāmah considers this addition to be a commentary. In the fifth case where a word is present in place of another word, ‘Allāmah considers five of those instances to be commentaries. One of those instances is a recitation attributed to Ibn ‘Umar, which ‘Allāmah considers to be made up by Ibn ‘Umar himself. The verse is: (65:1) يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ where Ibn ‘Umar replaced the preposition li on ‘iddatihinna and replaced it with a fi qabl: يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ في قبل عِدَّتِهِنَّ. The Reading of Ḥafṣ from ‘Āṣim Some Qurān experts – such as Āyatullah Hādi Ma’rifat (d. 2007) – believe that the only reading that has a sound chain of transmission and all the Muslims have considered it reliable is the reading of Ḥafṣ. Ḥafṣ learned the reading from his teacher ‘Āṣim who learned it from Abū ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Sulamī (d. 74 AH) who took it from Imām ‘Alī (a). They say that this reading is not based on the personal ijtihād of Ḥafṣ rather it was passed down to him through a transmission which is directly connected to Imām ‘Alī (a) and ultimately the Prophet (p). How strong the argument of the aforementioned scholars is can be investigated in a different article altogether, but what is important to note here is that ‘Allāmah Ṭabāṭabāī considered the reading of Ḥafṣ like the rest of the readings. He did not believe this reading to have any preference over the other recitations and considers it to be ijtihādī like the rest of them. He simply deems the reading of Ḥafṣ to be the popular reading[1] but did not believe that going against it implies going against the recitation of the Prophet (p) or the Imām (a). Although, we cannot deny that the primary reading employed by ‘Allāmah in his al-Mīzān is that of Ḥafṣ’, he has not preferred this reading over the rest of them in every case. We will look at some of these cases where ‘Allāmah preferred the reading of Ḥafṣ over other recitations and what he based his preference on, as well as cases where he preferred another reading over that of Ḥafṣ’ and what he based his preference on. Preference of Ḥafṣ Over Other Readings In some cases, ‘Allāmah prefers Ḥafṣ over other recitations, not due to the popularity or probative force of the reading, but due to other specified reasons. 1) In (2:222) وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىٰ يَطْهُرْنَ, ‘Allamah prefers the pronunciation Yaṭhurna يَطْهُرْنَ – which happens to be the popular reading – over Yaṭṭahurna يَطَّهُرْنَ which was how the people of Kūfa recited it, except Ḥafṣ. The reason for this preference is a number of traditions that imply that the recitation is Yaṭhurna, instead of Yaṭṭahurna.[2] 2) In (2:260) فَخُذْ أَرْبَعَةً مِّنَ الطَّيْرِ فَصُرْهُنَّ إِلَيْكَ, the word fa-ṣurhunna has been recited in two ways. The famous recitation of it is fa-ṣurhunna فَصُرْهُنَّ, whereas Abū Ja’far, Ḥamzah, Khalaf and Ruways who narrates from Ya’qūb have all recited this word as fa-ṣirhunna.[3] ‘Allāmah says since this word, when pronounced with a ḍammah, means to cut or chop, it has become muta’addī with the preposition ilaafter it to also take into consideration the meaning of calling something towards oneself.[4] 3) In (10:21) إِنَّ رُسُلَنَا يَكْتُبُونَ مَا تَمْكُرُونَ, the word tamkurūn تَمْكُرُونَ has been recited as yamkurūnيَمْكُرُونَ by some reciters like Zayd who took from Ya’qūb and Sahl.[5] ‘Allāmah prefers the popular recitation citing the concept of grammatical shift (iltifāt) in the Qurān and says that the popular recitation is more eloquent with respect to the meaning intended.[6] Preference of Other Readings Over Ḥafṣ ‘Allāmah’s approach to the different readings of the Qurān and preferring one reading over the other is based on the siyāq (loosely translated as context) of the verses, alibis from the aḥādīth literature, grammatical rules and as well as other factors. That being the case, in some instances we find ‘Allāmah preferring the reading of a reciter other than that of Ḥafṣ’. What is interesting to note is that in no instance does ‘Allāmah say that the meaning signified in the reading of Ḥafṣ is necessarily wrong or incorrect, rather he simply believes that the other recitation is better and more harmonious. As a matter of fact, in one case he even says that both recitations are perfectly correct.[7] At times we find that ‘Allāmah prefers the readings of one of the 7 famous reciters over Ḥafṣ while other times we find him to prefer the readings of one of the non-famous reciters over Ḥafṣ. The 7-famous reciters are: ‘Abdullah b. ‘Āmir al-Dimashqī (d. 118 AH) ‘Abdullah b. Kathīr al-Makkī (d. 120 AH) Āṣim b. Bahdalah (d.127 AH) – whose main transmitter was Ḥafṣ Abū ‘Amr b. ‘Alā (d. 154 AH) Ḥamzah al-Kūfī (d.156 AH) Nāfi’ al-Madanī (d. 169 AH) al-Kisāī (d. 189 AH) Some cases where ‘Allāmah prefers one of these reciters over Āsim’s are as follows: 1) Āṣim and Kisāī have recited the word mālik مَالِك in (1:4) مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ with an alif, whereas the rest of the reciters have recited it without an alif – as malik مَلِك. ‘Allāmah prefers the recitation of malikover mālik because it has been added on to a concept of time – yawm al-dīn.[8] 2) In (8:59) وَلَا يَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَبَقُوا ۚ إِنَّهُمْ لَا يُعْجِزُونَ the verb la yaḥsabanna لا يَحْسَبَنَّ has been recited with a yā in third-person, but Ibn Kathīr, Abū ‘Amr, Nāfi’ and Kisāī have read it with a tā which would make it a second-person verb. ‘Allāmah prefers the second-person reading not only because it is more popular, but also due to the context of the verses after this one, as they are addressing the Prophet (p).[9] 3) Regarding (48:9) لِّتُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا, ‘Allāmah says that the popular recitation of this verse pronounces all the verbs in second-person with a tā, but Ibn Kathīr and Abū ‘Amr have recited it in third-person with a yā. He says that the reading of the latter two is more appropriate since it is in line with the context of the verse.[10] In some cases, we find ‘Allāmah preferring the reading of one of the non-famous reciters over that of Ḥafṣ’. For example, in (26:13) وَيَضِيقُ صَدْرِي وَلَا يَنطَلِقُ لِسَانِي all the 7 famous reciters read the words yaḍīqu يَضِيقُ and yanṭaliqu يَنْطَلِقُ in the state of raf’ with a ḍamma, however Ya’qūb b. Isḥāq recites these two verbs in the state of naṣb with a fatḥa (يَضِيقَ and يَنْطَلِقَ). ‘Allāmah prefers the recitation of Ya’qūb because it is more in line with the meaning intended.[11] Not Preferring any Reading Over Another In a majority of cases ‘Allāmah does not prefer one reading over another. Instead, he reiterates that both recitals are correct and justifiable. This also implies that ‘Allāmah does not restrict himself to the recitation of Ḥafṣ in his commentary simply because it happens to be a popular reading or go out of his way to invalidate other recitations simply because they aren’t popular. In fact, it shows that ‘Allāmah considered other recitations to be just as valid and strong as the recitation of Ḥafṣ. As an example, in (2:37) فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ Ibn Kathīr recites Ādam in a state of naṣb and Kalimāt in a state of raf’, while Ibn ‘Āmir recites it the opposite way. ‘Allāmah cites both recitations and does not prefer one over another and says that the meaning will remain the same in either case.[12] In (2:126) قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلًا, the word umatti’uhu which is on the paradigm of taf’īl, has also been recited as umti’uhu on the paradigm of if’āl. Since both tamtī’ and imtā’ have the same meaning, he refrains from preferring one over the other.[13] In (26:36) قَالُوا أَرْجِهْ وَأَخَاهُ, the word arjih أرْجِهْ has been recited as 1) arji’hu أرْجِئهُ with a hamzahbetween the jīm and the pronoun hā and with a ḍammah on the hā, 2) the people of Medīna and Kisāī and Khalaf recited it as arjihi أرْجِهِ without a hamzah and with a kasra on the hā, and 3) Āṣim and Ḥamzah recited it as arjih أرْجِهْ without a hamzah, but with a sukūn on the hā. After mentioning all the different recitations for this word, ‘Allāmah says that the first two recitations are more eloquent than the third recitation which happens to be the popular one, although all three recitations have the same meaning.[14] In other situations, we find ‘Allāmah not commenting on the different readings at all. Perhaps this was done simply to point the reader to the fact that there exists another recitation that is equally strong and justifiable as Ḥafṣ’. Or perhaps he may have felt that the recitation of Ḥafṣ in a particular verse was not as strong, but did not find enough reason to prefer any of the other recitations over it either. For example, in (2:283) وَلَمْ تَجِدُوا كَاتِبًا فَرِهَانٌ مَّقْبُوضَةٌ he says that the word rihān in this verse has also been pronounced as ruhun which is the plural for rahn. Both words have the same meaning and ‘Allāmah refrains from commenting on them any further.[15] In some cases, even though ‘Allāmah has not preferred any recitation over another, he has made use of the difference in reading to expand on the meaning of the verse. Regarding verse (2:219) يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ he writes that the word kabīr (great) has also been recited as kathīr (a lot). When explaining the harms of alcohol and gambling he says that their harms are both great and a lot.[16] When it comes to the numerous reports in which a recitation has been attributed to one of the Imāms (a), ‘Allāmah takes the same approach as he does with the other readings. If these traditions and the readings do not meet the criteria for acceptance, they are not to be taken. He writes that the Shī’a do not consider rare readings to be probative, even if they are attributed to the Imāms.[17] When it comes to traditions that attribute a certain way of reading to the Imāms (a), he divides these set of traditions into two, narrations that are specifically a reading of a verse, and narrations that are exegetical. Narrations that are specifically a reading of a verse are traditions that are in line with the text of the Qurānic codex and rules of grammar. The readings of the text themselves are then either in accordance with one of the famous readings or against them. Traditions in which these readings are not the same as any of the famous readings are either those in which either the vowel placement is different or the letters of a word is different or something similar to that extent. In these cases, ‘Allāmah treats these readings like the rest of the famous recitations and puts them to the same standard of scrutiny before preferring one over another. As an example, in (13:31) أَفَلَمْ يَيْأَسِ, the famous recitation is a fa lam yay’as, but it has been reported that Imām ‘Alī (a), Ibn ‘Abbās, ‘Alī b. al-Ḥusayn (a), Zayd b. ‘Alī, Ja’far b. Muḥammad (a), Ibn Abī Malīkah and Abū Yazīd al-Madanī all recited it as a fa lam yatabayyan. However, ‘Allāmah says that the famous and accepted recitation is a fa lam yay’as.[18] In a subsequent post, we will look at the role of these different readings and how ‘Allāmah used them to either defend his own interpretation or at times allow multiple meanings for a given verse. Footnotes [1] Al-Mīzān, vol. 7, pg. 271 [2] Ibid, vol. 2, pg. 322 [3] Ṭabrasī, Majma’ al-Bayān, vol. 2, pg. 642 [4] Al-Mīzān, vol. 2, pg. 375 [5] Ṭabrasī, vol. 5, pg. 151 [6] Al-Mīzān, vol. 10, pg. 49 [7] Ibid, vol. 1, pg. 204 [8] Ibid, vol. 1, pg. 33 and 142 [9] Ibid, vol. 9, pg. 150 [10] Ibid, vol. 18, pg. 408 [11] Ibid, vol. 15, pg. 360 [12] Ibid, vol. 1, pg. 204 [13] Ibid, vol. 1, pg. 426 [14] Ibid, vol. 15, pg. 382 [15] Ibid, vol. 2, pg. 668 [16] Ibid, vol. 2, pg. 289 [17] Ibid, vol. 4, pg. 476 [18] Ibid, vol. 11, pg. 505
  4. Ibn al-Hussain

    Islamic Jokes and Humor

    Some more, from Zahr al-Rabi': Page 23: A man said to someone who farted a lot, 'Do not fart, as flatus is a calamity!' The man replies, 'In that case, it is more appropriate for me to push it out of my stomach than to carry it with me.' Page 32: There was a man who lived in Qazwin whose family lived in Baghdad. He wanted to send them a letter in which he explained his well-being. So when he finished writing the later, he began thinking about a trustworthy post-man to deliver this letter and realized that there is no one more trustworthy to deliver this to my house than me. So he carried the letter and when he reached Baghdad, he knocked on the door and his children came out all happy due to his arrival. They all wanted him to come inside, so he said, 'I only came here to deliver this letter, otherwise this is not the time for my arrival.' He says that and returned back to Qazwin. Page 33: There was a married man who would always commit Zina. So his wife said to him, 'Allah has provided you with a Halal pleasant option, yet you abandon that and go towards Zina!' He replied: 'As for Halal, yes - but as for pleasant, no way!' This one is for those who understand grammar jargon - from Page 50: Some heedless people read the verse: Fi Buyutun Adhina Allah with the word Buyut in the state of Raf' (i.e. with a Dhamma instead of a Kasra). A person says to them, 'You have to say the word Buyut in the state of Jarr' (i.e. with a Kasra) فِي بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَن تُرْفَعَ - 24:36. So they reply back to him, 'O ignorant one! When Allah Himself says فِي بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَن تُرْفَعَ (i.e. He himself allows you to say it in the state of Raf') then who are you to give it a Jarr. Page 56: A robber entered the house of a poor man who didn't have anything. He began looking and searching for things around the house until the poor man figured out and saw the robber. He says to the robber: 'Young man, that which you are looking for at this time of the night is the same thing I look for during the day and don't find it!' Page 59: A Bedouin returned back from a journey disappointed and said: We did not profit in this journey, except the number of prayers we had to recite as Qasr. Page 69: A woman from the desert looked into the mirror and saw that she was beautiful while her husband was ugly. So she says to him, 'I hope that you and I enter heaven together because I was tested with you and I remained patient, while Allah blessed you with me and you were grateful.' Page 71: Some of the caliphs said to some ascetics: You are great in your asceticism! So they would reply: You are more ascetic than me because you decided to refrain from the blessings of the hereafter which are permanent and great, while I remained ascetic from the blessings of this lowly temporary world. Wasalam
  5. Ibn al-Hussain

    Information about Hawza

    As for how long it takes, there is no set time - it can be from 3 months to even a year. You need to keep following up with them (or have someone in Qom keep following up with them). Once it comes, you have three months to pick up that visa - for that you just send your passport to Washington with the visa application form on a prepaid return envelope. That will be your student visa, and you will have three months to come to Iran from the time you get that stamp on your passport. Wasalam
  6. Ibn al-Hussain

    Islamic Jokes and Humor

    No, it isn't in English. It is only in Arabic, though some of the jokes have been translated into Farsi and can be downloaded here: https://www.takbook.com/847-story-irani/دانلود-کتاب-لطائف-زهر-الربيع/ The Arabic is available here: https://archive.org/details/Shiaa_20161218_1225 Wasalam
  7. Ibn al-Hussain

    Islamic Jokes and Humor

    If you want to read some real jokes, you will need to read the 650-odd page work Zahr al-Rabi' of Sayyid Ni'matullah Jaza'iri. Unfortunately, it got infamous over time due to the last section of the book in which there is a lot of sexually explicit material (to the extent that some scholars hold the opinion it is prohibited to read this book), but otherwise, the material in it is really funny. Page 8: Raghib writes in his al-Muhadharaat: There was a village in Qazwin whose people were known to be Shi'as. A man passed by the village and they asked him what his name was, so he said, 'Umar'. They hit him really hard until he began saying, 'My name is not 'Umar, rather it is 'Imran.' Hearing that, they said, 'This is worse than 'Umar because its first 3 letters are from 'Umar and the last 2 are letters from the name of 'Uthman.' - عمر + عثمان = عمران Page 8: It has been reported that a Muhaddith (scholar of hadith) and a Christian were together on a ship. So the Christian poured alcohol for himself and drank it. The Muhaddith took it and without thinking about it began drinking it. So the Christian said, 'It is alcohol.' The Muhaddith said, 'How do you know that?' The Christian said, 'My slave bought it from a Jew who was selling it.' When the Muhaddith heard that he began drinking even more, and said to the Christian, 'I haven't seen anyone more foolish than you. I am a scholar of Hadith and our job is to discuss people like Sufyan and Yazid and Harun, yet you want me to confirm a report coming from a Christian who is narrating from his slave who is narrating from a Jew? By Allah, I am not drinking it except because the chain of transmission is weak.' Page 45: A woman married a blind man and says to her husband, 'If you could have seen my beauty and the whiteness of my skin, you would have been astonished.' So the husband replied, 'Shut it! If you were as you describe, those with sight would not have abandoned you.' Wasalam
  8. Ibn al-Hussain

    **Ramadan 2018 General Discussion/Plans/Iftar**

    The Deserted Qurān وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا [25:30] And the Apostle will say, ‘O my Lord! Indeed my people had taken this Qurān as deserted.” There is this understanding amongst some Muslims that if one owns multiple copies of the Qurān and if they are not all read, then that is a case of someone forsaking the Qurān. This is not what it means for the Qurān to be forsaken or deserted, rather that is an instance of someone not reading one of the copies of the Qurān they possess. If listening to and reading every copy of the Qurān that fills our bookshelf is not merely enough, then what can one do to not be from those who considered the Qurān to be deserted? Continue Reading: http://www.iqraonline.net/the-deserted-quran/ Wasalam
  9. Ibn al-Hussain

    **Ramadan 2018 General Discussion/Plans/Iftar**

    These are two rulings regarding Yawm al-Shakk (Day of Doubt), which is the day where one is unsure whether it is the 30th of Sha’bān or the 1st of Ramaḍān. Given that the month of Ramaḍān is coming up in a few days, I thought the ruling would be beneficial to share. These are from volume 1 of Minhāj al-Ṣāliḥīn of Sayyid Sīstānī. #979: If on the day of doubt, one performs a recommended, Qaḍā or Nadhar fast with the intention of it being the month of Sha'ban, it counts as the fast of Ramaḍān if it happens to be so. If either before or after noon it becomes known it is indeed the month of Ramadān, the person must renew their intention. If a person fasts on the day of doubt with the intention of it being Ramaḍān, the fast is invalid (i.e. even if one figures out during the course of the day or afterwards that it was the month of Ramaḍān).[1] If a person fasts with the intention of it being the fast of whatever the fast for that day actually is - whether it is obligatory or a recommended – it is considered valid. If one fasts with the intention that if it happens to be Sha'bān then let it be a recommended fast, and if it happens to be Ramaḍān then let it be an obligatory fast, such a fast is also valid. If a person wakes up in the morning with the intention to eat, but it becomes known that it is the month of Ramaḍān, then the details of the previous ruling are applied for them. The previous ruling is as follows: #978: If a person does not perform the intention to fast in the month of Ramaḍān due to forgetfulness of the ruling, or of the fact that it is Ramaḍān, or due to ignorance of either of the two cases and they have not done anything that breaks a fast, then they remember, or they learn in the middle of the day that it is Ramaḍān, the fast is considered valid if they renew their intention before noon. However, after noon, it is problematic for it to be considered valid, though out of precaution the person should renew their intention and finish the fast out of hope of it being accepted, but then perform its Qaḍā afterwards. —- [1] Based on the arguments I have read on this ruling from other jurisconsults, this is because the fast was a bid’āh (innovation) and was invalid to begin with. In other words, to fast on a day which is presumed to be the month of Sha’bān with the intention of it being Ramaḍān is an innovation and thus ḥarām and invalid. Source: http://www.iqraonline.net/two-rulings-regarding-yawm-al-shakk/ That being said, I encourage all to benefit from upcoming live sessions by Shaykh Amin Rastani and Shaykh Mahdi Rastani - May 16 - June 5 2018 - where they will be going over the rules concerning the fast of Ramaḍān. These live session will also provide an opportunity for participants to ask any relevant questions on the spot. For more information visit: https://www.facebook.com/ShAminRastani/photos/a.599559686791982.1073741832.531133463634605/1689654851115788/?type=3&theater
  10. Ibn al-Hussain

    Praying with Sunnis in Jamaat

    I wrote this paper a few months back, it may benefit you (especially the end where I write about contemporary scholars): Shī’ī Ruling on Praying in Congregation Behind a Sunnī Imām http://www.iqraonline.net/shii-ruling-on-praying-in-congregation-behind-a-sunni-imam/ Wasalam
  11. Ibn al-Hussain

    Necessity of hijab

    We all know the topic of hijab is very extensive and it can be discussed from various different aspects. The most basic of these discussions is probably the historical and legal aspects. There is no reason to get into any of those discussions in detail here, but I will cite some references for some of the claims I made in this thread. I only want to focus on Lady Fatima (s) and not on any other women, especially not the wives of the Prophet (p), regarding whom there is a different discussion and as well as some reports where there are differences of opinions as to whether they would cover their faces in certain contexts or not. However, I will share a couple of traditions that indicate that Lady Fatima's (s) face was generally uncovered and that other men had seen what she looked like. I am not concerned with whether these traditions are authentic or not. If they are true, then they prove my point. If they are not authentic, then it still doesn’t prove that she would instead have her face covered all the time in front of na-mahram men especially when there was no obligation to do so (unless some historical report can be brought forth as evidence). One discussion that takes place in jurisprudence is whether it is allowed for a man to look at the face of a na-mahram woman. One of the main narrations used to permit this act (without lust of course), is a tradition where Jabir b. 'Abdallah al-Ansari looks at the face of Lady Fatima (s) – who by the way, was probably only a couple of years older than Lady Fatima - I haven't done the math. This tradition can be found in Usul al-Kafi – translation is not mine: In another Fiqhi discussion where Shi'a jurists discuss whether a woman should cover her face in prayers or not, they rely on this tradition from Shaykh al-Saduq's al-Faqih to prove that covering the face is not required and it is not even considered mustahabb. I am sharing this tradition because it is linked with the tradition after this one: The tradition that I will be sharing next shows people looking towards Lady Fatima (s) praying - and from the previous tradition we know that she would not have her face covered. This tradition is found in 'Ilal al-Shara'i of Shaykh al-Saduq – again I am not interested in discussing the reliability of these traditions: There is a Sunni tradition recorded in a Shi’a work al-Kharaij wa al-Jaraih of Qutub al-Rawandi. The narrator of this tradition converted to Islam in 7th Hijri (based on a quick search I did - so I may be wrong here), which means according to the popular Shi'i narrative, Lady Fatima (s) would have been around 14-15 years old (of course she was married much earlier than this and already had children): In the very same book, but a different section, the popular story regarding a Jewish wedding and Lady Fatima (s) that is often heard from pulpits or the story is recited in certain subcontinent gatherings is recorded as follows: Summary of this event is that a Jewish wedding was taking place and the Jewish ladies wanted Fatima (s) to come to it so that their gathering could be enlivened and be a bit more enjoyable. The Jews were thinking Fatima (s) did not have any good clothes and would come in poor quality clothing and that they would be able to belittle her. Instead, Jibra’il brings her clothing and jewelry from heaven which she wore. The report says, the people were astonished by the clothing, its beauty and its colours. When she entered the house of those Jews, the women all prostrated and kissed the ground in front of them and became Muslims. In al-Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah (Sunni scholar and a Sunni book) as well as the Sunan of al-Nasa’i and Waqidi’s al-Maghazi, there is a report which is used within Sunni Fiqh discussions concerning Ihram and Hajj, in which the permissibility of Kohl is discussed and that at what point it becomes permissible to wear it. This report shows that Fatima (s) was wearing some sort of jewelry, eye-liner (kohl) and as well as coloured clothing – I am posting just the relevant portion from Ibn Abi Shaybah’s work: It essentially says ‘Ali (a) returned back from Yemen and saw Fatima (s) wearing coloured clothing and with kohl on her eyes. He went and asked the Prophet (p) whether this was allowed to do and he (p) responded in the affirmative. The version of Sunan al-Nasa’i can be read here: https://sunnah.com/urn/1078850 and Waqidi’s version can be read here – 2nd last paragraph: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gZknAAAAQBAJ&lpg=PA532&ots=2XMDapaBsp&pg=PA532#v=onepage&q&f=false This same tradition also exists in Shaykh al-Tusi's al-Amali, pg. 401 - so it is also recorded in Shi'i works with the chain going back to Imam Baqir (a). Regarding the colour of clothing, the above report indicates she was wearing dyed garments. We have other reports which show other women of the time wearing red, green, or yellow coloured clothing for example, but I am not citing them here as I wanted to post references regarding Lady Fatima (s). Wasalam
  12. Ibn al-Hussain

    Can I convert into Shia??

    In the work Kashf al-Ghumma [http://en.wikishia.net/view/Kashf_al-ghumma_fi_ma'rifat_al-a'imma_(book)], volume 2 - it says three of the Imams had daughters who they named 'Ayesha: 1. 'Ayesha daughter of Imam Musa Kadhim (a) - Source: Pg. 236 2. 'Ayesha the only daughter of Imam 'Ali al-Ridha (a) - Source: Pg. 267 3. 'Ayesha the daughter of Imam 'Ali al-Naqi (a) - Source: Pg. 384 Wasalam
  13. Ibn al-Hussain

    Eyeliner or Mascara?

    https://www.sistani.org/english/book/46/2065/ https://www.sistani.org/english/qa/01265/ Collyrium = Kohl. According to Ayatullah Sistani, Kohl (eye-liner) is allowed, but Mascara (for eye-lashes) isn't. Of course, Kohl is also only allowed given the conditions above. Wasalam
  14. Ibn al-Hussain

    Learning Farsi

  15. Ibn al-Hussain

    Necessity of hijab

    No. They definitely didn't cover their faces, not only was there no custom amongst the Arab women to cover their faces (as part of a defined Hijab), but rather we have descriptions of Lady Fatima's face (by people who weren't even her mahram). They may have been covered from head to toe, but based on historical records their clothings were of different colours. In fact, according to our legal scholars, black is a disliked colour to begin with. The candle, shadow, and those type of stories are usually nonsense with no real historical backing. Unfortunately we have had to resort to made up stories to fill up our imaginary understanding of what hijab would have been like for these noble ladies. The fact of the matter is their hijab would have been like any other Arab Muslim woman of the time, just like the clothes the Prophet wore were clothes the Arabs wore at the time. Unfortunately I'm typing from my phone right now and don't have access to my resources. When I get time I'll share some material, but otherwise you don't need to put yourself down nor feel upset if you are following the rulings on hijab the way your marja' has defined it to be.