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Glimpses from the life of Imam Al-Jawad
The birthday of Imam Al-Jawad
His AS blessed birthday was in Almadina, 195H, which the year the Abbasid AlMamon was given the promise of pledges.
The day he was born is hard to specify it, some said it was the Friday night, 19th Ramadan, some said He AS was born in the mid of Ramadan. Some said he AS was born in Rajab, on Friday, which was stated in Mesbah Almuthajed: Ibn Aiash said, narrated by Alshieikh Alkabeir Abu Alqasim : (O Allah I am asking for the sake of whom were born in Rajab; Mohamed bin Ali the second, and his son Ali bin Mohamed Almontajab)-the supplication- He said: ibn Aiash mentioned it was the 10th of Rajab, the birthday of Abu Ja'far the second (1).
He lived with his father Imam Al-Retha AS for 7 years, 4 months, and two days. He lived after his father for 18 years to 20 days. The period of his imamate was during the last days of Almamon's government, then Almo'tasim government for 8 years, then Alwathiq government for 5 years and 8 months.
He AS was martyred during the government of Alwathiq, 220H. he was 25 years, 3 months, and 22 days.
How was his birthday AS?
Hakima, the daughter of Imam Musa Alkathem AS said: When I went to Alkhaizoran (Imam's mother) on the time she was giving birth, Abu Alhasan took me and her to a house and closed the doors, and the nanny was with us. When it became dark at night the light turned off, and we were gloomed for this. Suddenly, Abu Jafar (Al-Jawad) came out and lit the house. I told his mother: By Allah there is no need for the lamp. Then he sit in the basin, and something soft like the light captured him and his body. In the morning Imam Al-Retha AS came and putted him in the cradle and said to me: stay next to his cradle. She said: on the third day he raised his eyes to the sky and looked right and left, then he said: "I pear witnesses that there is no god but Allah, Alone without any partner. And I pear witnesses that Mohamed is His slave and messenger." Then I woke up scared and shivering, and I went to Al-Retha ( AS), and I told him: I have seen marvelous!. He AS said: What have you seen? I said: This boy did that and that. She said: then Al-Retha AS smiled and said: You will you see of his miracles are more.(2)
His pure mother
She was a bondmaid called Raihana, nicknamed with (Um Al-Hasan). Some said her name was : Sakina, and nicknamed with Khaizoran.
His nicknames and epithets
His surname was: Abu Ja'far which his public name, but his special one, used by his family and servents was (Abu Ali). His epithets are: Al-Zakiy (the pure), Al-Murtadha (being satisfied with), Al-Taqiy (the pious), Al-Qani’ (the satisfied), Al-Mukhtar (the elected), Al-Mutawakkil (the reliant on Allah), and Al-Jawad (the generous) which is the famous one.
His offspring AS
Some said that Imam Mohamed bin Ali Al-Jawad AS had two sons; Imam Ali bin Mohamed Al-Askari AS, and Musa. His daughters are; Khadija, hakima, and Um-Kulthom.
The deviation of some of the followers from the imamate of Al-Jawad AS
Alshreif Almurtatha (Rh) said: Sheikh Almufeid said: … then Imamies (Shiite) continued to follow the path of the imamate during the time of Abu Alhasan Al-Retha AS. When he AS died, and his son Abu Ja'far AS became his successor, who was seven years old only. For this reason (Shiite) were differed among themselves. They were divided to 3 groups: a group continued to follow the imamate and believed in the imamate of Abu Ja'far AS, narrated the text on him, and they are outnumbered the other groups.
The second group renegade towards the faith of (the Waqifah), and they regretted the imamate of Al-Retha AS.
The third group believed in the imamate of Ahmed bin Musa AS (the son of Imam Alkathem) and they assumed that Al-Retha AS recommended him, and appointed his leadership.
The two deviated groups, used the young age of the Abu Ja'far AS as a reason and they said: it is not allowed to the Imam of the time to be a young, and not adult yet.
Is the imamate of Al-Jawad AS acceptable, despite his young age?
This question was so common during the era of Imam Al-Retha, and Imam Al-Jawad AS, and they were answering and demonstrating it (the Imamate of Al-Jawad) with clear evidences, which confounded every obstinate, and foiled their argument.
Safwan bin Yahia said: “Once, I said to Al-Retha: we often asked you, before Allah granted Abu Ja’far to you, about the imam after you and you would say ‘Allah will give me a boy.’ Now, Allah has given you a boy and has delighted our eyes. If something happens (to you), to whom shall we refer? He pointed to Abu Ja’far (Al-Jawad) who was before him and who was at that time three years old. I said, ‘He is a three-year-old child!’ He said, ‘It does not matter. Jesus Christ was entrusted with prophethood while he was less than three years. (3)
Some said to Al-Jawad AS: they are talking about your young age. He AS said: Allah the Almighty inspired David to recommend Solomon who was a young boy, and a shepherd. (4)
al-Khayrani, on the authority of his father, who said:
I (al-Khayrani's father) was standing in front of Abu al-Hasan Al-Retha AS, in Khurasan. Someone asked him: "My Lord, if something happens to you, to whom (will the authority belong)?"
"To Abu Ja'far al-Jawad, my son: he AS replied.
The speaker indicated that the age of Abu Ja'far was too young. So, Abu al-Hasan (al-Rethaa) AS, replied: "God, may He be praised, sent Jesus, son of Mary, to be an apostle, a prophet, the bringer of a revealed law (sharaia), to begin (his mission) when his age was younger than that of Abu Ja'far (al-Jawad) AS." (5)
Ali ibn Asbaat has narrated that:
[Once Abu Ja’ffar (reference to Imam al-Jawad) came to me, so I stared at him so as to be able to describe him to my people back at home when he AS said, “O ‘Ali ibn Asbaat! Know for certain that just as Allah (SWT) has kept proofs and evidences for Prophethood, the same is also true for the Imamate; and He (SWT) has said: ‘And We gave him judgment while still a child’. (19:12) And He (SWT) has also said: ‘When he came of age, We gave him judgment and (sacred) knowledge’. (12:22) Therefore, it is very much possible that some receive judgment in childhood and some after attaining forty years of age”. ](6)
Bringing Imam Al-Jawad AS to Baghdad
- Sayed Mohasen Al-Amein said:
Al-Jawad AS did not come with his father to Khurasan when Almamon summoned him, Al-Retha AS died in while his son Al-Jawad in ALmadina.
- ALmaso'odi said in Ethbat Alwaseia:
When Al-Retha died, Almamon ordered Al- Jawad and brought him to Baghdad, resided him next to his house, and decided to get him married to his daughter Um-Alfathel… (7)
- Some said: he AS stayed there for a year and a half then he was allowed to get back to the Enlightened Madina . After the death of Almamon ( May Allah curse him) and Almo'tasim became khalifa, who was too fearing the imamate of AhlulBayt AS and their scientific, political, and social positions among the nation.
Imam Al-Jawad AS was summoned from Almadina to Baghdad in 219H, due to the fear of becoming famous, and have more authorities, also to be closer to the sight of the government and monitoring, and to limit his freedom.
Indeed, imam Al-Jawad AS was brought to from Almadina to Baghdad. He did not live in Baghdad for long until he was martyred in the 5th of Thi-Alhuhuja, 220H. he was buried in Maqaber Quraish (Cemeteries of Quraish) next to his grandfather Imam Musa bin Ja'far AS.
this short life which lasted for 25 years, but it was great with its ideological and historical impacts, and full of exploits and Jihad.
Some maxims of Imam Al-Jawad AS
- Imam Al-Jawad AS: The one who trusts upon Allah , He shows him pleasure and felicity (makes him happy). The one who depends upon Allah , He suffices the matter of his life. The trust upon Allah is a fort where in nobody except a trustworthy faithful gets accommodated and placed. Trust in Allah is the salvation from all evils and safety from all the enemies .
Religion is the source of honor , knowledge is treasure . Silence is a light . The apex and climax of abstinence is avoiding sin , temperance and fear of God.
There is no destruction for religion such as innovation (heresy) . And there is nothing most spoiling and decaying for man than greed . And the people (matters) are corrected and set right by the ruler. And the supplication moves away (deviates) the calamities and disasters. (8)
- He AS also said:- Our wealth and soul are of God's pleasant gifts (to us) and deposited trusts, they cause happiness and pleasure as long as we enjoy them, and reward is for whatever is taken (from us), so whose grief overcome his patience his reward is lost, and we seek refuge to God from that. (9)
- He AS said:-He whoever listens to a caller is serving him. If the caller was God’s representative, he is then serving God. If the caller was the Shaitan’s (Satan) representative, he is then serving the Shaitan. (10)
- He AS said:- Don’t hostile someone until you know what between him and Allah the Almighty. If he was a good one then He SWT won't let you get him, and if he was a bad one then your knowledge about his enough, so don’t be his enemy. (11)
- He AS said:- Don't be God's friend in appearance and his enemy in secret. (12)
(1)Mesbah Almuthajed, by Sheikh Altusi: Page 805
(2) Althaqib fi Almanaqeb, by Ibn Hamza Altusi: Page 504
(3&4) Alkafi, by Sheikh Alkulaini: V1, Page: 383
(5&6) Alkafi, by Sheikh Alkulaini: V1, Page: 384
(7) Ethbat Alwaseiah, by Almas'odi
(8) A'ian Alshi'a, by Sayed Mohsen Alamen: V2, Page 35
(9)Mostadrak safenat Albihar, By sheikh Ali Alnamazi Alshahrdoi: V10, Page 401
(10)Alkafi, by Sheikh Alkulaini: V6, Page 434, bab Ghena, No. 24
(11) Mawso'at Al Imam Aljawad, by Sayed Alhusaini Alqezweni: V2, Page: 335
(12) The same reference Page: 356
(13) Bihar AlAnwar, By Almah Almajlesi: V75, Page: 365